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Sample records for ashby pilot pam

  1. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the third time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby pulls on his glove, part of his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  2. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the second time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby waves after donning his launch and entry suit while a suit tech adjusts his boot. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS- 93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  3. Seasonal primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the south: summertime is PAM time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a typically fatal, free-living amebic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is caused by the thermophilic, freshwater protozoan, Naegleria fowleri. More than 145 cases of PAM have been reported worldwide, with most reported cases in the United States (US). Since annual PAM case clusters in the US and worldwide have demonstrated recent increases over background cases, the objectives of this investigation included (1) an epidemiological and statistical analysis of a 2007 cluster of six PAM cases in the southern US, nested in a retrospective review of 121 confirmed US cases of PAM over the period, 1937 to 2007; and (2) a statistical analysis of all existing demographic, temporal, and behavioral risk factors for PAM. Significant risk factors for PAM in the United States included male sex and warm recreational freshwater exposures in seasonal patterns (July - August) in southern tier states, including Louisiana. Although there have been a few recent survivors of PAM treated with combinations of intensive critical care, antifungals, and synergistic antibiotics, case fatality rates for PAM remain very high. PAM is best prevented by combinations of public health educational and behavioral modification strategies. Further investigations will be required to determine the significance of freshwater wakeboarding as a significant risk factor for PAM and to determine any dose-response effects of global warming on rising freshwater temperatures and the growth of aquatic Naegleria fowleri.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Putative Orthologues of Mitochondrial Import Motor Subunit: Pam18 and Pam16 in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuejin; Ghazanfar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and ...

  5. Što ispitujemo testovima pamćenja? Odnos metamemorije i objektivnih mjera pamćenja

    OpenAIRE

    Vranić, Andrea; Tonković, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Metamemorija se odnosi na naše znanje o pamćenju općenito, poznavanje vlastitih procesa i pamćenja te zadovoljstvo svojim pamćenjem. Područje mjerenja metamemorije relativno je novo, a ovaj je rad prilog raspravi o važnosti uključivanja metamemorije u procjenu nečijeg pamćenja, te nedostacima zaključivanja o kvaliteti ili poteškoćama nečijeg pamćenja isključivo na osnovi uratka u objektivnim zadacima pamćenja. Na uzorku od 247 sudionika, raspona dobi od 13 do 78 godina, ispitivali smo odnos m...

  6. STS-112 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On this seventh day of STS-112 mission members of the crew (Commander Jeff Ashby; Pilot Pam Melroy; Mission Specialist Sandy Magnus, Piers Sellers, Dave Wolf, and Fyodor Yurchikhin) along with the Expedition Five crew (Commander Valery Korzun; Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson, and Sergei Treschev) are seen answering questions during the mission's press interview and photo opportunity. They answered various questions regarding the mission's objectives, the onboard science experiments, the extravehicular activities (EVAs) and the effects of living in space. Shots of the test deployment of the S1 truss radiator and Canadarm rotor joint are also shown.

  7. SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines what ''sustainable development policies and measures'' (SD-PAMs) could be, and how they could be implemented and could fit into a post-2012 climate regime. This paper assumes that the option to implement SD-PAMs instead of quantified GHG emission commitments post-2012 is an option that would be likely to be only open to non-Annex I countries. There are several key, but unanswered, questions related to SD-PAMs. These include policy-related issues such as which countries could take on commitments to implement SD-PAMs (rather than quantified emission commitments)? Why would particular countries decide to take on such commitments? They also include questions related to how SD-PAMs could be implemented. For many other options for possible post-2012 GHG mitigation actions, including by non-Annex I countries, have also been proposed. However, this paper focuses solely on SD-PAMs.

  8. Deciphering, Communicating, and Engineering the CRISPR PAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenay, Ryan T; Beisel, Chase L

    2017-01-20

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their flanking CRISPR-associated (cas) genes make up RNA-guided, adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes whose effector proteins have become powerful tools for basic research and biotechnology. While the Cas effector proteins are remarkably diverse, they commonly rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) as the first step in target recognition. PAM sequences are known to vary considerably between systems and have proven to be difficult to predict, spurring the need for new tools to rapidly identify and communicate these sequences. Recent advances have also shown that Cas proteins can be engineered to alter PAM recognition, opening new opportunities to develop CRISPR-based tools with enhanced targeting capabilities. In this review, we discuss the properties of the CRISPR PAM and the emerging tools for determining, visualizing, and engineering PAM recognition. We also propose a standard means of orienting the PAM to simplify how its location and sequence are communicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

    2010-09-06

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  10. Identifying and Visualizing Functional PAM Diversity across CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenay, Ryan T; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; Slotkowski, Rebecca A; Agrawal, Roma N; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Briner, Alexandra E; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Beisel, Chase L

    2016-04-07

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes boast a diversity of protein families and mechanisms of action, where most systems rely on protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) for DNA target recognition. Here, we developed an in vivo, positive, and tunable screen termed PAM-SCANR (PAM screen achieved by NOT-gate repression) to elucidate functional PAMs as well as an interactive visualization scheme termed the PAM wheel to convey individual PAM sequences and their activities. PAM-SCANR and the PAM wheel identified known functional PAMs while revealing complex sequence-activity landscapes for the Bacillus halodurans I-C (Cascade), Escherichia coli I-E (Cascade), Streptococcus thermophilus II-A CRISPR1 (Cas9), and Francisella novicida V-A (Cpf1) systems. The PAM wheel was also readily applicable to existing high-throughput screens and garnered insights into SpyCas9 and SauCas9 PAM diversity. These tools offer powerful means of elucidating and visualizing functional PAMs toward accelerating our ability to understand and exploit the multitude of CRISPR-Cas systems in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interference by pralidoxime (PAM) salts in clinical laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Sumika; Kohguchi, Katsunori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    Drugs sometimes alter the results of clinical laboratory tests. We examined the effects of pralidoxime (PAM) salts, a medicine used to treat organophosphorus poisoning, on clinical laboratory test results for the first time. The effects of PAM salts on glucose (GLU) measurements were examined using a point-of-care testing (POCT) meter, four self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) meters, and two biochemical autoanalyzers. The effects of PAM salts on other clinical tests were also evaluated. The addition of PAM iodide or potassium iodide, but not of PAM chloride or potassium chloride, to blood samples increased the GLU values measured by one POCT meter and 4 SMBG meters using the enzyme electrode (hydrogen peroxidase or oxygen electrode) method. On the other hand, PAM iodide or PAM chloride, but not KI or KCl, affected the values measured at 340 nm by an autoanalyzer using absorption spectrophotometry in 8 of 14 clinical laboratory tests. The absorption spectrum of PAM changed from 294 to 338 nm due to the reaction between PAM and the alkaline buffer, a component of the measuring reagents. PAM iodide increases the GLU values measured by the enzyme electrode method, and PAM salts affected the values measured at 340 nm by absorption spectrophotometry in many other clinical test items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries: demographics and disease status. The Nordic PAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T; Iversen, L; Lindqvist, U; Paimela, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with putative PAM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited. Fifty-nine patients were included after clinical examination. The prevalence of PAM in the adult Nordic population was estimated to be 3.69 per million inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-4.63]. The female to male ratio was close to 1:1. The mean age of skin disease onset was 25 years and the mean age of onset of joint disease was 30 years. The onset of skin disease was 2 years earlier among female patients. At inclusion, the mean duration of arthritis was 27 ± 11 years for male patients and 33 ± 11 years for female patients. PAM was most frequently seen in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the toes, followed by the IP joint of the thumb and the DIP joint of the little finger on the left hand. Female and male patients had similar numbers of painful and swollen joints. Enthesitis was found in 19 patients (32%), while 38 patients (64%) had a history of dactylitis. Twenty-three of these 38 patients (61%) had a history of dactylitis in the same finger/toe as they had PAM. At the time of inclusion, 45% of the patients were found to have clear or almost clear skin. PAM in the Nordic countries has a low prevalence, with only three to five cases per million inhabitants. The majority of the patients present with mild skin disease.

