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Sample records for ashkenazi jewish individuals

  1. Cost-effectiveness of population based BRCA testing with varying Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Patel, Shreeya; Antoniou, Antonis C; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Turnbull, Clare; Evans, D Gareth; Hopper, John L; Macinnis, Robert J; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Legood, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing has been found to be cost-effective compared with family history-based testing in Ashkenazi-Jewish women were >30 years old with 4 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents. However, individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents, and cost-effectiveness data are lacking at these lower BRCA prevalence estimates. We present an updated cost-effectiveness analysis of population BRCA1/BRCA2 testing for women with 1, 2, and 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents. Decision analysis model. Lifetime costs and effects of population and family history-based testing were compared with the use of a decision analysis model. 56% BRCA carriers are missed by family history criteria alone. Analyses were conducted for United Kingdom and United States populations. Model parameters were obtained from the Genetic Cancer Prediction through Population Screening trial and published literature. Model parameters and BRCA population prevalence for individuals with 3, 2, or 1 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent were adjusted for the relative frequency of BRCA mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish and general populations. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for all Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent scenarios. Costs, along with outcomes, were discounted at 3.5%. The time horizon of the analysis is "life-time," and perspective is "payer." Probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated model uncertainty. Population testing for BRCA mutations is cost-saving in Ashkenazi-Jewish women with 2, 3, or 4 grandparents (22-33 days life-gained) in the United Kingdom and 1, 2, 3, or 4 grandparents (12-26 days life-gained) in the United States populations, respectively. It is also extremely cost-effective in women in the United Kingdom with just 1 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparent with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £863 per quality-adjusted life-years and 15 days life gained. Results show that population-testing remains cost-effective at the £20,000-30000 per quality

  2. Carrier screening of RTEL1 mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

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    Fedick, A M; Shi, L; Jalas, C; Treff, N R; Ekstein, J; Kornreich, R; Edelmann, L; Mehta, L; Savage, S A

    2015-08-01

    Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HH) is a clinically severe variant of dyskeratosis congenita (DC), characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, and severe immunodeficiency in addition to features of DC. Germline mutations in the RTEL1 gene have recently been identified as causative of HH. In this study, the carrier frequency for five RTEL1 mutations that occurred in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent was investigated in order to advise on including them in existing clinical mutation panels for this population. Our screening showed that the carrier frequency for c.3791G>A (p.R1264H) was higher than expected, 1% in the Ashkenazi Orthodox and 0.45% in the general Ashkenazi Jewish population. Haplotype analyses suggested the presence of a common founder. We recommend that the c.3791G>A RTEL1 mutation be considered for inclusion in carrier screening panels in the Ashkenazi population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The R245X mutation of PCDH15 in Ashkenazi Jewish children diagnosed with nonsyndromic hearing loss foreshadows retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Zippora; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Dagan, Orit; Frydman, Moshe; Abeliovich, Dvorah; Sagi, Michal; Abraham, Fabian A; Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Shohat, Mordechai; Hildesheimer, Minka; Friedman, Thomas B; Avraham, Karen B

    2004-06-01

    Usher syndrome is a frequent cause of the combination of deafness and blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Five genes are known to underlie different forms of Usher syndrome type I (USH1). In the Ashkenazi Jewish population, the R245X mutation of the PCDH15 gene may be the most common cause of USH1 (Ben-Yosef T, Ness SL, Madeo AC, Bar-Lev A, Wolfman JH, Ahmed ZM, Desnick RK, Willner JP, Avraham KB, Ostrer H, Oddoux C, Griffith AJ, Friedman TB N Engl J Med 348: 1664-1670, 2003). To estimate what percentage of Ashkenazi Jewish children born with profound hearing loss will develop RP due to R245X, we examined the prevalence of the R245X PCDH15 mutation and its carrier rate among Ashkenazi Jews in Israel. Among probands diagnosed with nonsyndromic hearing loss not due to mutations of connexin 26 (GJB2) and/or connexin 30 (GJB6), and below the age of 10, 2 of 20 (10%) were homozygous for the R245X mutation. Among older nonsyndromic deaf individuals, no homozygotes were detected, although one individual was heterozygous for R245X. The carrier rate of the R245X mutation among the normal hearing Ashkenazi population in Israel was estimated at 1%. Ashkenazi Jewish children with profound prelingual hearing loss should be evaluated for the R245X PCDH15 mutation and undergo ophthalmologic evaluation to determine whether they will develop RP. Rehabilitation can then begin before loss of vision. Early use of cochlear implants in such cases may rescue these individuals from a dual neurosensory deficit.

  4. Ashkenazi Jewish population screening for Tay-Sachs disease: the international and Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Delatycki, Martin B; Bankier, Agnes; Aizenberg, Harry; Field, Michael J; Berman, Yemima; Fleischer, Ronald; Fietz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) preconception screening of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and couples has led to effective primary prevention of TSD. In Australia, adolescent preconception genetic screening programs operate mainly in Jewish community high schools. These existing programs offer an effective means of primary prevention of TSD, are cost effective and safe. However, in the broader Australian community TSD screening is not systematically performed and cases still occur in unscreened AJ individuals. In order to improve the effectiveness of Australian screening, there is a need for definitive guidelines for healthcare professionals to facilitate extension of the proven benefits of preconception TSD screening to all AJ individuals at risk. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature relating to AJ pre-conception and antenatal screening for TSD. The evidence was assessed using an established National Health and Medical Research Council evidence grading system. Evaluations of efficacy of TSD screening programs design and execution, cost-benefit and cost-utility health economic evaluation, and population outcomes were undertaken. The results have been used to propose a model for universal AJ TSD preconception and antenatal screening for the primary care setting. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L; LeDuc, Charles A; Simpson, Lynn L; Millar, William S; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A; Chung, Wendy K

    2009-06-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Simpson, Lynn L.; Millar, William S.; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. Method We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. Results We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. Conclusion These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. PMID:19266496

  7. Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians do not demonstrate enrichment in mitochondrial haplogroup J.

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    Liran I Shlush

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity has been reported in several population subgroups. While studies from northern Italy and Finland, have described a higher frequency of haplogroup J among centenarians in comparison to non-centenarian, several other studies could not replicate these results and suggested various explanations for the discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated haplogroup frequencies among Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians using two different sets of matched controls. No difference was observed in the haplogroup J frequencies between the centenarians or either matched control group, despite adequate statistical power to detect such a difference. Furthermore, the lack of association was robust to population substructure in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Given this discrepancy with the previous reported associations in the northern Italian and the Finnish populations, we conducted re-analysis of these previously published data, which supported one of several possible explanations: i inadequate matching of cases and controls; ii inadequate adjustment for multiple comparison testing; iii cryptic population stratification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There does not exist a universal association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity across all population groups. Reported associations in specialized populations may reflect genetic or other interactions specific to those populations or else cryptic confounding influences, such as inadequate matching attributable to population substructure, which are of general relevance to all studies of the possible association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with common complex phenotypes.

  8. Creation of a National, At-home Model for Ashkenazi Jewish Carrier Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzaid, Karen Arnovitz; Page, Patricia Zartman; Denton, Jessica Johnson; Ginsberg, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Ethnicity-based carrier screening for the Ashkenazi Jewish population has been available and encouraged by advocacy and community groups since the early 1970's. Both the American College of Medical Genetics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend carrier screening for this population (Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114(4), 950-953, 2009; Genetics in Medicine, 10(1), 55-56, 2008). While many physicians inquire about ethnic background and offer appropriate carrier screening, studies show that a gap remains in implementing recommendations (Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers, 2011). In addition, education and outreach efforts targeting Jewish communities have had limited success in reaching this at-risk population. Despite efforts by the medical and Jewish communities, many Jews of reproductive age are not aware of screening, and remain at risk for having children with preventable diseases. Reaching this population, preferably pre-conception, and facilitating access to screening is critically important. To address this need, genetic counselors at Emory University developed JScreen, a national Jewish genetic disease screening program. The program includes a national marketing and PR campaign, online education, at-home saliva-based screening, post-test genetic counseling via telephone or secure video conferencing, and referrals for face-to-face genetic counseling as needed. Our goals are to create a successful education and screening program for this population and to develop a model that could potentially be used for other at-risk populations.

  9. NHS Gene Mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish Families with Nance-Horan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshany, Nadav; Avni, Isaac; Morad, Yair; Weiner, Chen; Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Pras, Eran

    2017-09-01

    To describe ocular and extraocular abnormalities in two Ashkenazi Jewish families with infantile cataract and X-linked inheritance, and to identify their underlying mutations. Seven affected members were recruited. Medical history, clinical findings, and biometric measurements were recorded. Mutation analysis of the Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) gene was performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified exons. An unusual anterior Y-sutural cataract was documented in the affected male proband. Other clinical features among examined patients included microcorneas, long and narrow faces, and current or previous dental anomalies. A nonsense mutation was identified in each family, including a previously described 742 C>T, p.(Arg248*) mutation in Family A, and a novel mutation 2915 C>A, p.(Ser972*) in Family B. Our study expands the repertoire of NHS mutations and the related phenotype, including newly described anterior Y-sutural cataract and dental findings.

  10. The glucokinase mutation p.T206P is common among MODY patients of Jewish Ashkenazi descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozlan, Yael; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Shalitin, Shlomit; Lebenthal, Yael; Oron, Tal; Cohen, Ohad; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2012-09-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance; a primary defect in insulin secretion with non-ketotic hyperglycemia, age of onset under 25 yr; and lack of autoantibodies. Heterozygous mutations in glucokinase (GCK) are associated with mild fasting hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus while homozygous or compound heterozygous GCK mutations result in permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. Given that both the Israeli-Arabic and the various Israeli-Jewish communities tend to maintain ethnic seclusion, we speculated that it would be possible to identify a relatively narrow spectrum of mutations in the Israeli population. To characterize the genetic basis of GCK-MODY in the different ethnic groups of the Israeli population. Patients with clinically identified GCK-MODY and their first degree family members. Molecular analysis of GCK was performed on genomic DNA using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and sequencing. Bioinformatic model was preformed using the NEST program. Mutations in GCK were identified in 25 families and were all family-specific, except c.616A>C. p.T206P. This mutation was identified in six unrelated families, all patients from a Jewish-Ashkenazi descent, thus indicating an ethno-genetic correlation. A simple, fast, and relatively cheap DGGE/restriction-digestion assay was developed. The high incidence of the mutant allele in GCK-MODY patients of Jewish-Ashkenazi descent suggests a founder effect. We propose that clinically identified GCK-MODY patients of Jewish-Ashkenazi origin be first tested for this mutation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Comparison of Parkinson risk in Ashkenazi Jewish Gaucher patients and GBA heterozygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Dinur, Tama; Quinn, Timothy; Sakanaka, Karina; Levy, Oren; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Dorovski, Tsvyatko; Chung, Wendy K; Pauciulo, Michael; Nichols, William; Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Importance Information on age-specific risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in Gaucher disease (GD) patients and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) heterozygotes is important for understanding the pathophysiology of the genetic association and for counseling these populations. Objective To estimate the age-specific risk of PD in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) patients with Type-1 GD and in GBA heterozygotes. Setting Two tertiary Gaucher centers and a Parkinson’s tertiary center. Participants GD patients at Shaare Zedek, Jerusalem, Israel (n=332) and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (n=95), and GBA non-carrier non-PD spouse controls at Columbia University, NY (n=77). All were AJ and most GD patients (98.1%) carried at least one N370S mutation. Main outcome measure Main outcome measure was a diagnosis of PD. Diagnosis was established in GD patients on examination. We used a validated family history interview that identifies PD with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 96.2% to identify PD in family members. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific PD risk among GD patients (n=427), among their parents, who are obligate GBA mutation carriers (heterozygotes, n=694) and among non-carriers (parents of non-PD non-GD controls, n=154). The age-specific risk was compared among groups using the log-rank test. Results Among those who developed PD, patients with GD had a younger age-at-onset than GBA heterozygotes (54.2, versus 65.2, p=0.003). Estimated age-specific risk for PD at ages 60 and 80 was 4.7% and 9.1% among GD patients, 1.5% and 7.7% among heterozygotes, and 0.7% and 2.1% among non-carriers. PD risk was higher in GD patients than non-carriers (p=0.008, log-rank test) and in heterozygotes than non-carriers (p=0.026, log-rank test) but did not reach significance between GD patients and GBA heterozygotes (p=0.074, log-rank test). Conclusion GD patients and GBA heterozygotes have an increased age-specific risk for PD compared to controls, with a similar

  13. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Shane Pankratz, V.; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Paweł; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Durán, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Cassini, Cécile; Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Lynch, Henry T.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Pierotti, Marco; Manoukian, Siranoush; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Ripamonti, Carla B.; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Bernard, Loris; Karlsson, Per; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Brandell, Richard Rosenquist; Dahl, Niklas; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van 't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Rookus, M. A.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; Aalfs, C. M.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, M. John; Barton, David; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Randhawa, Kashmir; Barwell, Julian; Patel, Nafisa; Adlard, Julian; Chu, Carol; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Lalloo, Fiona; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele

  14. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele...... the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long......-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography...

  15. Molecular basis of adult-onset and chronic GM2 gangliosidoses in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish origin: Substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the α-subunit of β-hexosaminidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paw, B.H.; Kaback, M.M.; Neufeld, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic and adult-onset G M2 gangliosidoses are neurological disorders caused by marked deficiency of the A isoenzyme of β-hexosaminidase; they occur in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, though less frequently than classic (infantile) Tay-Sachs disease. Earlier biosynthetic studies had identified a defective α-subunit that failed to associate with the β-subunit. The authors have now found a guanosine to adenosine transition at the 3' end of exon 7, which causes substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the α-subunit. An RNase protection assay was used to localize the mutation to a segment of mRNA from fibroblasts of a patient with the adult-onset disorder. That segment of mRNA (after reverse transcription) and a corresponding segment of genomic DNA were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The sequence analysis, together with an assay based on the loss of a ScrFI restriction site, showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote who had inherited the 269 (Gly → Ser) mutation from his father and an allelic null mutation from his mother. The 269 (Gly → Ser) mutation, in compound heterozygosity with a presumed null allele, was also found in fetal fibroblasts with an association-defective phenotype and in cells from five patients with chronic G M2 gangliosidosis

  16. Molecular basis of adult-onset and chronic G sub M2 gangliosidoses in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish origin: Substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the. alpha. -subunit of. beta. -hexosaminidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paw, B.H.; Kaback, M.M.; Neufeld, E.F. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Chronic and adult-onset G{sub M2} gangliosidoses are neurological disorders caused by marked deficiency of the A isoenzyme of {beta}-hexosaminidase; they occur in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, though less frequently than classic (infantile) Tay-Sachs disease. Earlier biosynthetic studies had identified a defective {alpha}-subunit that failed to associate with the {beta}-subunit. The authors have now found a guanosine to adenosine transition at the 3{prime} end of exon 7, which causes substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the {alpha}-subunit. An RNase protection assay was used to localize the mutation to a segment of mRNA from fibroblasts of a patient with the adult-onset disorder. That segment of mRNA (after reverse transcription) and a corresponding segment of genomic DNA were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The sequence analysis, together with an assay based on the loss of a ScrFI restriction site, showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote who had inherited the 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation from his father and an allelic null mutation from his mother. The 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation, in compound heterozygosity with a presumed null allele, was also found in fetal fibroblasts with an association-defective phenotype and in cells from five patients with chronic G{sub M2} gangliosidosis.

  17. Quelques conceptions juives de l’individu Some Jewish Conceptions of the Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Guetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Is there a Jewish conception of the individual subject? The issue is quite problematic, for several reasons: 1 it is difficult to speak of Judaism in a monolithic manner, because Judaism is a multifaceted reality, varying according to different epochs and places, to the point that we should speak of “Judaisms”, in the plural; 2 if the question of the individual subject is connected to the vision that the Western (meaning, European, essentially Christian culture has constructed, Judaism can hardly be defined as “Occidental” or “Oriental”. After a short analysis of these two points, we present the conceptions of the individual subject as developed by two major Jewish thinkers of the twentieth century: Martin Buber (1878-1965 and Erich Fromm (1900-1980. Both based their visions on traditional Jewish sources (Bible, Talmud but attributed them a universal value.

  18. Tay-Sachs disease preconception screening in Australia: self-knowledge of being an Ashkenazi Jew predicts carrier state better than does ancestral origin, although there is an increased risk for c.1421 + 1G > C mutation in individuals with South African heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Raelia; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné

    2011-01-01

    The Australasian Community Genetics Program provided a preconception screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) to 4,105 Jewish high school students in Sydney and Melbourne over the 12-year period 1995–2007. By correlating the frequencies of mutant HEXA, MIM *606869 (gene map locus 15q23-q24) alleles with subjects’ nominated ethnicity (Ashkenazi/Sephardi/Mixed) and grandparental birthplaces, we established that Ashkenazi ethnicity is a better predictor of TSD carrier status than grandparental ance...

  19. The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations in the Brazilian Jewish population justifies a carrier screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rozenberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurologic degeneration, fatal in early childhood. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population the disease incidence is about 1 in every 3,500 newborns and the carrier frequency is 1 in every 29 individuals. Carrier screening programs for Tay-Sachs disease have reduced disease incidence by 90% in high-risk populations in several countries. The Brazilian Jewish population is estimated at 90,000 individuals. Currently, there is no screening program for Tay-Sachs disease in this population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program in the Brazilian Jewish population by determining the frequency of heterozygotes and the acceptance of the program by the community. SETTING: Laboratory of Molecular Genetics - Institute of Biosciences - Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 581 senior students from selected Jewish high schools. PROCEDURE: Molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS: Among 581 students that attended educational classes, 404 (70% elected to be tested for Tay-Sachs disease mutations. Of these, approximately 65% were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Eight carriers were detected corresponding to a carrier frequency of 1 in every 33 individuals in the Ashkenazi Jewish fraction of the sample. CONCLUSION: The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease carriers among the Ashkenazi Jewish population of Brazil is similar to that of other countries where carrier screening programs have led to a significant decrease in disease incidence. Therefore, it is justifiable to implement a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program for the Brazilian Jewish population.

  20. The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations in the Brazilian Jewish population justifies a carrier screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, R; Pereira, L da V

    2001-07-05

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurologic degeneration, fatal in early childhood. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population the disease incidence is about 1 in every 3,500 newborns and the carrier frequency is 1 in every 29 individuals. Carrier screening programs for Tay-Sachs disease have reduced disease incidence by 90% in high-risk populations in several countries. The Brazilian Jewish population is estimated at 90,000 individuals. Currently, there is no screening program for Tay-Sachs disease in this population. To evaluate the importance of a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program in the Brazilian Jewish population by determining the frequency of heterozygotes and the acceptance of the program by the community. Laboratory of Molecular Genetics--Institute of Biosciences--Universidade de São Paulo. 581 senior students from selected Jewish high schools. Molecular analysis of Tay-Sachs disease causing mutations by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. Among 581 students that attended educational classes, 404 (70%) elected to be tested for Tay-Sachs disease mutations. Of these, approximately 65% were of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Eight carriers were detected corresponding to a carrier frequency of 1 in every 33 individuals in the Ashkenazi Jewish fraction of the sample. The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease carriers among the Ashkenazi Jewish population of Brazil is similar to that of other countries where carrier screening programs have led to a significant decrease in disease incidence. Therefore, it is justifiable to implement a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program for the Brazilian Jewish population.

  1. Tay-Sachs disease preconception screening in Australia: self-knowledge of being an Ashkenazi Jew predicts carrier state better than does ancestral origin, although there is an increased risk for c.1421 + 1G > C mutation in individuals with South African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné

    2011-12-01

    The Australasian Community Genetics Program provided a preconception screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) to 4,105 Jewish high school students in Sydney and Melbourne over the 12-year period 1995-2007. By correlating the frequencies of mutant HEXA, MIM *606869 (gene map locus 15q23-q24) alleles with subjects' nominated ethnicity (Ashkenazi/Sephardi/Mixed) and grandparental birthplaces, we established that Ashkenazi ethnicity is a better predictor of TSD carrier status than grandparental ancestral origins. Screening self-identified Ashkenazi subjects detected 95% of TSD carriers (carrier frequency 1:25). Having mixed Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi heritage reduced the carrier frequency (1:97). South African heritage conveyed a fourfold risk of c.1421 + 1G > C mutation compared with other AJ subjects (odds ratio (OR), 4.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-9.62, p = 0.001), but this was the only specific case of ancestral origin improving diagnostic sensitivity over that based on determining Ashkenazi ethnicity. Carriers of c.1278insTATC mutations were more likely to have heritage from Western Europe (OR, 1.65 (95% CI, 1.04-2.60), p = 0.032) and South Eastern Europe (OR, 1.77 (95% CI, 1.14-2.73), p = 0.010). However, heritage from specific European countries investigated did not significantly alter the overall odds of TSD carrier status.

  2. Individualism, Nationalism, and Universalism: The Educational Ideals of Mordecai M. Kaplan's Philosophy of Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ari

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine educational ideals by exploring the relation between the individual, the collective, and humanity in Kaplan's Jewish and educational philosophy. Generally the goals of individualism, nationalism, and universalism are seen as mutually exclusive. By contrast, Kaplan argues for the symbiotic relationship between…

  3. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  4. No evidence from genome-wide data of a Khazar origin for the Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M; Metspalu, Mait; Baran, Yael; Kopelman, Naama M; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Gladstein, Ariella; Tzur, Shay; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Tambets, Kristina; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Kushniarevich, Alena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovsky, Elena; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Mihailov, Evelin; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; King, Roy J; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio; Hammer, Michael F; Metspalu, Ene; Skorecki, Karl; Rosset, Saharon; Halperin, Eran; Villems, Richard; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-12-01

    The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of

  5. Case report: BRCA in the Ashkenazi population: are current testing guidelines too exclusive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Katherine H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The BRCA1/2 genes account for a significant portion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers and they are especially prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Women who have a mutation can prevent breast and ovarian cancer with surgical intervention. We describe an Ashkenazi Jewish patient who illustrates that current testing criteria are too restrictive, particularly for this population of patients. The patient's sister was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 33; however, she was not a mutation carrier. Based on practice guidelines, the patient was not recommended genetic testing. She subsequently underwent direct-to-consumer (DTC testing and discovered that she was a mutation carrier. This case demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the higher prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Ashkenazi population. It also exemplifies the need to involve medical professionals, including genetic counselors, in the dissemination of DNA test results.

  6. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTofanelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their classical 6 STR marker format or in the extended 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same haplotype signatures. Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes.

  7. Four USH2A founder mutations underlie the majority of Usher syndrome type 2 cases among non-Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslender, Noa; Bandah, Dikla; Rizel, Leah; Behar, Doron M; Shohat, Mordechai; Banin, Eyal; Allon-Shalev, Stavit; Sharony, Reuven; Sharon, Dror; Ben-Yosef, Tamar

    2008-06-01

    Type 2 Usher syndrome (USH2) is a recessively inherited disorder, characterized by the combination of early onset, moderate-to-severe, sensorineural hearing loss, and vision impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa. From 74% to 90% of USH2 cases are caused by mutations of the USH2A gene. USH2A is composed of 72 exons, encoding for usherin, an extracellular matrix protein, which plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neurosensory cells in both retina and cochlea. To date, over 70 pathogenic mutations of USH2A have been reported in individuals of various ethnicities. Many of these mutations are rare private mutations segregating in single families. The aim of the current work was to investigate the genetic basis for USH2 among Jews of various origins. We found that four USH2A mutations (c.239-240insGTAC, c.1000C>T, c.2209C>T, and c.12067-2A>G) account for 64% of mutant alleles underlying USH2 in Jewish families of non-Ashkenazi descent. Considering the very large size of the USH2A gene and the high number of mutations detected in USH2 patients worldwide, our findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and carrier screening in various Jewish populations.

  8. Splice junction mutation in some Ashkenazi Jews with Tay-Sachs disease: Evidence against a single defect within this ethnic group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myerowitz, R. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder in which the {alpha} chain of the lysosomal enzyme {beta}-N-acetylhexosaminidase A bears the mutation. Ashkenazi Jews are found to be carriers for a severe type of Tay-Sachs disease, the classic form, 10 times more frequently than the general population. Ashkenazi Jewish patients with classic Tay-Sachs disease have appeared to be clinically and biochemically identical, and the usual assumption has been that they harbor the same {alpha}-chain mutation. The author has isolated the {alpha}-chain gene from an Ashkenazi Jewish patient, GM2968, with classic Tay-Sachs disease and compared its nucleotide sequences with that of the normal {alpha}-chain gene in the promoter region, exon and splice junction regions, and polyadenylylation signal area. Only one difference was observed between these sequences. The alteration is presumed to be functionally significant and to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. Utilizing the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the region encompassing the mutation, the author developed an assay to screen patients and heterozygote carriers for this mutation. Surprisingly, in each of two Ashkenazi patients, only one {alpha}-chain allele harbored the splice junction mutation. Only one parent of each of these patients was positive for the defect. Another Ashkenazi patient did not bear this mutation at all nor did either of the subject's parents. The data are consistent with the presence of more than one mutation underlying the classic form of Tay-Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  9. Splice junction mutation in some Ashkenazi Jews with Tay-Sachs disease: Evidence against a single defect within this ethnic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myerowitz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder in which the α chain of the lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A bears the mutation. Ashkenazi Jews are found to be carriers for a severe type of Tay-Sachs disease, the classic form, 10 times more frequently than the general population. Ashkenazi Jewish patients with classic Tay-Sachs disease have appeared to be clinically and biochemically identical, and the usual assumption has been that they harbor the same α-chain mutation. The author has isolated the α-chain gene from an Ashkenazi Jewish patient, GM2968, with classic Tay-Sachs disease and compared its nucleotide sequences with that of the normal α-chain gene in the promoter region, exon and splice junction regions, and polyadenylylation signal area. Only one difference was observed between these sequences. The alteration is presumed to be functionally significant and to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. Utilizing the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the region encompassing the mutation, the author developed an assay to screen patients and heterozygote carriers for this mutation. Surprisingly, in each of two Ashkenazi patients, only one α-chain allele harbored the splice junction mutation. Only one parent of each of these patients was positive for the defect. Another Ashkenazi patient did not bear this mutation at all nor did either of the subject's parents. The data are consistent with the presence of more than one mutation underlying the classic form of Tay-Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population

  10. Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Israel: A disproportionate distribution among Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Mor; Lerner, Daniele; Piltz, Yuval; Perry, Chava; Avivi, Irit; Herishanu, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Relatives of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are at increased risk of developing CLL. Familial CLL is defined as more than one case of CLL among blood relatives, a phenomenon reported in approximately 5%-10% of all CLL patients. Given the known predisposition of CLL among Ashkenazi Jews, we studied the features of familial CLL in an Israeli population. This is a retrospective study, in which we reviewed the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of a total of 332 patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Familial CLL was recorded in 41 cases (12.3%) of the patients. The age at diagnosis was younger in patients with familial CLL (by almost 3.5 years). Familial CLL was strongly associated with Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Patients with familial CLL more commonly presented with higher hemoglobin and lower serum β-2-microglobulin levels. No significant differences were detected between sporadic and familial CLL in disease stage, time to treatment, second cancers, or overall survival. Familial cases of CLL in an Israeli population show a disproportionate ethnic distribution toward Jews of Ashkenazi origin. The clinical characteristics and the overall outcome are not substantially different from sporadic cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical and Phenotypic Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Arab and Jewish Children in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawi, Firas; Assa, Amit; Bashir, Husam; Peleg, Sarit; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-08-01

    Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Demographic, clinical, and phenotypic variables were compared between Arabs and Jews from Eastern (Sephardic) and Western (Ashkenazi) origin. Seventy-one Arab children with IBD were compared with 165 Ashkenazi and 158 Sephardic Jewish children. Age and gender did not differ between groups. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish Crohn's disease (CD) patients had significantly more stenotic behavior (24 and 26 vs. 5%, p = 0.03) and less fistulzing perianal disease (15 and 11 vs. 31%, p = 0.014) compared with Arab patients. Arab children with ulcerative colitis (UC) had more severe disease at diagnosis compared to Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews reflected by higher Pediatric UC Activity Index (45 vs. 35 and 35, respectively, p = 0.03). Arab patients had significantly lower proportion of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies positivity (in CD) and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity (in UC) than both Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish children (23 vs. 53 and 65%, p = 0.002 and 35 vs. 60 and 75%, respectively, p = 0.002). Arab and Jewish children with IBD differ in disease characteristics and severity. Whether genetic or environmental factors are the cause for these differences is yet to be determined.

  12. Counting the founders: the matrilineal genetic ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Rosset, Saharon; Tzur, Shay; Hadid, Yarin; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Rosengarten, Dror; Pereira, Luisa; Amorim, Antonio; Kutuev, Ildus; Gurwitz, David; Bonne-Tamir, Batsheva; Villems, Richard; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-04-30

    The history of the Jewish Diaspora dates back to the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests in the Levant, followed by complex demographic and migratory trajectories over the ensuing millennia which pose a serious challenge to unraveling population genetic patterns. Here we ask whether phylogenetic analysis, based on highly resolved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenies can discern among maternal ancestries of the Diaspora. Accordingly, 1,142 samples from 14 different non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities were analyzed. A list of complete mtDNA sequences was established for all variants present at high frequency in the communities studied, along with high-resolution genotyping of all samples. Unlike the previously reported pattern observed among Ashkenazi Jews, the numerically major portion of the non-Ashkenazi Jews, currently estimated at 5 million people and comprised of the Moroccan, Iraqi, Iranian and Iberian Exile Jewish communities showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect, which did however characterize the smaller and more remote Belmonte, Indian and the two Caucasus communities. The Indian and Ethiopian Jewish sample sets suggested local female introgression, while mtDNAs in all other communities studied belong to a well-characterized West Eurasian pool of maternal lineages. Absence of sub-Saharan African mtDNA lineages among the North African Jewish communities suggests negligible or low level of admixture with females of the host populations among whom the African haplogroup (Hg) L0-L3 sub-clades variants are common. In contrast, the North African and Iberian Exile Jewish communities show influence of putative Iberian admixture as documented by mtDNA Hg HV0 variants. These findings highlight striking differences in the demographic history of the widespread Jewish Diaspora.

  13. Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-06-11

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads.

  14. Barriers to cancer screening among Orthodox Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-12-01

    The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities.

  15. A digital Jewish history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiatacz Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

  16. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rally discriminated against as regards appointments. When this discrimination declined in about 1950, Jewish hospitals had only 10-20% Jewish patients but were continued as a service to the community at large and were funded from Jewish sources. In 1966 there were 64 major Jewish hospitals in the USA, some of which ...

  17. Cost effectiveness of population based BRCA1 founder mutation testing in Sephardi Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Legood, Rosa; Evans, D Gareth; Turnbull, Clare; Antoniou, Antonis C; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Manchanda, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 founder-mutation testing has been demonstrated as cost effective compared with family history based testing in Ashkenazi Jewish women. However, only 1 of the 3 Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), 5382insC[c.5266dupC]), and 6174delT[c.5946delT]) is found in the Sephardi Jewish population (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), and the overall prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Sephardi Jewish population is accordingly lower (0.7% compared with 2.5% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population). Cost-effectiveness analyses of BRCA testing have not previously been performed at these lower BRCA prevalence levels seen in the Sephardi Jewish population. Here we present a cost-effectiveness analysis for UK and US populations comparing population testing with clinical criteria/family history-based testing in Sephardi Jewish women. A Markov model was built comparing the lifetime costs and effects of population-based BRCA1 testing, with testing using family history-based clinical criteria in Sephardi Jewish women aged ≥30 years. BRCA1 carriers identified were offered magnetic resonance imaging/mammograms and risk-reducing surgery. Costs are reported at 2015 prices. Outcomes include breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and excess deaths from heart disease. All costs and outcomes are discounted at 3.5%. The time horizon is lifetime, and perspective is payer. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated. Parameter uncertainty was evaluated through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Population testing resulted in gain in life expectancy of 12 months (quality-adjusted life-year = 1.00). The baseline discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for UK population-based testing was £67.04/quality-adjusted life-year and for US population was $308.42/quality-adjusted life-year. Results were robust in the 1-way sensitivity analysis. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 100% of

  18. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  19. National Jewish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 View More Upcoming Events View All Beaux Arts Ball Saturday, February 24, 2018 Financial Industries Dinner ... Go Submitting... © 2017 National Jewish Health 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 1.877.225.5654 Policies & ...

  20. Refrigerator Mothers and Sick Little Boys: Bruno Bettelheim, Eugenics and the De-Pathologization of Jewish Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    griffin jaye epstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Child psychologist and Nazi concentration camp survivor Bruno Bettelheim’s influential theories of autism reveal a startling connection between Jewish identity, the medicalization of disability, colonial eugenics and race-making practices over the 20th century in North America. Using Bettelheim’s life and work as a case-study, this paper explores Ashkenazi Jewish immigrant complicity in a whitened colonial landscape through the lens of Disability Studies. It asks the question: can we be more accountable to our disabled identities – and to those disabled people who have come before us – if we learn how our families, our identities, our very selves have been complicit in medicalization and violence?  Keywords: madness, race, whiteness, Jewish identity, eugenics, psychiatry

  1. Jewish views on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, I

    1968-01-01

    In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.

  2. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk and Risk Reduction in Jewish BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Brian S.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Friedman, Sue; Friebel, Tara M.; Dubitsky, Shera; Schonberger, Niecee Singer; Shoretz, Rochelle; Singer, Christian F.; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie; Garber, Judy E.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Daly, Mary B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Pichert, Gabrielle; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Couch, Fergus J.; van't Veer, Laura; Eeles, Rosalind; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Narod, Steven A.; Matloff, Ellen; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1/2 dramatically increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. Three mutations in these genes (185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT) occur at high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews. We evaluated how these common Jewish mutations (CJMs) affect cancer risks and risk reduction. Methods Our cohort comprised 4,649 women with disease-associated BRCA1/2 mutations from 22 centers in the Prevention and Observation of Surgical End Points Consortium. Of these women, 969 were self-identified Jewish women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risks, as well as risk reduction from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), by CJM and self-identified Jewish status. Results Ninety-one percent of Jewish BRCA1/2-positive women carried a CJM. Jewish women were significantly more likely to undergo RRSO than non-Jewish women (54% v 41%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.42). Relative risks of cancer varied by CJM, with the relative risk of breast cancer being significantly lower in 6174delT mutation carriers than in non-CJM BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69). No significant difference was seen in cancer risk reduction after RRSO among subgroups. Conclusion Consistent with previous results, risks for breast and ovarian cancer varied by CJM in BRCA1/2 carriers. In particular, 6174delT carriers had a lower risk of breast cancer. This finding requires additional confirmation in larger prospective and population-based cohort studies before being integrated into clinical care. PMID:22430266

  3. The Ashkenazi Jews of Curaçao, a trading minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abraham-Van der Mark

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available First describes the early Sephardi presence in Curaçao, the arrival of the Ashkenazi in the 20th c., and the relations between these 2 groups. Author goes on to discuss the Ashkenazis' economic success and the exodus of the 1980s. She asks whether the success and the exodus can be attributed to the characteristics of the group itself or whether conditions and developments in Curaçao account for economic fortune and the departure of the Ashkenazi.

  4. Recent origin and spread of a common Lithuanian mutation, G197del LDLR, causing familial hypercholesterolemia: positive selection is not always necessary to account for disease incidence among Ashkenazi Jews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durst, R.; Colombo, R.; Shpitzen, S.; Avi, L. B.; Friedlander, Y.; Wexler, R.; Raal, F. J.; Marais, D. A.; Defesche, J. C.; Mandelshtam, M. Y.; Kotze, M. J.; Leitersdorf, E.; Meiner, V.

    2001-01-01

    G197del is the most prevalent LDL receptor (LDLR) mutation causing familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Ashkenazi Jew (AJ) individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, age, and population distribution of G197del, as well as to explore environmental and genetic effects on

  5. Current Jewish perspectives on maternal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowelsky, Joel B; Grazi, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. We report here on more recent developments in halakha (Jewish law and ethics) that are of importance to Orthodox Jewish infertile couple considering donor gametes or surrogacy. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware, and requires up-to-date authoritative information.

  6. Effect of ethnic origin and gender on the clinical manifestations of myasthenia gravis among the Jewish population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmail, Ali; Kesler, Anat; Drory, Vivian E; Kolb, Hadar; Karni, Arnon

    2017-06-15

    Reports on patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) of different ethnic origins demonstrated differences in weakness distribution and serological results. We studied MG characteristics in a cohort of Ashkenazi (ASH) and non-Ashkenazi (NASH) Jewish origin according to their ethnic origins and gender. The frequency of age of MG onset was distributed in a bi-modal fashion in the female patients and increased gradually over time, with a peak around 70years of age in the male patients. Ocular MG was more frequent in males and ASH patients. Unlike previous reports, our male patients had a higher proportion of positive serum anti-acetyl choline receptor (AChR) than female patients, with no ethnic-based differences in the rates of anti-AChR or anti-muscle specific kinase. Comorbidity with another autoimmune disease was more frequent among female patients with late-onset MG and NASH patients (mainly Israel-born). Male MG patients tended to have more malignant comorbidities than female MG patients. These results demonstrate the effect of ethnicity on clinical aspects of MG within the Jewish population in Israel, and reveal novel effects of gender-associated comorbidities in patients with MG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... period of Jewish medicine in Germany included the renowned immunologists ... work in endocrinology where his classic experiment of inducing myxoedema in .... feeding, Alois Epstein (1849 - 1918), the founder of the world-.

  8. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first American Jewish hospital is a prestigious instimtion today -- the ... Pediatric Association and the American Medical Association. jacob Mendes DaCosta ... by which the soil converts animal and plant residue into humus. As a student he ...

  9. Jewish Culture and the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Adam M

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...

  10. Jewish traits in Andrzej Bart’s works. A reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Słomińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt at identifying Jewish traits in Andrzej Bart’s literary work and film documents. The Jewish elements tend to be unevenly distributed and include references to biographies of actual individuals, creating fictional figures, creating visions of real and/or fictional events enriched with symbolic dimensions. The Jewish theme is the core of the plot only in one of the novels (Fabryka muchołapek – The Flytrap Factory. The Jewish elements in Bart’s prose complement each other, or comment on each other, co-creating the writer’s  narration, and are rarely part of a work’s realistic representation. The elements have many roles to play: contextual reference, attempts to present the multi-ethnic structure of Polish society, tackling the subject of the Holocaust, or antisemitism and the difficult Polish –Jewish relations. Bart tends to discuss this issue more frequently in his films, in the Złe miasto? (Evil City? documentary series and in Radegast, shot in cooperation with Borys Lankosz.