  13. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  14. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  15. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  16. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) kills human cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sakakita, Hajime; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hori, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Medical non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatments for various types of cancers have been reported. Cells with tumorigenic potential (cancer-initiating cells; CICs) are few in number in many types of tumors. CICs efficiently eliminate anti-cancer chemicals and exhibit high-level aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We previously examined the effects of direct irradiation via NTP on cancer cells; even though we targeted CICs expressing high levels of ALDH, such treatment affected both non-CICs and CICs. Recent studies have shown that plasma-activated medium (PAM) (culture medium irradiated by NTP) selectively induces apoptotic death of cancer but not normal cells. Therefore, we explored the anti-cancer effects of PAM on CICs among endometrioid carcinoma and gastric cancer cells. PAM reduced the viability of cells expressing both low and high levels of ALDH. Combined PAM/cisplatin appeared to kill cancer cells more efficiently than did PAM or cisplatin alone. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, PAM exerted an anti-cancer effect on CICs. Thus, our results suggest that PAM effectively kills both non-CICs and CICs, as does NTP. Therefore, PAM may be a useful new anti-cancer therapy, targeting various cancer cells including CICs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Augmenting the spectral efficiency of enhanced PAM-DMT-based optical wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Haas, Harald

    2016-05-30

    The energy efficiency of pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation (PAM-DMT) decreases as the modulation order of M-PAM modulation increases. Enhanced PAM-DMT (ePAM-DMT) was proposed as a solution to the reduced energy efficiency of PAM-DMT. This was achieved by allowing multiple streams of PAM-DMT to be superimposed and successively demodulated at the receiver side. In order to maintain a distortion-free unipolar ePAM-DMT system, the multiple time-domain PAM-DMT streams are required to be aligned. However, aligning the antisymmetry in ePAM-DMT is complex and results in efficiency losses. In this paper, a novel simplified method to apply the superposition modulation on M-PAM modulated discrete multitone (DMT) is introduced. Contrary to ePAM-DMT, the signal generation of the proposed system, termed augmented spectral efficiency discrete multitone (ASE-DMT), occurs in the frequency domain. This results in an improved spectral and energy efficiency. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance bound of the proposed system is derived and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The system performance is shown to offer significant electrical and optical energy savings compared with ePAM-DMT and DC-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM).

  18. Software system for reducing PAM-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A software system for reducing PAM-II data was constructed. The data reduction process concatenates data tapes; determines ephemeris; and inverts full sun extinction data. Tests of this data reduction process show that PAM-II data can be compared with data from other, similar satellites.

  19. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  20. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  3. A comparative study of proliferative activity and tumor stage of pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and non-PAM in gestational age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Emily A; Martini, Mary C; Amin, Sapna M; Yélamos, Oriol; Lee, Christina Y; Sholl, Lauren M; Rademaker, Alfred W; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pregnancy on the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma is controversial. We sought to compare clinical characteristics, histologic features, and proliferative activity in pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and melanoma in nonpregnant women of reproductive age (non-PAM). In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records and pathology reports from women given a diagnosis of melanoma between 2006 and 2015. We also examined tumor proliferation rates using mitotic count and 2 immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67. In 50 PAM and 122 non-PAM cases, a diagnosis of melanoma in situ was associated with PAM. Among invasive melanomas, there was no difference in proliferative activity between groups. Pregnancy status was also not associated with age at diagnosis, tumor site, Breslow depth, Clark level, ulceration, or overall stage. This was a retrospective study with a small sample size of mostly patients with early-stage melanoma. In our study of primarily early-stage melanoma, pregnancy did not have a significant impact on tumor proliferation. Particularly for patients given a diagnosis of stage I melanoma who are undergoing close surveillance, a history of PAM should not outweigh traditional factors, such as advanced maternal age, in planning future pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of the...

  6. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B T; Yan, Winston X; Manteiga, John C; Schneider, Martin W; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS indicated that these variants retain high DNA-targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified PAM-interacting mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately threefold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ∼11 bp.

  7. Conjugal plasmid transfer (pAM beta 1) in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Shrago, A W; Chassy, B M; Dobrogosz, W J

    1986-01-01

    The streptococcal plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred via conjugation from Streptococcus faecalis to Lactobacillus plantarum and was transferred among L. plantarum strains. Streptococcus sanguis Challis was transformed with pAM beta 1 isolated from these transconjugants, and transformants harboring intact pAM beta 1 could conjugate the plasmid back to L. plantarum.

  8. Nanoparticle-Delivered 2-PAM for Rat Brain Protection against Paraoxon Central Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Babaev, Vasily M; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Souto, Eliana B; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Masson, Patrick; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2017-05-24

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30.8 ± 1%). Drug-loaded particles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm and high negative zeta potential (-54 to -15 mV). These properties contribute to improve long-term stability of 2-PAM-SLNs when stored both at room temperature (22 °C) and at 4 °C, as well as to longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 2-PAM. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (2 × LD 50 ) were treated with 2-PAM-loaded SLNs at a dose of 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. 2-PAM-SLNs reactivated 15% of brain AChE activity. Our results confirm the potential use of SLNs loaded with positively charged oximes as a medical countermeasure both for protection against OPs poisoning and for postexposure treatment.

  9. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  10. Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Johnny H; Miller, Shannon M; Geurts, Maarten H; Tang, Weixin; Chen, Liwei; Sun, Ning; Zeina, Christina M; Gao, Xue; Rees, Holly A; Lin, Zhi; Liu, David R

    2018-04-05

    A key limitation of the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing and other applications is the requirement that a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) be present at the target site. For the most commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), the required PAM sequence is NGG. No natural or engineered Cas9 variants that have been shown to function efficiently in mammalian cells offer a PAM less restrictive than NGG. Here we use phage-assisted continuous evolution to evolve an expanded PAM SpCas9 variant (xCas9) that can recognize a broad range of PAM sequences including NG, GAA and GAT. The PAM compatibility of xCas9 is the broadest reported, to our knowledge, among Cas9 proteins that are active in mammalian cells, and supports applications in human cells including targeted transcriptional activation, nuclease-mediated gene disruption, and cytidine and adenine base editing. Notably, despite its broadened PAM compatibility, xCas9 has much greater DNA specificity than SpCas9, with substantially lower genome-wide off-target activity at all NGG target sites tested, as well as minimal off-target activity when targeting genomic sites with non-NGG PAMs. These findings expand the DNA targeting scope of CRISPR systems and establish that there is no necessary trade-off between Cas9 editing efficiency, PAM compatibility and DNA specificity.

  11. PHBV/PAM scaffolds with local oriented structure through UV polymerization for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yu; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM) inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100  μm increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance.

  12. Jonah, Pam Keziah

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jonah, Pam Keziah. Vol 9, No 2 (2012) - Articles A Pragmatic Analysis and Interpretation of Verbal Offers by Vendors of Consumer Products in Jos Metropolis Abstract. ISSN: 1813-2227. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  13. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  14. Understanding AL-PAM assisted oil sands tailings treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, L.; Maham, Y.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Technologies currently used to treat oil sands tailings include the composite tailings (CT) process and the thickened tailings (TT) or paste technology process. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a flocculation and filtration method used to produce stackable tailings deposits. Magnafloc 1011 and AL-PAM additions were used as part of the filtration technique to produce very dry filter cakes. The effect of AL-PAM molecular weight and aluminum content on tailings treatments was investigated as well as the effect of tailings characteristics on the performance of flocculant-assisted tailings filtration processes. The AL-PAM molecular structure was studied. An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of various polymer additions on fresh tailings from an oil sands plant. The study showed that the optimum dosage for settling and filtration was lower for higher molecular weight AL-PAM. A higher aluminum content was beneficial for settling. Increases in the aluminum content did not improve filtration rates, but reduced optimal dosages. Step-by-step details of the supernatant filtration process were provided, as well as photographs of the laboratory study. tabs., figs.

  15. A study on contraction of pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) for load-lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmuddin, W. S. W. A.; Mustaffa, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) have been known for its wide application in various aspects of industrial automation and robotic equipments. Many advantages in terms of high power-to-volume ratio, high power-to-weight ratio, stick-slip-free operation and high degree of safety offer by PAM compare to traditional actuators. However, behind this benefits lie a limitation of significant compatibility of PAM mechanism which have to be considered so as to fully understand how the PAM works during load-lifting. In this study, the mesh suitability experiment and the effect of force load on PAM contraction experiment have been carried out. PAM is constructed and compatibility of bladder and the braided mesh to produce uniform expansion is investigated. Moreover, the first experimental result of finding compatibility is used to verify the contraction value under various loads.

  16. A Design V and V Process of Hardwired PAMS for KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwisook; Suh, Yongsuk; Kim, Youngki

    2013-01-01

    A hardwired PAMS (Post Accident Monitoring System) of KJRR (KIJANG Research Reactor) provides the necessary information for operators to monitor and take actions after an accident condition. The hardwired PAMS are designed according to HSI (Human System Interface) guidelines. However the HSI guidelines are too high level requirements and do not reflect the detailed characteristics of commercial products. Thus, the system designers have a difficulty in the following how the system requirements are reflected in the actual and detailed requirements for purchase. Thus, a design V and V (Verification and Validation) of the hardwired PAMS should be specially managed and can be traceable through the entire development life cycle. Thus, this paper proposes a tracking matrix method for the design V and V of hardwired PAMS for KJRR. The PAMS of KJRR consists of hardwired indicators. There are many differences between the system requirements and procurement specifications for hardwired devices. The existing design V and V method for hardwired indicators is not clear. Thus, this paper proposed a tracking matrix for the design V and V of the hardwired PAMS

  17. [Sewage sludge conditioning by bioleaching-dual PAC and PAM addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Geng; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yong-Gang

    2010-09-01

    Bioleaching-dual polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) addition was used to condition sewage sludge. The results showed that FeSO4 x 7H2O addition improved the bioleaching rate obviously with a fixed sulfur power dosage of 3 g x L(-1); when the FeSO4 x 7H2O dosage was 8 g x L(-1), the bioleaching lasted 1.5 d to decrease the sludge pH below 2. Bioleaching improved the sludge dewaterability significantly with a specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reduction of 77.52% from 6.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-10 to 1.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-1), but the bioleached sludge was still difficult to be dewatered. After adjusting the bioleached sludge pH to 6, PAC and PAM were used to enhance conditioning of the bioleached sludge. The results indicated that the optimal dosage was 200 mg x L(-1) for PAC or 50 mg x L(-1) for PAM when single chemical was used. When PAC and PAM were dually used, the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM were 100 mg x L(-1) and 25 mg x L(-1), respectively; SRF and moisture of sludge cake reduced to 2.02 x 10(8) s2 x g(-1) and 74.81%, respectively, showing good dewaterability of the treated sludge. Compared with the single use of PAC and PAM, the dual use of PAC and PAM showed the advantages of lower cost and better conditioning effect.

  18. Psychometric properties of the hebrew translation of the patient activation measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    "Patient activation" reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (-0.35, PPAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation.

  19. GE Hitachi's parts asset management solutions (PAMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; Lancaster, K.; Detamore, B.; Dinh, H.; Danielsson, J.; Vitaback, F.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure operational excellence and improve plant reliability, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) has partnered with its customers to develop PARTS Asset Management Solutions (PAMS). PAMS is a comprehensive set of services that enable plants to proactively manage inventory, obtain after-market replacement parts quickly, and resolve obsolescence issues, ensuring operation of equipment is maintained. PAMS includes: - Electronics Exchange Service Program (EESP) - On-demand exchange service program for GE electronics parts that guarantees rapid shipment of parts, results in cost savings and eliminates all obsolescence risk. - Engineering Services (ES) - Service that finds replacement electronics parts for customers encountering obsolescence. - System Assessment Report (SAR) - Comprehensive, customised report for customer systems that provides all information needed to minimise part availability risk. - Inventory Management (IM) - Visual application based on OEM drawings and decades of industry operational experience that enables customers to proactively identify obsolescence and inventory management issues. - Material Solutions (MS) - Fixed price and lead time model that allows the customer to set-up blanket contracts or purchase orders for obtaining needed parts with a focus on reduced overall cycle time. This paper will provide an overview of PAMS and showcase a case study of the PAMS Digitized deployment for an existing GEH customer. (authors)

  20. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Specificities of Engineered CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seiichi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets bearing a PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) and complementarity to the guide RNA. A recent study showed that, whereas wild-type Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) recognizes the 5'-NGG-3' PAM, the engineered VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants recognize the 5'-NGA-3', 5'-NGAG-3', and 5'-NGCG-3' PAMs, respectively, thus expanding the targetable sequences in Cas9-mediated genome editing applications. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the three SpCas9 variants in complexes with a single-guide RNA and its altered PAM-containing, partially double-stranded DNA targets. A structural comparison of the three SpCas9 variants with wild-type SpCas9 revealed that the multiple mutations synergistically induce an unexpected displacement in the phosphodiester backbone of the PAM duplex, thereby allowing the SpCas9 variants to directly recognize the altered PAM nucleotides. Our findings explain the altered PAM specificities of the SpCas9 variants and establish a framework for further rational engineering of CRISPR-Cas9. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacillus subtilis generates a major specific deletion in pAM beta 1.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Lelie, D; Venema, G

    1987-01-01

    pAM beta 1, a 26.5-kilobase plasmid originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis, was conjugally transferred from Streptococcus lactis to Bacillus subtilis. No conjugal transfer of pAM beta 1 from B. subtilis to S. lactis was observed. In addition, pAM beta 1 which had been reintroduced in S. lactis after cycling through B. subtilis had lost its conjugal transferability to Streptococcus cremoris, although under the same conditions noncycled pAM beta 1 was transferred at high efficiency. Re...

  2. Improvement of biodegradability of oil wastewater contained PAM by pretreatment with Fenton oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Wang, N.