  11. The great controversy : the individual's struggle between good and evil in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in their Jewish and Christian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Tom de

    2013-01-01

    The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs are an early Christian work. The argumentation in this work finds its foundation in the struggle between good and evil. In the Testaments this struggle is applied individually, which is a theme found only in Christian works.

  12. [Migration and changes in the Jewish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, M

    1995-12-01

    "This paper presents an overview of the distribution, number and position of Jewish communities in the world, in the light of historical and political conditions which formerly [influenced], and even today continue to influence Jewish migration. The Jewish community in Croatia and Zagreb is analysed. Nevertheless, attention is focused primarily on East Europe and Israel as areas of large changes." (EXCERPT)

  13. Nursing care of Jewish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Kostka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has the right to equal treatment irrespective of color, culture, origin or religion. Jewish patients obey many rules. The use of proper diet, adherence to the principles of purity, prayer, performing rituals is very important for them. Medical staff is committed to providing patients with safety, regardless of the differences. Understanding the most important values, ethics and practices of Judaism will help to provide professional care for the patient of Jewish faith. Appropriate communication, understanding and tolerance are essential for creating a relationship with the patient, through which it will be possible to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and improve the quality of life of patients.

  14. Bioethics for clinicians: 22. Jewish bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsand, Gary; Rosenberg, Zahava R.S.; Gordon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Jewish bioethics in the contemporary era emerges from the traditional practice of applying principles of Jewish law (Halacha) to ethical dilemmas. The Bible (written law) and the Talmud (oral law) are the foundational texts on which such deliberations are based. Interpretation of passages in these texts attempts to identify the duties of physicians, patients and families faced with difficult health care decisions. Although Jewish law is an integral consideration of religiously observant Jews, secularized Jewish patients often welcome the wisdom of their tradition when considering treatment options. Jewish bioethics exemplifies how an ethical system based on duties may differ from the secular rights-based model prevalent in North American society. PMID:11332319

  15. Illegal Drug Use in Orthodox Jewish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Orthodox Jewish adolescents are increasingly seeking stimulation with illegal drugs. Eleven Orthodox Jewish adolescents were surveyed with semi-structured interviews on the Orthodox Jewish cultural aspects of their illegal drug use. Adolescents had mixed beliefs about religious teachings affecting their illegal drug use. No consistent pattern existed for particular ethnic aspects of Orthodox Jewish religious practice as a risk factor for illegal drug use. Language used to describe illegal drug use in this population is described. Unlike illegal drug use in secular and non-Jewish adolescents, these adolescents reported very little family discord or poor relationships with their parents.

  16. Clinical profile of breast cancer in Arab and Jewish women in the Jerusalem area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Aviram; Spira, Ram M; Hamburger, Tamar; Badrriyah, Mahmud; Prus, Diana; Cohen, Tzeela; Hubert, Ayala; Freund, Herbert R; Peretz, Tamar

    2004-07-01

    The clinical profile of breast cancer may vary among different ethnic groups living in the same country and therefore affect the yield of a breast cancer screening program. The present study attempts to better characterize the breast cancer clinical profile of Arab women compared with Jewish women in the greater Jerusalem area with a future aim of establishing a comprehensive and effective screening program for this population. Retrospective chart review was conducted and the following covariates were correlated with survival: ethnicity, age at diagnosis, and American Joint Committee on Cancer (TNM) stage at diagnosis. A total of 312 women were operated on for breast cancer between 1994 and 1999; 51% were Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), 26% were Sephardic Jews (SJ), 21% were Palestinian Arabs (PA), and 2% patients did not fit into those ethnic groups. The mean age at diagnosis was 51.5 years for the PA group, 53.4 +/- 1.5 for the SJ group, and 55.9 years for the AJ group (P Arab patients compared with the Jewish patients. These findings were associated with lower 5-year survival and disease-free survival of the Arab patients.

  17. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M.

    2014-01-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  18. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  19. Evaluation of two-year Jewish genetic disease screening program in Atlanta: insight into community genetic screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yunru; Liu, Shuling; Grinzaid, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Improvements in genetic testing technologies have led to the development of expanded carrier screening panels for the Ashkenazi Jewish population; however, there are major inconsistencies in current screening practices. A 2-year pilot program was launched in Atlanta in 2010 to promote and facilitate screening for 19 Jewish genetic diseases. We analyzed data from this program, including participant demographics and outreach efforts. This retrospective analysis is based on a de-identified dataset of 724 screenees. Data were obtained through medical chart review and questionnaires and included demographic information, screening results, response to outreach efforts, and follow-up behavior and preferences. We applied descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and logistic regression to analyze the data and compare findings with published literature. The majority of participants indicated that they were not pregnant or did not have a partner who was pregnant were affiliated with Jewish organizations and reported 100 % AJ ancestry. Overall, carrier frequency was 1 in 3.9. Friends, rabbis, and family members were the most common influencers of the decision to receive screening. People who were older, had a history of pregnancy, and had been previously screened were more likely to educate others (all p influencers who then encouraged screening in the target population. Educating influencers and increasing overall awareness were the most effective outreach strategies.

  20. Spiritual Criminology: The Case of Jewish Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Ben Yair, Y

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known. Our aim here is to present a complementary perspective; that is, spiritual criminology that emerges from the spiritual perspective. Following a description of the state-of-the-art in criminological research concerning spirituality and its impact upon individuals, we focus on Jewish criminology as an illustrative case study, and present a spiritual Jewish view on good and evil, including factors that lead to criminality, the issue of free choice, the aim of punishment and societal response, crime desistance, rehabilitation, and prevention. The proposed establishment of spiritual criminology can be further developed by including parallel schools of spirituality, to create an integrated field in criminology.

  1. JEWISH SUFISM IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Epafras, Leonard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling. In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might ...

  2. Technology: So Pervasive in Jewish Living, so Absent from Jewish Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Jewish world, like the world civilization that hosts it, is awash in new technologies. Appropriately, there is a great deal of attention paid to how to improve the Jewish world and Jewish identity through technology. Paradoxically there is a paucity of literature characterizing the relationship of Jews and Judaism to technology. This article…

  3. From Farmers to Merchants, Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of Jewish History

    OpenAIRE

    Botticini, Maristella; Eckstein, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the second century C.E., Judaism enforced a religious norm requiring any Jewish father to educate his children. We present evidence supporting our thesis that this exogenous change in the religious and social norm had a major influence on Jewish economic and demographic history. First, the high individual and community cost of educating children in subsistence farming economies (2nd to 7th centuries) prompted voluntary conversions, which account for a large share of the reduct...

  4. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  5. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  6. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  7. The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Ribeiro, Andre L R; Levine, Adam P; Pontikos, Nikolas; Balloux, Francois; Segal, Anthony W; Roberts, Adam P; Smith, Andrew M

    2017-09-12

    The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition. IMPORTANCE Previous research shows that the salivary microbiomes of relatives are more similar than those of nonrelatives, but it remains difficult to distinguish the effects of relatedness and shared household environment. Furthermore, pedigree measures may not accurately measure host genetic similarity. In this study, we include genetic relatedness based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rather than

  8. The Fate of Job in Jewish Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book......Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... of Job in itself is not normative. Rather, it serves as a counterpoint up against which the reception and transformation of Jewish theology can unfold and as such The Book of Job exerts its function on Jewish religiosity....

  9. [Tay-Sachs disease in non-Jewish infant in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease, also known as GM2 gangliosidosis or Hexosaminidase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic fatal disorder. The disease is known to appear in East European Ashkenazi Jews, North African Jews, and Quebec French Canadians exclusively, but, with different frequency and type of mutation. Its most common variant is the infantile type Tay-Sachs disease. Juvenile and late-onset forms of the disease are infrequent and slowly progressive. At nearly 3 to 6 months old, a baby with Tay-Sachs progressively loses his motor skills and attentiveness. Startle responses and hyperreflexia become prominent, especially on eliciting deep patellar and Achilles reflexes, as a consequence of neurodegeneration of the upper motor neuron. Other systemic damage ensues gradually; seizures, blindness, spasticity of limbs, inability to swallow and breathe, and eventually the baby dies at 1-4 years of age. All Tay-Sachs patients have a "cherry red spot", easily seen in the macula area of the retina, using an ophthalmoscope. The "cherry red spot" is the only normal part of the retina in these sick babies. The case presented here emphasizes that Tay-Sachs disease is sometimes misdiagnosed at first visits even by an experienced clinician, because of his lack of awareness that this disease is not exclusively a Jewish disease.

  10. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  11. From farmers to merchants, conversions and diaspora: human capital and Jewish history

    OpenAIRE

    Botticini, Maristella; Eckstein, Zvi

    2007-01-01

    From the end of the second century CE, Judaism enforced a religious norm requiring fathers to educate their sons. We present evidence supporting our thesis that this change had a major influence on Jewish economic and demographic history. First, the high individual and community cost of educating children in subsistence farming economies (2nd to 7th centuries) prompted voluntary conversions of Jews that account for a share of the reduction from 4.5 to 1.2 million. Second, the Jewish farmer...

  12. THE JEWISH PAST OF EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Etelka DOHI TREPSZKER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Transylvania, buildings with a high quality architecture have been constructed along the centuries. The purpose of the present study is to document the built heritage of Transylvania, particularly the Jewish buildings and especially those that had been neglected over the last years. The article is the continuation of the article about the Jewish architecture in Transylvania, with a case study about the Jewish girls’ school in Satu Mare. The research domain is interdisciplinary because it links History, Architecture, Art history and the problem of Globalization as well. The niche in this domain remains the fact that the buildings are not identified, rehabilitated, or promoted. Previous studies have mostly focused on synagogues and prayer houses. Most of the other precious buildings have been left aside. This study offers a new approach to change the point of view of the people who live in Romania, and helps them appreciate the heritage they have received.

  13. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  14. The Jewish minority in the Second Polish Republic: the activities of the Board of the Jewish Community in Lvov during the years 1919–1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziński Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze data on the functioning of the Jewish Community in Lvov during the years 1919-1924. The indicated problems will enable to show the functioning of the Jewish minority in the conditions of the reviving Polish state - both in socio-political terms, and in the organizational aspect. It is particularly important to show the Jewish minority opinion about the conditions of Second Polish Republic. Additionally, this article will help restore the memory of the individual members of the Jewish community in Lvov. The selected issue is a part of the research conducted on a larger scale, whose aim is to enrich knowledge and overcome the deficit of research in the science of politics on the concept of ethnic policy - proposed in the years 1939-1947 by the Polish government in exile. The fundamental finding of the analysis is the fact, that the Board accepted the Polish state and the dominant role of the Polish nation in the system of democratic political power.

  15. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Role of Heroes in Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2002-01-01

    Rosenak has shown that contemporary Jewish education must negotiate the tension between relevance and authenticity. For those who embrace authenticity as a goal, education is often mediated through heroes--who are ideal cultural types. Such education is hampered by the diminution of heroes in contemporary culture: The hero has been replaced by the…

  17. Domestic Violence in Arab Society: A Comparison of Arab and Jewish Women in Shelters in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porat, Anat; Levy, Drorit; Kattoura, Ola; Dekel, Rachel; Itzhaky, Haya

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to address a gap in the literature by determining prevalence, specific types of violence, and risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Israeli born Arab women compared with Israeli born Jewish women. The following measures were compared: demographic and socioeconomic measures; measures relating to the characteristics of the violence, that is, the three types of violence (physical, emotional, and verbally threatening), sense of danger, and history of violence in childhood; family support levels; and perpetrator characteristics. The sample consisted of 154 Israeli born Arab women and 149 Israeli born Jewish women who were staying in shelters for victims of domestic violence in Israel. A comparison of the two groups revealed that the Arab women were exposed to more physical violence and received less family support than did their Jewish counterparts. The proportion of Arab perpetrators with access to weapons was higher than that of Jewish perpetrators, whereas the proportion of police complaints against Jewish perpetrators was higher than that against Arab perpetrators. Arab women were also younger, less educated, and less a part of the workforce than Jewish women. The contribution of the woman's age to the variance in levels of physical violence was negative and significant. In contrast, the contribution of her sense of danger, and various perpetrator characteristics, was positive. Moreover, the interaction between sense of danger × ethnicity contributed significantly to levels of violence. This study extends the existing knowledge about the contribution of ethnicity as one of many variables that play a role in the lives of women who are victims of domestic violence and highlights the need to develop, in particular, unique individual, community, and social interventions for Arab women in Israeli society.

  18. Teaching and Learning Jewish History in the 21st Century: New Priorities and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2018-01-01

    New 21st-century circumstances in the Jewish world--including the changing nature of Jewish identification, the retreat from identity and continuity as singular aims of Jewish education, the democratization of Jewish learning opportunities, increased emphasis on informal and experiential Jewish education activities, and demonstrable interest among…

  19. Segregation of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff alleles in a non-Jewish family.

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, A B; Young, E; Jenkins, T

    1980-01-01

    A non-Jewish family is presented in which the genes for Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease are segregating. Individuals heterozygous for both alleles have low serum and white cell total hexosaminidase levels together with a proportion of heat-labile hexosaminidase A (HEX A) which falls in the normal range. The individuals would not be detected as carriers of Tay-Sachs disease or Sandhoff disease in a population screening program.

  20. Segregation of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff alleles in a non-Jewish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A B; Young, E; Jenkins, T

    1980-01-01

    A non-Jewish family is presented in which the genes for Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease are segregating. Individuals heterozygous for both alleles have low serum and white cell total hexosaminidase levels together with a proportion of heat-labile hexosaminidase A (HEX A) which falls in the normal range. The individuals would not be detected as carriers of Tay-Sachs disease or Sandhoff disease in a population screening program. PMID:7446530

  1. Robotics and artificial intelligence: Jewish ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Z H

    2006-01-01

    In 16th Century Prague, Rabbi Loew created a Golem, a humanoid made of clay, to protect his community. When the Golem became too dangerous to his surroundings, he was dismantled. This Jewish theme illustrates some of the guiding principles in its approach to the moral dilemmas inherent in future technologies, such as artificial intelligence and robotics. Man is viewed as having received the power to improve upon creation and develop technologies to achieve them, with the proviso that appropriate safeguards are taken. Ethically, not-harming is viewed as taking precedence over promoting good. Jewish ethical thinking approaches these novel technological possibilities with a cautious optimism that mankind will derive their benefits without coming to harm.

  2. Pupil size in Jewish theological seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, G; Kesler, A; Lazar, M; Rothkoff, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the authors' clinical impression that pupil size among myopic Jewish theological seminary students is different from pupil size of similar secular subjects. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 male Jewish theological seminary students and 28 secular students or workers who were matched for age and refraction. All participants were consecutively enrolled. Scotopic and photopic pupil size was measured by means of a Colvard pupillometer. Comparisons of various parameters between the groups were performed using the two-sample t-test, Fisher exact test, a paired-sample t-test, a two-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. The two groups were statistically matched for age, refraction, and visual acuity. The seminary students were undercorrected by an average of 2.35 diopters (D), while the secular subjects were undercorrected by only 0.65 D (pwork or of apparently characteristic undercorrection of the myopia is undetermined.

  3. Euthanasia: an overview and the jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Glick, Shimon; Or, Reuven; Jotkovitz, Alan

    2006-10-01

    End-of-life care poses fundamental ethical problems to clinicians. Defining euthanasia is a difficult and complex task, which causes confusion in its practical clinical application. Over the course of history, abuse of the term has led to medical atrocities. Familiarity with the relevant bioethical issues and the development of practical guidelines might improve clinical performance. To define philosophical concepts, to present historical events, to discuss the relevant attitudes in modern bioethics and law that may be helpful in elaborating practical guidelines for clinicians regarding euthanasia and end-of-life care. Concepts found in the classic sources of Jewish tradition might shed additional light on the issue and help clinicians in their decision-making process. An historical overview defines the concepts of active versus passive euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and related terms. Positions found in classical Jewish literature are presented and analyzed with their later interpretations. The relevance and application in modern clinical medicine of both the general and Jewish approaches are discussed. The overview of current bioethical concepts demonstrates the variety of approaches in western culture and legal systems. Philosophically and conceptually, there is a crucial distinction between active and passive euthanasia. The legitimacy of active euthanasia has been the subject of major controversy in recent times in various countries and religious traditions. The historical overview and the literature review demonstrate the need to provide clearer definitions of the concepts relating to euthanasia, for in the past the term has led to major confusion and uncontrolled abuse. Bioethical topics should, therefore, be included in medical training and continuing education. There are major debates and controversies regarding the current clinical and legal approaches. We trust that classical Jewish sources might contribute to the establishment of clinical

  4. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  5. Experiential learning and values education at a school youth camp: Maintaining Jewish culture and heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2017-02-01

    In our post-modern, globalised world, there is a risk of unique cultural heritages being lost. This loss contributes to the detriment of civilization, because individuals need to be rooted in their own specific identity in order to actively participate in community life. This article discusses a longitudinal case study of the efforts being made by Australian Jewish schools to maintain Jewish heritage through annual experiential religious education camps, coordinated in a programme called Counterpoint. The researchers' aim was to analyse how a school youth camp can serve as a site for socialisation and education into a cultural and religious heritage through experiential learning and informal education. During research trips which took place over several years, interviews enabling insights into the process of experiential education were conducted with a total of three different Directors of Informal Jewish Education, two Jewish Studies heads, five participating teachers, seven youth leaders, as well as seven student focus groups. In their analysis of the semi-structured interviews, the authors of this article employed a grounded theory approach using a constant comparative method, which enabled a more nuanced understanding of the main phenomenon investigated. Over the years, they were able to observe two philosophical approaches, one of which focused more on socialisation, with immersion into experience, while the other focused on education, with immersion into Jewish knowledge. Their findings reveal that some educators aim to "transmit" knowledge through "evocation", with the students involved in active learning; while others focus more on students' "acquisition" of knowledge through transmission. Experiential learning activities were found to be more meaningful and powerful if they combined both approaches, leading to growth.

  6. Teaching about Catholic-Jewish Relationships: Interpreting Jewish Hostility to Jesus in the Gospels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansbrough, Henry

    2016-01-01

    A recent article in this journal, "Teaching about Catholic--Jewish relations: some guidelines to assist the work of teachers in Catholic schools," by Clare Jardine (Volume 7, no 1, 46-60), includes a page on "A new approach to New Testament studies." There the author points out that "The situations described in the Gospels…

  7. “Our Hopes Are Not Lost Yet.” The Jewish Displaced Persons in Italy: Relief, Rehabilitation and Self-understanding (1943-1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the fate of Jewish Displaced Persons in Italy from the liberation of the Camp of Ferramonti di Tarsia, by the Allied Army in 1943, until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. It focuses on the creation of a complex network of agencies, organizations and individuals involved in assisting the Jewish DPs in Italy, in the framework of the post-war refugee crisis. The article discusses the approaches and ambitions of the rescuers (military authorities, UN agencies and representatives from the Yishuv and the desires of the Jewish DPs themselves, who played an active role both in the administration of the refugee camps as well as in the political discourse regarding their resettlement in British Palestine. Through an analysis of hitherto unexplored archival sources, it will illustrate the development of new sense of belonging and of a renewed identity among the Jewish DPs.

  8. Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms of ... believers including Gentiles signals the re-definition of the family of Abraham. Read online: ..... Thirdly, some significant differences are detected between. Jewish ..... Rome (Moxnes 1980:78), and that 'the weak' in faith in. Romans 14 ...

  9. Performing Identities in the Classroom: Teaching Jewish Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kathie; Rosenberg, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Teaching about intersecting, fluid and historically contingent identities has been taken up extensively within the sociology of race, class and gender and women's studies. Oddly, the case of Jewish women has been virtually left out of this robust literature. This article explores the challenges raised through teaching the course "Jewish Women in…

  10. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  11. Kabbalah, Education, and Prayer: Jewish Learning in the Seventeenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necker, Gerold

    2018-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the Jewish mystical tradition which is known as Kabbalah was integrated into the curriculum of studying the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Kabbalah became popular in these times in the wake of the dissemination of Isaac Luria's teachings, in particular within the Jewish communities in Prague and Amsterdam, where members…

  12. Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions) of Paul's sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul's sibling language in light of ...

  13. 77 FR 26905 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... men and women. These principles led Jewish advocates to fight for women's equality and workers' rights... beginning. When those men, women, and children landed in New Amsterdam--what later became New York City... tomorrow's promise offers a lesson not only to Jewish Americans, but to all Americans. Generations of...

  14. Cintia Moscovich's Brazilian View on Jewish Literary Themes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike Jewish immigrants' literature in Yiddish or in Portuguese, or that ... is representative of a generation whose clashes and conflicts are attenuated and ... They are from her third book, Anotações durante o incêndio, where Jewish ... Light humour, irony, and mild yearning pervade these stories and soothe old problems.

  15. How They Teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jeffrey Alan

    2017-01-01

    Though Holocaust education is of critical importance in the world of Jewish Day Schools, little research has been conducted about it. The purpose of this paper is to answer some critical questions about how they teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools--the who, what, when, where, how, and why questions. Additionally, comparisons are made between…

  16. The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M. van; Luttikhuizen, G P

    2000-01-01

    J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, “The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature,” in The Creation of Man and Woman: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions (ed. Gerard P. Luttikhuizen; Themes in Biblical Narrative 3; Leiden, Boston, and Köln: Brill, 2000),

  17. Educational Implications of Michael Fishbane's "Sacred Attunement: A Jewish Theology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article posits Michael Fishbane's Judaic scholarship as a prime resource for Jewish education. The link between the two fields can be made through a translation of the theological underpinnings of Fishbane's insights into Judaism to educational purposes and practices. Initial work with Jewish educators on establishing this link encouraged…

  18. The Jewish Reformist Movement and its Challenges in Modern Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish reformist effort is a modernist movement which began under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, the proponents of which asked for a series of reformation within the Judaism so that they could guarantee a modernist approach in Jewish thought and have new experiences.    Prior to that, the formation of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century Europe, along with the occurrence of the French Revolution, had caused the intellectualistic thoughts to spread. The scholars supporting intellectualism believed that the proving of everything even the religious propositions was applicable only through the intellect, they also emphasized on the motto of freedom and equality of all nations.  Such liberal ideas were the most inspiring for the Jews since by resorting to them; they could terminate a long period of hardship for the Jewish people. The Jewish modernist thinkers, following Moses Mendelsohn in the eighteenth century under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, announced that the admission of Jewish Doctrines should have intellectual bases and therefore rejected some of the traditional beliefs in their religion. Having modernist ideas, they asked for changes in some of the traditional beliefs such as Jewish Nationalistic ideas, and attributed the main cause of Jewish problems at that time to such ideas    The present paper aims at introducing the Jewish reformist movement first and after mentioning its historical background, will elaborate on the significant views within the movement, then the most important challenges the movement faces in modern time will be explained. Here it will be mentioned that being totally different from traditional approach,   these challenges are the outcomes of modern reformist commentaries toward religious sources. Some of the most important challenges mentioned here are: 1- Women's religious and social functions 2- The homosexual problem 3- The Problem of Jewish and non-Jewish marriages 4- The

  19. The Jewish Reformist Movement and its Challenges in Modern Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ebrahim Mousavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish reformist effort is a modernist movement which began under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, the proponents of which asked for a series of reformation within the Judaism so that they could guarantee a modernist approach in Jewish thought and have new experiences.    Prior to that, the formation of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century Europe, along with the occurrence of the French Revolution, had caused the intellectualistic thoughts to spread. The scholars supporting intellectualism believed that the proving of everything even the religious propositions was applicable only through the intellect, they also emphasized on the motto of freedom and equality of all nations.  Such liberal ideas were the most inspiring for the Jews since by resorting to them; they could terminate a long period of hardship for the Jewish people. The Jewish modernist thinkers, following Moses Mendelsohn in the eighteenth century under the influence of Christian Enlightenment, announced that the admission of Jewish Doctrines should have intellectual bases and therefore rejected some of the traditional beliefs in their religion. Having modernist ideas, they asked for changes in some of the traditional beliefs such as Jewish Nationalistic ideas, and attributed the main cause of Jewish problems at that time to such ideas    The present paper aims at introducing the Jewish reformist movement first and after mentioning its historical background, will elaborate on the significant views within the movement, then the most important challenges the movement faces in modern time will be explained. Here it will be mentioned that being totally different from traditional approach,   these challenges are the outcomes of modern reformist commentaries toward religious sources. Some of the most important challenges mentioned here are: 1- Women's religious and social functions 2- The homosexual problem 3- The Problem of Jewish and non-Jewish marriages 4- The

  20. Jewish History Engagement in an Online Simulation: Golda and Coco, Leah and Lou at the Jewish Court of All Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Meredith L.; Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the Jewish history engagement for middle school students "playing" in the Jewish Court of All Time (JCAT), an online simulation of a current events court case with historical roots (http://jcat.icsmich.org). Through an online platform across several schools, students research and play historical and current…

  1. Bagels, Schnitzel and McDonald's--"Fuzzy Frontiers" of Jewish Identity in an English Jewish Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered during a case study of the "culture" of a Jewish secondary school, this article explores the indeterminate boundaries of Jewish identity. By examining the mechanisms that control what and who comes into the school, and what is approved and disapproved of in the school, a picture emerges of what and who is counted as…

  2. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  3. Origin and spread of the 1278insTATC mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews: genetic drift as a robust and parsimonious hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Amos; Colombo, Roberto; Michaelovsky, Elena; Karpati, Mazal; Goldman, Boleslaw; Peleg, Leah

    2004-03-01

    The 1278insTATC is the most prevalent beta-hexosaminidase A ( HEXA) gene mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), one of the four lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) occurring at elevated frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews (AJs). To investigate the genetic history of this mutation in the AJ population, a conserved haplotype (D15S981:175-D15S131:240-D15S1050:284-D15S197:144-D15S188:418) was identified in 1278insTATC chromosomes from 55 unrelated AJ individuals (15 homozygotes and 40 heterozygotes for the TSD mutation), suggesting the occurrence of a common founder. When two methods were used for analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus and for the study of the decay of LD over time, the estimated age of the insertion was found to be 40+/-12 generations (95% confidence interval: 30-50 generations), so that the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes would date to the 8th-9th century. This corresponds with the demographic expansion of AJs in central Europe, following the founding of the Ashkenaz settlement in the early Middle Ages. The results are consistent with the geographic distribution of the main TSD mutation, 1278insTATC being more common in central Europe, and with the coalescent times of mutations causing two other LSDs, Gaucher disease and mucolipidosis type IV. Evidence for the absence of a determinant positive selection (heterozygote advantage) over the mutation is provided by a comparison between the estimated age of 1278insTATC and the probability of the current AJ frequency of the mutant allele as a function of its age, calculated by use of a branching-process model. Therefore, the founder effect in a rapidly expanding population arising from a bottleneck provides a robust parsimonious hypothesis explaining the spread of 1278insTATC-linked TSD in AJ individuals.

  4. Unconscious conflict of interest: a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    In contemporary medicine, it is not always obvious whether the acceptance of a benefit constitutes a conflict of interest. A particular area of controversy has been the impact of small gifts or other benefits from pharmaceutical companies on physicians' behaviour. Typically, in such cases, the gift is not an explicit reward for cooperation; the physician does not perceive the gift as an attempt to influence his or her judgement; and the reward is relatively minor. Under these circumstances, physicians are generally of the view that acceptance of gifts will not affect their behaviour, notwithstanding findings from social psychology and neuroscience that the impact of gifts is often unconscious, shaping action without a person's awareness. Here, we draw on traditional texts of Jewish law pertaining to the prohibition of taking a gift to illustrate recognition by the ancients of unconscious conflicts of interest, and their approach to dealing with the problem.

  5. Autopsy: Traditional Jewish laws and customs "Halacha".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Norman R; Goodman, Jeffrey L; Hofman, Walter I

    2011-09-01

    Judaism has many traditions, customs, rules, and laws, which relate to the proper and ethical disposition of a decedent when a Medical Examiner/ Coroner is involved. In almost all United States jurisdictions, statutes mandate the need to determine the cause and manner of death (Coroners' Act PA Pl. 323, num. 130, section 1237). This article is a review of some religious writings, legal precedents, and forensic authorities, which may help to assist the Medical Examiner/Coroner when confronted with a Jewish decedent. There can be flexibility as to the extent that such forensic studies can and should be performed. The final consent and interpretation of the rules, laws, traditions, and customs will rest with the courts and local rabbinic authority.

  6. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  7. Genetic screening in the Persian Jewish community: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Michael; Lopatequi, Jean; Portuges, Amin Riley; Quindipan, Cathy; Pariani, Mitchel; Salimpour-Davidov, Nilou; Rimoin, David L

    2010-10-01

    Israeli investigators have identified several relatively frequent disorders due to founder point mutations in Persian (Iranian) Jews, who, for nearly three centuries up to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, were completely isolated reproductively. Using a community-based model previously employed with Tay-Sachs disease prevention, we developed a pilot program for the Persian Jewish community of greater Los Angeles. We screened for mutations responsible for four relatively frequent autosomal recessive conditions in Persian Jews in which effective interventions are available for each: Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (butyryl cholinesterase deficiency); Congenital hypoaldosteronism (corticosterone methyl oxidase II); Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy (autoimmune regulatory element); and Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy. One thousand individuals volunteered. Mutations were assessed in saliva-derived DNA and were positive for 121/1000 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency; 92/1000 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy; 38/1000 corticosterone methyl oxidase II; and 37/1000 autoimmune regulatory element. Ten homozygous individuals (9 butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and 1 Hereditary Inclusion Body myopathy) and 10 "at-risk" couples (seven for butyryl cholinesterase deficiency and one each for the other three disorders) were identified. These frequencies are comparable with those in Israel and indicate an extraordinary level of inbreeding, as anticipated. A carefully planned effort can be delivered to an "increased risk" community if detailed attention is given to planning and organization. However, availability of an effective intervention for those found to be "at-risk" or possibly affected, is essential before embarking.

  8. 78 FR 26215 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... cast a shadow over Europe in the last century. It is what led Holocaust survivors and Jews trapped... Americans helped forge. More than 350 years have passed since Jewish refugees first made landfall on...

  9. The Jewish contribution to medicine Part I. Biblical and Talmudic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Jewish interest in medicine has a religious motivation with the preservation of health and life as ... cures with physicians as agents, Jews accepted the rational medicine of ancient Greece.

  10. Karl Marx, Civil Society And Political Community in the Context Of The Jewish Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus ENTERİLİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, debates and discourses developed over the concepts of civil society and political society are usually made through religious discourses or religious identities, and the individual emerges as a problem of emancipation. In his “Jewish Question”, which Marx wrote during his youthful period with Bauer’s thoughts, it is thought that the religious identities and rhetoric accompanied the present debate about the emergence of the emancipation of individuals in social and political contexts. It is thought that this problem, which emerged as the problem of individual liberation or citizenship, and which is regarded as a Jewish problem and emerged in different forms in different geographies, is the result of the fact that the religious identities can not be torn from the religious part of the world. Another reason for the lack of emancipation of the individual is the understanding of colonialism that is at the core of the capitalist system. In today’s society, it wants to keep up with the existence of religions or to keep up with the capitalist system and wants to influence the capitalist system with state policies by making itself active in the political arena. Judaism and Christianity in this context religion, the effects of the formation of capitalist society, will be discussed from the rhetoric of Marx and Bauer. The issue of the citizenship identity of the individual in this study will be addressed through the relationship between civil society and political society. There will also be mentioned here some other thinkers (Hegel, Feuerbach etc. that affect Marx’s ideas about civil society and political society, besides Marx and Bauer. Civil society, citizenship, liberation of religion, political emancipation, the effects of emancipation of individuals such as the state will be handled through the Jewish example. Prior to this assessment, a better understanding of the subject will be addressed to the civil society and state relationship

  11. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ... which had been particularly high in people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent, but Sandhoff disease ...

  12. Jewish Destiny in the Novels of Albert Cohen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bond

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The unity of Cohen's novels is due to their common theme of Jewish destiny. This is traced in the lives of the Valeureux and of Solal. The Valeureux are caricatures of the Jew, and demonstrate that Jewish identity and destiny are imposed by others. Their lives are precarious because Jews are always persecuted, a message also conveyed by other persecuted characters and by Cohen's direct interventions. But the Valeureux cling to their Jewishness and exalt their religion because it teaches the need to tame man's instincts. Solal seeks success in Gentile society, but learns it is a cruel society that exploits man's instincts. He is sickened by the hypocrisy of this society, by its frivolity and by the realisation that death makes all ambition pointless. Unable to escape his Jewish background, he defends Jewish victims of Hitler, and is ostracised. He now encounters the same fate as other Jews and becomes a victim of anti-Semitism. He finally commits suicide. Neither the Valeureux nor Solal have the solution to anti-Semitism, which Cohen sees only in the State of Israel. But, while seeing Israel as the solution, Cohen is interested mainly in Jews like the Valeureux, who have preserved the Jewish identity for centuries.

  13. Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 166 BC-73 AD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, William T

    2005-01-01

    .... The Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire (Maccabee Revolt) was a successful insurgency that gained the free practice of religion for the Jewish people and, ultimately, an independent Jewish State...

  14. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice.

  15. Inscribing Authority: Female Title Bearers in Jewish Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates representations of gender in the material culture of the ancient synagogue. The pertinent data are numerous dedicatory and funerary inscriptions linking individual Jews, men and women, with titles seemingly associated with leadership in Late Antique synagogues (ca. 200–600 CE. Bernadette Brooten’s influential 1982 monograph argued against the prevailing tendency to characterize these titles as indications of power, authority, and responsibility when associated with men but as meaningless flattery when applied to women. She suggests that synagogue titles denote power, authority and responsibility on all title bearers equally, both men and women. I question the continued utility of proffering female title-holders as enumerable examples of powerful women rescued from their forgotten place in history. Using theoretical insights developed by historians Elizabeth Clark and Gabrielle Spiegel, this paper will engage a comparative analysis with the work of Riet van Bremen and Saba Mahmood to develop new methods of conceptualizing women’s authority in early Jewish communities. I propose that viewing women’s synagogue titles as culturally constructed representations allows for a fruitful inquiry into how women’s titles were used by male-dominated synagogue communities in their self-articulation and public presentation of Judaism.

  16. [The importance of Jewish nursing in World War I as shown by the example of the Jewish nurses' home in Stuttgart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The history of Jewish nursing in World War I has so far not been central to medical history research. Rosa Bendit's war diary is still the only source available on the voluntary service Jewish nurses provided during World War I. Their number was small compared to that of nurses in general. Jewish nursing in Germany has hardly been researched. Jewish nurses, like their Christian colleagues, took on wartime nursing tasks voluntarily. This paper will focus on the experiences of the nurses who were sent to various locations in East and West by the Stuttgart Jewish Nurses' Home. Based on quotations from the war diary their position within the medical service will be described, compared and analyzed. The paper draws attention to special characteristics in the comparison ofJewish and Christian nurses and explores issues such as religious observance, religious discrimination, patriotism and differences in the evaluation of the nurses' work. A brief outline of the history of the Stuttgart Jewish Nurses' Home illustrates their working conditions. The Jewish nurses applied themselves with as much effort and devotion as their Christian counterparts. Although there were only few of them, the Jewish nurses managed to establish a recognized position for themselves within the medical service. The history of Jewish nursing in Stuttgart ended in 1941 when the Jewish Nurses' Home was dissolved by the Nazis and four nurses were murdered in concentration camps.

  17. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  18. Working with Russian-Jewish immigrants in end-of-life care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Russian-Jewish immigrant clients' attitudes toward death and dying in the context of today's health care system. Aspects of individuals' collective past--such as the traumatic history of their country of origin; cultural prohibitions against discussing pain, suffering, and death; and the lack of familiarity with palliative care that are likely to affect their decisions about end-of-life care--are discussed. Case vignettes are provided, with a discussion on how best to engage these clients in therapeutic work.

  19. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3 CFR 8379 - Proclamation 8379 of May 12, 2009. Jewish American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspiring and unifying narrative. Jewish Americans across the United States practice the faith and celebrate... the arts and sciences. Jewish American leaders have been essential to all branches and levels of...

  1. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  2. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and

  3. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new

  4. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  5. Freud's Jewish identity and psychoanalysis as a science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Arnold D

    2014-12-01

    Ludwik Fleck, the Polish philosopher of science, maintained that scientific discovery is influenced by social, political, historical, psychological, and personal factors. The determinants of Freud's Jewish identity are examined from this Fleckian perspective, as is the impact of that complex identity on his creation of psychoanalysis as a science. Three strands contributing to his Jewish identity are identified and explored: his commitment to the ideal of Bildung, the anti-Semitism of the times, and his "godlessness." Finally, the question is addressed of what it means that psychoanalysis was founded by a Jew. For Freud, psychoanalysis was a kind of liberation philosophy, an attempt to break free of his ethnic and religious inheritance. Yet it represented at the same time his ineradicable relationship with that inheritance. It encapsulated both the ambivalence of his Jewish identity and the creativity of his efforts to resolve it. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  6. [Identity and psychoanalysis: particularity and universality of the Jewish question according to Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemouni, J

    1998-11-01

    Although he was an atheist, Freud always affirmed his Jewish identity - without religious practice, but within a community commitment. He was proud of his Jewish origin and this helped him to face his hostile scientific environment and to develop his ideas despite the majority against him. What exactly is the role of his Jewish identity in his heritage?

  7. Physical stature of Jewish Dutchmen: an overview of three cases from the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    I investigated the changes in stature of Jewish and Non-Jewish conscripts in Amsterdam (northern Holland) and Groningen (Groningen) during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the middle of the nineteenth century the position of the Jewish population was rather weak from an economic

  8. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Olszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century The paper shows an image and functions of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish languages among Jewish Diaspora groups – the Balkan Sephardim and the Ashkenazim (the Ostjuden group – in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century until the outbreak of World War II. The study is based on the articles from Jewish weeklies, magazines and newspapers from pre-war Bosnia and Hercegovina and from Germany/Poland. It demonstrates a double-sided attitude towards the languages. On the one hand – an image of the languages as determinants of Jewish identity. Touching on this theme, the authors of the paper also try to highlight the images of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish and as determinants in a narrower sense – of the Sephardi/Ashkenazi identity in that period. On the other hand, the paper shows a tendency to treat the languages as “corrupted” and “dying” languages, and as factors slowing down the assimilation of Jewish groups and also as an obstacle for Zionist ideologies.   Języki jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpański jako wskaźniki tożsamości – na przykładzie żydowskich tekstów prasowych pierwszej połowy XX wieku Artykuł ukazuje obraz i funkcje języków jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego wśród żydowskich grup diasporowych – bałkańskich Sefardyjczyków oraz Aszkenazyjczyków (Ostjuden – w okresie od początków wieku XX do wybuchu II wojny światowej. Opis oparty jest na artykułach z żydowskich magazynów, tygodników, prasy codziennej z przedwojennej Bośni i Hercegowiny oraz Niemiec/Polski. Ukazany jest ambiwalentny stosunek wobec języków. Z jednej strony – obraz języków jako wskaźników żydowskiej tożsamości, jak również obraz jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego jako wskaźników tożsamości w węższym ujęciu: tożsamości sefardyjskiej/aszkenazyjskiej w omawianym okresie. Z drugiej

  9. On Jewish Being: Notes on Jean Améry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available That the question of identity takes on a sense of urgency, one with its own possibilities and impossibilities, the moment that identity is bound up with death, is hardy surprising. What follows are a series of reflections on the question of identity, Jewish identity, raised by Jean Améry’s remarkable text On the Necessity and Impossibility of Being a Jew (Über Zwang und Unmöglichkeit, Jude zu sein. Améry’s text was of course published in the wake of his own experiences as an active member of the resistance, as having been imprisoned in Auschwitz and as the victim of torture. Philosophically, rather than biographically, if there were a point of comparison, then it is to Levinas’s 1947 text Etre juif. Both pose the problem of how the question of Jewish identity, Jewish being, is to be understood in the wake of the Shoah. The meaning of the formulations - Jude zu sein, Jude sein, Etre juif, Jewish being – delimits the question to be addressed. This will be the case even if its point of address, namely what the question stages, is itself far from straightforward. Moreover, while what is demanded within that question is itself philosophically important, it is equally the case that the question of Jewish being is at work within both communities and synagogues across the Jewish world. As a consequence it is as much a philosophical question as it is one that has a structuring effect on how Jewish survival is conceived (and thus equally on what that survival is taken to be. How survival is understood is an issue that continues to exert its force. Who is the subject of survival? What is the subject of survival? Who or what has been subjected to the issue of survival? Survival is both more nuanced and complex than the brute fact of an afterlife. Jewish being as a present question – a question of the present - continues therefore.

  10. Unkosher Sex: Vulnerable Narcissism and Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro-Halberstam, Sara; Josephs, Lawrence

    2018-05-08

    Narcissistic men that engage in out-of-control extra-marital sex can be challenging to treat when their cultural background reinforces their misogyny and sense of entitlement, as it does among ultra-Orthodox Jewish men. A case study illustrates the challenges for a female clinician helping an unfaithful, married, narcissistic ultra-Orthodox Jewish male refrain from seeing prostitutes. He devalued the approach of his female therapist and the client had to learn that he was not entitled to women's love and respect, but that he needed to earn it by transcending his egocentrism and demonstrating empathy rather than contempt for women.

  11. Not what we expected: the Jewish Museum Berlin in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chametzky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An extensive existing literature studies Daniel Libeskind’s deconstructivist design for the Jewish Museum Berlin (JMB. This article focuses instead on the museum’s exhibits from 2001 to today, their evolution in response to visitor criticisms, and their discursive setting, all of which exhibit museum and marketing professionals’ attempts to deal with, and to an extent to overcome, the theory driven and Holocaust-laden architectural programme. The JMB, in practice, while including the Holocaust as one component of visitors’ experiences, instead emphasizes Jews and things Jewish as a positive component of a ‘postnational’ version of the German national narrative.

  12. What does it mean to ‘eat Jewishly?’: authorizing discourse in the Jewish food movement in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mulhern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of ‘eating Jewishly’ among participants at Shoresh Jewish Environmental Programs in Toronto, Canada. Participants at Shoresh construct and draw upon Jewish tradition in order to resolve gaps between the is and the ought of the conventional food system, and to a lesser extent, the narrower food system of kashrut. ‘Eating Jewishly’ re-positions religious orthodoxy as one in a set of authorizing discourses, subsuming all Jewish eating acts under one rubric. ‘Eating Jewishly’ thus departs from standard narratives of Jewish eating as either eating kosher, or eating traditional Jewish foods. I use a theory of authorizing discourse to show the conditions of possibility through which Shoresh develops their intervention as Jewish. I conclude that such authorization practices are a key form of productive constraint in the formation of Shoresh’s lived religion, and in the formation of religion as a framework for social good.

  13. Liberating the Temple Mount: apocalyptic tendencies among Jewish temple activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leppäkari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Every now and then instances of violence are played out at the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram-esh-sharif. Some of the cases are referred to as results of the so-called ‘Jerusalem syndrome’, incidents when individuals’ manifestations of pre-existing psychopathology culminate in violent actions. Israeli psychiatrists and others have treated such incidents as examples of when peoples’ expectations of a heavenly Jerusalem collide with the very earthly reality in the city. For some people, such encounters may create anxiety that may threaten the victim’s very sanity. In such situations, an apocalyptic mission may become the only way for them to cope with the situation at hand. But the Temple Mount does not only attract lone-acting individuals, it also attracts organized groups who refer to the very spot as an important identity marker. In this article, the author draws on her field research material and interviews with Jewish Third Temple activists in Jerusalem collected on and off between 1998 and 2004. Here Yehuda Etzion’s, Gershon Salomon’s and Yoel Lerner’s theology and activities are studied in light of apocalyptic representations, and how these are expressed in relation to religious longing for the Third Temple in the light of the Gaza withdrawal. Not all those who are engaged in endtime scenarios act upon their visions. In Jerusalem, there have been, and still are, several religious-political groups that more or less ritually perambulate the Temple Mount area.

  14. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  15. Goeie Ouwe Gabbers: Listening to 'Jewishness' in Multicultural Mokum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raschig, M.

    2012-01-01

    This interview-based ethnography focuses on the Yiddish words ‘hidden’ and heard in the Amsterdam Dutch dialect and their everyday salience to certain speakers/listeners in the context of national integration politics. This population of primarily retired, secular or non-Jewish Dutch Amsterdammers

  16. The Effects of Denomination on Religious Socialization for Jewish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…

  17. Patriotism and Parochialism: Why Teach American Jewish History, and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on these questions: why is American Jewish history worthy of being "taught"? And what purpose should such teaching serve? Philosophical questions such as these are important because topics of study are not self-justifying, and asking the questions--questions that must be pursued through conceptual inquiry,…

  18. 75 FR 25099 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... was affixed to the completed statue, inscribed with her words: ``Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free....'' These poignant words still speak to us today, reminding us... pogroms and the Holocaust. As they have immeasurably enriched our national culture, Jewish Americans have...

  19. Discovering Jewish Studies Collections in Academic Libraries: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Izabella

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. colleges and universities offering non-sectarian educational programs in Jewish Studies rely on the support of their academic libraries for research materials and library services. For college libraries which use Library of Congress Classification scheme, it is a common practice to integrate "studies" resources into their…

  20. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  1. Jewish philosophy and political theory to the shoah, some aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greloff Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many researchers, the new categorical imperative by philosopher Theodor Adorno about thinking and acting in the way so that Auschwitz is never repeated, has become the new starting point for rethinking the rules of practicing the humanities. In the article, I present the postwar history of Jewish thought that has been manifested in the discourse about the Shoah.

  2. A Movie Case Study of Anemic Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2011-01-01

    "Keeping Up with the Steins" (2006) is the first Hollywood film to focus on the Bar Mitzvah ceremony in its family, congregational, and Jewish community context. The film demonstrates how popular culture reflects community values, but may also shape them. The hero is alienated both from the synagogue service and his mega-Bar Mitzvah party. In line…

  3. Holocaust Education in Jewish Schools in Israel: Goals, Dilemmas, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown the Holocaust to be the primary component of Jewish identity (Farago in Yahadut Zmanenu 5:259-285, 1989; Gross in Influence of the trip to Poland within the framework of the Ministry of Education on the working through of the Holocaust. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 2000; "Herman in Jewish…

  4. Jewish Holocaust Histories and the Work of Chronological Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jordana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways that, in Holocaust education in Jewish schools in Melbourne and New York at the beginning of the 21st century, knowledge of the Holocaust is transferred to students in chronological form. It begins by asking: What work do chronological narratives do within the Holocaust historical narratives offered within Jewish…

  5. Between Tikkun Olam and Self-Defense: Young Jewish Americans Debate the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Ben Hagai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined processes associated with ingroup members’ break from their ingroup and solidarity with the outgroup. We explored these processes by observing the current dramatic social change in which a growing number of young Jewish Americans have come to reject Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. We conducted a yearlong participant observation and in-depth interviews with 27 Jewish American college students involved in Israel advocacy on a college campus. Findings suggest that Jewish Americans entering the Jewish community in college came to learn about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through a lens of Jewish vulnerability. A bill proposed by Palestinian solidarity organizations to divest from companies associated with Israel (part of the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions or BDS movement was also interpreted through the lens of Israel's vulnerability. As the college’s Student Union debated the bill, a schism emerged in the Jewish community. Some Jewish students who had a strong sense of their Jewish identity and grounded their Judaism in principles of social justice exhibited a greater openness to the Palestinian narrative of the conflict. Understanding of Palestinian dispossession was associated with the rejection of the mainstream Jewish establishment’s unconditional support of Israel. Moreover, dissenting Jewish students were concerned that others in the campus community would perceive them as denying the demands of people of color. We discuss our observations of the process of social change in relation to social science theories on narrative acknowledgment and collective action.

  6. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Tay-Sachs disease: high gene frequency in a non-Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T E; Chase, G A; Kaback, M M; Kumor, K; McKusick, V A

    1975-01-01

    A non-Amish "Pennsylvania Dutch" semi-isolate was found to have a high frequency of Tay-Sachs gene. This high frequency could be ascribed to founder effect and may represent, in microcosm, how this mechanism could have produced the high gene frequency among Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:803011

  8. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties.

  9. Satisfaction of Jewish and Arab teachers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit

    2005-02-01

    The author investigated the differences between Jewish Israeli and Arab Israeli teachers in their satisfaction with their work. Initially, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether there were demographic attributes (such as age, gender, and education) that differentiated between the two groups of teachers. Later, the author added two variables, teachers' perceptions of their occupation and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership styles, to the analysis to examine their contribution to the level of satisfaction for each group. Regression analyses revealed the significant power of the two added variables in predicting teacher satisfaction among both Jewish and Arab Israeli teachers. The author discussed implications of the findings in relation to principals' roles and teachers' perceptions.

  10. Reflections on Palliative Care from the Jewish and Islamic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual care is a vital part of holistic patient care. Awareness of common patient beliefs will facilitate discussions about spirituality. Such conversations are inherently good for the patient, deepen the caring staff-patient-family relationship, and enhance understanding of how beliefs influence care decisions. All healthcare providers are likely to encounter Muslim patients, yet many lack basic knowledge of the Muslim faith and of the applications of Islamic teachings to palliative care. Similarly, some of the concepts underlying positive Jewish approaches to palliative care are not well known. We outline Jewish and Islamic attitudes toward suffering, treatment, and the end of life. We discuss our religions' approaches to treatments deemed unnecessary by medical staff, and consider some of the cultural reasons that patients and family members might object to palliative care, concluding with specific suggestions for the medical team.

  11. Contemporary Anglo-Jewish community leadership: coping with multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, Ben; Kahn-Harris, Keith

    2012-03-01

    In this article, drawing on qualitative interviews and documentary analysis, we argue that the Jewish community in Britain has undergone a fundamental shift since 1990 from a 'strategy of security', a strategy of communal leadership based on emphasizing the secure British citizenship and belonging of the UK's Jews, to a 'strategy of insecurity', where the communal leadership instead stresses an excess of security among Anglo-Jewry. We demonstrate this based on two case studies: of the Jewish renewal movement in the 1990s and the 'new antisemitism' phenomenon of the 2000s. We conclude that this shift is tied to the shift from a monocultural Britain to an officially multicultural one, and that therefore there are lessons that can be taken from it for the study of British and other multiculturalisms. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  12. Private Narratives and Collective Problems: Jewish Religion and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schenquer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the affiliation to the liberal religious branch (non-orthodox called Conservative Judaism of a significant number of Jewish-Argentine institutions during the dictatorial period (1976-1983. Unlike researches focused on the branch itself, here it is investigated the receivers —the members of Jewish institutions— seeking to know the reasons that approached them to the rituals and other proposals of Conservative Judaism. Therefore, it is studied —mainly but not uniquely— a series of letters that such receivers sent to Latin American Rabbinical Seminary, promoter of this religious branch. This documentation, peculiar and unusual, enables inquire the experiences repeated in various institutions and simultaneously allows recognizing the epochal tracks. 

  13. Not by bread alone: Lev Vygotsky's Jewish writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavershneva, Ekaterina; van der Veer, René

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of both published and unpublished manuscripts written from 1914 to 1917, this article gives an overview of Lev Vygotsky's early ideas. It turns out that Vygotsky was very much involved in issues of Jewish culture and politics. Rather surprisingly, the young Vygotsky rejected all contemporary ideas to save the Jewish people from discrimination and persecution by creating an autonomous state in Palestine or elsewhere. Instead, until well into 1917, Vygotsky proposed the rather traditional option of strengthening the spiritual roots of the Jews by returning to the religious writings. Socialism was rejected, because it merely envisioned the compulsory redistribution of material goods and 'man lives not by bread alone'. It was only after the October Revolution that Vygotsky switched from arguments in favour of the religious faith in the Kingship of God to the communist belief in a Radiant Future.

  14. Jewish Writers in Contemporary Germany: The Dead Author Speaks

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    Sander L. Gilman

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The question I wish to address in this essay is really quite simple: Given the fact that there are "Jews" who seem to play a major role in contemporary German "Kultur" (at least that narrower definition of culture, meaning the production of cultural artifacts, such as books—a field which, at least for Englemann, was one of the certain indicators of a Jewish component in prewar German culture—what happened to these "Jews" (or at least the category of the "Jewish writer" in postwar discussions of culture? Or more simply: who lulled the remaining Jews in contemporary German culture and why? Why is it not possible to speak about "German-Jews" in the contemporary criticism about German culture? And, more to the point, what is the impact of this denial on those who (quite often ambivalently see (or have been forced to see themselves as "Germans" and "Jews," but not as both simultaneously.

  15. The care of patients with dementia: a modern Jewish ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan B; Clarfield, A Mark; Glick, Shimon

    2005-05-01

    Patients with dementia and their families can face many difficult and agonizing ethical dilemmas over the course of the illness. An awareness of the Jewish ethical response to some of these issues can help clinicians in treating patients of the Jewish faith and also serve as an example of how one ethical system addresses these questions. The Jewish response is grounded in a profound respect and value for human life in all its forms and man's responsibility to preserve it, but Judaism rejects unproven therapies and recognizes the limitations of modern medicine. Jewish law also codifies normative obligations that children have toward their elderly parents. With these principles in the forefront, this article analyzes a Jewish ethical response to various problems in the care of the demented patient such as truth telling, transfer to a nursing home, artificial nutrition, and end-of-life care, taking into account modern concepts of the doctor-patient relationship and ancient Jewish tradition.

  16. The Outsider Within: Sense of Self in Jewish Feminist Women

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Phyllis A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Both Judaism and feminism encompass a wide range of practices and beliefs. Both are often misunderstood in popular media and educational settings. Outcomes of these misrepresentations can vary from social slights to dangerous anti-semitic and sexist behaviors, all of which have potential of interfering with development among Jewish and feminist people. Because religion, culture, and ideology contribute to adult identity in important ways, and because Judaism and feminism are poorly unders...

  17. ERG and OCT findings of a patient with a clinical diagnosis of occult macular dystrophy in a patient of Ashkenazi Jewish descent associated with a novel mutation in the gene encoding RP1L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffra, Norman; Seidman, Carly Jane; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Tsang, Stephen H

    2017-05-04

    A 57-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes presented for consultation with a several year history of slowly progressive vision loss in both eyes, which continued to deteriorate over 7 years of follow-up. Multimodal imaging was performed and was significant for the following: on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, a gap lesion was present in the ellipsoid layer, beneath the umbo, as well as subtle macular changes on auto fluorescence imaging. Multifocal electroretinography was performed and was abnormal, and a clinical diagnosis of occult macular dystrophy was made. The patient was subsequently evaluated with genetic testing that revealed a novel p.P73S:c 217C>T nonsense mutation within the retinitis pigmentosa 1-like-1 (RP1L1) gene. The clinical significance of the identified variation will require further investigation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  19. Nonaltruistic kidney donations in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2003-01-27

    In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.

  20. From Egypt to Umbria: Jewish Women and Property in the Medieval Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the financial activities of medieval Jewish women in Italy and the Mediterranean. Contrary to Jewish legal tradition, which curtailed women’s financial autonomy, by the later Middle Ages communities across the region increasingly allowed women to manage their own dotal property, inherit property from a variety of sources, and engage in loan banking. An examination of the historical developments of some Jewish communities in Egypt, Spain, and central Italy suggests that t...

  1. Alcohol and Substance Use in the Jewish Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of addictions in the Jewish community is becoming increasingly prevalent, and yet, a gap exists in the literature regarding addictions in this community. Knowledge about the prevalence of addictions within Jewish communities is limited; some believe that Jews cannot be affected by addictions. To address this gap, a pilot study was conducted to gather preliminary evidence relating to addictions and substance use in the Jewish community. Results indicate that a significant portion of the Jewish community knows someone affected by an addiction and that over 20% have a family history of addiction. Future research needs are discussed.

  2. Sacred practices in highly religious families: Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Loren

    2004-06-01

    Quantitative research examining linkages between family relationships and religious experience has increased substantially in recent years. However, related qualitative research, including research that examines the processes and meanings behind recurring religion-family correlations, remains scant. To address this paucity, a racially diverse sample (N = 24) of married, highly religious Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim parents of school-aged children were interviewed regarding the importance of religious family interactions, rituals, and practices in their families. Mothers and fathers discussed several religious practices that were meaningful to them and explained why these practices were meaningful. Parents also identified costs and challenges associated with these practices. Interview data are presented in connection with three themes: (1) "practicing [and parenting] what you preach," (2) religious practices, family connection, and family communion, and (3) costs of family religious practices. The importance of family clinicians and researchers attending to the influence of religious practice in the lives of highly religious individuals and families is discussed.

  3. Music and the Re-creation of Identity in Imagined Iberian Jewish Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen, Judith R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In both Spain and Portugal, over the past several years, more and more historically Jewish sites have been identified, discovered and promoted, both academically and for tourism. In a few cases this has accompanied individual Identification with Judaism or, in one Portuguese town, a significant group. More often, it has led to newly-created festivals of imagined Jewish communities. This article uses approaches from the anthropology of tourism to examine issues such as authenticity, appropriation and identity markers. More specifically, it focuses on the function of Sephardic music in recently developed festivals of two Camino de Sefarad towns, Ribadavia (Galicia and Hervás (Extremadura.Tanto en España como en Portugal, en las décadas de los 80 y 90, se identifican cada vez más restos y vestigios de la presencia de los judíos, y se ha hecho una promoción importante académica y turística de éstos. En algunos casos, esa identificación ha ido junto con una identificación individual con el judaísmo contemporáneo; en el caso de un pueblo portugués, una comunidad entera. Sin embargo, un resultado más visible ha sido la creación de festivales de comunidades judías «imaginadas». Ese artículo utiliza la antropología del turismo para examinar asuntos de autenticidad, apropiación e indicadores de identidad. Concretamente, enfoca el uso y la función de la música sefardí en festivales de creación reciente en dos pueblos del Camino de Sefarad: Ribadavia (Galicia y Hervás (Extremadura.

  4. Grand Illusion? The Phenomenon of Jewish Life in Poland after the Holocaust in Lower Silesia

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    Agnieszka Ilwicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish Life in Poland inLower Silesia began with the end of World War II. Survivors from the local concentration camp in Gross Rosen created the first Jewish committee and, with German Jewish survivors, started a new chapter in the post war history of Lower Silesia. The fact that only 10% of the Jews from the whole population overcame the extermination should be borne in mind. There is a related branch of research that seeks to determine how long Jewish life continued in Europe, where and under what conditions. In the last few years, we have become aware of the extent to which Jews actually built new possibilities after World War II in Poland, 1945–1968. In fact, the prevailing popular image of post–war Jewry is a simplistic one that divides the Jewish population into basic groups: the assimilated Jews of Russia; the “Jewish Jews” of Poland and other western areas, annexed to the Soviet Union, who sought to preserve at least some aspects of Yiddishkayt (Jewishness; and the traditional Jews, who remained devout. In the period of 1945–1950, the Jews created the most important center of Jewish Life in Europe, in terms of culture, industry, education and intellectual life. A stabilization period of the Jewish settlement began with the autumn of 1946. The softening of emigration rules and the closure of the Polish borders in the winter of 1947 helped Jews fully concentrate on the Jewish life in Poland. At that time, political, social, economic and cultural activities continued to be carried out on a large scale. In 1946, 16,960 Jews were registered in Wrocław. With the change of the policy towards the Jewish community by the communist government of Poland, the Jewish settlement in Wrocław slowed down and eventually, at the beginning of the 70’s, Jewish life in the Lower Silesia disappeared from the cultural map of the local landscapes. Even though some of the Jewish settlers remained in the Lower Silesia to continue Jewish life in

  5. Sarah was a butch: sexual identity, gender practices, and Sarah's place as mother in the Jewish National Pantheon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Henriette Dahan

    2012-01-01

    Three fields of discourse regarding a masculine-like woman connect at a point that the queer field calls intersex, medical practice calls a sexual disorder, and rabbinic literature terms aylonit. The queer discursive field focuses on the freedom to choose an identity, but not the freedom from choosing one. The medical field focuses on sexual practice as the source of determining "normal" sexuality. In the discursive field of Jewish law there are no demands, because the Halakhic authority determines gender identity on behalf of the individual, maintaining ambiguity. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  6. Building a Community of Young Leaders: Experiential Learning in Jewish Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J.; Thomas, Margaret M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether more frequent participation in Jewish activist learning events is associated with higher levels of engagement in social justice-related activities and conceptions of Jewish identity. The study design was cross-sectional and comparative. An online survey was completed by 165 participants in an activist learning program.…

  7. The emerging Jewish views of the messiahship of Jesus and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-24

    Aug 24, 2015 ... America. These credentials place him fully within both the mainstream of Jewish thought, and the highest level of scholarship. His book is a major challenge to the traditional. Jewish understanding of monotheism, as expressed in the opening statement: 'The God of the Hebrew Bible has a body, this must ...

  8. Ready to Lead? A Look into Jewish Religious School Principal Leadership and Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisben, Eran

    2018-01-01

    Although most Jewish supplementary religious school principals have graduated from various academic training programs, there are no data about how these programs sufficiently prepare educational leaders. This study examined the essential leadership and management skills of effective Jewish religious school leaders, and assessed their preparation…

  9. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  10. The Remembrance of World War One and the Austrian Federation of Jewish War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Lamprecht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses discourses and activities of memory of the Austrian “Federation of Jewish War Veterans” (Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten/BJF, based primarily on the analysis of the journal “Jewish Front” (Jüdische Front as well as on archival sources. A remarkable increase in anti-Semitic activities as well as acts of violence committed by the National Socialists led former Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army to found the BJF in 1932. The aim of the BJF was to defend the Austrian Jewry against anti-Semitic accusations as well as to strengthen their Jewish self-consciousness by focusing on the remembrance of the Jewish military service during the Great War and an idealized and exaggerated war experience. To reach their objectives, the BJF was organized hierarchically and militarily. The members wore uniforms, and the BJF organized military inspections, spread propaganda via the journal “Jewish Front” and initiated the erection of Jewish war memorials in several Austrian cities. Due to the fact that the BJF wanted to unify the Austrian Jewry under its leadership, it claimed to be above all party lines and propagandized a common Austrian Jewish identity.

  11. Introducing a Brief Measure of Cultural and Religious Identification in American Jewish Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Friedman, Michelle L.; Miller, Matthew J.; Ellis, Michael V.; Friedlander, Lee K.; Mikhaylov, Vadim G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted 3 studies to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the American Jewish Identity Scales (AJIS), a brief self-report measure that assesses cultural identification and religious identification. Study 1 assessed the content validity of the item pool using an expert panel. In Study 2, 1,884 Jewish adults completed…

  12. Student and Teacher Responses to Prayer at a Modern Orthodox Jewish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Devra

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the attitudes of students and teachers to prayer at an American Modern Orthodox Jewish high school. Relevant data, based on observation and interviews, emerged from a larger study of the school's Jewish and secular worlds. A significant gap in responses became apparent. Students viewed prayer as a challenge to their autonomy,…

  13. Attitudes toward Dating Violence among Jewish and Arab Youth in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the attitudes toward dating violence among Jewish and Arab male and female adolescents in Israel. The random sample consisted of 1,357 participants from among 9th to 12th grade pupils enrolled in eight Arab and eight Jewish junior and senior high schools. The study assessed attitudes toward…

  14. Teachers' Study Guide: The American Jewish Writer. The Image of the Jew in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersand, Joseph; Zara, Louis

    This guide was prepared to give an historical as well as a contemporary perspective on American Jewish authors and their writings. An introductory section presents information on such authors as Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, and Philip Roth; on the unique problems which Jewish writers have encountered in America; and on the breadth of current…

  15. Gender and Love in Jewish Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Luce Irigaray’s call for infinite femininity and Judith Butler’s perspective on subversion from within have inspired scholars and lay people alike within Judaism to find precedence in religious texts for tolerance of atypical manifestations of love and gender in order to enable such manifestations...... outside a patriarchal, bipolar gender taxonomy. Not disputing the immense value of such subversion, this article reflects on the risk implied in subversive uses of scripture by assessing the extent to which scriptural discourse still sanctions discursive violence in late modernity, directed at individuals...... who do not conform to normative gender and love. The first part of the article analyses biblical and rabbinical, including mystical, texts that portray human love of God and God’s love of humans in ways that are seemingly tolerant toward deviation from normative gender and love. As part...

  16. Designing a Curriculum Model for the Teaching of the Bible in UK Jewish Secondary Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process of designing a curriculum model for Bible teaching in UK Jewish secondary schools. This model was designed over the period 2008-2010 by a team of curriculum specialists from the Jewish Curriculum Partnership UK in collaboration with a group of teachers from Jewish secondary schools. The paper first outlines the…

  17. Education across the Divide: Shared Learning of Separate Jewish and Arab Schools in a Mixed City in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payes, Shany

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the impact of contact-based educational encounter strategies of shared learning on Jewish-Arab relations in Israel. It analyses a programme of education for shared life that takes place in a mixed (75% Jewish/25% Arab) city at the centre of Israel since 2012. The programme aims to mitigate Jewish-Arab relations in the city…

  18. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    András Kovács

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accep...

  19. [Differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Jewish and Bedouin patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaev, Elena; Sagy, Iftach; Zaid, Eed Abu; Nevzorov, Roman; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Zeller, Lior; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the Jewish and Bedouin populations. A retrospective analysis was conducted of hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis in adult patients between 2003 and 2010. The clinical and biochemical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis patients of Jewish origin were compared with those of Bedouin origin. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The study cohort included 220 consecutive patients for whom the admission diagnosis was diabetic ketoacidosis. The cohort was categorized according to Jewish and Bedouin origin as follows: 177 (80.5%) Jewish and 43 (19.5%) Bedouin patients. The Jewish patients were significantly older than the Bedouin patients (45.8 +/- 18.9 vs. 32.9 +/- 15.3, p ventilation and bed-ridden state were independent predictors of 30-day mortality in both ethnic groups.

  20. Sacred Torrents in Modernity: German Jewish Philosophers and the Legacy of Secularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer Nils

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ongoing interaction between the Jewish sacred past and its modern interpreters. Jewish thinkers from the eighteenth century reclaimed these ideals instead of dismissing them. Sacred traditions and modern secular thought existed in their mutual constitutive interdependence and not in opposition. When the optimism in historical progress and faith in reason unraveled in the fin de siècle, it engendered a new critical response by Jewish historians and philosophers of the twentieth century. These critical voices emerged within the fault lines of nineteenth and early twentieth century Jewish anti-historicist responses. What separated twentieth-century Jewish thinkers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Gershom Scholem from their nineteenth-century forerunners was not their embrace of religion but their critical stance toward reason and their crumbling faith in historical progress.

  1. Writings from the Margins: German-Jewish Women Poets from the Bukovina

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    Amy Colin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging at the crossroads of heterogeneous languages and cultures, German-Jewish women's poetry from the Bukovina displays the characteristics of its fascinating multilingual contextuality, yet it also bears the stigma of a double marginalization, for its representatives became time and again targets of both anti-Semitic attacks as well as gender discrimination. The present essay explores the untiring struggles of German-Jewish women authors from the Bokovina for acceptance within the Jewish and non-Jewish community. It analyzes their attempts to cope with social barriers, prejudices, and their difficult situation as both women and Jews. The essay also sets their poetry against the background of their multilingual contextuality. It is the Bukovinian biotope, where Ruthenians, Romanians, Germans, Jews, Armenians, Magyars, Poles, Lipovanes, and Hutsuls peacefully coexisted for many centuries, producing a variegated Romanian, Ruthenian, Austro-German, German-Jewish, and Yiddish literature as well as poets who were fluent in several languages.

  2. March of the living, a holocaust educational tour: effect on adolescent Jewish identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Pham, Phung; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2013-12-01

    March of the Living (MOTL) is a worldwide two-week trip for high school seniors to learn about the Holocaust by traveling to sites of concentration/death camps and Jewish historical sites in Poland and Israel. The mission statement of MOTL International states that participants will be able to "bolster their Jewish identity by acquainting them with the rich Jewish heritage in pre-war Eastern Europe." However, this claim has never been studied quantitatively. Therefore, 152 adolescents who participated in MOTL voluntarily completed an initial background questionnaire, a Jewish Identity Survey and a Global Domains Survey pre-MOTL, end-Poland and end-Israel. Results suggest that Jewish identity did not substantially increase overall or from one time period to the next.

  3. Shyness and social phobia in Israeli Jewish vs Arab students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sarel, Amiram; Avital, Avi; Abdo, Basheer; Joubran, Samia; Ram, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been repeatedly shown to be very prevalent in the Western society with prevalence rates of 10% or above. However, very few studies have been performed in the Middle East and in Arab countries. A total of 300 Israeli students participated in our study and were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Cheek and Buss Shyness Questionnaire (CBSQ), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A total of 153 Jewish and 147 Arab students participated in the survey. Social anxiety disorder was found in 12.33% of the sample, according to the LSAS cutoff score of more than 60. The 2 subsamples had similar LSAS and CBSQ scores and similar SAD-positive rates (LSAS >60). Females had higher scores on the LSAS, as were those without a spouse and those who had been in psychological treatment. Based on a regression analysis, the significant predictors of the LSAS score were the CBSQ score and female sex. A very high correlation was found between the LSAS and the CBSQ scores. Although our sample is not representative of the whole Israeli population, we conclude that SAD and shyness were similarly prevalent in Jewish and Arab students in Israel. Social anxiety disorder scores were higher among females, those without a spouse, and those who received psychological treatment. Further studies on the clinical and cultural characteristics of SAD in Israeli subcultures would add to the growing body of knowledge on SAD in various cultures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  5. Sexual harassment in Jewish and Arab public schools in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Anat; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2002-02-01

    Current empirical literature on sexual harassment in schools is mostly based on nonrepresentative samples of middle-class high-school Caucasian female students. Thus the scope of research regarding gender, age, and cultural differences is very limited. This article reports on findings on sexual harassment in Jewish and Arab schools in Israel with regard to gender, age, and cultural differences. The study is part of the first national survey on school violence in Israel. The representative sample includes 10,400 students in grades 7 through 11 attending public schools in Israel. Students were asked to report whether they were victims of specific acts of sexual harassment in school during the month before the survey. Overall, 29.1% of the students were victims of at least one act of harassment. The more common acts were to show offensive pictures or to send obscene letters, to take off or to try to take off part of the student's clothing, and to try to kiss a student. The most vulnerable groups are the Arab boys and 8th grade students. Report rates were the lowest among Arab girls. Sexual harassment is prevalent in Israeli schools. The pattern of victimization is different for boys and girls and for students in Jewish and Arab schools. These patterns are a complex phenomenon that must be considered in the intervention and policy measures addressing sexual harassment at school.

  6. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sody A. Naimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  7. Positioning oneself and being positioned in the 'community': an essay on Jewish ethnography as a 'Jew-ish' ethnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kasstan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reflexive and anthropological contribution to the current volume of Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis. It reflects on the experience of conducting anthropological work at home – or across homes – I considered this research to be an experience of ‘Jewish ethnog-raphy’ as a Jewish ethnographer. However, my own ‘Jew-ish’ background meant that I had become ‘neither- fish nor fowl’ within the field-site, which proved both to be an obstacle to, and an opportunity for, conducting the research. It utilises this experience to challenge the conceptual use of the term ‘community’, which encapsulates considerable diversity but obscures the nuanced differences that can pervade a social body. These reflections demonstrate how positionality can be used as a tool for postgraduate students to untangle the complexities of conducting ethnographic research at ‘home’ or in relation to religious minority groups, where significant intra-group differences of practice and worldviews exist, but may otherwise be concealed by the image of ‘community’.

  8. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  9. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  10. Ritual encounters of the queer kind: a political analysis of jewish lesbian ritual innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Marla

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Jewish feminist and queer engagement in Jewish life and Judaism are transforming the practices and foundational orientations of traditional modes. Jewish feminist, queer ritual innovation in particular is inspired by an array of secular and radical critical theories as much as it is by the historic concrete experiences of a diversity of Jews in different Jewish communities. It is important to hold all of us who are involved in religious ritual innovation responsible to the knowledges we have developed and learned in critical theory or we risk, even with the best of intentions and creativity, re-inscribing some of the very problems of traditional ontological norms that we might have originally sought to disrupt and subvert. This article looks specifically at examples of new "coming out" rituals for Jewish queers explored over time in the Jewish Queer Think Tank: honoring them as well as offering tools from secular critical theory to assist our work in keeping them accountable to our aspirations to both love and fundamentally transform Jewishness. Here I redefine the function of religious ritual itself in political terms as an identity-producing performance. As such I utilize social constructionist queer theories (i.e., Shane Phelan and Judith Butler), anarchists (i.e., Emma Goldman), and those involved in radical theatre (i.e., Augusto Boal) to articulate the revolutionary potential of ritual innovation.

  11. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  12. Self-Assertion in the Public Sphere: The Jewish Press on the Eve of Legal Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter J. Hecht

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jews like Adolf Fischhof and Ludwig August Frankl were prominent participants in the revolution of 1848. Their speeches, poems, and portraits circulated in Vienna and throughout the Empire. With the suppression of the revolution, most of these prominent Jews had to either leave Vienna or retreat to the private sphere. Only in the late 1850s did Jews regain their public presence, starting with the opening of the Leopoldstaedter Tempel in 1858 and the building of the Ringstrasse from 1860 onwards. Many Jews hoped that the new liberal era would grant them civil rights and legal emancipation. Jewish intellectuals and journalists supported this struggle from within and outside the growing Jewish community. An important weapon in their struggle were Jewish newspapers. These newspapers not only provided information, but also served as mouthpieces for different Jewish movements. They featured biographies with portraits (in words and images of distinguished Jewish leaders (mostly men and a few women, which were supposed to present the social achievements of a certain group within Jewish society to a broader audience. In fact, these portraits served as a form of self-assertion for the publisher as well as for the audience. It projected the message that Jews not only merited emancipation, but also struggled for it on various levels. The paper therefore addresses questions of biography and the (Jewish identity these portraits at once reflected and shaped.

  13. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years.

  14. Eve in the renegade city: elite Jewish women’s philanthropy in Chicago, 1890–1900

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the philanthropic organisations and projects with which elite Jewish women in Chicago were concerned during the years 1890–1900. It concentrates on the National Council of Jewish Women, which was founded by a group of Chicago women in 1893 after the Jewish Women’s Congress at the World’s Columbian Exposition. The NCJW was this community’s highest-profile philanthropic organisation, bringing them local, national and international attention.The 1890s were a turbulent decade...

  15. The Jewish heritage of Ludwig Wittgenstein: its influence on his life and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Henry; Prince, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses two aspects of Wittgenstein's Jewish heritage. First, we try to show that Wittgenstein was acutely aware of his own Jewish heritage and especially concerned about its potential influence on his work. Second, we suggest that the form of his work, specifically, his method of inquiry and the peculiar literary character of his work, bear a striking resemblance to that of Hebrew Talmud. Like other assimilated Jews of Central Europe, Wittgenstein may have been directly or indirectly exposed to Hebraic culture and Talmudic logic. An understanding of Wittgenstein's Jewish heritage provides an important and neglected perspective on his work.

  16. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  17. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M

    2016-04-01

    The first modern dental institutes were established in Europe and in the USA during the 1840s. At that period there wasn't a single qualified doctor in Palestine, not to mention a professional dentist. A couple of decades later, as the number of Christian pilgrims grew, some modern hospitals were established and a few non-Jewish dentists opened their clinics in Jerusalem, which was then and in the following decades, the region's largest city. In Europe, dentistry became a popular profession among Jews in general and among Jewish women in particular. The first Jewish dentist settled in Jerusalem in the mid-1880s. Other dentists were slow to arrive and their number began to grow only after the turn of the 20th century. Their professional education varied from those who were trained as apprentices by other dentists to those which studied a couple of years in an academic dental school. The devastation caused by WWI prompted American-Zionist organizations to send a special medical unit to Palestine in 1918. Along medical supplies it also brought a small group of doctors and dentists. The two American dentists that decided to remain in Palestine took upon themselves to spread their medical and scientific knowledge. They also organized the dentists, whose number grew considerably during the 1920s, and called the authorities to regulate the dental profession. In 1926 the British authorities issued a decree regulating all medical professions. It demanded that dental practitioners will be licensed after proving their previous studies and professional knowledge. In 1931, local dentists' organizations decided to establish the Palestine Dental Association. Five years later it was accepted as a member by the International Dental Federation (FDI) and was recognized by the local authorities. Since the 1930s, prominent Jewish dentists from abroad were invited to come to Palestine to lecture, and local dentists participated in international conferences. This prompted the first

  18. Surrogate motherhood revisited: maternal identity from a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan

    2011-12-01

    A new bill regulating ovum donation in Israel is set to pass its second and third readings in the Israel Parliament in the upcoming months. The new law will expand the number of locally donated ova available, as previously Israeli women were prohibited from donating eggs unless they were undergoing fertility treatment. Parallel to this legislative initiative, there has been a change in rabbinical thinking over who is considered the mother in a case of surrogacy. Previously, the consensus has been that the birth mother is to be considered the mother, but over the last few years there has been a change in thinking and the genetic mother is now considered the mother. The purpose of this paper is to present the ethical and legal issues from a Jewish perspective in determining maternal identity. The dilemma also demonstrates some of the difficulties in applying Talmudic law to modern problems and the various methodologies used to overcome these issues.