    2008-01-01

    The use of polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery operations has resulted in higher levels of polyacrylamide (PAM) found in oil wastewater. PAM is harmful to the environment, particularly the monomer acrylamide that is generated from PAM degradation. In this study, PAM derived from oil wastewater was pretreated by Fenton oxidation. This oxidation method is based on the use of a mixture of H 2 O 2 and iron salts which produce hydroxyl radicals in acidic conditions. The method offers a cost-effective source of hydroxyl radicals, using easy-to-handle reagents. The purpose of this study was to transform PAM to biodegradable intermediums. The optimal conditions for the Fenton reactions were also determined and described. Under optimal conditions, the removal ratios of PAM and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 83.8 and 77 per cent respectively. It was concluded that Fenton's oxidation is an effective treatment to improved the biodegradability of PAM. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  3. Signaling from the secretory granule to the nucleus: Uhmk1 and PAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, Victor P; Ifrim, Marius F; Rajagopal, Chitra; Leddy, Christopher J; Wang, Yanping; Carson, John H; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2010-08-01

    Neurons and endocrine cells package peptides in secretory granules (large dense-core vesicles) for storage and stimulated release. Studies of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential secretory granule membrane enzyme, revealed a pathway that can relay information from secretory granules to the nucleus, resulting in alterations in gene expression. The cytosolic domain (CD) of PAM, a type 1 membrane enzyme essential for the production of amidated peptides, is basally phosphorylated by U2AF homology motif kinase 1 (Uhmk1) and other Ser/Thr kinases. Proopiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells was increased when Uhmk1 expression was reduced. Uhmk1 was concentrated in the nucleus, but cycled rapidly between nucleus and cytosol. Endoproteolytic cleavage of PAM releases a soluble CD fragment that localizes to the nucleus. Localization of PAM-CD to the nucleus was decreased when PAM-CD with phosphomimetic mutations was examined and when active Uhmk1 was simultaneously overexpressed. Membrane-tethering Uhmk1 did not eliminate its ability to exclude PAM-CD from the nucleus, suggesting that cytosolic Uhmk1 could cause this response. Microarray analysis demonstrated the ability of PAM to increase expression of a small subset of genes, including aquaporin 1 (Aqp1) in AtT-20 cells. Aqp1 mRNA levels were higher in wild-type mice than in mice heterozygous for PAM, indicating that a similar relationship occurs in vivo. Expression of PAM-CD also increased Aqp1 levels whereas expression of Uhmk1 diminished Aqp1 expression. The outlines of a pathway that ties secretory granule metabolism to the transcriptome are thus apparent.

  4. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  5. The study of Ashby-type sintering diagrams for uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeoni, P.

    1980-01-01

    Computer modelling of binary and ternary Ashby-type sintering diagrams for stoechiometric and hyperstoechiometric uranium dioxide (in the range O/U = 2, 0-2, 10). Material data and mass transfer equations, selected from the literature, were used. Sintering isochronous curves were calculated and traced as well. Improvement of a modern dilatometric method by reading and processing experimental curves on a computer and by determining for them a criterion of proximity to the theoretical model equation. It was possible: to develop a reliable method of determination for the dominant mechanism, diffusion coefficient and real process activation energy; to draw up the real sintering diagram; to understand the quantitative and qualitative changes occuring during the actual sintering process of UO 2 , concerning massing and modification of pore shape; to recommend the technological parameters of the thermal regime concerning the elimination of lubricant and binder additives in order to obtain high quality sintered tablets. (author)

  6. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  7. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  8. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  9. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  10. Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Takashi; Zetsche, Bernd; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-08-17

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) nuclease associates with a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves the double-stranded DNA target complementary to the crRNA guide. The two Cpf1 orthologs from Acidaminococcus sp. (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium (LbCpf1) have been harnessed for eukaryotic genome editing. Cpf1 requires a specific nucleotide sequence, called a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), for target recognition. Besides the canonical TTTV PAM, Cpf1 recognizes suboptimal C-containing PAMs. Here, we report four crystal structures of LbCpf1 in complex with the crRNA and its target DNA containing either TTTA, TCTA, TCCA, or CCCA as the PAM. These structures revealed that, depending on the PAM sequences, LbCpf1 undergoes conformational changes to form altered interactions with the PAM-containing DNA duplexes, thereby achieving the relaxed PAM recognition. Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pam2 lipopeptides systemically increase myeloid-derived suppressor cells through TLR2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Akira; Shime, Hiroaki, E-mail: shime@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Takeda, Yohei; Azuma, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa, E-mail: seya-tu@pop.med.hokudai.ac.jp

    2015-02-13

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity. They are increased in tumor-bearing hosts and contribute to tumor development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on MDSCs may modulate the tumor-supporting properties of MDSCs through pattern-recognition. Pam2 lipopeptides represented by Pam2CSK4 serve as a TLR2 agonist to exert anti-tumor function by dendritic cell (DC)-priming that leads to NK cell activation and cytotoxic T cell proliferation. On the other hand, TLR2 enhances tumor cell progression/invasion by activating tumor-infiltrating macrophages. How MDSCs respond to TLR2 agonists has not yet been determined. In this study, we found intravenous administration of Pam2CSK4 systemically up-regulated the frequency of MDSCs in EG7 tumor-bearing mice. The frequency of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs was accordingly increased in response to Pam2CSK4. MDSCs were not increased by Pam2CSK4 stimuli in TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Adoptive transfer experiments using CFSE-labeled MDSCs revealed that the TLR2-positive MDSCs survived long in tumor-bearing mice in response to Pam2CSK4 treatment. Since the increased MDSC population sustained immune-suppressive properties, our study suggests that Pam2CSK4-triggered TLR2 activation enhances the MDSC potential and suppress antitumor immune response in tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Pam2CSK4 administration induces systemic accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • TLR2 is essential for Pam2CSK4-induced accumulation of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs. • Pam2CSK4 supports survival of CD11b{sup +}Gr1{sup +} MDSCs in vivo.

  12. Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Carolin; Niewoehner, Ole; Duerst, Alessia; Jinek, Martin

    2014-09-25

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5'-NGG-3' PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA-DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities.

  13. Preparing for chemical terrorism: a study of the stability of expired pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Bouchard, Nicole; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu; Goldfrank, Lewis

    2012-03-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) are essential antidotes for life-threatening organophosphate poisoning. Unfortunately, oximes are expensive, have limited use, and have short shelf lives. As such, maintaining large stockpiles in preparation for terrorist activity is not always possible. We have demonstrated that atropine is stable well beyond its labeled shelf life and that recently expired 2-PAM was clinically efficacious in a series of poisoned patients. Because 2-PAM is often dosed empirically, clinical improvement does not guarantee pharmacological stability. We therefore chose to analyze the chemical stability of expired 2-PAM. Samples of lyophylized 2-PAM were maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations for 20 years beyond the published shelf life. We studied 2-PAM contained in a MARK I autoinjector that was stored properly for 3 years beyond its expiration date. An Agilent LC/MSD 1100 with diode-array detector and an Agilent Sorbax SB-C-18, 4.6 × 150-mm, 5-μm column were used with the following solvent systems: water with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid. Fresh reagent grade 2-PAM was used as a standard. Results were repeated for consistency. Lyophylized 2-PAM was a white powder that was clear and colorless in solution. Liquid chromatography was identical to the standard and resulted in 2 isolated peaks with identical mass spectra, suggesting that they are stereoisomers. The autoinjector discharged a clear, yellowish solution. In addition to the 2 peaks identified for lyophylized 2-PAM, a small third peak was identified with a mass spectra corresponding to the reported N -methyl pyridinium carboxaldehyde degradation product. When properly stored, lyophylized 2-PAM appears to be chemically stable well beyond its expiration date. Although the relative amount of degradation product found in solubilized (autoinjector) 2-PAM was small, it is unclear whether this may be toxic and therefore is of concern