  19. The traditionalist Jewish physician and modern biomedical ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1983-08-01

    Recent advances in biomedical technology and therapeutic procedures have generated a moral crisis in modern medicine. The vast strides made in medical science and technology have created options which only a few decades earlier would have been relegated to the realm of science fiction. Man, to a significant degree, now has the ability to exercise control not only over the ravages of disease but even over the very processes of life and death. With the unfolding of new discoveries and techniques, the scientific and intellectual communities have developed a keen awareness of the ethical issues which arise out of man's enhanced ability to control his destiny. In response to the concern for questions of this nature, there has emerged the rapidly developing field of bioethics. Jews, to whom all such questions are quests not only for applicable humanitarian principles but for Divine guidance, must, of necessity, seek answers in the teaching of the Torah. "The Torah of God is perfect" (Psalms 19: 8), and in its teachings the discerning student will find eternally-valid answers to even newly-formulated queries. As physicians and patients turn to Rabbinic authorities for answers, Jewish scholars seek to elucidate and expound the teachings of the Torah in these vital areas of concern. The present essay highlights some of the ethical issues faced by the Jewish physician who faithfully observes his tradition in all matters including his daily practice of medicine. Although more questions are raised than answered, the aim of this essay will have been achieved if the reader is stimulated to pursue these issues in the extending writings on the subject now available in English.

  20. Higher body mass index in 16-19 year-old Jewish Adolescents of North African, Middle Eastern and European Origins is a Predictor of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: a cohort of 2.3 million Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, Oded; Leiba, Merav; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kark, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    Studies evaluating adolescent risk factors for developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are virtually nonexistent. We assessed adolescent predictors of AML in adults, with a main focus on adolescent BMI. The study included 2,310,922 16-19-year-old Jewish Israeli adolescents (mean age 17.3 ± 0.4, 59.5% male), called up for an obligatory health examination. Sociodemographic and health data, including measured weight and height, were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was examined both as a continuous variable and grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and US-CDC percentiles. Bone-marrow-biopsy-verified AML cases diagnosed up to 31 December 2012 were identified by linkage to the Israel national cancer registry. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models were used to model time to diagnosis. During 47 million person years of follow-up, 568 AML cases were identified (crude incidence rate 1.21/100,000 person years). There was a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.041 (95% CI 1.015-1.068, p = 0.002) per unit BMI. The association was evident in those of Middle Eastern, North African, and European origin. A graded association was evident across the overweight and obese WHO grouping. With the US-CDC grouping, excess risk was evident in overweight but not in obese adolescents, although a test for trend in percentiles was significant (p = 0.004). Borderline associations were noted for origin (p = 0.065) (higher in the predominantly Ashkenazi European origin), sex (higher in women: HR = 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.55), and stature (HR = 1.013, 95% CI 1.000-1.026, per cm). Higher BMI in adolescence was associated with increased AML incidence in adulthood in this multiethnic population.

  1. Jewish history as a history of immigration: an overview of current historiography in the Scandinavian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christhard Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first critical overview of the historiography of Jewish immigration and integration in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. While the experience of immigration has been crucial for Scandinavian Jewry, scholarly interest in Jewish migration history only emerged during the 1980s in connection with the focus on migration and ethnicity in Swedish research and the adaptation of sociological concepts of migration in general historiography. By analysing key historio-graphical works, focusing on their approaches and main narratives, this article aims at a critical methodological self-reflection. It identifies two major approaches to Jewish immigration history in current Scandinavian historiography: the demographic and social history approach, focusing in particular on the role of Jewish immigrants in the labour market, their settlement and housing conditions and their social mobility; and the cultural history approach, reconstructing and preserving the vanished world of Yiddish immigrant culture.

  2. Jewish Influences upon Islamic Storytelling : The Case of David and Bathsheba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Marcel; van Staalduine, Eveline; Spronk, Klaas

    2018-01-01

    The embarassing act of David towards Bathsheba has received ample treatment in Judaism and Islam. It is striking how Islam avails itself of jewish apologetics (Israiliyyat), whereas later on the existence of Bathsheba will be denied altogether.

  3. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust: Part 2: Under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Julia; Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    At least 564,500 Hungarian Jews perished during the Holocaust, including many physicians. Exactly how many Jewish dermatologists were killed is not known. We have identified 62 Hungarian Jewish dermatologists from this period: 19 of these dermatologists died in concentration camps or were shot in Hungary, 3 committed suicide, and 1 died shortly after the Holocaust, exhausted by the War. Fortunately, many Hungarian Jewish dermatologists survived the Holocaust. Some had fled Europe before the Nazi takeover, as was described in Part 1 of this contribution. Two Holocaust survivors, Ferenc Földvári and Ödön Rajka, became presidents of the Hungarian Dermatologic Society and helped rebuild the profession of dermatology in Hungary after the War. This contribution provides one of the first accounts of the fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust and serves as a remembrance of their suffering and ordeal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer--pitfalls in genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, E; Gershoni-Baruch, R

    2001-10-01

    Genetic counseling and risk assessment, given to women with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer, are regularly based on pedigree analysis. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population, hereditary breast/ovarian cancer is mainly attributed to three founder mutations, namely, 185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT, in BRCA1/2 genes. The overall frequency of these mutations, in the Jewish Ashkenazi population, is as high as 2.5%. Based on clinical and family history data, the results of BRCA molecular testing, in Ashkenazi individuals at risk, are appropriately anticipated in most cases. Here we report on five families, in which the segregation of BRCA1/2 mutations, in affected and unaffected family members, was unexpected, emphasizing the need to test, for founder mutations, every Ashkenazi individual at risk, irrespective of the genotype of affected family members. Ultimately, risk assessments and recommendations, in Ashkenazi women, should be invariably based on the results of genetic testing.

  5. Working for Jewish girls : Lily Montagu, girls' clubs and industrial reform 1890-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lily Montagu was involved in social work and religious ministry with the London Jewish community for over sixty years. This article considers the significance of her involvement in the girls' club movement and her efforts towards workplace reform. It argues that the specific circumstances of working-class Jewish girls in the early twentieth century enabled her to develop a comprehensive view of both industrial organisation and social work. Her approach was submerged as social work and trade u...

  6. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Viren eSwami; Viren eSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  7. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  8. The collective past, group psychology and personal narrative: shaping Jewish identity by memoirs of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S; Handelsman, I

    1990-06-01

    Through honing its collective memory, especially after the Holocaust, the Jewish community has attempted to sustain its culture, bolster the Jewish identity of its members, and regain a resolute sense that its narrative is again proceeding. To some degree, all these aims are realized by instilling in its members the Jewish modal character structure: a psychological configuration with two contrastable entities. One chronically discomposed self-structure, defining itself as polluted and helpless, trembles with the appalling imagery of historical and imminent community disasters. The other entity believes in its unmatched capacity for reparative, socially beneficial actions. The paradigm of this psychological organization is found in many children of survivors. The memory of a tragic history abides alongside the community's hopes in the Jewish modal personality. The need to set forth and accommodate these two motifs imprints upon the Jewish "national" character many of its distinctive qualities. The designs of the Jewish community for this particularly Jewish twofold personality formation are augmented by the personal revelations of survivors. Therefore, Holocaustic testimonies are invested with a sacred aura. In measure, these recitals of the disaster with their stark images, plus the clashing affects aroused in the reader toward main characters of the narrative, dictate the way Jews define themselves in the world and the way they live. A confluence of being covertly commissioned by the Jewish community joins with the narrators' more idiosyncratic longings. Together they generate a steady stream of Holocaustic accounts. Complementary vectors drive the reader to peruse these records. The results therefrom, intimate knowledge of the disaster, plus the twofold personality motifs stamp many Jews as scions of the Holocaust.

  9. [A psychosocial view of a number of Jewish mourning rituals during normal and pathological grief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Benyamin; Lauden, Ari; Ben-Zion, Itzhak

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the three stages of normal and pathological mourning, emphasizing the constellation embodied in Judaism for this process. These stages are: shock, acute mourning, working through and reconciliation. We present the important question: "How to define pathological mourning?" It is certainly not only a matter of extending beyond the accepted time limits of the mourning process, but also a question of the intensity of mourning in ones daily life, the degree of being preoccupied with it, and the degree of priority that this mourning process has in an individual's life. A number of forms of pathological mourning, during the three mentioned stages, are described, with special attention to Jewish mourning rituals, especially: The "rending of the garments" (Kriyah), the Kaddish, the Shiva, and the termination of mourning after a fixed period of time. One of the possible interpretations of these rituals is that they prevent and neutralize manifestations of aggression and violence. This is an analogue to the function of biological (genetic) rituals which according to the theory of Konrad Lorenz, also minimize the dangerous aggression between the species in nature. The religious ritual converts an aggressive behavior to a minimal and symbolic action, often re-directed, so that an originally dangerous behavior becomes a ritual with an important communicative function.

  10. Provincial Jewish communities in the 19th and early 20th centuries: Judaism as the forty of identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkin Maxim Viktorovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main regularities of formation and activity of Jewish communities in provincial cities of Russia. It was revealed that servicemen became the basis for the formation of religious communities of Jews. Subsequently, the number of Jewish communities has increased significantly due to a significant influx of exiles and the arrival of Jewish merchants. The existence of Jewish religious communities was the subject to detailed legislative regulation. At the same time, a number of significant problems could not be solved. In particular, training of rabbis was extremely difficult. The difficulties were also in preserving the traditional way of life, the native language.

  11. "Look, Each Side Says Something Different:" The Impact of Competing History Teaching Approaches on Jewish and Arab Adolescents' Discussions of the Jewish-Arab Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir; Ron, Yiftach

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the impact of Jewish and Arab historical narratives on intergroup relations and conflict. A randomized placement comparative study set out to examine it empirically. Conventional-Authoritative official narrative, Empathetic Dual narrative, and Critical-Disciplinary multiple-source teaching interventions were designed…

  12. Approaches to Conflict Resolution between Ethnic and National Groups in Israel: Arab/Jewish and Western/Middle-Eastern Jewish Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    This paper discusses the means by which youth of conflicting nationalities may be taught to live together in Israel with mutual understanding and respect. The first part of the paper focuses on relations between Jewish and Arab youth, and suggests guidelines for designing a cross-cultural learning project to improve the relations between these…

  13. Religiousness and Psychological Distress in Jewish and Christian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Joseph C; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Morin, Ruth T; Graber, Liat S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore how the association between religiousness and psychological distress varies by religious affiliation. Prior work has shown that the association between religious belief and psychological distress is stronger for Christians than Jews, while religious activity is associated with lower psychological distress for both groups. Interviews were conducted using a community sample of 143 Christian and Jewish older adults, ages 65 and over. Quantitative measures were used to assess levels of organizational and intrinsic religiosity, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Christians who are highly involved in the organizational aspects of their religion report fewer depressive symptoms than Jews who have high levels of organizational religiosity, and the opposite is the case at lower levels of organizational religiosity. No significant group differences were found in the relationship between religiousness and anxiety. The results of this study indicate a difference between Jews and Christians in the reasons that they turn to their respective religious services, particularly in late life.

  14. A randomized controlled evaluation of a spiritually integrated treatment for subclinical anxiety in the Jewish community, delivered via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarin, David H; Pargament, Kenneth I; Pirutinsky, Steven; Mahoney, Annette

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a spiritually integrated treatment (SIT) for subclinical anxiety in the Jewish community. One hundred and twenty-five self-reported religious Jewish individuals with elevated levels of stress and worry received SIT (n=36), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR, n=42), or a waitlist control condition (WLC, n=47). SIT and PMR participants accessed Internet-based treatment on a daily basis for a period of 2 weeks. All participants completed self-report assessments at pre-treatment (T1), post-treatment (T2), and 6-8-week follow-up (T3). SIT participants reported large improvements in primary (stress and worry) and secondary (depression and intolerance of uncertainty) outcomes, and moderate improvements in spiritual outcomes (positive/negative religious coping; trust/mistrust in God). SIT participants reported greater belief in treatment credibility, greater expectancies from treatment and greater treatment satisfaction than PMR participants. SIT participants also reported better improvements in both primary outcomes (stress and worry), one of two secondary outcomes (intolerance of uncertainty), and two of four spiritual outcomes (positive religious coping and mistrust in God) compared to the WLC group, whereas PMR and WLC participants did not differ on most outcomes. Results of this investigation offer initial support for the efficacy of SIT for the treatment of subclinical anxiety symptoms among religious Jews. Results further suggest that it is important to incorporate spiritual content into treatment to help facilitate the delivery of psychotherapy to religious individuals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Jewish national cultural-and-religious public motion in Ukraine in 1920th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the archived documents, periodic press and monographic literature analysis and deals with the problem of cultural-and-religious development of Jewish society’ public initiative in Ukraine in 1920th. The special features of activity of religiously-elucidative public associations are determined, their relationships with Communist Party organs. Anti-religious work of Communist Party organs is illuminated. At the beginning of 1920th Ukrainian Jewishness actively supported and heard the confession Judaism that remained next to languages Yiddish and Hebrew like instrument for maintenance of jewries national identity in the new soviet state. At the beginning of 1920th the cells of many public associations of religiously-cultural and educational aspiration functioned in Ukraine. Religious organizations developed in Jewish cult buildings. Separately maintenance of national identity of jewries was assisted by educational establishments that were actively helped by religious communities and societies. From the first years the Communist Party organs began active attacks on Jewish religious public motion. Active politics of division of jewries on atheists and believers was conducted. The last was constantly pursued and yielded to the repressions. Active voice in an anti-religious campaign was accepted by Jewish-section at the Central Committee of CP(bU. For their assistance local authorities closed synagogues, converted them into working clubs, khati-chital’ni (reading homes. Headers and eshibotes were closed, the retinues of Thora, prayer books and other religious literature were destroyed. During the Jewish holytides and on Saturdays, various atheistic actions, trials of rabbis and Judaism. got organized among the Jewish young people, workers and intelligentsia. With rolling down of New Economic Policy and beginning of mass population sovietization at the end of 1920th pressure on religious Jewish public motion from the side of

  16. Reframing Paul’s sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms of address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Seop Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholars focus mainly on Paul’s use of ‘brothers (and sisters’ or ‘brother (and sister’ in Greco-Roman epistolary conventions and cultural backdrops. However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions of Paul’s sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul’s sibling language in light of its Jewish usage. We should note that Jewish letter writers did not address their Gentile letter recipients as ‘brother(s’. However, Paul did call his recipients ‘brothers’. It is unlikely that Paul employed sibling language without being aware of its common Jewish usage. The author proposes that Paul’s sibling language is used in the context of an ethnic insider designation (shared ethnicity, and that ascribing the title of brother to believers including Gentiles signals the re-definition of the family of Abraham.

  17. A contribution to the history of Jewish physical education and sport in the Czech Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Štumbauer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of physical education of the Jewish minority in Czechoslovakia is an integral and significant part of the history of physical education in the Czech Lands. This paper deals with its formation, gradual development, and closure at the beginning of World War Two; and it is divided into several sections. The first focuses on the ideological basis of Jewish physical education and sport, and the specifics of the Czech Lands environment; and subsequent sections on the very formation and development of Jewish physical education in the Czech Lands up to 1918. The focal point of this paper is the section on the origin and development of the Union Maccabi in the Czechoslovak Republic, its organizational structure, and international relations, including participation in international Maccabiah games and its violent termination. The paper also includes mention of the failed attempt to establish a Jewish umbrella organization of physical education and sport and the effort to restore Jewish physical education and sport in Czechoslovakia after World War Two.

  18. Ethnicity/culture modulates the relationships of the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 phenotype with cognitive function in older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Hoffman, Hadas; Preiss, Rachel; Koifmann, Keren; Greenbaum, Lior; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M; Leroith, Derek; Sano, Mary; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2016-05-01

    The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype has been associated with cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Because ethnicity/culture has been associated with both cognitive function and Hp genotype frequencies, we examined whether it modulates the association of Hp with cognitive function. This cross-sectional study evaluated 787 cognitively normal older individuals (>65 years of age) with type 2 diabetes participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Interactions in two-way analyses of covariance compared Group (Non-Ashkenazi versus Ashkenazi Jews) on the associations of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1 versus non- Hp 1-1) with five cognitive outcome measures. The primary control variables were age, gender, and education. Compared with Ashkenazi Jews, non-Ashkenazi Jews with the Hp 1-1 phenotype had significantly poorer cognitive function than non-Hp 1-1 in the domains of Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.035) and Executive Function (p = 0.023), but not in Language/Semantic Categorization (p = 0.432), Episodic Memory (p = 0.268), or Overall Cognition (p = 0.082). After controlling for additional covariates (type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, Mini-mental State Examination, and extent of depressive symptoms), Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.038) and Executive Function (p = 0.013) remained significant. Older individuals from specific ethnic/cultural backgrounds with the Hp 1-1 phenotype may benefit more from treatment targeted at decreasing or halting the detrimental effects of Hp 1-1 on the brain. Future studies should examine differential associations of Hp 1-1 and cognitive impairment, especially for groups with high prevalence of both, such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Familial dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition. FD occurs most often in people of Eastern European Jewish ancestry (Ashkenazi Jews). It is caused ... also be used for prenatal diagnosis. People of Eastern European Jewish background and families with a history ...

  20. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  1. A portrait of Sholem Aleichem in the Polish-Jewish press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabłowska-Zaremba Monika

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present and describe the reception of Sholem Aleichem’s portrait in the Polish-language Jewish press published in 1918-1939. The basis is created by such serial publications as “Nowy Dziennik” (Krakow, “Chwila”, “Nasza Opinia” (Lviv, “Głos Żydowski”, “Nasz Przegląd” (Warsaw. The aspects connected with the role of Sholem Aleichem as a theatre creator were discussed separately. It was important to point out the first attempts to research a theoretical discourse in the Jewish press about the Jewish humour to give the definition and characteristics (Jakub Appenszlak, Gerszon Lewin and Elchanan Cejtlin.

  2. Mathematics and Gender Stereotypes in One Jewish and One Druze Grade 5 Classroom in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mittelberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report findings from qualitative case studies of two grade 5 classrooms in Israel, one Jewish and one Druze. The aim was to identify classroom factors contributing to the differences in the gendered patterns of mathematics outcomes for Jewish and Arab Israeli students. Marked differences were found in the teachers' gender-related interactions with students, and their beliefs and expectations of boys' and girls' mathematical capabilities. The Jewish teacher held conventional gender-stereotyped beliefs of male mathematical superiority. The Druze teacher believed that girls required affirmative action to overcome implied gender biases in favour of males in the Druze community. The findings support earlier research and theoretical perspectives on gender-related issues in the mathematics classroom. In particular, when teachers hold gender-biased beliefs and expectations, students' classroom experiences and mathematics learning outcomes are impacted along gender lines.

  3. The Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the Rabbinical College of Padua: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajon Irene

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with three points that refer to two important Jewish institutions of the age of emancipation, that is, the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the Rabbinical College of Padua: (1 how these Rabbinical schools were founded, (2 their courses and programs, and (3 the inspiration behind them. A comparison is outlined on the ground of these three points. The conclusion reminds the closing of these two schools, in 1938 the first and in 1871 the second, because of external events: the uprising of German antisemitism and the constitution of Italian State; and how the interesting figure of Sabato Morais, the founder in 1887 and first president of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, which prepares Conservative Rabbis, could in a sense be considered the heir of both these schools.

  4. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  5. Marx and the Kabbalah: Aaron Shemuel Lieberman's Materialist Interpretation of Jewish History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Eliyahu

    2018-01-01

    This essay addresses the reception of Karl Marx's writings among Russian Jewish revolutionaries in the 1870s. It explores the way Aaron Shemuel Lieberman (1843-1880), known as "the father of Jewish socialism," interpreted Marx through a kabbalistic prism. It argues that Jews were attracted to Marx in part because of the overlaps between historical materialism and certain strands of the kabbalistic tradition. It also sheds light on the early reception of Marx and the way his theory of revolution was reinterpreted to reflect the unique socio-economic conditions of the Russian Empire.

  6. Lunching under the Goya. Jewish Collectors in Budapest at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Akinsha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the passion for art collecting which was in vogue among the representatives of the Jewish haute bourgeoisie of Budapest in the beginning of the 20th century. In the center of investigation is the collection of Baron Mór Lipót Herzog who not only became one of the leading art collectors of Budapest but influenced the development of the European artistic taste. The Jewish industrialist and banker plaid instrumental role in the rediscovery and popularization of El Greco.

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style among Jewish and Arab Mothers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Parental modeling of behavior has long been considered a major socialization process for children. In this piece, the author explores how parenting behavior is passed from one generation to the next, focusing on parenting styles among Jewish and Muslim mothers in Israel. The results indicate that young mothers tend to reproduce their parents'…

  8. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  9. Democracy's Jewish and Christian Roots: What World History Textbooks Don't Tell You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the fact that although Jewish (along with Greek ideas) and Christian ideas make up the roots of Western culture, they are hardly mentioned in recent historical textbooks. This shortchanges students because they fail to learn the religious sources of human rights and democracy. (PS)

  10. The Attitudes of Israeli Arab and Jewish High School Students towards Extrinsic and Intrinsic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the attitudes of Israeli Arab (n = 259) and Jewish (n = 259) high school students toward extrinsic and intrinsic values. A questionnaire, which consisted of eight value scales in two groups--extrinsic and intrinsic values--was administered. Participants were asked to state whether they agreed or…

  11. The modernization of the traditional jewish education in Kherson and Katerynoslav provinces (late nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Yashyn

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of 1880 processes of secularization and Russification were slowing, and the circle of adherents, ideologues, heads of educational change becomes an expression of national ­ oriented coloring. In general, it’s concluded that the changes have been economically and are determined to meet the needs of a certain stage of development of Jewish communities in the region.

  12. No Religion Is an Island: Teaching World Religions to Adolescents in a Jewish Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    What is the place of teaching about other world religions in a Jewish educational curriculum for adolescents? This article explores a course in world religions that has been taught at the Genesis Program at Brandeis University since 2001. Based on a participant observational study during 2002 and 2012, the author traces how the teachers construct…

  13. The Destruction of Jewish Libraries and Archives in Cracow during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…

  14. The Stories of Our National Past: History and Heritage in a Jewish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Sivan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the teaching of history (the academic study of the past) and the teaching of heritage (meaningful stories tying people to a collective past). The research was conducted in a Jewish high school whose explicit mission involves teaching history through a US history course and heritage through an Israeli…

  15. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Kolman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  16. Digital Dreams: The Potential in a Pile of Old Jewish Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Rebecca; Taylor, Laurie; Santamaria-Wheeler, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the University of Florida, the Price Library launched the first stage of a project to digitize an important, special collection of anniversary editions of Jewish newspapers from around the world. This article provides the history of the collection, need for…

  17. Empire, Nationalism and the Jewish Question: Victor Adler and Otto Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maderthaner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the life and thought of two important figures in the history of Austrian socialism—Victor Adler and Otto Bauer—as a prism through which to examine the complex relationship between German nationalism, the Jewish Question and pro-Habsburgism among the early leadership of the Austrian Social Democratic Party.

  18. Once Upon a Time: How Jewish Children's Stories Impact Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitcher, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Research studies demonstrate the efficacy of the story-sharing experience on children's moral development. This article explores how the triadic relationship between a Jewish children's story, the child, and the parent storyteller can impact the youngster's moral growth. Using examples from two leading projects in Jewish…

  19. Formulating a Curriculum Framework for Bible Study: Creating Course Objectives for Bible Curriculum in Jewish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Eli; Goldstein, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Bible teachers worldwide lack a shared language with which to describe expectations of what pupils will learn at various stages of their schooling. This article attempts such a language. If defines a framework, formulated with the assistance of twenty-five Bible teachers in Jewish schools in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that this article will…

  20. Understanding Anti-Semitism and Its Impact: A New Framework for Conceptualizing Jewish Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Dennis, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    While a great deal of research has been done on identity development around awareness of racism and heterosexism, little has been conducted on understanding how Jews come to make sense of the impact of anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish oppression) on their lives. This article, based on my qualitative dissertation (MacDonald-Dennis, 2005) that explores…

  1. [The Jewish Hospital in Budapest under the Nazi occupation (1944-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2008-01-01

    On March 19, 1944 the German army invaded and occupied Hungary. The Waffen-SS soldiers captured the buildings of the Jewish community in Budapest, including the famous and important Jewish hospital on Szabolcs Street, founded in 1802. The Jewish hospital moved into a school belonging to the Jewish community on 44 Wesselényi Street. The hospital personnel managed to smuggle out medical equipment, and operating rooms were transferred into this central, temporary medical location. Other hospitals were founded, some inside the ghetto, others outside. The Judenrat supplied these hospitals with medical equipment obtained through contributions from Jews. The temporary hospitals admitted sick patients and a great number of those injured as a result of the war in Budapest. These hospitals operated with poor equipment. Surgeries were sometimes performed on kitchen tables, and medical equipment was sterilized by burning the synagogue's benches and library books. As of December 1944, there was no electricity in the hospitals. Thus doctors were forced to operate by the light of candles and flashlights. Nevertheless, they managed to save numerous lives. In spite of the terrible conditions under which the medical staff worked, they were committed to their mission, and their courage deserves appreciation. Ghetto Budapest was liberated by the Red army on 18th January, 1945. Thousands of Jews were released from the temporary hospitals.

  2. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M.; Miller, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices. PMID:29406846

  3. The Symposium of Philo’s Therapeutae: Displaying Jewish Identity in an Increasingly Roman World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Niehoff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Philo's description of the sober Jewish symposium in De vita contempletiva resembles the attitude of the contemporary elite in Rome and caps a growing disparagement of the traditional Greek symposium that can be traced through his earlier writings.

  4. A Doubled Heterotopia: Shifting Spatial and Visual Symbolism in the Jewish Museum Berlin's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Brent Allen

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the rhetoric of space in a rapidly transforming culture. Using Michel Foucault's concept of "heterotopias" to understand the rhetorical power of a building's disposition, it is argued that the Jewish Museum Berlin contains two heterotopias, one within the other. The first is Daniel Libeskind's original building…

  5. Living with Contradiction: Examining the Worldview of the Jewish Settlers in Hebron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Eggen Røislien

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the West Bank city of Hebron the Israeli-Palestinian conflict still overshadows all activities. Despite the tension, friction, and violence that have become integral to the city’s everyday life, the Jewish Community of Hebron is expanding in numbers and geographical extent. Since the Six Day War, the community has attracted some of the most militant groups among the settlers in the West Bank, responsible for severe violence against Palestin- ians, including harassment, car bombs, and attempts to blow up the Dome of the Rock mosque itself. Why do the members of the Jewish Community of Hebron wish to live and raise their children in such a violent setting? Using a series of interviews with members of the Jewish Community of He- bron and related settler communities in the period 2000–05, the article examines the ways the Jewish Community legitimizes its disputed presence. It reveals a deep religious belief, blended with intense distrust of and hatred toward the Palestinian population.

  6. Translation as a Site of Language Policy Negotiation in Jewish Day School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how students and teachers at a non-Orthodox Jewish day school in New York City negotiate the use of translation within the context of an institutionalized language policy that stresses the use of a sacred language over that of the vernacular. Specifically, this paper analyzes the negotiation of a Hebrew-only policy through…

  7. "By the Rivers of Babylon": Deterritorialization and the Jewish Rhetorical Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The position of the excluded other, it seems to the author, is the position that has characterized Jews since antiquity: exiled from the nation and dispersed to other nations, Jewish participation in civic life has been defined, even in modernity, by its marginalization and precariousness. The Jew, in other words, provides a salient example of the…

  8. Alike and Different: Parenting a Child with Special Needs in the Jewish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrman, Abigail L.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is limited research examining the parenting experiences of parents with a child with special needs, and there is virtually no research on the experience of these parents in the Jewish community. In addressing this gap in the scholarship, this study describes the experiences of parents with a child with special needs and explores the…

  9. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M; Miller, Susan M

    2018-01-29

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values-life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention-will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich's corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession's identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  10. The Transcultural Archive of Contemporary German-Jewish Holocaust-Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the transcultural archives that surface in writings of German-Jewish authors who have a background in migration from East to West. In The Generation of Memory (2012), Marianne Hirsch points out an ”archival impulse characteristic of the aesthetic and ethical practices...

  11. Networked but No System: Educational Innovation among Bay Area Jewish Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin Ross, Renee

    2017-01-01

    A widely read article from this journal explores innovative Jewish educational programs, initiatives, and organizations, arguing that these share a comdmitment to being "learner-centered" and recommending that a system be created to foster collaboration among them (Woocher, 2012). Using five San Francisco Bay Area-based…

  12. Research and Reflections on the Spiritual Development of Young Jewish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This article is about spiritual development for early childhood Jewish education. Findings from a research study defines the spiritual development of young children as an integration of deep connections, basic dispositions (strengthened from experiences of wonderment, awe, joy, inner peace), and complex dispositions (displayed through acts of…

  13. Entangled memories - reconciliation of Eastern and Western Europe in contemporary Jewish writings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    in the context of the two dictatorships which in quick exchange came about Eastern Germany (2000, 2004). Similarly, Vladimir Vertlib in Das besondere Gedächnis der Rosa Masur (2001) gives voice to the fictional figure of a Jewish woman who both has suffered under the anti-Semitism of Stalinism and Nazism...

  14. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  15. Stuck in the Middle with Jews: Religious Privilege and Jewish Campus Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have examined religious privilege in society and on campus, evidencing the privileged place Christianity generally enjoys and the marginalization that Jews often encounter, regardless of the school they attend. That said, in considering the Jewish higher education experience, something else is at play here. When juxtaposed with…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500 to 1,000 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. The other forms of Gaucher disease are uncommon and do not occur more frequently in people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  17. Putting context into a cultural perspective: examining Arab and Jewish adolescents' judgments and reasoning about spousal retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Ronald O; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Zeira, Anat

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examined what contextual factors influence adolescents' judgments and reasoning about spousal retribution. Adolescents were drawn from Central and Northern Israel and consisted of 2,324 Arab and Jewish students (Grades 7-11). The study was set up in a 2 (Arab/Jewish respondent) × 2 (spousal retribution scenarios) factorial design. Our findings suggest that societal and cultural norms may be more powerful contextual variables than group stereotypes in influencing Arab and Jewish adolescents' evaluations of spousal retribution. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. ACOG committee opinion. Number 318, October 2005. Screening for Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a severe progressive neurologic disease that causes death in early childhood. Carrier screening, should be offered before pregnancy to individuals and couples at high-risk, including those of Ashkenazi Jewish, French-Canadian, or Cajun descent and those with a family history consistent with TSD. If both partners are determined to be carriers of TSD, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis should be offered.

  19. American Jewish Altruism in Support of International Humanitarian Intervention and Kosovo Peace-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century, parts of Europe get caught again by xenophobia’s which were hidden under the rug of the Cold War. Balkans was again at the heart of eruptions of nationalistic ideas and hegemonistic aspirations. In resolving the last unsettled Kosovo case in the Balkans, west democracies corrected the mistake made at the beginning of the same century. In this direction gave input the Jewish community of USA. “We need to come out in defence of the defenceless victims ... cannot let people like Milosevic to continue killing men, women and children. We had to do this earlier, but not later or now”, said Elie Wiesel, the most prominent Jewish Nobel Prize winner, in a meeting with Holocaust survivors and veterans. This was not the only voice of the Jewish members in defence of Kosovo Albanians. A significant number of elite American-Jewish prominent politicians and diplomats, senior U.S. administration, from public life,...have been cautious in pursuit of developments in Kosovo before the war. Altruism within Jewish elite influenced or advised U.S. policy makers on the necessity of intervention in Kosovo, to prevent scenarios prepared by the Serbian regime to de'albanize Kosovo. They decided and implemented the diplomacy of dynamic actions in stopping the repetition of the similarities of holocaust within the same century. What prompted this perfectly organized community in the U.S., with distinctive culture and other religious affiliations to people of Kosovo to support them during exterminating circumstances? Which were the driving factors on influencing the policy of most powerful state in the world in support of Albanians? This paper aims to illuminate some of the answers on the raised question as well as analyze the activities of most prominent AmericanJewish personalities, some of their philanthropic actions that are associated with emotions, their principles and beliefs to prevent human suffering and exodus of Kosovo

  20. The tensions between Jews and Muslims in and the Jewish exodus from Tunisia during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Nehdi, Dorsaf

    2010-01-01

    The Jewish community has maintained a presence in Tunisia since ancient time. Their presence goes up to the carthagene period. According to some historian research that throughout the course of history the Jewish minority was even in Tunisia since the time of king Salomon. However, the length of their presence which is about two thousand years left an important impact on The Tunisian society. It went gradually as multicultural society. My deep work has as subject target analyzing the rela...

  1. Geopolitical aspects of Jewish presence in the Romanian principalities during the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Costachie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available „Geopolitical aspects of Jewish presence in the Romanian Principalities, during the Middle Ages” is probably one of the very few scientific articles about the geopolitical role of Jewish existence in Romanian territory during the last centuries. Few historians dared to deal with this topic, as it was regarded a very delicate issue. The author is the only geographer that managed to show us some geopolitical aspects regarding the immense role of this ethnic group in the political, economical and social life of the Romanian people during the Middle Ages. Based on various sources of information, and expressing all the facts from a geographical point of view, the author offers us an analytic study of the geopolitical role of Jews who had settled in Romanian territory between XIVth and XVIIIth centuries. Interesting facts are revealed regarding the way Romanian ‘voivodes’ came to the throne and the help they received from the Jews.

  2. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  3. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  4. Investigating motives for preservation of Jewish heritage sites: the case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Collins-Kreiner, Noga; Krakover, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the main motives for preservation of sites of Jewish heritage tourism (JHT) by studying three locations in Macedonia: Skopje (the capital), Štip (the largest city in the east part of Macedonia) and Bitola (the largest city in the southwest part of Macedonia). The article assesses the presence of several motivations, like: (i) Guilt; (ii) Interest in national history; (iii) Revival of a glorious Past; (iv) Economic benefits; (v) Display of sympathy; and (vi) Dark tourism...

  5. Preserving cultural assets of others: Jewish heritage sites in Macedonian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Krakover, Shaul; Collins-Kreiner, Noga

    2017-01-01

    Issues arise when trying to understand the motivation of policymakers to preserve the assets of cultures that do not belong to the mainstream population. Tunbridge and Ashworth’s seminal study on ‘Dissonant Heritage’ and Bennett’s developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS model) provide a basis to evaluate both the motivations and the existence of a cultural dissonance. As there is a growing worldwide trend towards preserving and developing Jewish heritage tourism (JHT) this stud...

  6. Reframing Race And Jewish/Christian Relations In The Middle Ages

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    Kim Dorothy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates Jewish-Christian difference in the constantly shifting terrain of thirteenth-century medieval England. It reframes this difference in relation to theories of embodiment, feminist materialism, and entanglement theory. To conceptualize how Jews can be marked by race vis-à-vis the body, the article uses the example of Christian Hebraists discussing the Hebrew alphabet and its place in thirteenth-century English bilingual manuscripts.

  7. Symptoms of acute stress in Jewish and Arab Israeli citizens during the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Rivka; Cohen, Miri

    2007-10-01

    The "Second Lebanon War" exposed northern Israel to massive missile attacks, aimed at civilian centers, Jewish and Arab, for a period of several weeks. To assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Jewish and Arab samples, and their correlates with demographic and exposure variables. Telephone survey conducted in the third week of the second Lebanon war with a random sample of 133 Jewish and 66 Arab adult residents of northern Israel. ASD, ASS and symptoms-related impairment were measured by the Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASDI) questionnaire, in addition to war-related exposure and demographic data. The majority of respondents experienced at least one of four symptom groups of ASD, 5.5% of the Jewish respondents and 20.3% of the Arabs met the criteria of ASD. Higher rates of Arab respondents reported symptoms of dissociation, reexperiencing and arousal, but a similar rate of avoidance was reported by the two samples. Higher mean scores of ASS and of symptoms-related impairment were reported by the Arab respondents. According to multiple regression analyses, younger age, female gender, Arab ethnicity and experiencing the war more intensely as a stressor significantly explained ASS variance, while Arab ethnicity and proximity to missiles exploding significantly explained the variance of symptoms-related impairment. A substantial rate of participants experienced symptoms of acute stress, while for only small proportion were the symptoms consistent with ASD. Higher ASD and ASS were reported by the Arab sample, calling attention to the need to build interventions to reduce the present symptoms and to help prepare for possible similar situations in the future.

  8. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

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    Tamar Heger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student association and the other by a Zionist Jewish organization. Both groups are present on every campus in Israel. Despite the significant difference of the political location occupied by each organization in the Israeli power structure, we argue that these texts share similar attitudes to the conflict and parallel operational strategies. The paper demonstrates the attempts by these texts to encourage the mutual hostility between Jews and Arabs by employing racist and violent discourse. The article tries to explain the silence of the college administration and faculty in the face of these racist acts, subsequently outlining a vision of a responsible academia which will banish any acts of racism.

  10. From Odessa to Florence: Elena Comparetti Raffalovich. A Jewish Russian Woman in Nineteenth-Century Italy

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    Asher Salah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, Italy held a strong appeal for Russian travelers. Several of these Russian émigrés were women of Jewish lineage, who had come with their families or were sent abroad on their own in order to complete their education at one of the newborn kingdom’s prestigious universities. Elena Raffalovich (Odessa 1842 – Florence 1918 is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon. While her intellectual trajectory, as a pioneer in children’s education and an advocate of women’s rights, is representative of that of many other Russian Jewish women living in Italy at that time, it also challenges a number of historiographic commonplaces about Jewish women and their emancipation process in nineteenth-century Europe. Moreover, through the archives of different prominent members of the Raffalovich dynasty, it is possible to follow its vicissitudes over at least five generations, completing our knowledge of Elena’s biography and reassessing the importance of her intellectual contribution to Italian culture.