  14. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Recognition by Engineered CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Yamano, Takashi; Gao, Linyi; Zhang, Feng; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-07-06

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 nuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the CRISPR RNA (crRNA), and it has been harnessed for genome editing technologies. Recently, Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 (AsCpf1) was engineered to recognize altered DNA sequences as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), thereby expanding the target range of Cpf1-mediated genome editing. Whereas wild-type AsCpf1 recognizes the TTTV PAM, the RVR (S542R/K548V/N552R) and RR (S542R/K607R) variants can efficiently recognize the TATV and TYCV PAMs, respectively. However, their PAM recognition mechanisms remained unknown. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the RVR and RR variants bound to a crRNA and its target DNA. The structures revealed that the RVR and RR variants primarily recognize the PAM-complementary nucleotides via the substituted residues. Our high-resolution structures delineated the altered PAM recognition mechanisms of the AsCpf1 variants, providing a basis for the further engineering of CRISPR-Cpf1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevation of Transfection Efficiency by Conjugation of Poly(amindoamine)-diethylenetriamine (PAM-DET) with Dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yunseong; Park, Jihye; Jin, Geunwoo; Park, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    We successfully conjugated hydrophobic group, dexamethasone onto the surface of PAM-DET to synthesize PAM-DET-DX to form polyplexes with enhanced stability against ionic strength. We evaluated its stability by measuring the size of its polyplexes; the conjugated PAM-DET polyplex showed decreased growth compared to the PAM-DET polyplex in an environment with increased ionic strength, which implies that the conjugated PAM-DET has enhanced stability against increased ionic strength. Furthermore, conjugation of hydrophobic group caused a slight increase in the transfection efficiency without inducing toxicity. Of course, it isn't a neglectable factor that nuclear localization effect of DX can drive the advanced transfection efficiency of PAM-DET-DX polyplex. It means that the hydrophobic moieties which have some other positive properties in transfection are good candidates that can be introduced to non-viral polymeric gene delivery carrier. This strongly indicates that the introduction of hydrophobic moiety on PAM-DET is a good method to enhance polyplex stability against ionic strength without diminishing its advantageous properties, such as high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity

  17. Methods for decoding Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences: A brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2017-05-15

    Recently the Cas9, an RNA guided DNA endonuclease, emerged as a powerful tool for targeted genome manipulations. Cas9 protein can be reprogrammed to cleave, bind or nick any DNA target by simply changing crRNA sequence, however a short nucleotide sequence, termed PAM, is required to initiate crRNA hybridization to the DNA target. PAM sequence is recognized by Cas9 protein and must be determined experimentally for each Cas9 variant. Exploration of Cas9 orthologs could offer a diversity of PAM sequences and novel biochemical properties that may be beneficial for genome editing applications. Here we briefly review and compare Cas9 PAM identification assays that can be adopted for other PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dimerization Is Not a Determining Factor for Functional High Affinity Human Plasminogen Binding by the Group A Streptococcal Virulence Factor PAM and Is Mediated by Specific Residues within the PAM a1a2 Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sarbani; Liang, Zhong; Quek, Adam J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Law, Ruby; Castellino, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    A emm53 subclass of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) interacts tightly with human plasma plasminogen (hPg) and plasmin (hPm) via the kringle 2 (K2hPg) domain of hPg/hPm and the N-terminal a1a2 regions of a GAS coiled-coil M-like protein (PAM). Previous studies have shown that a monomeric PAM fragment, VEK30 (residues 97–125 + Tyr), interacted specifically with isolated K2hPg. However, the binding strength of VEK30 (KD = 56 nm) was ∼60-fold weaker than that of full-length dimeric PAM (KD = 1 nm). To assess whether this attenuated binding was due to the inability of VEK30 to dimerize, we defined the minimal length of PAM required to dimerize using a series of peptides with additional PAM residues placed at the NH2 and COOH termini of VEK30. VEK64 (PAM residues 83–145 + Tyr) was found to be the smallest peptide that adopted an α-helical dimer, and was bound to K2hPg with nearly the same affinity as PAM (KD = 1–2 nm). However, addition of two PAM residues (Arg126-His127) to the COOH terminus of VEK30 (VEK32) maintained a monomeric peptidic structure, but exhibited similar K2hPg binding affinity as full-length dimeric PAM. We identified five residues in a1a2 (Arg113, His114, Glu116, Arg126, His127), mutation of which reduced PAM binding affinity for K2hPg by ∼1000-fold. Replacement of these critical residues by Ala in the GAS genome resulted in reduced virulence, similar to the effects of inactivating the PAM gene entirely. We conclude that rather than dimerization of PAM, the five key residues in the binding domain of PAM are essential to mediate the high affinity interaction with hPg, leading to increased GAS virulence. PMID:24962580

  19. Dimerization is not a determining factor for functional high affinity human plasminogen binding by the group A streptococcal virulence factor PAM and is mediated by specific residues within the PAM a1a2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sarbani; Liang, Zhong; Quek, Adam J; Ploplis, Victoria A; Law, Ruby; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-08-01

    A emm53 subclass of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) interacts tightly with human plasma plasminogen (hPg) and plasmin (hPm) via the kringle 2 (K2hPg) domain of hPg/hPm and the N-terminal a1a2 regions of a GAS coiled-coil M-like protein (PAM). Previous studies have shown that a monomeric PAM fragment, VEK30 (residues 97-125 + Tyr), interacted specifically with isolated K2hPg. However, the binding strength of VEK30 (KD = 56 nm) was ∼60-fold weaker than that of full-length dimeric PAM (KD = 1 nm). To assess whether this attenuated binding was due to the inability of VEK30 to dimerize, we defined the minimal length of PAM required to dimerize using a series of peptides with additional PAM residues placed at the NH2 and COOH termini of VEK30. VEK64 (PAM residues 83-145 + Tyr) was found to be the smallest peptide that adopted an α-helical dimer, and was bound to K2hPg with nearly the same affinity as PAM (KD = 1-2 nm). However, addition of two PAM residues (Arg(126)-His(127)) to the COOH terminus of VEK30 (VEK32) maintained a monomeric peptidic structure, but exhibited similar K2hPg binding affinity as full-length dimeric PAM. We identified five residues in a1a2 (Arg(113), His(114), Glu(116), Arg(126), His(127)), mutation of which reduced PAM binding affinity for K2hPg by ∼ 1000-fold. Replacement of these critical residues by Ala in the GAS genome resulted in reduced virulence, similar to the effects of inactivating the PAM gene entirely. We conclude that rather than dimerization of PAM, the five key residues in the binding domain of PAM are essential to mediate the high affinity interaction with hPg, leading to increased GAS virulence. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Mammalian peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) mRNA expression can be modulated by the La autoantigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenet, Fabienne; Dussault, Nadège; Borch, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. We have previously reported a putative regulatory RNA binding protein (PAM mRNA-BP) that binds specifically to the 3' untranslated...... region (UTR) of PAM-mRNA. Here, the PAM mRNA-BP was isolated and revealed to be La protein using affinity purification onto a 3' UTR PAM RNA, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. We determined that the core binding sequence is approximately 15-nucleotides (nt) long and is located 471 nt...... downstream of the stop codon. Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3' UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, La protein overexpression caused a nuclear retention of PAM mRNAs and resulted in the down-regulation of endogenous PAM activity. Most...