  11. [Self endangerment to save life--competing Jewish legal and moral obligations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The obligation to help others often involves personal risk. Consequently, the scope and boundaries of this obligation can present a complex dilemma, which has practical and moral implications, even in the world of medicine. In Jewish medical ethics, the dilemma stems from a confrontation between the duty to help others according to the biblical commandment: "Do not stand idly by your fellow's blood" on the one hand, and between the right and duty of man to defend himself, which is anchored in Jewish law. This article surveys the sources of this quandary in Jewish texts throughout the ages such as the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and responsa literature in various contexts. The discussion highlights the essential difference between the formal demands of the law, which protects human rights of self-preservation, and the moral requirement to help others even if it may include personal risk. The sources suggest distinguishing between various levels of risk ranging from high-risk to reasonable or low risk. In this way, the classic sources, provide the foundation and the tools for grappling with modern contemporary Halachic questions such as organ transplantation, and generate a Torah value-based framework to deal with new situations that may arise in the future. It is critical to assess the level of risk and the chances for success, along with other subjective considerations, in order to ensure the optimal ethical course of action.

  12. Middle-class Gothenburg, Jewish Participation, and the Limits of Liberal Tolerance 1870-1900

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    Christoph Leiska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the extent and conditions of Jewish participation in Swedish society c. 1870-1900. Whereas earlier research on Jewish history in Sweden had pictured this period as a time of peaceful integration, recent studies have stressed the continuities of cultural representations of ‘the Jew’ as essentially different from ‘the Swede’. Taking the city of Gothenburg as an example, this article offers a new approach by discussing the role of conflicting national and urban elements within liberal self-identification. With regard to urban identities, attitudes of toleration and religious pluralism went side by side with the liberal representation of Gothenburg as being different – different from its rural hinterland, but also from the capital Stockholm. These images of Gothenburg as being exceptionally progressive and open-minded facilitated Jewish participation in the city’s communal politics and associational life. On a national level, however, the ambiguities of Swedish liberal thinking persisted: An increasingly politicised discussion about national identity from the 1880s onwards reveals that the protagonists of Gothenburg liberalism had far greater difficulties in including Jews into their vision of the Swedish nation than the imagined liberties of Gothenburg city culture would suggest.

  13. What is Jewish (If Anything about Isaiah Berlin’s Philosophy?

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    Arie M. Dubnov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two central aims: First, to reappraise Isaiah Berlin’s political thought in a historically contextualized way, and in particular: to pay attention to a central conceptual tensions which animates it between, on the one hand, his famous definition of liberalism as resting on a negative concept of liberty and, on the other, his defense of cultural nationalism in general and Zionism in particular. Second, to see what do we gain and what do we lose by dubbing his philosophy Jewish. The discussion will proceed as follows: after describing the conceptual tension (Section 1, I will examine Berlin’s discussion of nationalism and explain why comparisons between him and Hans Kohn as well as communitarian interpretations of him are incomplete and have limited merit. I will continue with a brief discussion of Berlin’s Jewishness and Zionism (Section 3 and explain why I define this position “Diaspora Zionism”. The two concluding sections will discuss Berlin’s place within a larger Cold War liberal discourse (Section 5 and why I find it problematic to see his political writings as part of a Jewish political tradition (Section 6.

  14. “Rather More than One-Third Had No Jewish Blood”: American Progressivism and German-Jewish Cosmopolitanism at the New School for Social Research, 1933–1939

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    Daniel Bessner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The New School for Social Research’s University in Exile accepted more German and European exiled intellectuals than any other American institution of higher education. This paper argues that transnational, cosmopolitan ideological and interest-based affinities shared by left-leaning American progressives and German-Jewish intellectuals enabled the predominantly Jewish University in Exile to become a vibrant intellectual space accepted by the community of largely anti-Semitic American academics. These affinities also illuminate why, despite the fact that the émigrés’ exile was in large part the result of National Socialist hatred of Jews, Alvin Johnson (the founder of the University in Exile and the faculty members that comprised it seldom discussed the University’s Jewish demographics. The Jewish faculty members ignored the relationship between their ethnicity and exile because to focus on it would have been to admit that the cosmopolitan project they had embraced in Central Europe had failed. Johnson ignored the faculty’s Jewish heritage for two reasons. First, he endorsed a cosmopolitan American nationalism. Second, he understood that the generally anti-Semitic community of American academics would have rejected the University in Exile if he stressed the faculty’s Jewishness. In ignoring the University in Exile’s Jewish demographics, Johnson and the University’s faculty successfully adhered to a strategy designed to foster the exiles’ entrance into the American intellectual community. Thus, while cosmopolitanism failed in Germany and Central Europe, the exiles’ later influence on the American academy indicates that it partially succeeded in the United States.

  15. The annual school reports as artefacts of book culture and sources on the history of Jewish education in Slovakia (Výročné správy škôl ako artefakty knižnej kultúry a pramene k dejinám židovského školstva na Slovensku

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    Kamila Fircáková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the history of the annual school reports publishing on the terri-tory of Slovakia. It also provides the basic bibliographic sources in which the annual school reports are registered. The annual school reports began to be systematically published in the second half of the 19th century. Also the Jewish schools, which history is much older (e. g. a school existed at the synagogue in Bratislava as early as 1416 published them. During the extensive research in libraries in Slovakias well as 21 titles of the annual school reports of some Jewish schools published in Slovakia until 1918 were found. The annual school reports of the primary schools, business schools, religious schools (the so-called talmudtóra, boys‘ schools, girls‘ schools and co-educational schools are among them. The content of the annual school reports of Jewish schools is presented in the example of the annual school report of the boys‘ public school associated with the business school in Bratislava and public school in Liptovsky Mikulas. As artefacts of book culture they are an especially a rich source of information about a particular school, they document publishing activities of a school or its founders and complete the knowledge about production of individual printers and printing houses. Through the ownership stamps and records they provide information about previous owners and assist in the reconstruction of the library stocks. At the moment known annual school reports of Jewish schools are certainly only a part of a larger, not yet fully discovered corpus (e. g. we can assume the existence of the annual school reports of the higher schools - yeshivas in Hebrew. Their systematic research, documentation and expert processing should become part of research and protection of Jewish cultural heritage in Slovakia.

  16. Age, gender and risk factor disparities in first-stroke Jewish and Arab patients in Israel undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Elina; Treger, Iuly; Schwarz, Juliana

    2011-11-01

    Little is known of the risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation in Israel. To investigate the age, gender and risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation and to compare the prevalence and odds ratio of stroke risk factors in these patients. The database of the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation C at Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center was used to investigate first ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted for hospital rehabilitation over a 15 year period, January 1993 to December 2008. Particular attention was paid to age, gender and risk factor disparities. The 2000 patients with first stroke who were included in the study were grouped as Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) orArab; there were 237 Arabs, 370 non-immigrant Jews and 1393 immigrant Jews. A high percentage of Arab patients were found to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, while a high percentage of Jewish immigrants had stenosis of the internal carotid artery. The study demonstrated some differences in the effect of risk factors between the groups. It may be important to address such differences when developing stroke preventative strategies in this population of Jewish and Arab stroke survivors in Israel.

  17. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  18. Measuring Human “Progress” in the New Millennium: The Jewish Question Revisited

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    David Lempert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This is an article in two parts. Part i offers a new way of looking at progressivism and progressive politics by defining different typologies of progressivism and by looking for these approaches in the cultural strategies of specific ethnic groups. The study offers a theory of how these progressive cultural strategies are maintained and distinguishes these strategies from apparent “progress” that may simply be a phenomenon of temporary accommodation of different ethnic groups in more complex systems. Part ii examines the ideology of “progress” as part of the cultural strategy of Jews and whether this strategy, which appears stronger when Jews are minorities in the Diaspora, is consistent with Jewish culture once Jews have a territorial boundary where they are a “majority.” This article touches upon the political choices that Jewish “political progressives” and Jews, overall, have made recently in the U.S.; modifying their support for “progress” in return for political representation, with parallels to the historical situations of other minorities. While “identity based” political choice that slows the overall “progress” of civilization appears to have protected Jewish interests in the short term, historical comparisons suggest that this choice will endanger Jews if the U.S. economy and U.S. global influence collapse, in a direct historical parallel to the European Holocaust; offering an opportunity to test theories on how (and whether “progress” occurs. In short, this study examines the choice that Jews made in the 20th century to define themselves as “European” rather than “Middle Eastern” (or “Eastern” and how a rethinking of this choice could be fundamental to protecting Jews in Israel and to restarting a global impetus for both social and political “progress.”

  19. Political Expression on Facebook in a Context of Conflict: Dilemmas and Coping Strategies of Jewish-Israeli Youth

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    Yifat Mor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, and Facebook in particular, embody a complex and challenging context for impression management, particularly when it comes to political expression. The Israeli case presents a unique context in which to examine these questions as Jewish-Israeli youth are embedded in a divided society involved in the protracted Israeli–Palestinian conflict. A thematic content analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with Israeli-Jewish students who are regular Facebook users revealed distinct dilemmas. Jewish-Israeli youth are highly motivated to discuss politics on Facebook, while also aware of social risks involved in such discussion. Thus, they adopt unique coping strategies in which political expression is an integral part in the delicate act of impression management. This research extends our understanding of Facebook as a platform for expressing political content in divided societies, characterized by considerable internal and external conflict as well as high levels of political involvement.

  20. “A Shmita Manifesto”: a radical sabbatical approach to Jewish food reform in the United States

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    Adrienne Krone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolutionary movement recently cropped up with a vision to revitalize American Jewish environmentalism through food reform. This movement implemented shmita (sabbatical year practices, which Jewish law mandates only inside the land of Israel, in the United States during the shmita year that began in September 2014. This article offers a brief historical overview of shmita and then utilizes the main texts of the shmita movement to explore how the Shmita Project connects- the diverse worlds of Judaism, environmentalism, ethics, and food reform. The Shmita Project encapsulates a multivalent environmentalist strain of American Judaism that is deeply concerned with climate change, industrial agriculture, and food injustice. The unprecedented- observance- of an American shmita year, focused on land stewardship and food security, is emblematic- of this movement’s efforts towards sustainable agriculture, animal welfare, and repairing the American food system through practices that are inspired by Jewish tradition and values.

  1. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...

  3. Jewish immigration to Brazil and anti-semitism in the discourse of elite groups.

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    Natália Dos Reis Cruz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at anti-semitism in Brazil from the 1920s to 40s, placing emphasis on the imaginary of Brazilian elites regarding Jews. The persecution of the Jews in Europe contributed to immigration to Brazil, leading to the creation of Jewish neighborhoods in several Brazilian cities. Elite discourse of the period took up a defense of the “theory of whitening”, based on racial and cultural miscegenation and the negation of racial problems in the country, turning Jews into one of the targets of a politics of nationalization and intolerance on the part of the Brazilian state. Keywords: anti-semitism, nationalism, racism, intolerance, elites.

  4. Regulamin rezerwatu. O książce "Jewish Poland Revisited" Eriki Lehrer

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    Konrad Matyjaszek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rules of the reservation. On the book Jewish Poland Revisited by Erica Lehrer The paper offers a review of Erica Lehrer’s Jewish Poland Revisited, a publication presenting outcomes of an anthropological research on Jewish-Polish memory projects in Cracow's former Jewish district of Kazimierz. In a discussion of the book's theses, the author critically analyses Lehrer's postulate of 'ethnography of possibility' and the resultant strategy of approval for contemporary Kazimierz as a 'space of encounter' alongside with its rules of participation, imposed by the Polish proprietors of the district on its visitors. The article focuses on two such rules that condition a visitor’s possibility of participation in shrinking public spaces of Kazimierz. First of these laws is discussed as an imperative of abandoning the immediacy of district's physical space and its histories signified by the surviving built environment. Instead, Lehrer introduces a conceptual division of "social" and "physical" spaces, which leads to silencing of otherwise immediately present evidence of the violent past. The second rule is analyzed as a requirement of accepting the contemporary Polish owners’ role of 'brokers" and "purveyors" of Jewish heritage, consequential with an approval of a doubtful legal and moral title to the appropriated spaces. Through focusing on these rules of participation that determine and perpetuate the conditionality of Jewish presence in the space of Kazimierz, the author argues for a necessity of questioning and re-defining the traditional divisions of disciplines that establish conceptual separations of "social" and "built" spaces, as well as for a necessity of a critical outlook on contemporary Central European understandings of "heritage". Such an inquiry is discussed as conditional for overcoming the largely avoided yet still present "heritages" in the history of Polish-Jewish relations: the traditions of violence and exclusion, either

  5. Improving accuracy of Tay Sachs carrier screening of the non-Jewish population: analysis of 34 carriers and six late-onset patients with HEXA enzyme and DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Noh Jin; Morgan, Craig; Sharma, Rajesh; Li, Yuanyin; Lobo, Raynah M; Redman, Joy B; Salazar, Denise; Sun, Weimin; Neidich, Julie A; Strom, Charles M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining different testing modalities namely beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) enzyme analysis, HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and HEXA gene sequencing could improve the sensitivity for carrier detection in non-Ashkenazi (AJ) individuals. We performed a HEXA gene sequencing assay, a HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and a HEXA enzyme assay on 34 self-reported Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, six late-onset patients with TSD, and one pseudodeficiency allele carrier. Sensitivity of TSD carrier detection was 91% for gene sequencing compared with 91% for the enzyme assay and 52% for the DNA mutation assay. Gene sequencing combined with enzyme testing had the highest sensitivity (100%) for carrier detection. Gene sequencing detected four novel mutations, three of which are predicted to be disease causing [118.delT, 965A-->T (D322V), and 775A-->G (T259A)]. Gene sequencing is useful in identifying rare mutations in patients with TSD and their families, in evaluating spouses of known carriers for TSD who have indeterminate enzyme analysis and negative for common mutation analysis, and in resolving ambiguous enzyme testing results.

  6. ‘Playing Deaf’: Jewish Women at the Medical Missions of East London, 1880–1920s

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    Ellen Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations whose fundamentalist eschatology inspired them to attempt to convert Jews to Christianity had existed from early in the nineteenth century, but with the intensification of Jewish emigration to Britain in the 1880s dozens opened stations in East London. Historians today correctly continue to stress the insult and annoyance the missionaries represented to the struggling Jewish immigrants. This essay focuses on the specialized medical missions - at least a dozen, at times more - attached to the major East London missionary organizations, and designed to exchange good health care (for free for a hearing of the ‘Gospel truth’. These have received less attention from historians than have the general missions, though they proved extremely popular with poor Jews, so much so that many urged the Jewish Board of Guardians to provide rival dispensaries. This study thus places the medical missions within the extensive health care systems of the district. ‘Playing Deaf’ also seeks to position the medical missions within Jewish immigrant social and family life. Mission dispensaries were among the several Christian spaces that Jewish women would have to negotiate as they tried to organize work and family life in a state with an established Protestant church, so women’s behaviour in mission spaces may exemplify other kinds of interactions with the Christian world. Jewish mothers used the missions’ free doctors and nurses to stretch their household budgets, so the majority of patients were women and children - yet women as a group were less susceptible to conversionist rhetoric than men, especially single men. A major primary source for this study is the missionary press, with its extensive coverage of the largest of the medical missions, the Mildmay Medical Mission to the Jews. Mildmay’s reports depict encounters inside the medical missions and provide insight into the subjective lives of the mission doctors, whose efforts to

  7. The emerging Jewish views of the messiahship of Jesus and their bearing on the question of his resurrection

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    David Mishkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the beliefs of Jewish scholars who have written about the historical Jesus. Specifically, it explores the modern Jewish scholarship on the person and role of the Messiah and how this relates to the study of the resurrection of Jesus. Many of the traditional beliefs about the messiah preclude a discussion of the resurrection of Jesus. However, with more understanding of the background of Second-Temple Judaism, many long-held beliefs about the messiah are being re-evaluated. The three main issues discussed in this article are the concept of a pagan messiah, the death of the messiah and the possibility of a divine messiah.

  8. Affect and Cultural Change: The Rise of Popular Zionism in the British Jewish Community After the Six Day War (1967)

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    In current Jewish Studies scholarship there is a broad consensus that the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967 caused both an intense emotional response in Britain’s Jewish community and a change in the relationship this community had with the State of Israel. What this scholarship has yet to provide is either a detailed account of the ways that the June 1967 war impacted on this community or a sustained theorisation of how the intensity generated by a world-historical event might bring about change...

  9. Comparative Framework for Understanding Jewish and Christian Violent Fundamentalism

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    Arie Perliger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most scholars agree that in the last couple of decades, religious fundamentalism has become the dominant ideological feature in the landscape of modern terrorism, many prefer to ignore the fact that this is not a development which is restricted to the Islamic world, and that other religious traditions have also experienced growth in groups which prefer to use violent strategies to promote their sacred visions. The current chapter strives to fill this gap by analyzing the emergence of violent religious groups in two distinct, non-Islamic, religious traditions. At first glance, the Christian Identity and the Religious-Zionist movements have very little in common. However, both movements served as a breeding ground for the emergence of violent fundamentalist groups aspiring to facilitate an apocalyptic/redemption scenario by engaging in illegal violent campaigns. Moreover, in both cases, the role of spiritual leaders was crucial in shaping the radicalization of the groups and their target selection, and the violence had a clear symbolic narrative. In other words, for the members of these violent groups, the violence served a clear role in the mobilization of potential supporters, and the branding and dissemination of the movement's ideology. Finally, while in general, terrorism is perceived as the weapon of the weak, in these two cases it was perpetrated by individuals/groups affiliated to communities belonging to the dominant religious framework in their respective polities (i.e., the Religious-Zionist and Christian Identity movements are perceived by their members as branches of Judaism and Christianity. Hence, by utilizing a comparative framework, the article will not just analyze the violent manifestations that emerged from these two movements, but also try to identify the unique factors that characterize and facilitate the emergence of religious groups within religious communities belonging to the dominant religious tradition in their

  10. Islamic and Jewish Law of Ḥalal&Ḥaram: Analysis of Similarities & Differences (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Muhammad Ikramullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world Semitic religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam have given comprehensive regulations and code of life. Therefore; there has been a complete system and directions about “ḥalal” and “ḥaram” (kosher non-kosher means legal and illegal (treif’ in Jewish law.As Islam gives clear cut directives in beliefs, worships, ethics, economy and ways of life to guide the men in life; similarly the Judaism has also given clear regulations in these fields to guide its followers.Islam has taught its followers to eat and drink ‘ḥalal’ (Tayyib, so Judaism has also stressed on eating only ‘kosher’ (food that can be consumed according to Jewish law. For example in animals; meat of cow, bull, sheep and goat etc are legitimizing for eating in both the religions. Similarly the meat of pig is not allowed for men. Many things are similar in both these religions regarding dietary law.This article describes about ‘ḥalal’ and ‘kosher’ things in detail and tells what the similarities and dissimilarities regarding dietary laws are found in their religious literatures.

  11. Secondary Guilt Syndrome May Have Led Nazi-persecuted Jewish Writers to Suicide

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    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Feelings of guilt have tormented Holocaust survivors, ranging from immediately after the liberation to later in life, for shorter or longer periods, and persisting for some throughout their entire post-war lives. Descriptions of the guilt experienced by survivors of the Nazi camps occupy an impressive amount of literature: “Why me?” was the question, when a younger and more able family member perished; “Why me?” when more productive members of the community perished; “Why me?” when a million and a half children were deprived of their lives. Many found the answer by retelling their stories, witnesses of what happened. This type of guilt is much different from the recently described phenomenon of survivor syndrome, namely the secondary guilt felt by Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers. Despite successes in all aspects of their life, these writers developed a self-incriminating guilt due to their perceived inadequacy of communicating, particularly in light of the resurging anti-Semitism worldwide. This paper deals with the survival and suicides of Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers and offers a possible explanation for their late selfdestructive acts

  12. The role of discourse practices in the emergence of marginal status of Messianic Jewish communities

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    Anna Panteleeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to analyze the most significant stages of the developing of the Messianic conception within Judaism as well as the cultural and historical conditions and mechanisms which contributed to the marginalizing of Messianic Jewish communities within Judaism. The main research instrument used by the author is the discourse analysis method proposed by M. Foucault as well as the method of problematization developed and systematized later by Castel. Given methodology presupposes a reconstruction of historical events as refracted by their modern perception; the aims are, fi rstly, to discover invariant models or continuity that are instrumental in preserving the identity of problematization in its constant transformations and, secondly, to single out the principles of varying, that is the variant models of the phenomenon under study. In our case, the problematization emerges at the moment when abruption or marginalization of Messianic Jewish communities takes place. At the end the author arrives at the following conclusions: with respect to Messianic Judaism it is obvious that in the course of its historical development the term «Messianic» has acquired and appropriated negative connotations which was preconditioned mainly by the fact that Messianic communities and groups which shared and actively propagated the Messianic ideas in the society were perceived and declared by the dominant religious tradition as unacceptable, heretical or marginal phenomena destabilizing the established order.

  13. The social and behavioural pathway of dental caries experience among Jewish adults in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, A; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    To report dental caries status, related health behaviours and social determinants among a representative sample of adults residing in Jerusalem. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified sample of 254 Jewish and married adults aged 35-44 years in Jerusalem. Dental caries status was examined according to DMFT, percentage of caries-free persons and of people maintaining all their natural teeth (no teeth missing due to caries). The results were analysed by the independent variables and interpreted by weighted caries scores for the total Jerusalem population. The mean age was 38.63 years. Weighted DMFT was found to be 10.59; 6.8% of the population were caries-free; 67.1% demonstrated maintenance of all natural teeth. Level of education was the distal factor, associated with number of natural teeth, DMFT and untreated decay. Mediating behavioural determinants included dental attendance, plaque level and sugar consumption. The findings of this study demonstrated that caries experience among Jewish married adults in Jerusalem was moderate with low unmet dental caries needs. Additionally, data confirmed that a low level of education was a strong distal social determinant of caries experience, which affected dental health status via a pathway mediated by behavioural factors. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish society: social workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2018-02-13

    In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.

  15. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  17. Late Hebrew Immersion at Mt. Scopus College, Melbourne: Towards Complete Hebrew Fluency for Jewish Day School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, S. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a Hebrew immersion program for Jewish day school students at Mt. Scopus College in Melbourne, Australia. Specific sections address the following: (1) the first year; (2) the second year; (3) designing the evaluation of the program; (4) results of the evaluation (including academic outcomes, student and parent…

  18. Cyberbullying in a Diverse Society: Comparing Jewish and Arab Adolescents in Israel through the Lenses of Individualistic versus Collectivist Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Hosri, Hanan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in cyberbullying (bystanders, victims, bullies) between Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel. The findings could uncover critical implications for children, educators, and policymakers for understanding Cyberbullying in a diverse society. In particular, the differences in cyberbullying…

  19. "What Do These Stones Mean?" Inscriptions on Stone from an Ancient Monastery in Ireland that Address Jewish-Christian Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, V. George

    2013-01-01

    Etched on a stone from a monastery from the Middle Ages at a small village in County Roscommon in Ireland is a combination of Jewish and Christian symbols. The Menorah sits atop a cross. At the base of the cross and at both ends of the crossbar are three small extensions. The image is one of religious integration. Augustine, whose argument for the…

  20. Response to the Suite of Articles on Teaching the Bible from the "Journal of Jewish Education" 74:1 (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Barry W.

    2008-01-01

    This article responds to three articles in the most recent issue of "The Journal of Jewish Education" (74:1) in which a variety of researchers examined Bible teaching that employed an approach to Bible pedagogy that had been characterized by the present author as "the Contextual orientation" in his previously published book, "Textual Knowledge:…

  1. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  2. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  3. It's off to Work We Go: Attitude toward Disability at Vocational Training Programs at Jewish Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Baglieri and Shapiro (2012) argue that considering attitudes toward disability is an important step toward building a more inclusive society. This study examines attitudes toward disability of staff members of vocational and independent living skills programs for young adults with disabilities in four Jewish summer camps. McDermott and Varenne's…

  4. The Role of the Temple Mount / Al-Haram Al-Sharif in the Deterioration of Muslim–Jewish Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Ma'oz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For both Jews and Muslims the Temple Mount and the Old City of Jerusalem constitute highly important religious, cultural, political and national centres. For centuries Jews in the diaspora prayed in the direction of Jerusalem, vowed never to forget it (‘If I forget thee Jerusalem, may my right arm wither’; and blessed one another ‘Next year in Jerusalem’. The Zionist-Jewish movement (since the 1880s – although predominantly secular – has considered Jerusalem (Zion as the political and cultural centre of the Jewish people.By comparison, the Palestinian-Arab national movement has, since the 1920s established its national and political-cultural centre in East Jerusalem, while the Haram al Sharif, particularly the Al-Aqsa Mosque, has continued to be a top religious shrine for Muslims. They termed it Awla Al-Qiblatayn (the first prayer direction before Mecca; Thani Masjidayn (the second mosque after Mecca; a place where Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven (Isra’ and Mi’raj.This article will examine the changes in Muslim–Jewish mutual relations, especially since 1967, at both government and public levels. Special attention will be given to the development of both Islamic Judeophobia and Jewish Islamophobia, which have been associated with the dispute over the Temple Mount and East Jerusalem.

  5. Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim; Orion, Nir; Alamour, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims at pinpointing differences in spontaneous and non-spontaneous mental models of water cycle conceptions of two 4th grade student groups: the Jewish residents of a small provincial town and a group of students from an indigenous Bedouin community. Students' conceptions were elicited using the Repertory Grid technique as…

  6. Role Salience, Social Support, and Work-Family Conflict among Jewish and Arab Female Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2009-01-01

    Conceptualizing career development in a cultural and contextual framework, this study examined within-gender differences in role salience and work-family conflict (WFC) among 101 Jewish and 99 Arab female teachers (aged 23-64 years) from central Israel. The contribution of social support to women's conflict was also examined. Results highlighted…

  7. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

  8. 'We are (not) the master of our body': elderly Jewish women's attitudes towards euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeke, Goedele; Wils, Jean-Pierre; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-06-01

    In Belgium, dominant ideological traditions--Christianity and non-religious humanism--have the floor in debates on euthanasia and hardly any attention is paid to the practices and attitudes of ethnic and religious minorities, for instance, Jews. This article aims to meet this lacuna. Qualitative empirical research was performed in the Orthodox Jewish community of Antwerp (Belgium) with a purposive sample of elderly Jewish (non-)Hasidic and secularised Orthodox women. In-depth interviews were conducted to elicit their attitudes towards (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. The research reveals diverse views among women in the community on intentionally terminating a patient's life. Absolute rejection of every act which deliberately terminates life is found among the overwhelming majority of (religiously observant) Orthodox (Hasidic and non-Hasidic) women, as they have an unconditional faith and trust in God's sovereign power over the domain of life and death. On the other hand, the views of secularised Orthodox women--mostly irreligious women, who do not consider themselves Orthodox, thus not following Jewish law, yet say they belong to the Orthodox Jewish community--show an acceptance of voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide but non-voluntary euthanasia is approached more negatively. As they perceive illness and death as merely profane facts, they stress a patient's absolute right towards self-determination, in particular with regard to one's end of life. Among non-Hasidic Orthodox respondents, more openness is found for cultivating a personal opinion which deviates from Jewish law and for the right of self-determination with regard to questions concerning life and death. In this study, these participants occupy an intermediate position. Our study reveals an interplay between ethical attitudes on euthanasia and religious convictions. The image one has of a transcendental reality, or of God, has a stronger effect on one's (dis)approval of euthanasia

  9. Habaneros and shwarma: Jewish Mexicans in Israel as a transnational community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Kershenovich Schuster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?

  10. Predictors of Soviet Jewish refugees' acculturation: differentiation of self and acculturative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytburd, Luba; Friedlander, Myrna L

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the acculturation of 108 Jewish young adults who had immigrated to the United States between the ages of 9 and 21 from the former Soviet Union as a function of differentiation of self (M. Bowen, 1978) and acculturative stress. One aspect of differentiation, the ability to take an "I-position" with others, uniquely predicted greater American acculturation and less Russian acculturation, indicating that participants who reported an ability to act on their own needs in the context of social pressure tended to be more assimilated. Russian acculturation was also uniquely associated with more frequent perceived discrimination (one aspect of acculturative stress) during adolescence. Participants who had spent a greater proportion of their lifetime in the United States were more American acculturated and less Russian acculturated, reflecting assimilation rather than biculturalism.

  11. Terrazzo floor from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw - mineralogical characterization, conservation and impact of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Wojciech; Martusewicz, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Samples of historical terrazzo floor from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, dated back to the thirties of the twentieth century, have been analysed. Investigations by polarised optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and simultaneous thermal analysis were preformed. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that terrazzo tiles were prepared on the basis of ordinary Portland cement and aggregate, dominated with crushed stone (marble, serpentinite, limestone and marl), accompanied by sparse quartz sand grains. The binding mass was colourised with the use of pigments containing iron ions. The occurrence of altered serpentinite and marble grains, the latter clouded and partly replaced with micrite, the presence of portlandite, indicate the terrazzo tiles were subjected to thermal impact. This is related to the fire that took place at the beginning of World War II. Based on this study, repair mortars were formulated, on one hand compatible with the authentic ones, on the other retaining traces of fire.

  12. Improving mental health knowledge of the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London: A partnership project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Aradhana; Gardener, Chelsea; Dove, Jonathan; Eiger, Yocheved; Loewenthal, Kate

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a successful community-based partnership project between statutory and third-sector services targeting the strictly Orthodox Jewish community (OJC). The City and Hackney Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Access Service (East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT)) collaborated with Bikur Cholim, a local third-sector organisation based in the heart of a north London Charedi OJC, to develop a brief culturally tailored psychoeducational group intervention focusing on mental health promotion and prevention. In total, 34 carers in the Charedi OJC were provided with general information on mental health, the availability of support services and self-care. Overall improvements in well-being, increased intentions to access services, particularly talking therapies, and qualitative feedback indicated that the group was very well received. The project endorses the value of culturally relevant psychoeducation, enabling suggestions for culturally appropriate service development.

  13. Purim: Transformation of the role of the holiday in the life of Belgrade Jewish community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on the function of the holiday Purim in the life of Belgrade Jewish community. In diachronic perspective we are looking at general and local characteristics of the holiday, and different levels of its celebration (private, public sphere. In the studied community this holiday has undergone a transformation from a religious to a secular feast followed by revitalization of its religious context. This paper analyzes the mechanisms of various levels of recovery and conceptualization of this holiday, on the institutionalized level and in the form of spontaneous personal initiatives. We are looking at different functions of this holiday in broad social context and their diachronic changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multukulturalizam, migracije savremeni procesi

  14. Migration patterns of the elderly: the case of the American Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwaike, I

    1989-01-01

    "This article examines the growing concentration of the elderly Jewish population of the U.S. in one metropolitan region of the Sun Belt. The principal data sources used are U.S. Census counts of the population with a Yiddish mother tongue or speaking Yiddish at home, as well as 1980 data on the population of Russian ancestry. The limitations of these measures are discussed and data from local community surveys also are presented. The data show that relocation of the elderly from the North, especially to South Florida, has been occurring since the 1950s and accelerated during the 1970s. The need for further study, which may document the migration patterns of elderly members of diverse religions and ethnic groups, is pointed out." excerpt

  15. Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M

    2015-04-01

    Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.

  16. Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Reports for the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Incorporated for Fiscal Years 1999 and 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinhoff, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    As requested, we reviewed the audit reports covering the financial statements of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Incorporated, a federally chartered corporation, for the years...

  17. ‘I Want Them to Learn about Israel and the Holidays’: Jewish Israeli Mothers in Early-Twenty-First-Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the presence of children in the Jewish Israeli emigrant family intensifies their ambivalence about living abroad, but encourages greater involvement with fellow Israelis as they seek to transmit a Jewish Israeli identity and maintain their children’s attachment to the Jewish state. This article explores this assumption by focusing on the experiences of mothering of a group of Israeli emigrants in Britain. Based on twelve oral history interviews, it considers the issues of child socialisation and the mothers’ own social life. It traces how the women created a social network within which to mother and how they tried to ensure their children preserved a Jewish Israeli identity. The article also seeks to question how parenting abroad led the interviewees to embrace cultural and religious traditions in new ways.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Joubert syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as Ashkenazi Jewish, French-Canadian, and Hutterite populations. Related Information What information about a genetic condition ... of many types of cells, including brain cells (neurons) and certain cells in the kidneys and liver. ...

  19. Aristotle, the jewish sages and Solomon in an unpublished collection of sayings, Palabras breves: dichos de sabios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Haro Cortés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edition of an unpublished collection of sayings, of Jewish origin, to be found in Manuscript 5644 of the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, on folios 78V (lxxxv to 84V (lxxxviv. The contents are to be found in the Libro de los buenos proverbios (translated from Arabic into Spanish and Hebrew in the 13th century; in the Pirqué Abot, the only wisdom tractate in the Mishnah; and in the Proverbs of Solomon, part of the Tanakh, i.e. the Hebrew bible. The compilation of the work involved selecting and reorganising materials from various sources, following the editor’s tastes and interests, and giving rise to a new literary product which is a perfect example of the process and techniques involved in the assimilation and transmission of the Jewish wisdom legacy to the Castilian Middle Ages.

  20. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults: a cross-cultural survey of Israeli Jewish and Arab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari; Siam, Ihab; Odlaug, Brian L; Mandelkorn, Uri; Feldman-Weisz, Vera; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-04-01

    We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis. Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings. The lifetime prevalence of SPD was 5.4% in the total sample; it did not differ between genders or within Jewish and Arab subsamples. Severity of depression (pcross-cultural variation in the correlates of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Inclusion of Children With Down Syndrome: Jewish and Muslim Mothers' Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Biton, Anna; Itzhaki, Michal

    The current study examined mothers' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to socially integrate children with Down syndrome (DS) in the family, with children without disabilities and school system. A questionnaire based on a descriptive, cross-sectional design was administered to Jewish and Muslim mothers. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to integrate children with DS. Analysis included a regression test of intention to integrate children with DS and a one-way ANOVA for differences between Jewish and Muslim mothers. Nearly all the Jewish mothers (93.7%) and about half the Muslim mothers (52.8%) had performed screening tests for DS during their pregnancy. All mothers displayed low knowledge level about DS. Being Jewish (t=2.89; p=0.005) and holding more positive beliefs (t=3.39; p=0.001) were associated with a higher intention to socially integrate children with DS. Significant positive correlations were found between beliefs and attitudes (r=0.65; psocially integrate children with DS (r=0.39; psocial inclusion of children with DS are quite positive and the intention to integrate children with DS in the family, with children without disabilities, and in the mainstream school system is high. However, their level of knowledge about DS is low. Nurses, as a critical source of information about DS, should develop an ethno-cultural sensitivity to diverse populations in order to influence attitudes and beliefs regarding the social integration of children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Making America / Makhn Amerike / Haciendo la América Jewish Immigrants Write the Americas (1880-1990)

    OpenAIRE

    Meadvin, Joanna Beth

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a literary and cultural history of the intertwining of Yiddish, Spanish and English in the twentieth-century Americas. I employ a hemispheric lens to argue that across the Americas, Jewish authors imagined national belonging through different engagements with language. The project follows the literary production of eastern European Jews in Buenos Aires and New York—two major urban immigration centers—arguing that linguistic strategies and language politics undergird the s...

  3. Homecoming as a National Founding Myth: Jewish Identity and German Landscapes in Konrad Wolf’s I was Nineteen

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    Ofer Ashkenazi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Konrad Wolf was one of the most enigmatic intellectuals of East Germany. The son of the Jewish Communist playwright Friedrich Wolf and the brother of Markus Wolf—the head of the GDR’s Foreign Intelligence Agency—Konrad Wolf was exiled in Moscow during the Nazi era and returned to Germany as a Red Army soldier by the end of World War Two. This article examines Wolf’s 1968 autobiographical film I was Nineteen (Ich war Neunzehn, which narrates the final days of World War II—and the initial formation of postwar reality—from the point of view of an exiled German volunteer in the Soviet Army. In analyzing Wolf’s portrayals of the German landscape, I argue that he used the audio-visual clichés of Heimat-symbolism in order to undermine the sense of a homogenous and apolitical community commonly associated with this concept. Thrown out of their original contexts, his displaced Heimat images negotiate a sense of a heterogeneous community, which assumes multi-layered identities and highlights the shared ideology rather than the shared origins of the members of the national community. Reading Wolf from this perspective places him within a tradition of innovative Jewish intellectuals who turned Jewish sensibilities into a major part of modern German mainstream culture.

  4. The Association between Land-Use Distribution and Residential Patterns: the Case of Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel

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    Ran GOLDBLATT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of GIS and the availability of high resolution geographic data have improved our ability to investigate the residential segregation in cities and to identify the temporal changes of the spatial phenomena. Using GIS, we have quantitatively and visually analyzed the correspondence between land-use distribution and Arab residential patterns and their changes in the period between 1983 and 2008 in five mixed Arab-Jewish Israeli cities. Results show a correspondence between the dynamics of Arab/Jewish residential patterns and the spatial distribution of various land-uses. Arab residential patterns diffused faster towards areas with relatively inferior land-uses than towards areas with more attractive land-uses, in which a gentrification process occurred. Moreover, large-scale non-residential land-uses act as spatial partitions that divide between Arab and Jewish residential areas. Understanding the association between the urban environment and residential patterns can help in formulating an appropriate social and spatial policy concerning planning of land-uses and design of the built environment in mixed cities.

  5. ‘What is that to us? See to it yourself’ (Mt 27:4: Making atonement and the Matthean portrait of the Jewish chief priests

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    Dorothy Jean Weaver

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To read the Gospel of Matthew within its 1st century religious context is to read an intensely Jewish narrative. Central to the world of this Gospel are the Jerusalem temple, its administrators, the chief priests, and the sacrificial system which they are charged by Jewish law to officiate. This article assesses the Matthean portrait of the Jewish chief priests of Jesus’ day against the scriptural backdrop which lays out their prominent role within Jewish religious life, namely ‘making atonement’ before God for the ‘sins’ of the people. In section one I sketch out the Matthean portrait of the scripturally assigned role of the priests, connecting this portrait to its biblical antecedents. In section two I assess the overall performance of the Matthean chief priests against the backdrop of their assigned role. In section three I address the question of atonement. Crucial here is 27:3–10, the account of Judas Iscariot, who returns his 30 silver coins to the chief priests and says (27:4a; emphasis mine, ‘I have sinned, because I have handed over innocent blood’. Here I highlight Matthew’s ironic modus operandi as he portrays the chief priests’ non-priestly response to Judas. Additionally, I contrast Matthew’s portrait of the Jewish chief priests with a brief portrait of Jesus’ own ministry within the Jewish community, a ministry which fulfils the priestly role abandoned by the chief priests. I conclude my article in section four with brief reflections on the rhetorical impact of Matthew’s portrait of the Jewish chief priests within his overall narrative.