  1. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  2. Pam (Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase) heterozygosity alters brain copper handling with region specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Miller, Megan B; Ralle, Martina; Aryal, Dipendra; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2013-01-01

    Copper (Cu), an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. We studied the localization and expression of Atp7a, the major intracellular Cu transporter in the brain, and its relation to peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential cuproenzyme and regulator of Cu homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in postsynaptic vesicular fractions. Cu followed a similar pattern, with ~20% of total Cu in synaptosomes. A mouse model heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) is selectively Cu deficient in the amygdala. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons. Messenger RNA levels of Atox-1 and Atp7a, which deliver Cu to the secretory pathway, were reduced in the amygdala but not the hippocampus in PAM+/− mice, along with GABAB receptor mRNA levels. Consistent with Cu deficiency, dopamine β-monooxygenase function was impaired as evidenced by elevated dopamine metabolites in the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, of PAM+/− mice. These alterations in Cu delivery to the secretory pathway in the PAM+/− amygdala may contribute to the physiological and behavioral deficits observed. PMID:24032518

  3. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Pam heterozygous mice reveal essential role for Cu in amygdalar behavioral and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element with many biological roles, but its roles in the mammalian nervous system are poorly understood. Mice deficient in the cuproenzyme peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (Pam(+/-) mice) were initially generated to study neuropeptide amidation. Pam(+/-) mice exhibit profound deficits in a few behavioral tasks, including enhancements in innate fear along with deficits in acquired fear. Interestingly, several Pam(+/-) phenotypes were recapitulated in Cu-restricted wild-type mice and rescued in Cu-supplemented Pam(+/-) mice. These behaviors correspond to enhanced excitability and deficient synaptic plasticity in the amygdala of Pam(+/-) mice, which are also rescued by Cu supplementation. Cu and ATP7A are present at synapses, in key positions to respond to and influence synaptic activity. Further study demonstrated that extracellular Cu is necessary for wild-type synaptic plasticity and sufficient to induce long-term potentiation. These experiments support roles for PAM in Cu homeostasis and for synaptic Cu in amygdalar function. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Broadening the targeting range of Staphylococcus aureus CRISPR-Cas9 by modifying PAM recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Nguyen, Nhu T; Topkar, Ved V; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J Keith

    2015-12-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases target specific DNA sequences using a guide RNA but also require recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) by the Cas9 protein. Although longer PAMs can potentially improve the specificity of genome editing, they limit the range of sequences that Cas9 orthologs can target. One potential strategy to relieve this restriction is to relax the PAM recognition specificity of Cas9. Here we used molecular evolution to modify the NNGRRT PAM of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9). One variant we identified, referred to as KKH SaCas9, showed robust genome editing activities at endogenous human target sites with NNNRRT PAMs, thereby increasing SaCas9 targeting range by two- to fourfold. Using GUIDE-seq, we show that wild-type and KKH SaCas9 induce comparable numbers of off-target effects in human cells. Our strategy for evolving PAM specificity does not require structural information and therefore should be applicable to a wide range of Cas9 orthologs.

  6. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and 14 C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  7. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Mechthild.Schmitt@ufz.de; Altenburger, Rolf [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-01-20

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and {sup 14}C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  8. Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR authenticates PAM of a target sequence to prime discriminative adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xiang, Hua

    2014-06-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) adapts to foreign invaders by acquiring their short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments as spacers, which guide subsequent interference to foreign nucleic acids based on sequence matching. The adaptation mechanism avoiding acquiring 'self' DNA fragments is poorly understood. In Haloarcula hispanica, we previously showed that CRISPR adaptation requires being primed by a pre-existing spacer partially matching the invader DNA. Here, we further demonstrate that flanking a fully-matched target sequence, a functional PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) is still required to prime adaptation. Interestingly, interference utilizes only four PAM sequences, whereas adaptation-priming tolerates as many as 23 PAM sequences. This relaxed PAM selectivity explains how adaptation-priming maximizes its tolerance of PAM mutations (that escape interference) while avoiding mis-targeting the spacer DNA within CRISPR locus. We propose that the primed adaptation, which hitches and cooperates with the interference pathway, distinguishes target from non-target by CRISPR ribonucleic acid guidance and PAM recognition. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Ground processing of the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. E.; Maclean, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The payload assist module (PAM) ground processing operations which have evolved since they were started in 1982 are described. The objective of the changes was to reduce the prelaunch testing of the airborne support equipment to increase the throughput of PAM systems while not compromising the reliability of the system when functioned on-orbit. The changes that resulted from the initial cargo element ground processing, the on-orbit performance of the systems, plus the postflight refurbishment and recertification of the airborne support equipment resulted in significant reductions in labor expenditures and work shifts required to prepare a PAM system for flight.

  10. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  11. 10-Gbps duobinary-4-PAM for High-Performance Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbps, implemented analogically and featuring direct detection at the receiver side.......This paper reports on an experimental demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbps, implemented analogically and featuring direct detection at the receiver side....

  12. Effect of trace amounts of polyacrylamide (PAM) on long-term performance of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Zheng-yong; Zhou, Ling-jun; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Xiao, Yong; Wang, Li-ke

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the impacts of PAM addition on activated sludge performance. Four lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), each with a working volume of 3 L, were investigated with different PAM concentrations. Experiments were conducted with varying organic loading rate and the sludge volume index (SVI), particle size, zeta potential, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), COD and ammonium removal efficiency were monitored over a 105-day period. The results showed that all of the PAM addition not only improved the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonium, but also exhibited some advantages on sludge performance. It was found that the sludge performance of settling property, flocculation and microbial activity increased with increasing concentration of PAM. However, high level of PAM (1 mg/L) led to the formation of large amounts of loose-structure flocs, which eliminated dissolved oxygen transfer and caused the sludge disintegration, resulting in bad settleability and lower microbial activity. In this way, when the dosage of PAM was 0.1 mg/L, the sludge had the best settling property and activity.

  13. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  14. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootmaker, S M; Chin A Paw, M J M; Schuit, A J; van Mechelen, W; Koppes, L L J

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged 21-54) performed two activities, treadmill walking and stair walking, while wearing the PAM, the Actigraph and the Cosmed K4b(2). Correlation coefficients and agreement in absolute energy expenditure (EE) levels between PAM, Actigraph and Cosmed were calculated. The test-retest reliability was examined among 296 PAM's using a laboratory shaker. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. Correlations for treadmill walking and stair walking, respectively, were r(2)=0.95 and r(2)=0.65 for PAM with Actigraph, r(2)=0.82 and r(2)=0.93 for PAM with VO(2) and r(2)=0.64 and 0.74 for Actigraph with VO(2). Both the PAM and Actigraph underestimated EE during treadmill and stair walking by a substantial amount. The test-retest reliability of the PAM was high [ICC=0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.28;0.92) and intra-CV=1.5%]. The PAM and Actigraph accelerometer are comparable in assessing bodily movement during treadmill and stair walking. The PAM is a valid device to rank subjects in EE and can be useful in collecting objective data to monitor habitual physical activity.