  6. Carrier screening in the era of expanding genetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Aishwarya; Litwack, Karen; Collins, Nick; Charrow, Joel

    2016-12-01

    The Center for Jewish Genetics provides genetic education and carrier screening to individuals of Jewish descent. Carrier screening has traditionally been performed by targeted mutation analysis for founder mutations with an enzyme assay for Tay-Sachs carrier detection. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for higher detection rates regardless of ethnicity. Here, we explore differences in carrier detection rates between genotyping and NGS in a primarily Jewish population. Peripheral blood samples or saliva samples were obtained from 506 individuals. All samples were analyzed by sequencing, targeted genotyping, triplet-repeat detection, and copy-number analysis; the analyses were carried out at Counsyl. Of 506 individuals screened, 288 were identified as carriers of at least 1 condition and 8 couples were carriers for the same disorder. A total of 434 pathogenic variants were identified. Three hundred twelve variants would have been detected via genotyping alone. Although no additional mutations were detected by NGS in diseases routinely screened for in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 26.5% of carrier results and 2 carrier couples would have been missed without NGS in the larger panel. In a primarily Jewish population, NGS reveals a larger number of pathogenic variants and provides individuals with valuable information for family planning.Genet Med 18 12, 1214-1217.

  7. Shaping the Jewish South African Story: Imprints of Memories, Shadows and Silences

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    Phyllis Sakinofsky

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is the thread connecting history, memory and imagination, piecing together alternate truths, unravelling forgotten memories, and making meaning for the teller and her audience. This paper examines the relationship between theory, history and imagination and their combined influence on this writer’s work of fiction. I was born into the South African Jewish community, a homogenous group that migrated from Lithuania around the turn of the twentieth century to seek an alternative to growing antisemitism and poverty, only to find themselves enmeshed in another form of oppression – apartheid – but this time embedded on the side of the oppressor. Antisemitism, the Holocaust, and apartheid permeated the psyche of all Jews in South Africa, and yet the imprints of shadows and silences exhibited themselves in contrasting responses to oppression – ranging from those who supported and benefited from apartheid to opponents and activists who fought the system from within and without. This article is the based on the unexpected outcomes of my PhD which comprised two components: a novel and accompanying dissertation. What I found was that the two streams – creative and academic – fed and nurtured one another to bring to the surface stories that had been generated by academic reading, personal, collective and submerged memories of a diasporic community, and imagination.

  8. Biochemical and clinical studies in Libyan Jewish cystinuria patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, E; Kochba, I; Lubetzky, A; Pras, M; Sidi, Y; Kastner, D L

    1998-11-02

    Cystinuria is a hereditary disorder manifested by the development of kidney stones. Three subtypes of the disease have been described, based on urinary excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in heterozygotes, and oral loading tests in homozygotes. Cystinuria is very common among Libyan Jews living in Israel. Recently, we mapped the disease-causing gene in Libyan Jews to 19q, and have shown a very strong founder effect. In this report we present the results of biochemical and clinical studies performed on Libyan Jewish cystinuria patients and members of their families. High levels of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in heterozygotes support previous data that cystinuria in Libyan Jews is a non-type I disease. Oral loading tests performed with lysine showed some degree of intestinal absorption, but less than in normal controls. Previous criteria for determining the disease type, based solely on urinary amino acid levels, proved useless due to a very wide range of cystine and the dibasic amino acids excreted by the heterozygotes. Urinary cystine levels were useful in distinguishing between unaffected relatives and heterozygotes, but were unhelpful in differentiating between heterozygotes and homozygotes. Urinary levels of ornithine or arginine, and the sum of urinary cystine and the dibasic amino acids, could distinguish between the last two groups. Among stone formers, 90% were homozygotes and 10% were heterozygotes; 15% of the homozygotes were asymptomatic.

  9. Orthodox Jewish Thought Leaders' Insights Regarding BRCA Mutations: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Toby; Popp, Beth

    2017-04-01

    To examine the factors that influence Orthodox Jewish (OJ) thought leaders' perceptions of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) OJ thought leaders' views on genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutation status and (2) insights into this high-risk faith-based minority group and their beliefs about counseling and testing for BRCA mutations. In-depth focus groups and demographic questionnaires were used in this descriptive, qualitative study, which was performed in the cancer center of a 750-bed community teaching hospital in Brooklyn, New York. Participants included 17 OJ thought leaders in a large metropolitan area in the northeastern United States. Four themes emerged that describe the key components of the views of OJ thought leaders regarding genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutation carriers. There was a high level of concern about cancer, recognition that community norms shift, acknowledgment of the role of the rabbi in medical decision making, and concern about the balance between determinism and personal responsibility in utilizing this health care service. The identification of social contributors to the utilization of genetic counseling and testing, as well as identification of solutions to optimize utilization of BRCA testing, supports the philosophic premise or conceptual model that faith-based leaders are crucial to the promotion of culturally sensitive health care delivery. Incorporating faith-based leaders early in health care strategic planning and implementation can translate into communities better utilizing health-related services.

  10. Measles outbreaks affecting children in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEIN-ZAMIR, C.; ZENTNER, G.; ABRAMSON, N.; SHOOB, H.; ABOUDY, Y.; SHULMAN, L.; MENDELSON, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2003 and 2004 two measles outbreaks occurred in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem. The index case of the first outbreak (March 2003) was a 2-year-old unvaccinated child from Switzerland. Within 5 months, 107 cases (mean age 8·3±7·5 years) emerged in three crowded neighbourhoods. The first cases of the second outbreak (June 2004) were in three girls aged 4–5 years in one kindergarten in another community. By November 2004, 117 cases (mean age 7·3±6·5 years) occurred. The virus genotypes were D8 and D4 respectively. Altogether, 96 households accounted for the two outbreaks, with two or more patients per family in 79% of cases. Most cases (91·5%) were unvaccinated. Immunization coverage was lower in outbreak than in non-outbreak neighbourhoods (88·3% vs. 90·3%, P=0·001). Controlling the outbreaks necessitated a culture-sensitive approach, and targeted efforts increased MMR vaccine coverage (first dose) to 95·2%. Despite high national immunization coverage (94–95%), special attention to specific sub-populations is essential. PMID:17433131

  11. Radicalization of the Settlers’ Youth: Hebron as a Hub for Jewish Extremism

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    Geneviève Boucher Boudreau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Hebron has been a hub for radicalization and terrorism throughout the modern history of Israel. This paper examines the past trends of radicalization and terrorism in Hebron and explains why it is still a present and rising ideology within the Jewish communities and organization such as the Hilltop Youth movement. The research first presents the transmission of social memory through memorials and symbolism of the Hebron hills area and then presents the impact of Meir Kahana’s movement. As observed, Hebron slowly grew and spread its population and philosophy to the then new settlement of Kiryat Arba. An exceptionally strong ideology of an extreme form of Judaism grew out of those two small towns. As analyzed—based on an exhaustive ethnographic fieldwork and bibliographic research—this form of fundamentalism and national-religious point of view gave birth to a new uprising of violence and radicalism amongst the settler youth organizations such as the Hilltop Youth movement.

  12. Palestinian and Jewish Israeli-born immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Y; Tyree, A

    1994-01-01

    "This article considers both Arab and Jewish emigration from Israel to the United States, relying on the 5 percent Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) of the 1980 U.S. census. Using the ancestry and language questions to identify Jews and Arabs, we found that over 30 percent of Israeli-born Americans are Palestinian-Arab natives of Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza Strip. While the Jews are of higher educational levels, hold better jobs and enjoy higher incomes than their Arab counterparts, both groups have relatively high socioeconomic characteristics. Both have high rates of self-employment, particularly the Palestinian-Arabs, who appear to serve as middlemen minority in the grocery store business in the cities where they reside. The fact that nearly a third of Israeli-born immigrants are Arabs accounts for the occupational diversity previously observed of Israelis in America but does not account for their income diversity as much as does differences between early and recent immigrants." excerpt

  13. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books. Venice and Jewish Early Modernity

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    Cristiana Facchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1638 two books written by two Venitian rabbis were published in Venice. They were both destined successfully to reach wide circulation over the following decades. This article aims at exploring the intimate connection between Venice, a city which deeply influenced the imagination of European culture during the early modern period, and its Jewish ghetto, the first of its kind to be founded within Catholic lands.The author suggests that it was here in Venice, within the liminal space of the ghetto, that the theory of Jews as merchants, marked by undertones of utilitarianism was finally drafted. It also suggests that, in conjunction with this well-known theory, other theories based on religious tolerance were elaborated.The paper also invites the reader to view the ghetto as a space capable of enacting special religious encounters, mainly driven by an interest in religion and rituals. Therefore, the very specific local and tangible conditions of the urban environment – the city and the ghetto – performed a very important undertaking, for example, debates over the place and role of Jews in Christian society.

  14. Russian women emigrées in psychology: informal Jewish networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, William R

    2010-05-01

    This paper uses archival sources and autobiographies to give a fuller account of the lives of three Russian women psychologists, each of whom voluntarily emigrated several years before the Third Reich. As such, their stories contribute to gender history, emigration history, and ethnic history. The characteristics of second-generation women in psychology seem to apply to this sample; they accepted applied or secondary positions in psychology or allied fields and came late to tenure-track positions. Some first-generation characteristics fit them also: choosing career over marriage, accepting the "family claim," and living "fractured lives." Emigrée history reveals that these women found careers in the United States that could not have happened in the smaller, more restricted higher education networks of Europe. Female friendships and family ties to the Old World sustained them. All struggled with professional networking and had varying success, depending heavily upon the patronage of sympathetic male psychologists. Ethnic history shows that none identified strongly with Judaism, yet all benefited from Jewish mentors and networks of patronage. Evidence of gendered or racial discrimination in hiring practices is sparse, though it surely existed.

  15. Israeli Arab and Jewish youth knowledge and opinion about alcohol warning labels: pre-intervention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S

    1997-01-01

    This article presents baseline data on the opinion toward alcohol beverage warning labels and on levels of knowledge of the risks discussed in the contents of the labels prior to the labels' introduction, and on levels of knowledge of additional alcohol-related hazards not included in the proposed warning labels, among a sample of 3065 adolescents of four religions living in the northern region of Israel. About 2220 Arab participants (Moslems, Christians and Druze) and 845 Jewish respondents answered in the winter of 1996 a Hebrew version of an American questionnaire, which had been used to measure levels of knowledge of the label in the United States. More respondents were in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than on advertisements. Arabs as a group were more in favour of warning labels on alcohol containers than Jews. The initial knowledge levels among the participants were not very high, especially concerning the item 'Drinking impairs the ability to operate machinery' (74.4%) which is included on the proposed warning label, and concerning two hazards which are not included: 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' (54.6%) and 'Drinking increases risk of high blood pressure' (60.4%). Abstainers knew more than drinkers that 'Pregnant women should not drink', 'Drinking increases risk of cancer' and 'Alcohol in combination with other drugs is hazardous'. Implications for public health are discussed and alternative warning messages that might be used to inform the Israeli public of several less well-known hazards are suggested.

  16. Pagan and Jewish Monotheism according to Varro, Plutarch and St Paul : The Aniconic, Monotheistic Beginnings of Rome’s Pagan Cult – Romans 1.19-25 in a Roman Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; Hilhorst, A.; Puech,; Tigchelaar, E.

    2007-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “Pagan and Jewish Monotheism according to Varro, Plutarch and St Paul: The Aniconic, Monotheistic Beginnings of Rome’s Pagan Cult—Romans 1:19-25 in a Roman Context,” in Flores Florentino: Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Early Jewish Studies in Honour of Florentino García Martínez

  17. Novel insertion mutation in a non-Jewish Caucasian type 1 Gaucher disease patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, F.Y.M.; Humphries, M.L. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Ferreira, P. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    1997-01-20

    Gaucher disease is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. It is autosomal recessive, resulting in lysosomal glucocerebrosidase deficiency. Three clinical forms of Gaucher disease have been described: type 1 (nonneuronopathic), type 2 (acute neuronopathic), and type 3 (subacute neuronopathic). We performed PCR-thermal cycle sequence analysis of glucocerebrosidase genomic DNA and identified a novel mutation in a non-Jewish type 1 Gaucher disease patient. It is a C insertion in exon 3 at cDNA nucleotide position 122 and genomic nucleotide position 1626. This mutation causes a frameshift and, subsequently, four of the five codons immediately downstream of the insertion were changed while the sixth was converted to a stop codon, resulting in premature termination of protein translation. The 122CC insertion abolishes a Cac81 restriction endonuclease cleavage site, allowing a convenient and reliable method for detection using RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified glucocerebrosidase genomic DNA. The mutation in the other Gaucher allele was found to be an A{r_arrow}G substitution at glucocerebrosidase cDNA nucleotide position 1226 that so far has only been reported among type 1 Gaucher disease patients. Since mutation 122CC causes a frameshift and early termination of protein translation, it most likely results in a meaningless transcript and subsequently no residual glucocerebrosidase enzyme activity. We speculate that mutation 122CC may result in a worse prognosis than mutations associated with partial activity. When present in the homozygous form, it could be a lethal allele similar to what has been postulated for the other known insertion mutation, 84GG. Our patient, who is a compound heterozygote 122CC/1226G, has moderately severe type 1 Gaucher disease. Her clinical response to Ceredase{reg_sign} therapy that began 31 months ago has been favorable, though incomplete. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Characters and ambivalence in Luke: An emic reading of Luke’s gospel, focusing on the Jewish peasantry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbengu D. Nyiawung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish peasantry as a character group in the Gospel of Luke has, thus far, not really attracted much attention in Lukan scholarship. In cases where it has been studied, scholars have often treated ὄχλος [crowd] and λαὸς [people] as synonymous characters. But the question of Jesus’ identity, as depicted in the New Testament, was crucial to the early church and it is this exact question that animates the relationship between Jesus and the various ‘systems’ functioning as part of Luke’s Gospel. From an etic viewpoint, the context of Luke’s Gospel indicates that Jesus’ leadership was characterised by conflict, opposition and rejection. Therefore, this article attempted, through an emic reading of Luke, to differentiate between (and describe the role played by each of these character groups in Luke’s narrative, focusing on the relationship between Jesus and the Jewish peasantry – with special reference to the ambivalent attitude of the latter. It was argued that each Lukan character group has to be read and understood in terms of their attitude, as well as in the broader context of Luke’s intention with their inclusion and specific description. Therefore the various terminologies used when referring to the Jewish peasantry were also discussed; for any analysis of a biblical character group should begin with a reading of the Greek text, because working only with translations can lead to a misappropriation of the text. In order to attain the goals as set out above, this study used a character group which seemed ambivalent and hypocritical in their attitude to analyse Jesus’ leadership approach.

  19. The Jewish Experience in Poland (2006-2012. Updating A Tentative Bibliography (“Studi Slavisti- ci”, III, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Quercioli Mincer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography updates a previous work mirroring the image of Polish Jewry in the Italian editorial and cultural panorama. The main part of the bibliography covers books translated from Polish (and Yiddish and essays (books and short articles which concern our theme. However its structure differs from that of the previous paper as a short section, devoted to literary works written in different languages (mainly English and Hebrew, but also Italian and one in French has been added. In the Introduction, starting from an article published by Pietro Marchesani in 1979, the author traces a short story of the success of the Polish Jewish theme in Italian Slavic Studies.

  20. Reflections on the Cultural Encounter between the Jews and the Greeks and Romans in Jewish Coin Iconography of the Hellenistic-Roman Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the written and archaeological sources, the numismatic material from the Persian, Hellenistic, and particularly the Roman Imperial periods in Palestine constitutes an almost uninterrupted material source from which detailed knowledge can be drawn concerning the political, cultural and......—by extension—even social processes. In this article examples reflecting the results of the cultural encounter between the Jewish and the Greco-Roman world are discussed, which are well illustrated by the differences in the iconography of the Jewish coinages of the first century BCE and first century CE...

  1. The conceptual model and guiding principles of a supported-education program for Orthodox Jewish persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Avihod, Guy; Aivhod, Guy

    2011-10-01

    An innovative culturally-oriented supported-education program has been established in Israel to address the needs of religious Jewish persons with severe mental illness. This program is utilizing a highly regarded institution in the Orthodox communities, a Beit Midrash, a study hall for religious studies, as a context for rehabilitation. Based on open-ended interviews conducted with the staff members of this program, its conceptual framework and guiding principles have been identified and analyzed. In this program common principles of psychiatric rehabilitation have been adapted and incorporated into a context which has not been known so far as a context for psychiatric rehabilitation. In addition, innovative supported-education methods of work which are compatible with the cultural context of Orthodox Jewish persons have been implemented, such as opportunities provided to the participants to reconstruct their views of their daily struggles and enhance their sense of spirituality via the discussion of socially-oriented religious texts. The culturally-oriented context of the Beit Midrash enables outreach to a population which might otherwise not receive any services. This is a promising model for addressing the unique needs of religious persons with severe mental illness and for filling a gap in the resources available for the rehabilitation of this population in the community.

  2. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 2--the exodus of Jewish dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-09-01

    The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty.

  3. ‘You think your writing belongs to you?’: Intertextuality in Contemporary Jewish Post-Holocaust Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Gwyer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a sub-category of recent Jewish post-Holocaust fiction that engages with the absent memory of the persecution its authors did not personally witness through the medium of intertextuality, but with intertextual recourse not to testimonial writing but to literature only unwittingly or retrospectively shadowed by the Holocaust. It will be proposed that this practice of intertextuality constitutes a response to the post-Holocaust Jewish author’s ‘anxiety of influence’ that, in the wake of the first generation’s experience of atrocity, their own life story and literature will always appear derivative. With reference to works by four such post-Holocaust authors, Jonathan Safran Foer’s Tree of Codes (2010, Maxim Biller’s Im Kopf von Bruno Schulz (2013, Helen Maryles Shankman’s In the Land of Armadillos (2016, and Nicole Krauss’s The History of Love (2005 and Forest Dark (2017, all of which engage intertextually with Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz, it will be suggested that these authors are looking to return to a Kristevan practice of intertextuality after the predominantly citational recourse to antecedent material that has often characterized post-Holocaust literature. In the process, they also succeed in troubling recently popular conceptualizations of ‘postmemory’ literature as the ‘belated’ and ‘evacuated’ recipient of encrypted traumatic content inherited from the first generation that it must now seek either to preserve or to work through vicariously.

  4. In God's Name: Jewish Religious and Traditional Peace and Human Rights Movements in Israel and in the Occupied Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Calabrese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The peace-building activities of several dozens peace and human rights activists from Israeli-Jewish religious and traditional milieus has not received enough attention either from the Israeli and international media or in the academia. Actually, following the Six-day war and the beginning of the Israeli military occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, a certain number of Orthodox Israelis committed to peace and justice founded a Jewish religious peace movement called ‘Oz Ve Shalom’ (‘Strength and Peace’. A few years later, another peace movement called ‘Netivot Shalom’ (‘Paths of Peace’ was founded by Israeli yeshiva students and young new immigrants from the United States. At the end of the 1980s, in the wake of the first Intifada, a small circle of religious and traditional Israeli rabbis committed to the respect of human rights came to the fore and, more recently, a group of Hasidic settlers inspired by the teachings of Rabbi Menahem Froman has created a peace group called ‘Eretz Shalom’ (‘Land of Peace’. This essay, mainly based on primary sources such as periodicals, bulletins, newsletters, monographs, leaflets and other diverse material published by these movements, and on oral testimonies collected by the Author, retraces the history of these religious peace groups in a cohesive framework.

  5. Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety as Barriers to Participation in Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Among Arab and Jewish Patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Reges, Orna; Leibowitz, Morton; Khaskia, Abdulrahim; Mosseri, Morris; Kark, Jeremy D

    2018-05-01

    Despite its proven efficacy, low participation rates in cardiac prevention and rehabilitation programs (CPRPs) prevail worldwide, especially among ethnic minorities. This is strongly evident in Israel's Arab minority. Since psychological distress has been found to be associated with CPRP participation and minorities are subjected to higher levels of distress, it is plausible that distress may be an important barrier for CPRP participation among minority patients. The current prospective study assessed the contribution of depression and anxiety symptoms to participation in a CPRP after acute coronary syndrome, both in the enrollment phase and when considering adherence over time, among Jewish (majority) and Arab (minority) patients in Israel. Patients were interviewed during hospitalization about their emotional status and at a 6-mo follow-up concerning participation in a CPRP. Analyses were performed on 397 patients. The Brief Symptom Inventory was used. Logistic regression modeling was applied. Symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, were frequently observed among Arab patients compared with their Jewish counterparts. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, having symptoms of anxiety was associated with less participation in a CPRP, evident for both Jews and Arabs; this association was less evident for symptoms of depression. Multivariable adjusted models did not show a significant association of symptoms of anxiety or depression with adherence in a CPRP. Accounting for psychological distress did not reduce the sharp difference between Jews and Arabs in CPRP participation. Symptoms of distress may serve as barriers to CPRP participation, regardless of ethnic origin.

  6. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned.

  7. Compassion in Jewish, Christian and Secular Nursing. A Systematic Comparison of a Key Concept of Nursing (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppeli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Background The topos of the Compassionate God is a dominant motive of the Jewish and Christian traditions. It is relevant for nursing because it asks the nurse to imitate God so as to become God-like. Also, to think that God suffers with the suffering believers is thought to give comfort to them. Because in the western world the topos of the Compassionate God represents the basis of the ethics of compassion/caring, this piece of basic research is important for clinical practice. This study explores to what extent Jewish and Christian nursing adhered to the biblical topos of the Compassionate God at different periods and in different cultural contexts. Method A mixed methods approach was used. It included variations of hermeneutical text analysis as used in historical, philosophical, theological, science of religion, and nursing research. Results The analysis of the literary sources shows that the topos of the Compassionate God was interpreted differently in different cultural contexts. However, at all times it directed religious and secular nursing. Since the beginning of the 21st century it builds the core of “compassionate caring” as propagated by North American nursing science. Conclusions The topos of the Compassionate God laid the foundation of the tradition of the ethics of compassion in nursing. More research is required to learn whether it also plays a role in Islamic nursing. PMID:23908713

  8. Informing the patient about a fatal disease: from paternalism to autonomy--the Jewish view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Until the late 20th century, withholding a fatal diagnosis functioned as a paradigm for sharing other medical information with patients. The obligation of confidentiality was emphasized and disclosure was ignored. Ethicists perceived the doctor-patient relationship as oriented to therapy, reassurance, and avoiding harm. Physicians were to provide lies and truth instrumentally only insofar as they aided therapy (Jameton, A. Information disclosure. Ethical issues. In Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Revised Ed.; Reich, T.N.T., Ed.; MacMillan: New York, 1995; Vol. 3, 1225-1232). This was the era of paternalism. Since the 1960s, opinion on the role of disclosure was changed rapidly in the United States stimulated by the patient's rights movement and the rise of bioethics. The current climate supports honest and complete disclosure of medical information. In 1972, the Board of Trustees of the American Hospital Association affirmed A Patient's Bill of Rights, which states that the patient has the right to obtain from his physician complete current information concerning his diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in terms the patient can be reasonably expected to understand (Lee, A.L.; Jacobs, G. Workshop airs patient's rights. Hospitals 1973, 47, 39-43). Bioethicists now favor full disclosure as a means of respecting patient autonomy (Katz, J. The Silent World of Doctor and Patient; Free Press: New York, 1984). The American College of Physician Ethics Manual states that disclosure to patients is a fundamental ethical requirement (American College of Physicians. American College of Physicians Ethics Manual, 3rd Ed. Ann. Intern. Med. 1992, 117, 947-960). The era of patient autonomy ended the traditional pattern of withholding information, which was characteristic of the previous era of paternalism. The Jewish view toward full disclosure of a fatal illness to a patient and especially a patient who is terminally ill is in general a negative one because of the fear that the patient

  9. ‚The Spirit of the Time Left its Stamp on These Works‘. Writing the History of the Shoah at the Jewish Historical Institute in Stalinist Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2016), s. 185-211 ISSN 2084-3518 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-01775Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Jewish history * holocaust memory Subject RIV: AB - History http://www.enrs.eu/studies_files/4/

  10. The Desecration of "the Most Holy Temple of All the World" in the "Holy Land" : Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ "Abomination of Desolation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; van Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M.; de Vos, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Desecration of ‘the Most Holy Temple of All the World’ in the ‘Holy Land’: Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ ‘Abomination of Desolation,’” in The Land of Israel in Bible, History, and Theology: Studies in Honour of Ed Noort (ed. Jacques van

  11. Governing Refugee Space: The Quasi-Carceral Regime of Amsterdam’s Lloyd Hotel, a German-Jewish Refugee Camp in the Prelude to World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felder, M.; Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Through analysing the correspondence between key refugee camp commanders based at Amsterdam's Lloyd Hotel and different authorities involved in Dutch refugee matters, this paper examines how "the Dutch state" responded to German-Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany in the prelude to World War II.

  12. Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petrović Todosijević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to illustrate the role the municipal authorities in Šabac, which were headed by wartime mayor Branko Petrović, and which were part of Milan Aćimović’s collaborationist administration and Milan Nedić’s government, played in the process of usurping the right to property of the Jewish people from Šabac and from the Kladovo Transport, initially through the Committee for Registration and Evaluation of Jewish Property, and later through the Commissariat for Jewish Property.   Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Petrović Todosijević, Sanja. "Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 5-15. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.181

  13. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  14. "It's Part of the Fabric": Creating Context for the Successful Involvement of an Outside Expert of Jewish Early Childhood Education in School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David L.; Gorsetman, Chaya R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of outside experts in professional development in Jewish schools has been questioned in light of scholarly critique of this approach. This case study examines the sociocultural context of one such long-term project aimed at school improvement through early childhood (EC) curriculum development. The research identifies cultural…

  15. Negative Stereotypes of Ethnic Out-groups: A Longitudinal Examination Among Palestinian, Israeli Jewish, and Israeli Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Shikaki, Khalil; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir

    2014-01-01

    Ethno-political conflict impacts thousands of youth globally and has been associated with a number of negative psychological outcomes. Extant literature has mostly addressed the adverse emotional and behavioral outcomes of exposure while failing to examine change over time in social-cognitive factors in contexts of ethno-political conflict. Using cohort-sequential longitudinal data, the present study examines ethnic variation in the development of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups among Palestinian (n=600), Israeli Jewish (n=451), and Israeli Arab (n=450) youth over three years. Age and exposure to ethno-political violence were included as covariates for these trajectories. Findings indicate important ethnic differences in trajectories of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups, as well as variation in how such trajectories are shaped by prolonged ethno-political conflict. PMID:27019573

  16. Cultural aspects within caregiver interactions of ultra-orthodox Jewish women and their family members with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Penina; Shor, Ron; Hadas-Lidor, Naomi

    2013-10-01

    The role of cultural dynamics and norms within families of persons with mental illness has been an underexplored subject, although the familial context has been recognized as influential. This subject was studied with 24 ultra-Orthodox Jewish mothers of persons with mental illness who live in a relatively closed religious community. While participating in the Keshet educational program designed for family caregivers in mental health, they wrote Meaningful Interactional Life Episodes that involved a dialogue exchange in their lives. Qualitative analysis of 50 episodes illuminates the significant role that religious and cultural norms have in the perceptions of what are considered stressors and the dynamics in these families surrounding these stressors. The necessity and value of incorporating cultural competence into family educational programs and interventions is emphasized, as this may contribute to the potential use and success of mental health service models within a population that essentially underutilizes these services. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2017-07-01

    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  18. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  19. Prevalence of obesity among Arab school children in Nazareth, Israel: comparison with national (Jewish) and international data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E; Marcus, O; Joubran, S; Abdo, B; Asal, N R

    2013-12-01

    Lack of published data. Absence of Ethnic specific data. Lack of focus on obesity prevention in Arab schools. First set of data on obesity for Arab children. Data will be used as reference data. Alert health/school official for intervention. Objective The objective is to produce the first set of obesity prevalence data and use the data as reference values of body mass index (BMI) trends for Arab children in Israel and compare with Jewish and international data. Methods A prevalence study was carried out in 2009 in which 4130 children aged 6-12, were selected from eight Arab sector schools representing the Nazareth Municipality. Height, weight and BMI measurements were obtained and presented by age, mean age, size, weight, gender and percentile. Appropriate epidemiological and statistical methods used for comparison. Results The obesity and overweight prevalence rates in Arab children by age ranges from 0% to 2.6% and 0% to 11.2%, respectively. Comparison with international and Jewish data revealed differences in almost all age groups but higher rates in Arabs, especially boys. Discussion The higher rates/trends in Arab children may be explained by more Arab women entering the workforce, increase in single-parent families and changes in food and physical activity environments. Conclusion Based on our data, we recommend either an ethnic-specific BMI reference curves and/or inclusion of Arab data in the Israeli data system. Research need to focus on reasons for the increase and interventions to reverse/slow the trend. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Online health information seeking among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel: results from a national school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, Yehuda; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Feldman, Becca S; Hirsch Allen, A J; Shtarkshall, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and determinants of seeking online health information among a nationally representative sample of 7,028 Jewish and Arab 7th- through 12th-grade students in 158 schools in Israel. Nearly all respondents (98.7%) reported Internet access, and 52.1% reported having sought online health information in the past year. Arab students (63%) were more likely than Jewish students (48%) to seek online health information. Population-group and sex differences in health topics sought online were identified, although fitness/exercise was most common across groups. Multivariate regression models revealed that having sought health information from other sources was the strongest independent correlate of online health information-seeking among Jews (adjusted odds ratio = 8.93, 95% CI [7.70, 10.36]) and Arabs (adjusted odds ratio = 9.77, 95% CI [7.27, 13.13]). Other factors associated with seeking online health information common to both groups were level of trust in online health information, Internet skill level, having discussed health/medical issues with a health care provider in the past year, and school performance. The most common reasons for not seeking online health information were a preference to receive information from a health professional and lack of interest in health/medical issues. The closing of the digital divide between Jews and Arabs represents a move toward equality. Identifying and addressing factors underpinning online health information-seeking behaviors is essential to improve the health status of Israeli youth and reduce health disparities.

  1. JEWISH IDEA: FROM KING TEMPLE TO KING STATE YAHUDİ İDEASI: KRAL MABEDİNDEN KRAL DEVLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YİĞİTOĞLU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on a process that has become the main problem of Judaism. As the subject, this article is reflectiton the world and the beyond world of the point of view of Judaism. This actually means that the analysis in general terms the history of Jewish thought. Although concentrated in the research issue is not exactly a history of thought. But this article examines the structure of Judaism directly. Firstly in this research discusses King Solomon’s temple which was built as an indicator of Judaism is institutionalized and the idea of Jewish towards to King State. Bu çalışma Yahudiliğin temel sorunu haline gelen bir süreci ele almaktadır. Konu itibari ile Yahudiliğin dünyaya ve dünya ötesine bakış açısını yansıtmaktadır. Bu, aslında Yahudi düşünce tarihinin genel anlamda analizi demektir. Gerçi araştırmanın yoğunlaştığı husus tam anlamıyla bir düşünce tarihi değildir. Ancak alan itibariyle Yahudiliğin doğrudan yapısını inceleyen bir duruma haizdir.Araştırmada ilk olarak Yahudiliğin kurumsallaştığının bir göstergesi olan Kral Süleyman’ın inşa ettirdiği mabed; önemi, konumu ve etkisi gibi hususiyetleriyle tarihsel bir çerçevede ele alınmış, nihayetinde Kral Devlete doğru giden bir Yahudi düşüncesine yer verilmiştir.

  2. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18-44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual attraction and practices, commercial sex-work, as well as condom and substances' use. Additionally, participants were asked to identify themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. National estimates regarding prevalence of risk-behaviors and HIV-infection among MSM were based on the Statistical Abstract of Israel and the National HIV Registry, respectively. Of the total sample of 997 men, 11.9% reported lifetime male sex encounters, while 4.5% and 3.7% self-identified as gay or bisexual, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gays/bisexuals aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and in Tel-Aviv 33,839. HIV prevalence among MSM was estimated at 0.7% in Israel and 1.0% in Tel-Aviv. MSM were more likely to live in Tel-Aviv, had higher levels of education, and were scored higher on several determinants of sexual risk in comparison to those attracted to women, including early sexual debut, greater number of sexual partners, ever paid/been paid for sex, sexually coerced, and substance use. In conclusion, MSM were involved in greater risk behaviors than those who only had female sex partners. Most MSM were living in Tel-Aviv and their estimated HIV prevalence was 1.0%.

  3. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  4. Mixed Marriages in the Jewish Community: An Aberration or a Social Norm? [Małżeństwa mieszane w społeczności żydowskiej – aberracja czy norma społeczna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna CUKRAS-STELĄGOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the specific nature of mixed marriages in the Jewish community. According to many community leaders and representatives of social sciences, this issue should be taken into account in the first place, especially in the context of questions about changes, challenges and threats faced by the Jewish community today. This article examines several research reports on the effects of intermarriages on children in the United States, Britain, France, the Netherlands and Germany. Reference is also made to the situation of Polish Jewry – the main features of the cultural awareness of Jewish families: their attitude toward their cultural capital in the context of the history of Polish-Jewish relations and problems such as intermarriage, the generation gap or emigration to Israel.

  5. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  6. Violent or Tolerant Attitudes toward Deviation from Gender Norms? Insights from Israelite and Early Jewish Religion into the Uneven Distribution of Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Through an analysis of how Israelite and early Jewish texts have promoted five gender norms to secure cultural survival, this chapter argues that gender deviation is tolerated if deviation contributes to preventing loss of land and the weakening of cultural boundaries. In the transition from...... is any sign of culture pushing aside its categories, norms, and boundaries in situations where cultural survival or salvation is being threatened. Based on these insights from Jewish history, this paper criticises the encouragement of Judith Butler in Precarious Life to admit to the face of deviant...... others, especially of those who seem to pose a threat, as a strategy to reduce violence and make the distribution of intelligibility, vulnerability, and ‘mournability’ more even — not because I do not share Butler’s objectives of reducing violence against deviant others, but because the strategy runs...

  7. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  8. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  9. Before the Exodus: Czechoslovakia as a Transit Country for Jewish Refugees from Poland Until the Pogrom in Kielce, 1945-1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friedl, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2017), s. 129-154 ISSN 0084-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01233S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Jewish refugees * Czechoslovakia * Poland * Bricha Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  10. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    at a construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...

  11. Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Raider

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

  12. Professor Dr Med Oskar Fehr: the fate of an outstanding German-Jewish ophthalmologist: an early contributor to cornea and external disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Mannis, Mark J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to recount the immense and abrupt change in the private and professional life of a prominent German-Jewish ophthalmologist in the transition from democracy to dictatorship in Germany during the first half of the 20th century. This involves a Retrospective analysis of Fehr's clinical and scientific work as the first assistant of Julius Hirschberg's world-famous eye clinic in Berlin; evaluation of Fehr's successful tenure as a chair of Virchow's Eye Hospital; the catastrophic influence of Hitler's seizure of power on the private and professional lives of German-Jewish physicians; and an analysis of Fehr's personal and professional will to continue the practice of medicine in England. Oskar Fehr published >50 articles and was the first to describe the endemic swimming pool conjunctivitis. He was the first to specifically distinguish granular, lattice, and macular corneal dystrophies. Professor Oskar Fehr was the chair of one of the most important eye clinics in Germany for nearly 30 years. The "Anti-Jewish Medical Laws" with their terrible consequences on private and professional lives led to Fehr's emigration from his homeland to England in 1939. He obtained a British medical doctor degree after 4 years of study, and at an advanced age, he demonstrated his determination to practice ophthalmology successfully in London. Oskar Fehr died in London on August 1, 1959.

  13. Belonging and Longing of the Beautiful Jewess and the Jewish Villain in the Nineteenth-Century German, English and French Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Jeannine Bartlett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antithetic pair of the Jewish Villain and his daughter the Beautiful Jewess made their entry into literature with Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’ and Marlowe’s ‘The Jew of Malta’. Nineteenth-century non-Jewish novelists re-use them to reflect their ambiguous feelings towards Jews. As an object of conquest and conversion, the character of the Beautiful Jewess is portrayed as belonging to the Bible and the Orient. Due to his resistance to conversion the Jewish villain is confined to the fading ghettos where he withdraws into an inanimate world of his own creation. Although following different paths, their longing to belong to society is denied. At the end of the nineteenth century a passage from religious to racial Anti-Semitism takes place, leading them back to the status of pariah. From now on both of them are accused of coveting the money of a decadent aristocracy, who is struggling to cope with economic change. She is reduced to a prostitute and he to a dangerous cosmopolitan parvenu, exposing the shattered values of nineteenth-century society.

  14. Attitudes of Bedouin and Jewish Physicians Towards the Medical Care for Persons with Intellectual Disability in the Bedouin Negev Community. A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Change in the attitudes of staff or the public towards people with intellectual disability (ID can impact their life and health, but that change has not been studied among physicians who belong to an ethnic minority undergoing dramatic social and economic transition. The goal of this study was to explore the change of attitudes of Negev Bedouin physicians serving their community and their satisfaction with policy, care, and knowledge in the field of ID. Seventeen community physicians (7 Bedouins and 10 Jewish were interviewed using a simple questionnaire that consisted of items measuring attitude and satisfaction. The vast majority of the Bedouin and Jewish physicians had positive attitudes toward inclusion of those in the community with ID and were ready to provide the care needed in the community with special assistance. There was a need for further education in ID and more resources. There was a belief that there is discrimination between the Bedouin and Jewish community in the provision of care to people with ID. General dissatisfaction was expressed about the policy, resources, care provision, and expertise offered to Bedouins with ID. More efforts must be directed to empower the physicians with knowledge, expertise, and resources to handle the care of Bedouins with ID in a culturally appropriate way.

  15. Improving access to mental health care in an Orthodox Jewish community: a critical reflection upon the accommodation of otherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Williamson, Tracey; Kada, Raphael; Frazer, Debra; Dhliwayo, Chardworth; Gask, Linda

    2017-08-14

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has significantly extended the supply of evidence based psychological interventions in primary care for people experiencing common mental health problems. Yet despite the extra resources, the accessibility of services for 'under-served' ethnic and religious minority groups, is considerably short of the levels of access that may be necessary to offset the health inequalities created by their different exposure to services, resulting in negative health outcomes. This paper offers a critical reflection upon an initiative that sought to improve access to an NHS funded primary care mental health service to one 'under-served' population, an Orthodox Jewish community in the North West of England. A combination of qualitative and quantitative data were drawn upon including naturally occurring data, observational notes, e-mail correspondence, routinely collected demographic data and clinical outcomes measures, as well as written feedback and recorded discussions with 12 key informants. Improvements in access to mental health care for some people from the Orthodox Jewish community were achieved through the collaborative efforts of a distributed leadership team. The members of this leadership team were a self-selecting group of stakeholders which had a combination of local knowledge, cultural understanding, power to negotiate on behalf of their respective constituencies and expertise in mental health care. Through a process of dialogic engagement the team was able to work with the community to develop a bespoke service that accommodated its wish to maintain a distinct sense of cultural otherness. This critical reflection illustrates how dialogic engagement can further the mechanisms of candidacy, concordance and recursivity that are associated with improvements in access to care in under-served sections of the population, whilst simultaneously recognising the limits of constructive dialogue. Dialogue can change the dynamic of

  16. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  17. The Relationship between Multiple Commitments and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Arab and Jewish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relation between multiple commitments (organizational commitment, occupational commitment, job involvement, and group commitment), ethnicity, and cultural values (individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity) with organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and in-role…

  18. Experiencing memory museums in Berlin. The Otto Weidt Workshop for the Blind Museum and the Jewish Museum Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Souto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores memory studies from the audience’s perspective, focusing on the perception of Holocaust narratives in two museums in Berlin. This research builds on and contributes to a number of emerging issues on memory studies, tourism perception and museum design: the debate on experiential authenticity, Dark Tourism, as well as the analysis of memory studies from the perspective of the user. The main data facilitating the analysis is based on responses shared on TripAdvisor; the case studies being the Otto Weidt Workshop for the Blind Museum and the Jewish Museum Berlin. The analysis of these museums, focusing on their narratives, design features and comments from visitors, will highlight a potential shift from the traditional object-focused museum, to a phenomenological subject-focused one. It will be argued, then, that the understanding and consumption of authenticity encompasses a very flexible definition, not only based on the nature of the objects exhibited, but on the production of authentic experiences.

  19. Moderating Effects of Religiousness and Marriage Duration on the Relation Between Sexual and Marital Satisfaction Among Jewish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aryeh

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of religiousness and relationship duration on the association between sexual and marital satisfaction. For this purpose, 240 married Jewish women-religious and secular-responded to an online survey. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that religiousness moderated the association between sexual and marital satisfaction which was found to be stronger for secular women than for religious women. Relationship duration also moderated the association between sexual and marital satisfaction which was found to be stronger for longer marital duration than for shorter marital duration. In addition, a significant three-way interaction (religiousness × relationship duration × sexual satisfaction) was also found where the association between the two types of satisfaction was stronger for religious women married for a longer time in comparison with those married for a shorter time. For secular women, relationship duration did not moderate the relation between sexual and marital satisfaction. An explanation based on differences in the manner in which religious and secular women perceive and relate to the sexual aspects of their marital relationship at different stages of the marriage is offered.

  20. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

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    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  1. Gaucher disease: molecular heterogeneity and phenotype-genotype correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilus, B; Latham, T; Grabowski, G A; Smith, F I

    1989-08-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease. This autosomal recessive trait results from the defective activity of acid beta-glucosidase (beta-Glc). Four different exonic point mutations have been identified as causal alleles for GD. To facilitate screening for these alleles, assays were developed using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNA sequences. Specifically, intron bases flanking exons 5, 9, and 10 were determined, and conditions for PCR amplification of these exons were obtained. Two different procedures were developed to distinguish signals obtained from the structural beta-Glc gene exons and those from the pseudogene. These procedures were used to determine the distribution of all known GD alleles in a population of 44 affected patients of varying phenotypes and ethnicity. The high frequency of one of the exon 9 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish GD type 1 patients was confirmed, and, in addition, this mutation was present in ethnically diverse non-Jewish type 1 GD patients. Homozygotes (N = 5) for this allele were midly affected older individuals, and this mutant allele was not found in any patient with neuronopathic disease. The exon 10 mutation was confirmed as the predominant allele in types 2 and 3 GD. However, several type 1 GD patients, including one of Ashkenazi-Jewish heritage, also were heterozygous for this allele. The presence of this allele in type 1 patients did not correlate with the severity of clinical symptoms. The second exon 9 mutation and the exon 5 mutation were rare, since they occurred only heterozygously either in one type 2 GD patient or in two related Ashkenazi-Jewish GD patients, respectively. Although most GD patients (38 of 44) had at least one of the known mutant alleles, 57% were heterozygotes for only one of these mutations. Fourteen percent of patients were negative for all mutations. A total of 73% of GD patients had at least one unknown allele. The varying clinical

  2. What do women gain from volunteering? The experience of lay Arab and Jewish women volunteers in the Women for Women's Health programme in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Laufer, Neri; Verbov, Gina; Bar-El, Hagar; Abu-Gosh, Nasreen; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo

    2010-03-01

    Ambiguous feelings regarding women engaging in formal volunteering and concerns about their exploitation might explain the dearth of studies regarding the volunteering benefits specifically experienced by low socioeconomic status women. The current study examined benefits of volunteering among women participating in Women for Women's Health (WWH), a lay health volunteers (LHV) programme implemented in Jewish and Arab communities in Israel, and aiming at empowering such women to become active volunteers and promote health activities in their communities. Two years after the introduction of WWH in each community, all 45 Jewish and 25 Arab volunteers were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the focus group discussions. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25/42 Jewish volunteers in 2003 and four with 20/25 Arab volunteers in 2005. The other volunteers could not attend the scheduled meetings or became inactive for personal reasons. Four benefit categories were identified in both ethnic groups: 1. Personal benefits of having increased knowledge, feeling self-satisfaction, mastering new skills and performing healthy behaviours; 2. Group-social benefits of social support and sense of cohesion; 3. Purposive benefits of achieving the WWH mission and goals; 4. Sociopolitical benefits of learning to accept the other and experiencing increased solidarity. However, the relatively less privileged Arab volunteers enumerated more benefits within the personal and purposive categories. They also identified the unique sociocultural category of improving women's status in the community by creating a legitimate space for women by public sphere involvement, traditionally solely a male domain. We conclude that volunteering in community-based health promotion programmes can be an empowering experience for lay women without being exploitative. Positive volunteering benefits will be even more discernable among underprivileged women who enjoy fewer opportunities in

  3. A cross-cultural perspective of medical clowning: comparison of its effectiveness in reducing pain and anxiety among hospitalized Bedouin and Jewish Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Negari, Zehavit; Abu-Kaf, Sarah; Huss, Ephrat; Hain, Gavriel; Moser, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre-post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included 89 children whose ages ranged from 7.5 to 12 years (39 Jewish and 50 Bedouin) and 69 parents (19 Jewish and 50 Bedouin). Questionnaires assessing pain, anxiety, and demographics were used at the pre-intervention stage and pain, anxiety, and enjoyment of different aspects of the intervention were evaluated following the intervention. The intervention stage lasted for 8-10 minutes and included the use of word play, body language, and making faces, as well as the use of props brought by the clown. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted at the post-intervention stage. The intervention reduced pain and anxiety among both groups of children and reduced anxiety among both groups of parents. However, anxiety levels were reduced more significantly among Bedouin children. The nonverbal components of the clowns' humor were most central, but it was the verbal components that mediated the reduction in anxiety among the Bedouin children. This study underscored the effectiveness and importance of medical clowning in reducing pain and anxiety among children in different cultural contexts. Moreover, the issue of culturally appropriate humor was underscored and implications for intercultural clown training are discussed.

  4. Stemcell Information: SKIP000843 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GBA+/N370S 10001.197.01 10001.197.01 パーキンソン病 G20 Parkinson Disease 168600 ... 68 60-69 Male Ashkenazi J...ewish ... Ashkenazi Jewish ... Yes No Transgene-free iPS cells from Monozygotic twin brother of Parkinson Disease ....023 iPSC-derived dopamine neurons reveal differences between monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson...patient.Using CytoTune iPS Sendai reprogramming protocol (Life Technologies). パーキンソン

  5. Stemcell Information: SKIP000844 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 370S 10001.198.01 10001.198.01 パーキンソン病 G20 Parkinson Disease 168600 ... 68 60-69 Male Ashkenazi Jewish ... ...Ashkenazi Jewish ... Yes No Transgene-free iPS cells from Parkinson Disease patient who has Monozygotic twin br....023 iPSC-derived dopamine neurons reveal differences between monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson...other.Using CytoTune iPS Sendai reprogramming protocol (Life Technologies). 一卵性双生児のパーキンソン

  6. Women with shaved heads: western Buddhist nuns and Haredi Jewish wives: polysemy, universalism and misinterpretations of hair symbolism in pluralistic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Niculescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female hair, or rather the absence of hair: it compares the symbols attached to shaved heads for Western Buddhist nuns and for Jewish married women from various Haredi or ‘ultra-orthodox’ groups, and the (mainly negative representations of these in the external, secular society.The comparison is based on fieldwork research undertaken by the author. When interviewing Western nuns of Jewish origin, it appeared that their shaved heads had been very difficult to cope with for their families, to whom it was a reminder of the Holocaust. The same body treatment can thus represent, on one side, bliss (for the Buddhist nun for whom it is a symbol of libertation and spiritual engagement, and on the other side, horror (for her family and sometimes, out of a Buddhist context, society. Also, the same body treatment can be used to express celibacy for the Buddhist nun, or marriage for the Haredi, or ultra-orthodox woman. Therefore the meaning of head shaving seems to be fluctuating and contextual: it can mean either­ religious commitment, or punishment, or disease.

  7. On the Jewish Nature of Medieval Spanish Biblical Translations Linguistic Differences between Medieval and Post-Exilic Spanish Translations of the Bible

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    Schwarzwald, Ora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A linguistic comparison of medieval Spanish translations of the Hebrew Bible and the Constantinople and Ferrara post exilic Ladino translations reveals systematic lexical and grammatical variations. These differences can be explained by the population groups to which the translations were targeted: Christian for the medieval translations; Jewish (or former converso for the post-exilic ones. The conclusion is that the medieval translations are not Jewish in nature and could therefore not have been a source for the post-exilic versions which were based on oral tradition.

    Una comparación lingüística de las traducciones hispano-medievales de la Biblia hebrea y las postexílicas de Constantinopla y Ferrara revela variaciones sistemáticas léxicas y gramaticales. Esas diferencias pueden explicarse por la audiencia a las que iban dirigidas dichas traducciones: cristiana, en el caso de las medievales; judía (o exconversa en el de las post-exílicas. La autora concluye que las traducciones medievales no son judías, por naturaleza, y en consecuencia, no podrían haber sido una fuente para las versiones post-exílicas que estaban basadas en la tradición oral.

  8. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; Poverprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; Poverprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  9. Mental Health and Coping Patterns in Jewish Gay Men in Israel: The Role of Dual Identity Conflict, Religious Identity, and Partnership Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Zevulun, Attara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dual-identity conflict, religious identity (religious/spiritual vs. sexual), and partnership status on the coping strategies and mental health of gay Jewish men in modern Israeli society. Participants were 73 religious and 71 secular gay men recruited via e-mail, social networking sites, and online resources targeting sexual minority men. Participants were assessed via measures of identity conflict, mental health, and coping strategies. Jewish gay men who reported more severe identity conflict also reported using less problem-focused and avoidance coping and more emotion-focused coping strategies and reported poorer mental health than their less identity-conflicted counterparts. Furthermore, gay men who self-identified as religious reported poorer mental health as well as less problem-focused coping and more emotion-focused coping compared to secular men. Religious gay men in romantic relationships reported lower intensities of dual-identity conflict and better mental health compared to their nonpartnered counterparts.

  10. Review: Birgit Schreiber (2006. Versteckt. Jüdische Kinder im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland und ihr Leben danach [Hidden. Jewish Children in National Socialist Germany and Their Lives Afterwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Griese

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In her empirical study, Hidden. Jewish children in National Socialist Germany and their lives afterwards, Birgit SCHREIBER analyses five autobiographical interviews. She presents different perspectives to the reader: a the contemporary, political dimension of the topic concerning German history and recollection, b the (problematic structures of communication between German Jews and non-Jewish Germans (keywords: "crisis of witnesses", c a narrative prospect and analysis, and d a psychoanalytic access of the life stories of traumatized people. Its special potentials—partly innovation and, at the same time, its soft spots—lie in these "multidimensional prospects" of the study. On the one hand, it seems to be unclear where to put the emphasis; is it an Oral-History study, a structural narration, mainly autobiographical work or psychoanalytically substantiated research? On the other hand, the different perspectives allow a sensitive way of dealing with specific forms of communication and meeting and providing a special, empathetic way of analyzing data. Above all, this "mixture" offers the possibility of a wide discussion of basic topics within qualitative research—especially the relation between science and therapy, ethics in research and the construction of an empirically grounded typology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703166

  11. Anti-Jewish Prejudices, Antisemitic Ideologies, Open Violence: Antisemitism in European Comparison from the 1870s to the First World War. A Commentary

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    Reinhard Rürup

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting the achievements of comparative historical research, this paper tries to outline the new feature of European antisemitism since the late 19th century. Political antisemitism is presented as a protest movement against the modern society, and the new term antisemitism was immediately adopted into European languages. The Christian churches, too, shared in the making of antisemitism and its struggle against liberalism, capitalism and secularisation. Although only in a few European countries did specifically antisemitic parties take part in general elections, nearly all European antisemites shared fundamental antisemitic convictions.In conclusion the papers points to some methodological problems of researches on antisemitism, from the danger of isolating the object of study to the overestimation of the dimensions of antisemitism, given that antisemitic actions are more likely documented than forms of coexistence between Jews and Christians. Furthermore, it is argued that too little attention is given to the opposing forces against antisemitism, or to the integration of Jews into general society, or to the support, Jewish politicians received from non-Jewish voters, as may be demonstrated, for example by the German working class movement. The paper concludes with a remark that despite the radical agitation and even in the face of the acts of violence against Jews, the impact of political antisemitism remained limited until the First World War.

  12. Increasing trend of HIV/AIDS among Arab and Jewish male persons in Israel, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Z; Grayeb, E; Beany, A; Grotto, I

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the HIV/AIDS burdens in Jewish and Arab Israeli males, as HIV/AIDS affects different population groups disproportionally. The National HIV/AIDS Registry (NHAR) was used as the source of HIV/AIDS infection records, while the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics was used to determine group-specific disease rates. Between 1986 and 2010, 3499 HIV/AIDS-infected male Israelis were reported to the NHAR: 3369 (96.3%) Jews and 130 (3.7%) Arabs, with an average annual incidence of 5.5 and 0.8 per 100 000 of the population, respectively (P = 0.05). Of the Jews, 1018 (29.9%) were born in Ethiopia, while 2389 were Jews who were not Ethiopian-born (JNE). Most of the Arabs (n = 99; 74.8%) were Muslims, followed by Christians (21; 16.2%) and Druze (13; 10%). AIDS rather than HIV infection at the time of reporting was diagnosed in 568 (23.8%) of the JNE and 31 (23.8%) of the Arabs (p = 1). The most affected age group was those aged 25-34 years among the JNE and those aged 20-24 years among the Arabs, and the respective cumulative death rates were 24.9% (n = 594) and 32.5% (n = 40) (P = 0.1). The point prevalences in 2010 were 58.4 and 11.4 per 100 000 for JNE and Arabs, and in adults aged 15-59 years they were 71.5 and 26.3 per 100 000, respectively. In Muslims, Christians and Druze, the point prevalences were 4.2, 11.2 and 7.1 per 100 000, and in adults aged 15-59 years they were 22.6, 42.9 and 29.4, respectively. The most common risk group among JNE was men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 1223; 51.2%), followed by injecting drug users (n = 661; 27.7%), while among Arabs it was MSM (n = 63; 48.1%), followed by heterosexuals (n = 36; 27.3%). The HIV/AIDS burden in Israeli Arab males was significantly lower than that in Jews, and in both populations the most common risk group was MSM, with the proportion of MSM increasing with time. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  13. Searching the Internet for psychiatric disorders among Arab and Jewish Israelis: insights from a comprehensive infodemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Israel represents a complex and pluralistic society comprising two major ethno-national groups, Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, which differ in terms of religious and cultural values as well as social constructs. According to the so-called “diversification hypothesis”, within the framework of e-health and in the era of new information and communication technologies, seeking online health information could be a channel to increase health literacy, especially among disadvantaged groups. However, little is known concerning digital seeking behavior and, in particular, digital mental health literacy. This study was conducted in order to fill in this gap. Concerning raw figures, unadjusted for confounding variables (time, population size, Internet penetration index, disease rate, “depression” searched in Hebrew was characterized by 1.5 times higher search volumes, slightly declining throughout time, whereas relative search volumes (RSVs related to “depression” searched in Arabic tended to increase over the years. Similar patterns could be detected for “phobia” (in Hebrew 1.4-fold higher than in Arabic and for “anxiety” (with the searches performed in Hebrew 2.3 times higher than in Arabic. “Suicide” in Hebrew was searched 2.0-fold more than in Arabic (interestingly for both languages search volumes exhibited seasonal cyclic patterns. Eating disorders were searched more in Hebrew: 8.0-times more for “bulimia”, whilst “anorexia” was searched in Hebrew only. When adjusting for confounding variables, association between digital seeking behavior and ethnicity remained statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001 for all psychiatric disorders considered in the current investigation, except for “bulimia” (p = 0.989. More in details, Israeli Arabs searched for mental health disorders less than Jews, apart from “depression”. Arab and Jewish Israelis, besides differing in terms of language, religion, social and cultural

  14. School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the City of Acre: Promoting Arab and Jewish Parents' Role as Facilitators of Children's Literacy Development and as Agents of Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…

  15. Padrão de mortalidade da comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte no século XX Mortality pattern of jewish community of Belo Horizonte in the XXth century

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    Débora Balabram

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fatores genéticos e ambientais são conhecidos por sua importância na gênese de grande parte das doenças. É possível estudá-los pela observação da prevalência de agravos nas populações, bem como das causas de mortalidade, buscando-se uma correlação com os hábitos sociais e origens étnicas e familiares dos indivíduos. Nestes estudos, destacam-se as comunidades nas quais podem-se verificar vínculos sociais e genéticos entre seus membros. A comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte se encaixa nesses critérios. Ela se consolidou na década de 20 do século passado e, atualmente, a Federação Israelita de Minas Gerais (FISEMG tem cadastro de aproximadamente 600 famílias. Este estudo pretende definir o padrão de mortalidade nessa comunidade, e como ele se modificou a partir de sua formação. MÉTODOS: Foram recuperados dados a partir dos arquivos do Instituto Histórico Israelita Mineiro, da FISEMG e dos Cemitérios Israelita e do Bonfim, oriundos de registros históricos e guias de sepultamento, no período de 1926 a 2003. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 601 registros de óbitos, sendo 61,6% de homens e 38,4% de mulheres. As doenças infecto-parasitárias, dentre elas a tuberculose, ocorreram com maior freqüência nas décadas de 30 e 40 e decresceram nas décadas seguintes. As doenças do aparelho circulatório foram as causas de óbito mais prevalentes a partir da década de 40. CONCLUSÃO: Houve mudança nos padrões de mortalidade da população judaica de Belo Horizonte.OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors are known for their importance in the genesis of the majority of diseases. It is possible to study them through the observation of prevalence of diseases, and also the mortality causes, relating it to social habits and ethnical and familial origins of the individuals. In those studies, communities in which there are social and genetic links stand out. The jewish community of Belo Horizonte fits these criteria

  16. Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Ray Kook and a future leader of Gush Emunim, to establish a small illegal presence in a hotel in the middle of Hebron during the spring festival of...countries, the beggars who live off the wealth of others will build, from Eilat to Metula (i.e within the Green Line--IL) a boutique for strictly European

  17. A cross-cultural perspective of medical clowning: comparison of its effectiveness in reducing pain and anxiety among hospitalized Bedouin and Jewish Israeli children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilboa-Negari Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zehavit Gilboa-Negari,1 Sarah Abu-Kaf,2 Ephrat Huss,1 Gavriel Hain,3 Asher Moser4 1Spitzer Department of Social Work, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2Conflict Management and Resolution Program, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 3Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 4Department of Pediatric Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel Purpose: Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre–post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included 89 children whose ages ranged from 7.5 to 12 years (39 Jewish and 50 Bedouin and 69 parents (19 Jewish and 50 Bedouin. Questionnaires assessing pain, anxiety, and demographics were used at the pre-intervention stage and pain, anxiety, and enjoyment of different aspects of the intervention were evaluated following the intervention. The intervention stage lasted for 8–10 minutes and included the use of word play, body language, and making faces, as well as the use of props brought by the clown. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted at the post-intervention stage. Results: The intervention reduced pain and anxiety among both groups of children and reduced anxiety among both groups of parents. However, anxiety levels were reduced more significantly among Bedouin children. The nonverbal components of the clowns’ humor were most central, but it was the verbal components that mediated the reduction in anxiety among the Bedouin children. Conclusion: This study underscored

  18. The contribution of internal resources, external resources, and emotional distress to use of drugs and alcohol among Israeli Jewish urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz-Elhawi, Racheli; Itzhaky, Haya

    2014-03-01

    The contribution of selected background variables (age, gender), internal resources (mastery, emotional maturity), external resources (parental and peer support), and emotional distress to alcohol and drug use among 160 Israeli Jewish urban high school students were examined. Analyzing the variables with hierarchical regression, emotional distress contributed most significantly to both alcohol and drug use, and the contribution of age was somewhat less significant for both of them. Emotional distress also contributed indirectly to drug use through an interaction with one's sense of mastery. Gender, internal resources, and external resources contributed differentially to alcohol and drug use. Whereas gender and internal resources contributed only to drug use, external resources contributed only to alcohol use. Specifically, peer support contributed positively to alcohol use whereas parental support contributed negatively. The discussion provides explanations for these research findings and their implications, and the research's limitations are noted.

  19. Social Understanding in Israeli-Jewish, Israeli-Palestinian, Palestinian, and Jordanian 5-year-old Children: Moral Judgments and Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Fox, Nathan; Leavitt, Lewis; Raviv, Amiram; Masalha, Shafiq; Murra, Farid; Smadi, Yahia

    2010-11-30

    An empirical investigation was conducted of young Palestinian, Jordanian, Israeli-Palestinian, and Israeli-Jewish children's ( N = 433; M = 5.7 years of age) cultural stereotypes and their evaluations of peer intergroup exclusion based upon a number of different factors, including being from a different country and speaking a different language. Children in this study live in a geographical region that has a history of cultural and religious tension, violence, and extreme intergroup conflict. Our findings revealed that the negative consequences of living with intergroup tension are related to the use of stereotypes. At the same time, the results for moral judgments and evaluations about excluding peers provided positive results about the young children's inclusive views regarding peer interactions.

  20. 'Emotional rights', moral reasoning, and Jewish-Arab alliances in the regulation of in-vitro-fertilization in israel: theorizing the unexpected consequences of assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2013-04-01

    Consumption rates of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in Israel is internationally unprecedented, a phenomenon that has been the subject of growing anthropological and sociological attention. Explanations for the singular extent of ARTs use in Israel tend to pre-assume and conceptually prioritize the symbolic and political power of pro-natalist discourses, Jewish religious values, and the demographic interests of the Jewish state. This article attempts to understand the exceptional usage of IVF in Israel in terms of its emergent meanings and unexpected effects in a particular local setup. The question that this article tries to answer is: How is the 'Israeli character' of IVF emerges within and through the interactive practice of moral justifications, and how might this medical technology affect the networks within which it is enmeshed? The article is based on a case-study analysis of a public dispute that took place in 2003-2004 over the extent of public funding for fertility treatments. Ethnographic analysis of parliament discussions, media coverage, and an online forum of IVF consumers recorded three frames of justification for the uniquely generous public funding scheme of IVF in Israel: 'rational-economic', 'nationalist', and 'liberal'. The latter assumes shared 'emotional vulnerability' of all 'childless' Israelis, Jews and Arabs alike and advocates a universal language of 'emotional rights' and 'human rights'. This liberal framing of IVF, which is the most persuasive justification in the dispute, blurs dichotomous rivalries between Jews and Arabs and generates a potential for alliances between traditionally rival sectors. These are some of the unexpected and non-intuitive consequences of ARTs in Israel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the origin and diffusion of BRCA1 c.5266dupC (5382insC) in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Nancy; Feng, Bing-Jian; Foretova, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 mutation c.5266dupC was originally described as a founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, this mutation is also present at appreciable frequency in several European countries, which raises intriguing questions about the origins of the mutation. We genotyped 245...... carrier families from 14 different population groups (Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Greek, Brazilian and AJ) for seven microsatellite markers and confirmed that all mutation carriers share a common haplotype from a single founder individual.......5266dupC originated from a single common ancestor and was a common European mutation long before becoming an AJ founder mutation and (2) the mutation is likely present in many additional European countries where genetic screening of BRCA1 may not yet be common practice....

  2. On the origin and diffusion of BRCA1 c.5266dupC (5382insC) in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Nancy; Feng, Bing-Jian; Foretova, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 mutation c.5266dupC was originally described as a founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, this mutation is also present at appreciable frequency in several European countries, which raises intriguing questions about the origins of the mutation. We genotyped 24...... Genetics advance online publication, 1 December 2010; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.203....

  3. Clinical Variability in a Family with an Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome and a Nonsense Mutation in the TP63 Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenkraft, A.; Pode-Shakked, B.; Goldstein, N.; Shpirer, Z.; Bokhoven, H. van; Anikster, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish

  4. "It's in My Veins": Identity and Disciplinary Practice in Students' Discussions of a Historical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2013-01-01

    Learners' identity is considered a resource, but is also assumed to conflict with impartial history learning practices. This empirical study explores the relationship between learners' social identity and their historical practices and understanding. Sixty-four Jewish-Israeli 12th-grade students of Mizrahi and Ashkenazi ethnicities studied a…

  5. PKU (Phenylketonuria) in Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are African-American, Ashkenazi Jewish or Japanese. What causes PKU? PKU is inherited. This means it’s passed from parent to child through genes. A gene is a part of your body’s cells that stores instructions for the way your body grows and works. Genes come in pairs—you get one of ...

  6. Gaucher disease: N370S glucocerebrosidase gene frequency in the Portuguese population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacerda, L.; Amaral, O.; Pinto, R.; Oliveira, P.; Aerts, J.; Sá Miranda, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    In the Portuguese population the most frequent form of Gaucher disease is type 1. The N370S glucocerebrosidase gene mutation accounts for 63% of mutated alleles. The frequency of this mutation was accurately determined in the Portuguese population, which does not present an Ashkenazi Jewish genetic

  7. Breast Cancer Risk and 6q22.33: Combined Results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Dunning, Alison M.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Dork, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Wang, Xianshu; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian; Elliott, Graeme; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; van 't Veer, Laura J.; Braaf, Linde M.; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Peto, Julian; Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; van Dorpe, Thijs; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Hatse, Sigrid; Lambrechts, Diether; Andrulis, Irene L.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Juri I.; Prokofieva, Daria; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; van Asperen, Christi J.; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Devilee, Peter; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Milne, Roger L.; Arias, José Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; Healey, Sue; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Caligo, Maria A.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Fredericksen, Zachary; Lindor, Noralane; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Loman, Niklas; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Verheus, Martijn; Rookus, Matti A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Gille, Hans J. P.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Luccarini, Craig; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Gold, Bert; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Justenhoven, Christina; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate; Harth, Volker; Rabstein, Sylvia; Bowtell, D.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; deFazio, A.; Gertig, D.; Green, A.; Webb, P.; Parsons, P.; Hayward, N.; Whiteman, D.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Webb, P. M.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Arver, Brita; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Brandell, Richard Rosenquist; Dahl, Niklas; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Tollenaar, Rob A.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A.; Gille, Johan J. P.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B.; van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Mourits, Marian J.; Vasen, Hans F.; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; McKeown, Carole; Boyes, Laura; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, M. John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Izatt, Louise; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Lalloo, Fiona; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Side, Lucy; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durrell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Robinson, Anne; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Traficante, N.; Moore, S.; Hung, J.; Fereday, S.; Harrap, K.; Sadkowsky, T.; Pandeya, N.; Malt, M.; Mellon, A.; Robertson, R.; Vanden Bergh, T.; Jones, M.; Mackenzie, P.; Maidens, J.; Nattress, K.; Chiew, Y. E.; Stenlake, A.; Sullivan, H.; Alexander, B.; Ashover, P.; Brown, S.; Corrish, T.; Green, L.; Jackman, L.; Ferguson, K.; Martin, K.; Martyn, A.; Ranieri, B.; White, J.; Jayde, V.; Bowes, L.; Mamers, P.; Galletta, L.; Giles, D.; Hendley, J.; Alsop, K.; Schmidt, T.; Shirley, H.; Ball, C.; Young, C.; Viduka, S.; Tran, Hoa; Bilic, Sanela; Glavinas, Lydia; Brooks, Julia; Stuart-Harris, R.; Kirsten, F.; Rutovitz, J.; Clingan, P.; Glasgow, A.; Proietto, A.; Braye, S.; Otton, G.; Shannon, J.; Bonaventura, T.; Stewart, J.; Begbie, S.; Friedlander, M.; Bell, D.; Baron-Hay, S.; Ferrier, A.; Gard, G.; Nevell, D.; Pavlakis, N.; Valmadre, S.; Young, B.; Camaris, C.; Crouch, R.; Edwards, L.; Hacker, N.; Marsden, D.; Robertson, G.; Beale, P.; Beith, J.; Carter, J.; Dalrymple, C.; Houghton, R.; Russell, P.; Anderson, L.; Links, M.; Grygiel, J.; Hill, J.; Brand, A.; Byth, K.; Jaworski, R.; Harnett, P.; Sharma, R.; Wain, G.; Ward, B.; Papadimos, D.; Crandon, A.; Cummings, M.; Horwood, K.; Obermair, A.; Perrin, L.; Wyld, D.; Nicklin, J.; Davy, M.; Oehler, M. K.; Hall, C.; Dodd, T.; Healy, T.; Pittman, K.; Henderson, D.; Miller, J.; Pierdes, J.; Achan, A.; Blomfield, P.; Challis, D.; McIntosh, R.; Parker, A.; Brown, B.; Rome, R.; Allen, D.; Grant, P.; Hyde, S.; Laurie, R.; Robbie, M.; Healy, D.; Jobling, T.; Manolitsas, T.; McNealage, J.; Rogers, P.; Susil, B.; Sumithran, E.; Simpson, I.; Phillips, K.; Rischin, D.; Fox, S.; Johnson, D.; Waring, P.; Lade, S.; Loughrey, M.; O'Callaghan, N.; Murray, W.; Mileshkin, L.; Allan, P.; Billson, V.; Pyman, J.; Neesham, D.; Quinn, M.; Hamilton, A.; Underhill, C.; Bell, R.; Ng, L. F.; Blum, R.; Ganju, V.; Hammond, I.; Leung, Y.; McCartney, A.; Stewart, C.; Buck, M.; Haviv, I.; Purdie, D.; Zeps, N.; Gurry, P.; Hankinson, S.; Meltzer, P.; Murray, B.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication

  8. Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gaucher disease is a rare genetic disorder in which a person lacks an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Causes Gaucher disease is rare in the general population. People of Eastern and Central European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage are more likely to have this disease. It ...

  9. Comprehensive microRNA profiling in B-cells of human centenarians by massively parallel sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombar Saurabh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Despite their demonstrated roles in age-associated pathologies, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human aging and longevity. Results We employed massively parallel sequencing technology to identify miRNAs expressed in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, i.e., those living to a hundred and a human model of exceptional longevity, and younger controls without a family history of longevity. With data from 26.7 million reads comprising 9.4 × 108 bp from 3 centenarian and 3 control individuals, we discovered a total of 276 known miRNAs and 8 unknown miRNAs ranging several orders of magnitude in expression levels, a typical characteristics of saturated miRNA-sequencing. A total of 22 miRNAs were found to be significantly upregulated, with only 2 miRNAs downregulated, in centenarians as compared to controls. Gene Ontology analysis of the predicted and validated targets of the 24 differentially expressed miRNAs indicated enrichment of functional pathways involved in cell metabolism, cell cycle, cell signaling, and cell differentiation. A cross sectional expression analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish individuals between the 50th and 100th years of age indicated that expression levels of miR-363* declined significantly with age. Centenarians, however, maintained the youthful expression level. This result suggests that miR-363* may be a candidate longevity-associated miRNA. Conclusion Our comprehensive miRNA data provide a resource for further studies to identify genetic pathways associated with aging and longevity in humans.

  10. The power of the kashrut: older but shorter. The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassenaar, V; Karel, E H

    2016-06-01

    We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818-1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather high biological standard of living. This database of 413 conscripts contains information about family structure, family rank order, height, tax income, occupation and age of death. Conscripts came from two communities: one from a particular village (Oosterhesselen) and the other was Jewish conscripts that came from the countryside of the province. Our statistical analysis shows a positive significant relationship between family size and height, which confirms the resource dilution theory. Remarkably, the sign of the relation between family size and life expectancy is inverse. Other factors such as the potato crisis and income had the expected effect on conscript heights. The community effect was strong. Jewish conscripts were much shorter than their counterparts. Access to nutrition, the specific food laws and other factors can explain this difference. An increasing sibship size had a negative impact on body height but positive effects on life expectancy when adulthood was reached. Specifically for the Jewish community was the positive effect of the death of the father on conscript height. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear and open for further research.

  11. Parental practices and political violence: the protective role of parental warmth and authority-control in Jewish and Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Iris; Slone, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Parental warmth and parental authority-control patterns have been documented as practices with highest significance for children's well-being and development in a variety of life areas. Various forms of these practices have been shown to have a direct positive effect on children and also to protect children from adverse effects of numerous stressors. However, surprisingly, few studies have examined the role of these practices as possible protective factors for children exposed to intractable conflict and political violence. Participants in this study were Jewish (n = 88) and Arab (n = 105) Israeli families, with children aged 7-12.5 (M = 10.73, SD = 0.99). Children completed questionnaires assessing political violence exposure, behavioral, psychological, and social difficulties, and perceived paternal and maternal warmth. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing parental warmth, parental authority-control, and the child's difficulties. Results showed parental warmth to be a significant moderator of political violence, related to low levels of behavioral and social difficulties of children. Parental authority-control patterns were not protectors from adverse effects of political violence exposure. Maternal authoritarian authority-control showed an effect resembling a risk factor. Differential roles of parental warmth and authority-control, fathers' versus mothers' roles, and ethnic differences are discussed, and practical clinical implications are proposed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. The daily spiritual experiences scale and well-being: demographic comparisons and scale validation with older jewish adults and a diverse internet sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkstein, Solomon; Tower, Roni Beth

    2009-12-01

    A substantive literature connects spirituality to positive physical, social, and mental health. In this study, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) was administered to 410 subjects who participated in a community study and to 87 residents at the Hebrew Home for the Aged at Riverdale (HHAR), the latter sample consisting primarily of older Jewish respondents. Internal consistency of the DSES in both samples was high and exploratory factor analyses revealed one dominant factor and a second factor, which included 14 and 2 items, respectively, consistent with the scale's original validation (Underwood and Teresi 2002). Demographic subgroup comparison among religious groups revealed significantly fewer daily spiritual experiences among Jews, and lowest scores among those respondents endorsing no religious affiliation. Women exhibited more frequent daily experience than men, and attainment of higher levels of education was associated with less frequent daily spiritual experience. All but one of the outcome measures of physical and psychologic well-being were found to be positively associated with the DSES so that more frequent daily spiritual experience correlated with less psychopathology, more close friendships, and better self-rated health. Directions for future research, study interpretation and limitations, and clinical implications for use of the DSES are discussed.

  13. The Impact of Socio-environmental Projects of Jewish and Bedouin Youth in Israel on Students' Local Knowledge and Views of Each Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2014-02-01

    This study is part of a first study of collaborative socio-environmental projects that engage Jewish and Arab students in Israel in learning about their local environment and about each other through outdoor learning and environmental action. We used ideas of social learning and environmental citizenship to frame our research. We investigated students' knowledge regarding their local environment and their knowledge of each other's community. We also studied the participants' views regarding their project-partners'environmental knowledge, awareness and behaviour in comparison to their own. Initially, differences were found regarding various aspects of the students' socio-environmental knowledge and in students' views of their counterparts' environmentalism. At the end of the projects, students showed better understanding of local socio-environmental issues and demonstrated changes in their original views towards the environmental awareness and behaviour of their counterparts. These findings suggest that projects which involve students from segregated communities not only promote environmental awareness but contribute to a reduction in mutual prejudices. We suggest that the differences we found are not related to ethnicity, but rather to students' socioeconomic status and experience in environmental education programmes.

  14. Self-reported health as a cultural health determinant in Arab and Jewish Israelis MABAT--National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Kaplan, Giora; Haviv-Messika, Amalia; Tarabeia, Jalal; Green, Manfred S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2005-09-01

    Subjective health (SH) status serves as a measure of health in many studies of health-related issues as it is a good predictor of mortality, morbidity, and use of health services. The measure is used in many population groups. However, the degree to which it measures the same condition in different ethnic groups is not clear. Within Israel's first National Health and Nutrition Survey (MABAT) conducted during 1999-2001, face-to-face interviews were held with 3222 Israeli interviewees, 2379 Jews and 843 Arabs, aged between 25-64 years. Respondents reported their SH, co-morbidity, and other socioeconomic characteristics. Arabs reported higher levels of SH than Jews. In logistic regression analysis, co-morbidity was a much stronger correlate of poorer SH in the Arab than in the Jewish population. The association between socioeconomic variables depended on ethnic group and sex. The findings indicate that SH in Jews and Arabs does not necessarily have the same meaning in relation to objective measures of health, and caution should be exercised in the use of this measure in different population groups with different cultures. Arabs tend to evaluate health better than Jews even though life expectancy is lower and morbidity and mortality are higher in the former population group. Yet diagnosis of a disease increases the frequency of reporting lower SH, more in Arabs than in Jews.

  15. Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term Jewish residents, immigrants, and Arab women in midlife in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances.

  16. Geschlechtergeschichte als Zugang zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte Gender History as Point of Entry to German-Jewish History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiane Gerhardt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Mit der sukzessiven Erosion des rabbinischen Normensystems und im Prozess der Verbürgerlichung, so die grundlegende These dieser Arbeit, wurden jüdische Frauen seit dem frühen 19. Jahrhundert nicht nur stärker als zuvor in die religiöse Kultur und Praxis integriert. Gleichermaßen gewannen auch Konzepte von Weiblichkeit entscheidend an Bedeutung für die Neuorientierung eines Judaismus bürgerlicher Prägung. Auf breiter Quellenbasis werden in Gender, Judaism and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870 die soziale und religiöse Praxis dieses historischen Wandels, die Programme und Auseinandersetzungen, aber auch die Grenzen dieser Neudefinitionen analysiert.The basic thesis of this work is that during the course of the successive erosion of the Rabbinical system of norms and the process of gentrification, Jewish women have become ever more strongly integrated into religious culture and practice since the early 19th century. Concurrently, the concept of femininity took on a decisive meaning for the new orientation of bourgeois-leaning Judaism. The book Gender, Judaism and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870, analyses the social and religious practice of this historical change, the programs and conflicts as well as the limits of these new definitions based on a broad selection of sources.