  15. Investigation of PAM-4 for extending reach in data center interconnect applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Teipen, Brian; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Optical four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) is being widely studied for various short-reach optical interfaces, motivated by the need to keep cost structure low, and to increase link capacity despite various constraints in component bandwidth. When considering PAM-4 in applications...... with reach significantly greater than 10km, such as in extended data center interconnects which require optical amplification, impairments such as chromatic dispersion, optical filtering, and ASE must be controlled. We investigate and report on requirements of PAM-4 for extended-reach, data center...

  16. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  17. Experimental demonstration of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 15 km and 84 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF at 1525 nm using a 25G VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Record 28-GBd PAM-4 transmission over 15 km SSMF and 42-GBd PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF using a low-power 25G VCSEL are demonstrated at 1525 nm without optical dispersion compensation and only simple transceiver DSPs....

  18. Psychometric assessment of the patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Carter, Marjorie; Hayden, Candace; Dzierzon, Rhonda; Morales, Jose; Snow, Laverne; Butler, Jorie; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) assesses patients' self-reported health management skills, knowledge, confidence, and motivation. We used item response theory to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PAM-13 utilized in rural settings. A Rasch partial credit model analysis was conducted on the PAM-13 instrument using a sample of 812 rural patients recruited by providers and our research staff. Specially, we examined dimensionality, item fit, and quality of measures, category response curves, and item differential functioning. Convergent and divergent validities were also examined. The PAM-13 instrument has excellent convergent and divergent validities. It is fairly unidimensional, and all items fit the Rasch model well. It has relatively high person and item reliability indices. Majority of the items were free of item differential functioning. There were, however, some issues with ceiling effects. Additionally, there was a lack of responses for category one across all items. Patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) performs well in some areas, but not all. In general, more items need to be added to cover the upper end of the trait. The four response categories of PAM-13 should be collapsed into three.

  19. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  20. Effect of trace amounts of polyacrylamide (PAM) on long-term performance of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Zheng-yong; Zhou, Ling-jun; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Xiao, Yong; Wang, Li-ke

    2011-05-15

    This study aims at evaluating the impacts of PAM addition on activated sludge performance. Four lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), each with a working volume of 3L, were investigated with different PAM concentrations. Experiments were conducted with varying organic loading rate and the sludge volume index (SVI), particle size, zeta potential, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), COD and ammonium removal efficiency were monitored over a 105-day period. The results showed that all of the PAM addition not only improved the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonium, but also exhibited some advantages on sludge performance. It was found that the sludge performance of settling property, flocculation and microbial activity increased with increasing concentration of PAM. However, high level of PAM (1mg/L) led to the formation of large amounts of loose-structure flocs, which eliminated dissolved oxygen transfer and caused the sludge disintegration, resulting in bad settleability and lower microbial activity. In this way, when the dosage of PAM was 0.1mg/L, the sludge had the best settling property and activity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. USMA Study of the Residential Communities Initiative (RCI) Portfolio and Asset Management (PAM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, Robert; Parnell, Gregory; Driscoll, Patrick J; Boylan, Gregory; Evans, Daniel; Underwood, Thaddeus; Moten, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    ...) Portfolio and Asset Management (PAM) program and provide an independent assessment of the adequacy of the Army's RCI PAM program in achieving its intended objectives across all domains and all phases of the program...

  2. Toponomics analysis of functional interactions of the ubiquitin ligase PAM (Protein Associated with Myc) during spinal nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sandra; Maeurer, Christian; Coste, Ovidiu; Becker, Wiebke; Schmidtko, Achim; Holland, Sabrina; Wittpoth, Claus; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Protein associated with Myc (PAM) is a giant E3 ubiquitin ligase of 510 kDa. Although the role of PAM during neuronal development is well established, very little is known about its function in the regulation of synaptic strength. Here we used multiepitope ligand cartography (MELC) to study protein network profiles associated with PAM during the modulation of synaptic strength. MELC is a novel imaging technology that utilizes biomathematical tools to describe protein networks after consecutive immunohistochemical visualization of up to 100 proteins on the same sample. As an in vivo model to modulate synaptic strength we used the formalin test, a common model for acute and inflammatory pain. MELC analysis was performed with 37 different antibodies or fluorescence tags on spinal cord slices and led to the identification of 1390 PAM-related motifs that distinguish untreated and formalin-treated spinal cords. The majority of these motifs related to ubiquitin-dependent processes and/or the actin cytoskeleton. We detected an intermittent colocalization of PAM and ubiquitin with TSC2, a known substrate of PAM, and the glutamate receptors mGluR5 and GLUR1. Importantly these complexes were detected exclusively in the presence of F-actin. A direct PAM/F-actin interaction was confirmed by colocalization and cosedimentation. The binding of PAM toward F-actin varied strongly between the PAM splice forms found in rat spinal cords. PAM did not ubiquitylate actin or alter actin polymerization and depolymerization. However, F-actin decreased the ubiquitin ligase activity of purified PAM. Because PAM activation is known to involve its translocation, the binding of PAM to F-actin may serve to control its subcellular localization as well as its activity. Taken together we show that defining protein network profiles by topological proteomics analysis is a useful tool to identify previously unknown protein/protein interactions that underlie synaptic processes.

  3. Structural Plasticity of PAM Recognition by Engineered Variants of the RNA-Guided Endonuclease Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we engineered a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of deoxycholate conjugation on stability of pDNA/polyamidoamine-diethylentriamine (PAM-DET) polyplex against ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunseong; Jin, Geun-Woo; Choi, Eunjung; Jung, Ji Hyuk; Park, Jong-Sang

    2011-11-28

    Polyplexes formed from cationic polymer/pDNA have been known to be vulnerable to external ionic strength. To improve polyplex stability against ionic strength, we attempted the chemical conjugation of the hydrophobic deoxycholate (DC) moiety to the polyamidoamine-diethylenetriamine (PAM-DET) dendrimer. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that the tolerance of the resulting PAM-DET-DC against ionic strength is higher than that of PAM-DET. In addition, we confirmed that the stability of polyplex has a strong relationship with the degree of conjugation of the DC moiety to the PAM-DET dendrimer and the charge ratio of PAM-DET-DC. Furthermore, the transfection efficiency of the PAM-DET-DC polyplex is higher than that of PAM-DET but its cytotoxicity remains the same. Therefore, the chemical conjugation of DC is a safe and effective method for increasing the stability of supramolecules formed from electrostatic interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. IMPLEMENTASI PENGELOLAAN AIR MINUM RUMAH TANGGA (PAM RT DI JAWA BARAT DAN (NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to reduce waterborne diseases, the current government and its partners are developing ahousehold water treatment and safety storage (HWTS. This article is part of a study on Development ofAn Evidence-Based Guidelines for Promotion of HWTS which is conducted in three pilot sites: Bandungcity, Bandung district (West Java and Sikka district (East Nusa Tenggara in 2008. The aim of this studywas to find out how the program was implemented and how is the public opinion about the management(processing and storage of drinking water. Data collection was done by interview through a questionnaire.Data source were health officers and partners (qualitative data and the community (quantitative data.Qualitative data processing was performed by the content and the domain method, while quantitative datawas processed through SPSS software. The results show that the government develop the HWTS alongwith its partner: Aman Tirta (Bandung City, Pelita Indonesia (Bandung District, and Dian Desa (SikkaDistrict. Activity of HWTS was done through several stages, such as preparation/dissemination,implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Every partner will have its own way in carrying out the stagesof activity. Not all health officers of district/city states involved in the implementation of the HWTSprogram. It was only Sikka District Health officer that claimed to have fully engaged in the implementationof HWTS in the region. The results of processing and data analysis showed that more than 80% ofrespondents said the HWTS methods were suitable with drinking water treatment for their region. In termsof increasing the water quality, price of materials/tools, and easyness in the water treatment; respondents'opinions very widely.Keywords: HWTS, drinking water, water treatment Abstrak Dalam upaya menurunkan penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air, saat ini pemerintah dan mitrasedang mengembangkan pengelolaan air minum rumah tangga (PAM RT atau household water