  17. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  18. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  19. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  20. De l’usure au pouvoir de l’argent : les métamorphoses d’un mythe antijuif à travers la caricature en Angleterre From Usury to High Finance: The Metamorphosis of an AntiJewish Myth viewed through English Caricatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Germain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available “Jewish Money Power”, the “Wandering Jew” and the “Blood Libel” (ritual murder myths are the three pillars of the anti-Semitic iconography which developed during the Middle Ages. Throughout the centuries, their evolution has continuously reflected the beliefs and tastes of the various societies which have used them to stereotype Jewish otherness. Far from being exhaustive, the intent of this article, based on a limited number of caricatures, is to stress the changes which took place over the centuries in numerous and varied portrayals of the “Jewish Money Power”: from the Jew in his capacity as money lender to the Jew as stockbroker, to more contemporary images of the Jewish banker and international financier, monopolising high finance, insinuating himself in all fields and plotting to dominate and destroy the Christian world. Having explained the various transformations in context, this analysis of selected Jewish graphic portrayals will also highlight the constant use of physical features and characteristics that have contributed to creating a misleading image of the Jews and encouraged anti-Semitism.

  1. Implications for cancer genetics practice of pro-actively assessing family history in a General Practice cohort in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Kelly; D'Mello, Lucia; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Thomas, Sarah; Young, Mary-Anne; Myhill, Kathryn; Shanley, Susan; Briggs, Brian H J; Newman, Michelle; Saraf, Ifthikhar M; Cox, Penny; Scambler, Sarah; Wagman, Lyndon; Wyndham, Michael T; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ferris, Michelle

    2012-03-01

    At present cancer genetics referrals are reactive to individuals asking for a referral and providing a family history thereafter. A previous pilot study in a single General Practice (GP) catchment area in North London showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared with the non-Ashkenazi mixed population. The breast cancer incidence was equal in the Ashkenazim in both pre- and postmenopausal groups. We wanted to investigate the effect of proactively seeking family history data from the entire female population of the practice to determine the effect on cancer genetics referral. Objectives To determine the need for cancer genetics intervention for women in a single GP catchment area. (1) to determine the incidence and strength of family history of cancer in women aged over 18 in the practice, (2) to offer cancer genetics advice and determine the uptake of counselling in those with a positive family history, (3) to identify potential BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation carriers who can be offered clinical follow up with appropriate translational research studies. Design Population-based cohort study of one General Practice female population. Participants Three hundred and eighty-three women over the age of 18 from one General Practice who responded to a questionnaire about family history of cancer. The whole female adult GP population was the target and the total number sampled was 3,820. Results 10% of patients completed the questionnaire (n = 383). A family history of cancer was present in 338 cases, 95 went on to have genetic counselling or had previously had counselling and 47 were genetically tested. We identified three carriers of an Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation in BRCA1. Conclusions Response rate to a family history questionnaire such as that used in genetics centres was low (10%) and other approaches will be needed to proactively assess family history. Although the Ashkenazim are present in 39% of the GP catchment

  2. Becoming a nurse - A study of career choice and professional adaptation among Israeli Jewish and Arab nursing students: A quantitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Ofra; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal

    2014-10-01

    The growing shortage of nurses is a global issue, with nursing recruitment and retention recognized as priorities worldwide. Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs share residency and citizenship. However, language, religion, values, customs, symbols and lifestyle differ between the groups. This research covers only Arab citizens of Israel and not those in the occupied territories, the West Bank and Gaza. The future of the profession lies in the ability to recruit and retain the next generation of nurses. To examine career choice and professional adaptation among Israeli Jews and Israeli Arab nursing students by addressing motivation, materialistic factors and professional adaptation. 395 students, which comprised the total number of students in the first five years of the nursing program's existence, in the nursing faculty at an academic college in Israel. A questionnaire was created and administered to the students in the first week of their first year in the nursing program. Altruistic motivation, such as the opportunity to help others, was the primary factor that influenced students to choose nursing as a profession followed by professional interest. Materialistic factors, such as social status and good salary, had less influence. A significant positive correlation was found between professional adaptation and all three dimensions of role perception - teamwork, professional knowledge, and treatment skills. The female students perceived those components as more important than the male students and the Jewish students perceived themselves as more suitable for nursing than the Arab students. Career choice and professional adaptation are influenced by multiple factors. Future recruitment and retention strategies used to address the critical nursing shortage should consider these factors, as well as the role of mentors, peers, and role models in the formulation of career expectations and career choice decisions. © 2013.

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions About Routine Childhood Vaccinations Among Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mothers Residing in Communities with Low Vaccination Coverage in the Jerusalem District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein Zamir, Chen; Israeli, Avi

    2017-05-01

    Background and aims Childhood vaccinations are an important component of primary prevention. Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Israel provide routine vaccinations without charge. Several vaccine-preventable-diseases outbreaks (measles, mumps) emerged in Jerusalem in the past decade. We aimed to study attitudes and knowledge on vaccinations among mothers, in communities with low immunization coverage. Methods A qualitative study including focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Results Low immunization coverage was defined below the district's mean (age 2 years, 2013) for measles-mumps-rubella-varicella 1st dose (MMR1\\MMRV1) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis 4th dose (DTaP4), 96 and 89%, respectively. Five communities were included, all were Jewish ultra-orthodox. The mothers' (n = 87) median age was 30 years and median number of children 4. Most mothers (94%) rated vaccinations as the main activity in the MCH clinics with overall positive attitudes. Knowledge about vaccines and vaccination schedule was inadequate. Of vaccines scheduled at ages 0-2 years (n = 13), the mean number mentioned was 3.9 ± 2.8 (median 4, range 0-9). Vaccines mentioned more often were outbreak-related (measles, mumps, polio) and HBV (given to newborns). Concerns about vaccines were obvious, trust issues and religious beliefs were not. Vaccination delay was very common and timeliness was considered insignificant. Practical difficulties in adhering to the recommended schedule prevailed. The vaccinations visits were associated with pain and stress. Overall, there was a sense of self-responsibility accompanied by inability to influence others. Conclusion Investigating maternal knowledge and attitudes on childhood vaccinations provides insights that may assist in planning tailored intervention programs aimed to increase both vaccination coverage and timeliness.

  4. Attitudes of Arab and Jewish patients toward integration of complementary medicine in primary care clinics in Israel: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Karkabi, Khaled; Karkabi, Sonia; Keshet, Yael; Haddad, Maria; Frenkel, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to evaluate patient perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) integration within primary care clinics. It is one of the first multiethnic studies to explore patients' perspectives on the best model for integrating CAM into the conventional care setting. We developed a 13-item questionnaire that addresses issues of CAM use, expectations from the primary care physicians concerning CAM, and attitudes toward CAM integration within a patient's primary care clinic. We constructed the questionnaire with cross-cultural sensitivity concerning the core concepts of CAM and traditional medicine in both the Arab and Jewish communities in northern Israel. Data for statistical analysis were obtained from 3840 patients attending seven primary care clinics. Of the 3713 respondents who were willing to identify their religion, 2184 defined themselves as Muslims, Christians, or Druze and 1529 as Jews. Respondents in the two groups were equally distributed by sex but differed significantly by age, education, self-rated religiosity, and self-reported chronic diseases in their medical background. Respondents in the two groups reported comparable overall CAM use during the previous year, but the Arab respondents reported more use of herbs and traditional medicine. Respondents in both groups stated that their primary expectation from a family physician concerning CAM was to refer them appropriately and safely to a CAM practitioner. Respondents in both groups greatly supported a theoretical scenario of CAM integration into primary medical care. However, Arab respondents were more supportive of the option that non-physician CAM practitioners would provide CAM rather than physicians.

  5. Religious leaders' perceptions of advance care planning: a secondary analysis of interviews with Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish, Sikh and Bahá'í leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; O'Callaghan, Clare; Boyd, Leanne; Staples, Margaret

    2017-12-28

    International guidance for advance care planning (ACP) supports the integration of spiritual and religious aspects of care within the planning process. Religious leaders' perspectives could improve how ACP programs respect patients' faith backgrounds. This study aimed to examine: (i) how religious leaders understand and consider ACP and its implications, including (ii) how religion affects followers' approaches to end-of-life care and ACP, and (iii) their implications for healthcare. Interview transcripts from a primary qualitative study conducted with religious leaders to inform an ACP website, ACPTalk, were used as data in this study. ACPTalk aims to assist health professionals conduct sensitive conversations with people from different religious backgrounds. A qualitative secondary analysis conducted on the interview transcripts focussed on religious leaders' statements related to this study's aims. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed using an inductive, comparative, and cyclical procedure informed by grounded theory. Thirty-five religious leaders (26 male; mean 58.6-years-old), from eight Christian and six non-Christian (Jewish, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, Sikh, Bahá'í) backgrounds were included. Three themes emerged which focussed on: religious leaders' ACP understanding and experiences; explanations for religious followers' approaches towards end-of-life care; and health professionals' need to enquire about how religion matters. Most leaders had some understanding of ACP and, once fully comprehended, most held ACP in positive regard. Religious followers' preferences for end-of-life care reflected family and geographical origins, cultural traditions, personal attitudes, and religiosity and faith interpretations. Implications for healthcare included the importance of avoiding generalisations and openness to individualised and/ or standardised religious expressions of one's religion. Knowledge of religious beliefs and values around death and dying

  6. Annotating individual human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ANNOTATING INDIVIDUAL HUMAN GENOMES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Eric J.; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely to amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. PMID:21839162

  8. Bankruptcy of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionina M. B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the bankruptcy of individuals under the Federal Law "On Insolvency (Bankruptcy", the Federal Law "On Amendments to the Federal Law "On Insolvency (Bankruptcy" and some legislative acts of the Russian Federation regarding regulation of rehabilitation procedures applicable to an individual debtor. The author analyzes the main ways to address the issue of the bankruptcy of an individual, identifies risks for both a bankrupt and credit institutions

  9. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  10. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  11. Museum documentation on museum objects in the context of scientific studies: examples of different storage groups, rarities of rituals and daily life of the Jewish community in Ukraine in 19-20 centuries in the collection of NMHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kutsaeva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues, met by scientists during the process of research on museum documentation (inventory cards, scientific and standardized passports, cards of catalogues on museum objects, related to themes «History of Ukraine in the 20th century» and «Rites and everyday life of the Jewish community in Ukraine in 19-20 centuries», have been studied in the article. Consideration of the abovementioned situations allowed describing the museum documentation as phenomena which has to evolve together with the access to information in the 21st century. It has been emphasized that due to the modernization (transformation of inventory cards into the format of scientific and standardized passports, review of ideological clichés and correction of erroneous information in these documents, additional attribution and (reattribution of exhibits, even better use of museum collections will be provided with minimal time expenditures. Gathering of accurate information about historic attractions will be continued. The accent of the research is the necessity of museum workers’ training (researches and employees of museum funds within the non-formal education by means of museum’s internal resources. The purpose and relevance of the research has been defined by the given thesis. By generalizations of historiography, it has been found that the suggested topic, including awareness of the obsolescence by museum community (extreme ideological stance, emptiness, falsity of certain blocks of museum documentation and the criteria of their systematic and complete replacements have not been subjects of the discussion in the museum field yet. In order to expand the research, the list of required types of museum documentation - inventory cards, scientific and standardized passports, catalogs, descriptions, а systematic card index, has been created. It has been determined that the actual museum legislation never uses the word «revision» and uses the word «correction» only in

  12. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  13. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  14. Individual titanium zygomatic implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Ryabov, K. N.; Avdeev, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    Custom individual implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better qualitative characteristics over their generic counterparts – plates, which should be bent according to patient needs. The Additive Manufacturing of individual implants allows reducing cost and improving quality of implants. In this paper, the authors describe design of zygomatic implant models based on computed tomography (CT) data. The fabrication of the implants will be carried out with 3D printing by selective laser melting machine SLM 280HL.

  15. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. EL LUGAR DE ROMA-BIZANCIO EN LA APOCALÍTICA JUDÍA DURANTE LA ANTIGÜEDAD TARDÍA THE PLACE OF ROME-BYZANTIUM IN LATE ANTIQUE JEWISH APOCALYPTIC TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ubierna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata del lugar de Roma-Bizancio en los textos apocalípticos judíos de la Antigüedad Tardía tales como el Sefer Zorobabel, el Sefer Eliyahu o las Nistarot del Rabbi Simeón ben Yohai, así como también la exégesis caraíta del libro de Daniel. Estos textos reflejan la interpretación escatológica judía de los acontecimientos contemporáneos desde el siglo III en adelante, tales como la crisis del Imperio romano, la ocupación persa de Palestina y la invasión musulmana.This article deals with the place of Rome-Byzantium in Late AAntique Jewish Apocalyptic texts such as the Sefer Zerubabbel, the Sefer Eliyahu and the Nistarot of Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai and, also, the karaite exegesis of the Book of Daniel. These texts reflect eschatological jewish interpretation of contemporary events from the 3rd century onwards, like the crisis of the Roman Empire, the Persian occupation of the Land of Israel and the Muslim invasion.

  17. Adolescent aggression and differentiation of self: guided mindfulness meditation in the service of individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Liora

    2005-06-23

    This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen's notion that level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats, intimidation and manipulation, while male aggression is described mainly as overt physical violence involving dominance and competitiveness. Research on differentiation focuses mainly on Western cultures that tend to be individualistic. Jewish-Israeli society is in transition from collectivistic to individualistic cultural values in the midst of ongoing hostilities. These processes create conflict regarding togetherness and individuality needs among adolescents, who are exposed to contradictory messages regarding separating and staying close. External as well as internal expressions of aggression (depression, suicide) are presented as coping strategies in the service of a wounded self-negotiating with the world. Guided mindfulness meditation is a powerful technique for facilitating healing and growth toward autonomy by helping adolescents connect to their inner voice. This technique may be especially useful in the adolescent search for self-awareness, meaning and life purpose. Bodily, cognitive and emotional experiences are treated as informative regarding the 'self' and facilitate expansion of self-perception and individuality.

  18. Adolescent Aggression and Differentiation of Self: Guided Mindfulness Meditation in the Service of Individuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liora Birnbaum

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen's notion that level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats, intimidation and manipulation, while male aggression is described mainly as overt physical violence involving dominance and competitiveness. Research on differentiation focuses mainly on Western cultures that tend to be individualistic. Jewish-Israeli society is in transition from collectivistic to individualistic cultural values in the midst of ongoing hostilities. These processes create conflict regarding togetherness and individuality needs among adolescents, who are exposed to contradictory messages regarding separating and staying close. External as well as internal expressions of aggression (depression, suicide are presented as coping strategies in the service of a wounded self-negotiating with the world. Guided mindfulness meditation is a powerful technique for facilitating healing and growth toward autonomy by helping adolescents connect to their inner voice. This technique may be especially useful in the adolescent search for self-awareness, meaning and life purpose. Bodily, cognitive and emotional experiences are treated as informative regarding the “self” and facilitate expansion of self-perception and individuality.

  19. Individual Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Santurette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  20. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana NIKOLIKJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP.The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or individualized assistance in school. In order an IEP to be developed for a child, it is necessary to evaluate a child, and than to determine goals of individual achievements for every pupil with disability.The aim of this paper is to show one of many ways for construction IEP. The paper will give some examples of IEP recommendation (general and special, goals and steps to determine programs and types of services.

  1. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  3. Individual cybercrime offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.

  4. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  5. Mourning as individual chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motives for preparing this paper, are personal and professional, there is mutual interference. Ending of the paper is considered as synchronicity, in author s personal mourning. A mourning, as hard experience, but also as a chance for development, integration of somebody s own capacities, embodied in relationship with another, is close connected with individuation, that is represented as spontaneous, unconcious process of self development of personality with the aim of searching unity and wholesness of personality, following number of compensations toward balance and wholesness as final aim, but also is considered as ideal. In close conection with individuation is transcedental function that integrates conscious and unconcsious attitude, overcomes struggle of consiousness and unconsciousness. In paper, there are examples of two myths, myth about Demetra and Persefona, and Orpheus and Euridica, that show possible individuation directions throughout mourning process. Individation is, there, put in the context of death and Under World. Beside individual, there is consideration of colective mourning, although that approach is restricted for some reasons. There is question of capacity of society for mourning.

  6. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  7. Difficult Bond. Derrida and Jewishness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Watchful insomnia can be a nerve-wracking business especially if there is a question to be, if not resolved, then at least confronted; or a decision called for, not despite the famous undecidablity hypothesis, but precisely because of it. Thus it is that finally, casting off the shadows of the ni......Watchful insomnia can be a nerve-wracking business especially if there is a question to be, if not resolved, then at least confronted; or a decision called for, not despite the famous undecidablity hypothesis, but precisely because of it. Thus it is that finally, casting off the shadows...

  8. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    ILICH-STOSHOVIКЈ Danijela; NIKOLIКЈ Snezhana

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP).The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or i...

  9. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  10. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  11. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  13. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  14. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  15. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  16. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  17. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 and Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: (a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and (b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  18. Relationships between in-role performance and individual values, commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior among Israeli teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Liu, Ying

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between (1) individual values, (2) organizational and occupational commitment, and (3) organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and in-role performance in a sample of 192 teachers employed in 10 secular Jewish schools (response rate of 64%). The results showed that individual values were related to all commitment forms examined here, but contrary to expectations, there was no clear distinction between values that represent conservation and self-transcendence and values that represent openness to change and self-enhancement in terms of their relationship either to commitment or to behavioral outcomes. Likewise, there was no clear distinction between the three dimensions of commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) or two commitment foci (organizational and occupational) in terms of their relationships to different values. Unsurprisingly, the findings showed a strong effect of commitment on OCB and in-role performance. The findings show that both individual values and commitment are concepts that can increase our understanding of employees' behavior in the workplace. We conclude by emphasizing the need for further research on the relationship between values, commitment, and performance and by suggesting some directions for such research.

  19. Impaired IGF1R signaling in cells expressing longevity-associated human IGF1R alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Tazearslan, Cagdas; Huang, Jing; Barzilai, Nir; Suh, Yousin

    2011-01-01

    Dampening of insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling results in extension of lifespan in invertebrate as well as murine models. The impact of this evolutionarily conserved pathway on modulation of human lifespan remains unclear. We previously identified two IGF1R mutations (Ala-37-Thr and Arg-407-His) that are enriched in Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians as compared to younger controls and are associated with reduced activity of the IGF1 receptor as measured in immortalized lymphoc...

  20. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  1. Pedophiles in the Ultra-Orthodox Haredi Sector in Israel: Thought Processes Regarding their Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, Gil; Idisis, Yael

    2017-01-01

    This study explores thought patterns of Jewish Ashkenazi Ultra-Orthodox pedophiles in Israel and how they resolve the contradiction between their commitment to Jewish Law and having committed sexual offenses against minors. Ten adult men participated in this study. Using open semistructured interviews, their cognitive distortions before, during, and after the abuse were examined. Content analysis revealed that participants used cognitive distortions based on their own world of Jewish Law and social-cultural values. The insular nature of Ultra-Orthodox society and its many prohibitions, especially regarding sexuality, tempted offenders to test boundaries. When sexual drive was high, internal control mechanisms were ineffective even in presence of external control mechanisms. Some participants recognized the contradiction between their behaviors and being Ultra-Orthodox Jews, and others did not. Based on the findings, a flow chart was devised describing the cognitive processes of Jewish Ultra-Orthodox pedophiles. Theoretical and practical implications of the results were examined.

  2. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  3. Le Musée de la culture juive de Bratislava et les implications postcommunistes de son développement institutionnel The Israeli Philosophy and the War The Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava and the Post-communist Implications of its Institutional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Deme

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The central idea and the purported role which organize the work of a given Jewish museum clearly refer to the issues occupying its surrounding society with the greatest intensity or, alternatively, to the theme that could have the best chance of being digested by that society. Such issues may include the thematization of anti-Semitism or of the Holocaust, or may have a cultural mediating role. To what extent can we find a reflection of the Central-European Jewry’s multi-layered process of self-definition in the work of the Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava after 1989? Furthermore, to what extent does this process of self-definition follow the historical image conceived in the consciousness of the surrounding societies? What are the social conditions, the historical precursors and the future perspectives of these self-reflections? These are the questions to which I purport to find an answer in my article.

  4. Associations of racial/ethnic identities and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C; De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Brownson, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of Racial/Ethnic Identities and Religious Affiliation with Suicidal Ideation among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; De Luca, Susan M.; Blosnich, John R.; Brownson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Methods Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Results Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Limitations Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusions Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. PMID:25795534

  6. Clinical Variability in a Family with an Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome and a Nonsense Mutation in the TP63 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Goldstein, Nurit; Shpirer, Zvi; van Bokhoven, Hans; Anikster, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish descent, in which the index patient presented with a persistent scalp skin lesion, dystrophic nails and light thin hair. Further evaluation revealed over 10 affected individuals in the kindred, over four generations, exhibiting varying degrees of ectodermal involvement. Analysis of the TP63 gene from four of the patients and from two healthy individuals of the same family was performed. Gene sequencing of the patients revealed a nonsense mutation leading to a premature termination codon (PTC) (p.Gln16X). The same mutation was found in all tested affected individuals in the family, but gave rise to marked phenotypic variability with minor clinical manifestations in some individuals, underscoring the clinical heterogeneity associated with the recently described PTC-causing mutations.

  7. A second mutation associated with apparent [beta]-hexosaminidase A pseudodeficiency: Identification and frequency estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z.; Chabot, T.; Triggs-Raine, B.L. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnepeg (Canada)); Natowicz, M.R.; Prence, E.M. (Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, S.T.; Brown, D. (Children' s Hospital, San Diego, CA (United States) Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Deficient activity of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A), resulting from mutations in the HEXA gene, typically causes Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy individuals lacking Hex A activity against synthetic substrates (i.e., individuals who are pseudodeficient) have been described. Recently, an apparently benign C[sub 739]-to-T (Arg247Trp) mutation was found among individuals with Hex A levels indistinguishable from those of carriers of Tay-Sachs disease. This allele, when in compound heterozygosity with a second [open quotes]disease-causing[close quotes] allele, results in Hex A pseudodeficiency. The authors examined the HEXA gene of a healthy 42-year-old who was Hex A deficient but did not have the C[sub 739]-to-T mutation. The HEXA exons were PCR amplified, and the products were analyzed for mutations by using restriction-enzyme digestion or single-strand gel electrophoresis. A G[sub 805]-to-A (Gly269Ser) mutation associated with adult-onset G[sub m2] gangliosidosis was found on one chromosome. A new mutation, C[sub 745]-to-T (Arg 249Trp), was identified on the second chromosome. This mutation was detected in an additional 4/63 (6%) non-Jewish and 0/218 Ashkenazi Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. Although the Arg249Trp change may result in a late-onset form of G[sub M2] gangliosidosis, any phenotype must be very mild. This new mutation and the benign C[sub 739]-to-T mutation together account for [approximately]38% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. Because carriers of the C[sub 739]-to-T and C[sub 745]-to-T mutations cannot be differentiated from carriers of disease-causing alleles by using the classical biochemical screening approaches, DNA-based analyses for these mutations should be offered for non-Jewish enzyme-defined heterozygotes, before definitive counseling is provided. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Individual health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German statutory health insurance (GKV reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK, individual health services (IGeL are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions: The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS, the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods: The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results: 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by

  9. Individual health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL?What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? FOR TWO OF THE MOST COMMON IGEL, THE SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA AND THE SCREENING FOR OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER BY VAGINAL ULTRASOUND (VUS), THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE ADDRESSED: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness?Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments with up to 25% of the offers. Cancer screening

  10. The Science of the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  11. Functional variants in the LRRK2 gene confer shared effects on risk for Crohn's disease and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken Y; Fernandez-Hernandez, Heriberto; Hu, Jianzhong; Schaffner, Adam; Pankratz, Nathan; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Chuang, Ling-Shiang; Carmi, Shai; Villaverde, Nicole; Li, Xianting; Rivas, Manual; Levine, Adam P; Bao, Xiuliang; Labrias, Philippe R; Haritunians, Talin; Ruane, Darren; Gettler, Kyle; Chen, Ernie; Li, Dalin; Schiff, Elena R; Pontikos, Nikolas; Barzilai, Nir; Brant, Steven R; Bressman, Susan; Cheifetz, Adam S; Clark, Lorraine N; Daly, Mark J; Desnick, Robert J; Duerr, Richard H; Katz, Seymour; Lencz, Todd; Myers, Richard H; Ostrer, Harry; Ozelius, Laurie; Payami, Haydeh; Peter, Yakov; Rioux, John D; Segal, Anthony W; Scott, William K; Silverberg, Mark S; Vance, Jeffery M; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Foroud, Tatiana; Atzmon, Gil; Pe'er, Itsik; Ioannou, Yiannis; McGovern, Dermot P B; Yue, Zhenyu; Schadt, Eric E; Cho, Judy H; Peter, Inga

    2018-01-10

    Crohn's disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease, has a higher prevalence in Ashkenazi Jewish than in non-Jewish European populations. To define the role of nonsynonymous mutations, we performed exome sequencing of Ashkenazi Jewish patients with CD, followed by array-based genotyping and association analysis in 2066 CD cases and 3633 healthy controls. We detected association signals in the LRRK2 gene that conferred risk for CD (N2081D variant, P = 9.5 × 10 -10 ) or protection from CD (N551K variant, tagging R1398H-associated haplotype, P = 3.3 × 10 -8 ). These variants affected CD age of onset, disease location, LRRK2 activity, and autophagy. Bayesian network analysis of CD patient intestinal tissue further implicated LRRK2 in CD pathogenesis. Analysis of the extended LRRK2 locus in 24,570 CD cases, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and healthy controls revealed extensive pleiotropy, with shared genetic effects between CD and PD in both Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Jewish cohorts. The LRRK2 N2081D CD risk allele is located in the same kinase domain as G2019S, a mutation that is the major genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Like the G2019S mutation, the N2081D variant was associated with increased kinase activity, whereas neither N551K nor R1398H variants on the protective haplotype altered kinase activity. We also confirmed that R1398H, but not N551K, increased guanosine triphosphate binding and hydrolyzing enzyme (GTPase) activity, thereby deactivating LRRK2. The presence of shared LRRK2 alleles in CD and PD provides refined insight into disease mechanisms and may have major implications for the treatment of these two seemingly unrelated diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Sujet, être, être-là : Heidegger, ou l’être humain entre pensée juive et philosophie grecque Subject, Being, Being-there: Heidegger or the Human Being between Jewish Thinking and Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schovanec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the sixties and seventies, theoretical discussions in European social sciences focused on the nature of the human being. Proponents of the rational subject, characterizing. Enlightenment-prone Western classical philosophy, went against the advocates of the much older and less-known anti-subjective tradition. Our study aims at giving an archaeological insight into this second paradigm, going back first to Heidegger, the master thinker of contemporary European social sciences, then to the religious – mainly Jewish – roots of his thought. It views human being not as an achieved and autonomous entity, but as an emanation of the Being. Men have to follow the path it sets and its voice, free themselves from material assets which are mere impediments, and eventually enter into a superior dimension of thinking. Beyond our limited case-study, the whole question of the persistence of another main - albeit forgotten - way of thinking in the very heart of modernity is being raised anew.

  13. Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uratsu Connie S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White, it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC women with those of a demographically similar population. Methods A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC, were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC and hormone replacement therapy (HRT, behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004 were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas. Results Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427 and 47.9% (n = 359 for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%, have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%, have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%, and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%, and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%. MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates. Conclusion

  14. Categorical apparatus of individual marketing

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Reshetnikova; Yu.A. Eremenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the essence of individual marketing and its interconnection with relationship marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing based on a study of the marketing genesis and the evolution of the process of individual communication between buyer and seller. We consider relationship marketing as the most general notion that involves individual marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing. Relationship marketing is to ...

  15. KEDUDUKAN INDIVIDU DALAM HUKUM INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heribertus Jaka Triyana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking of the role of person or individuals in international law has become more significant due to the development of branches of international law; the international criminal law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law. This essay focuses on issue of law enforcement of individuals responsibility toward international wrongful acts, mechanisms and their futher development. Historical development is used as a point of view in this essay to reach conclusion of the role of individuals in international law.

  16. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  17. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  18. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  19. Analysis and application of European genetic substructure using 300 K SNP information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available European population genetic substructure was examined in a diverse set of >1,000 individuals of European descent, each genotyped with >300 K SNPs. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analyses (PCA showed the largest division/principal component (PC differentiated northern from southern European ancestry. A second PC further separated Italian, Spanish, and Greek individuals from those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry as well as distinguishing among northern European populations. In separate analyses of northern European participants other substructure relationships were discerned showing a west to east gradient. Application of this substructure information was critical in examining a real dataset in whole genome association (WGA analyses for rheumatoid arthritis in European Americans to reduce false positive signals. In addition, two sets of European substructure ancestry informative markers (ESAIMs were identified that provide substantial substructure information. The results provide further insight into European population genetic substructure and show that this information can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans.

  20. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  1. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  2. The evolution of individuality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Blackstone, Neil W

    2018-03-25

    Evolutionary theory is formulated in terms of individuals that carry heritable information and are subject to selective pressures. However, individuality itself is a trait that had to evolve - an individual is not an indivisible entity, but a result of evolutionary processes that necessarily begin at the lower level of hierarchical organisation. Traditional approaches to biological individuality focus on cooperation and relatedness within a group, division of labour, policing mechanisms and strong selection at the higher level. Nevertheless, despite considerable theoretical progress in these areas, a full dynamical first-principles account of how new types of individuals arise is missing. To the extent that individuality is an emergent trait, the problem can be approached by recognising the importance of individuating mechanisms that are present from the very beginning of the transition, when only lower-level selection is acting. Here we review some of the most influential theoretical work on the role of individuating mechanisms in these transitions, and demonstrate how a lower-level, bottom-up evolutionary framework can be used to understand biological complexity involved in the origin of cellular life, early eukaryotic evolution, sexual life cycles and multicellular development. Some of these mechanisms inevitably stem from environmental constraints, population structure and ancestral life cycles. Others are unique to specific transitions - features of the natural history and biochemistry that are co-opted into conflict mediation. Identifying mechanisms of individuation that provide a coarse-grained description of the system's evolutionary dynamics is an important step towards understanding how biological complexity and hierarchical organisation evolves. In this way, individuality can be reconceptualised as an approximate model that with varying degrees of precision applies to a wide range of biological systems. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  4. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  5. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…

  6. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture and problem-solving: Congruency between the cultural mindset of individualism versus collectivism and problem type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Sharon; Sagiv, Lilach

    2018-06-01

    This research investigates how the cultural mindset influences problem-solving. Drawing on the notion that cultural mindset influences the cognitive process individuals bring to bear at the moment of judgment, we propose that the congruency between the cultural mindset (individualistic vs. collectivistic) and problem type (rule-based vs. context-based) affects success in problem-solving. In 7 studies we incorporated the traditional approach to studying the impact of culture (i.e., comparing cultural groups) with contemporary approaches viewing cultural differences in a more dynamic and malleable manner. We first show that members of an individualistic group (Jewish Americans) perform better on rule-based problems, whereas members of collectivistic groups (ultra-Orthodox Jews and Arabs from Israel) perform better on context-based problems (Study 1). We then study Arabs in Israel using language (Arabic vs. Hebrew) to prime their collectivistic versus individualistic mindsets (Study 2). As hypothesized, among biculturals (those who internalize both cultures) Arabic facilitated solving context-based problems, whereas Hebrew facilitated solving rule-based problems. We follow up with 5 experiments priming the cultural mindset of individualism versus collectivism, employing various manifestations of the cultural dimension: focusing on the individual versus the collective (Studies 3, 6, and 7); experiencing independence versus interdependence (Study 4); and directing attention to objects versus the context (Studies 5a-b). Finally, we took a meta-analytic approach, showing that the effects found in Studies 3-6 are robust across priming tasks, problems, and samples. Taken together, the differences between cultural groups (Studies 1-2) were recreated when the individualistic/collectivistic cultural mindset was primed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Climate Change and Individual Duties

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Fragnière

    2016-01-01

    Tackling climate change has often been considered the responsibility of national governments. But do individuals also have a duty to act in the face of this problem? In particular do they have a duty to adopt a greener lifestyle or to press their government to act? This review critically examines the arguments provided for and against such duties in the relevant philosophic literature. It first discusses the problem of causal inefficacy—namely the fact that individual greenhouse gas emissions...

  10. Individual differences in change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Katharina Verena

    2016-01-01

    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attentio...

  11. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  12. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  13. The E180splice mutation in the GHR gene causing Laron syndrome: witness of a Sephardic Jewish exodus from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fernanda T; Fridman, Cintia; Pinto, Emília M; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Shevah, Orit; Rosembloom, Arlan L; Hwa, Vivian; Cassorla, Fernando; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Lins, Theresa S S; Damiani, Durval; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Laron, Zvi; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2014-05-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The most frequent GHR mutation is E180splice (rs121909360), which was initially found in an inbred population of Spanish descent in Ecuador and subsequently in Israel, Brazil, Chile, and the United States. The aim of the present study is to determine if the E180splice mutation arose from a common origin. We studied 22 patients with LS from Ecuador, Israel (of Moroccan origin), Brazil, Chile, and the United States (of Mexican origin) who were homozygous for the E180splice mutation and compared them to control individuals for markers surrounding the GHR, intragenic polymorphisms, and Y-chromosome STR. An identical haplotype was found in all but one of the subjects carrying the E180splice mutation: D5S665: 150/150; D5S2082: 192/192; D5S2087: 246/246; rs6179 G/G; and rs6180 C/C. One patient differed from the others only at D5S2082 (168/192). This haplotype is rare (~1%) in control individuals and confirmed that the E180splice-associated haplotype was not derived from independent origins but represented recombination from a common ancestor. The analysis of paternal lineage markers showed that 50% belong to haplogroup R1b (found in Portugal and Spain) and 40% to haplogroups J and E (typical in the Middle East and in Eastern European Jews). The germline E180Splice mutation appears to have originated from a single common ancestor. The presence of Y-chromosome markers associated with Sephardic populations in persons harboring the E180splice mutation provides genetic evidence in support of the historical tracking of the exodus of this specific population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity in type 1 Gaucher disease: Multiple genotypes in Ashkenazic and non-Ashkenazic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Shoji; Martin, B.M.; Stubblefield, B.K.; LaMarca, M.E.; Ginns, E.I.; Barranger, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone from an Ashkenazic Jewish patient with type 1 Gaucher disease revealed a single-base mutation (adenosine to guanosine transition) in exon 9 of the glucocerebrosidase gene. This change results in the amino acid substitution of serine for asparagine. Transient expression studies following oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the normal cDNA confirmed that the mutation results in loss of glucocerebrosidase activity. Allele-specific hybridization with oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that this mutation was found exclusively in type 1 phenotype. None of the 6 type 2 patients, 11 type 3 patients, or 12 normal controls had this allele. In contrast, 15 of 24 type 1 patients had one allele with this mutation, and 3 others were homozygous for the mutation. Furthermore, some of the Ashkenazic Jewish type 1 patients had only one allele with this mutation, suggesting that even in this population there is allelic heterozygosity. These findings indicate that there are multiple allelic mutations responsible for type 1 Gaucher disease in both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations. Allelic-specific hybridization demonstrating this mutation in exon 9, used in conjunction with the Nci I restriction fragment length polymorphism described as a marker for neuronopathic Gaucher disease, provides a tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling that is ∼80% informative in all Gaucher patients studied

  15. Genetic heterogeneity in type 1 Gaucher disease: Multiple genotypes in Ashkenazic and non-Ashkenazic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Shoji; Martin, B.M.; Stubblefield, B.K.; LaMarca, M.E.; Ginns, E.I. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Barranger, J.A. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone from an Ashkenazic Jewish patient with type 1 Gaucher disease revealed a single-base mutation (adenosine to guanosine transition) in exon 9 of the glucocerebrosidase gene. This change results in the amino acid substitution of serine for asparagine. Transient expression studies following oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the normal cDNA confirmed that the mutation results in loss of glucocerebrosidase activity. Allele-specific hybridization with oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that this mutation was found exclusively in type 1 phenotype. None of the 6 type 2 patients, 11 type 3 patients, or 12 normal controls had this allele. In contrast, 15 of 24 type 1 patients had one allele with this mutation, and 3 others were homozygous for the mutation. Furthermore, some of the Ashkenazic Jewish type 1 patients had only one allele with this mutation, suggesting that even in this population there is allelic heterozygosity. These findings indicate that there are multiple allelic mutations responsible for type 1 Gaucher disease in both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations. Allelic-specific hybridization demonstrating this mutation in exon 9, used in conjunction with the Nci I restriction fragment length polymorphism described as a marker for neuronopathic Gaucher disease, provides a tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling that is {approx}80% informative in all Gaucher patients studied.

  16. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  17. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  19. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  20. Variations in biochemical values for common laboratory tests: a comparison among multi-ethnic Israeli women cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Ruth; Heifetz, Eliyahu M

    2018-04-28

    Biochemical laboratory values are an essential tool in medical diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up; however, they are known to vary between populations. Establishment of ethnicity-adjusted reference values is recommended by health organizations. To investigate the ethnicity element in biochemical lab values studying women of different ethnic groups. Biochemical lab values (n = 27) of 503 adult Israeli women of three ethnicities (Jewish Ashkenazi, Jewish Sephardic, and Bedouin Arab) attending a single medical center were analyzed. Biochemical data were extracted from medical center records. Ethnic differences of laboratory biochemicals were studied using ANCOVA to analyze the center of the distribution as well as quartile regression analysis to analyze the upper and lower limits, both done with an adjustment for age. Significant ethnic differences were found in almost half (n = 12) of the biochemical laboratory tests. Ashkenazi Jews exhibited significantly higher mean values compared to Bedouins in most of the biochemical tests, including albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, cholesterol LDL and HDL, cholesterol LDL calc., folic acid, globulin, and iron saturation, while the Bedouins exhibited the highest mean values in the creatinine and triglycerides. For most of these tests, Sephardic Jews exhibited biochemical mean levels in between the two other groups. Compared to Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic Jews had a significant shift to lower values in cholesterol LDL. Ethnic subpopulations have distinct distributions in biochemical laboratory test values, which should be taken into consideration in medical practice enabling precision medicine.