  6. Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé-Demers, Raphaël; LaRochelle, Sophie; Shi, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Future super-computer interconnect systems and data centers request ultrahigh data rate links at low cost and power consumption, for which transmitters with a high level of integration and spectral efficient formats are key components. We report 60 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) of an optical signal using a dual-microring silicon photonics circuit, making a low-power, digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-less PAM modulator. The power consumption is evaluated below 100 fJ/bit, including thermal adjustments. To the best of our knowledge, these results feature the lowest reported power consumption for PAM signaling in a DAC-less scheme for data rate beyond 40 Gb/s.

  7. PAM-4 signal delivery in one radio-over-fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hada; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Jianjun

    2017-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM-4) signal delivery in a radio-over-fiber system for the first time. Over 8-Gbit/s PAM-4 signals have been transmitted over 20-km single-mode fiber-28 and 1-m wireless distance. The signal after transmission is detected directly by an envelope detector at the receiver side. The maximal bit rate could be increased if the bandpass amplifier and envelope detector have more bandwidth.

  8. A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors. - Highlights: • A novel microwave vector radiative transfer model is developed. • It can simulate passive and active microwave radiative transfer simultaneously. • It can be applied to simulate measurements for different types of viewing geometry. • The accuracy of this model has been validated against other existing models

  9. A20 is critical for the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Hu

    Full Text Available A20 functions to terminate Toll-like receptor (TLR-induced immune response, and play important roles in the induction of lipopolysacchride (LPS-tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism for Pam3CSK4-tolerance is uncertain. Here we report that TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4 induced tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells. The pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with Pam3CSK4 down-regulated the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment also down-regulated the signaling transduction of JNK, p38 and NF-κB induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. The activation of TLR1/2 induced a rapid and robust up-regulation of A20, suggesting that A20 may contribute to the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance. This hypothesis was proved by the observation that the over-expression of A20 by gene transfer down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and the down-regulation of A20 by RNA interference inhibited the induction of tolerance. Moreover, LPS induced a significant up-regulation of A20, which contributed to the induction of cross-tolerance between LPS and Pam3CSK4. A20 was also induced by the treatment of THP-1 cells with TNF-α and IL-1β. The pre-treatment with TNF-α and IL-1β partly down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced activation of MAPKs. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 signaling down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced A20 expression, up-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and partly reversed Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment-induced tolerance, suggesting that GSK3 is involved in TLR1/2-induced tolerance by up-regulation of A20 expression. Taken together, these results indicated that A20 is a critical regulator for TLR1/2-induced pro-inflammatory responses.

  10. View of the deployed INSAT/PAM-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    View of the deployed Indian National Satellite (INSAT) attached to Payload Assist Module (PAM) D drifts above the earth's surface. A faint shadow of the open payload bay can be seen in the top left of the frame.

  11. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  12. BicPAMS: software for biological data analysis with pattern-based biclustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rui; Ferreira, Francisco L; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-02-02

    Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters. As a result, pattern-based biclustering provides the unprecedented opportunity to discover non-trivial yet meaningful biological modules with putative functions, whose coherency and tolerance to noise can be tuned and made problem-specific. To enable the effective use of pattern-based biclustering by the scientific community, we developed BicPAMS (Biclustering based on PAttern Mining Software), a software that: 1) makes available state-of-the-art pattern-based biclustering algorithms (BicPAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 9:27, 2014), BicNET (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:23, 2016), BicSPAM (Henriques and Madeira, BMC Bioinforma 15:130, 2014), BiC2PAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:1-30, 2016), BiP (Henriques and Madeira, IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinforma, 2015), DeBi (Serin and Vingron, AMB 6:1-12, 2011) and BiModule (Okada et al., IPSJ Trans Bioinf 48(SIG5):39-48, 2007)); 2) consistently integrates their dispersed contributions; 3) further explores additional accuracy and efficiency gains; and 4) makes available graphical and application programming interfaces. Results on both synthetic and real data confirm the relevance of BicPAMS for biological data analysis, highlighting its essential role for the discovery of putative modules with non-trivial yet biologically significant functions from expression and network data. BicPAMS is the first biclustering tool offering the

  13. Series Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (sPAMs) and Application to a Soft Continuum Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Joseph D; Morimoto, Tania K; Okamura, Allison M; Hawkes, Elliot W

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new series pneumatic artificial muscle (sPAM) and its application as an actuator for a soft continuum robot. The robot consists of three sPAMs arranged radially round a tubular pneumatic backbone. Analogous to tendons, the sPAMs exert a tension force on the robot's pneumatic backbone, causing bending that is approximately constant curvature. Unlike a traditional tendon driven continuum robot, the robot is entirely soft and contains no hard components, making it safer for human interaction. Models of both the sPAM and soft continuum robot kinematics are presented and experimentally verified. We found a mean position accuracy of 5.5 cm for predicting the end-effector position of a 42 cm long robot with the kinematic model. Finally, closed-loop control is demonstrated using an eye-in-hand visual servo control law which provides a simple interface for operation by a human. The soft continuum robot with closed-loop control was found to have a step-response rise time and settling time of less than two seconds.

  14. Conjugal transfer of plasmid pAM beta 1 in Lactobacillus reuteri and between lactobacilli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, G W

    1987-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred conjugally from Streptococcus lactis to Lactobacillus reuteri, L. murinus, and L. fermentum. Transfer of pAM beta 1 between two L. reuteri strains occurred, and lactobacillus transconjugants could act as donors of pAM beta 1 in crosses with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2.

  15. Ordered ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays prepared by seed-layer-assisted electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yu-Min; Pan, Chih-Huang; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2011-01-01

    An Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer is prepared on the back side of a porous alumina membrane (PAM) substrate by spin coating followed by annealing in a vacuum at 400 °C. Zinc oxide in ordered arrays mediated by a high aspect ratio and an ordered pore array of AZO/PAM is synthesized. The ZnO nanowire array is prepared via a 3-electrode electrochemical deposition process using ZnSO 4 and H 2 O 2 solutions at a potential of − 1 V (versus saturated calomel electrode) and temperatures of 65 and 80 °C. The microstructure and chemical composition of the AZO seed layer and ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicate that the ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowire arrays were assembled in the nanochannel of the porous alumina template with diameters of 110–140 nm. The crystallinity of the ZnO nanowires depends on the AZO seed layer during the annealing process. The nucleation and growth process of ZnO/AZO/PAM nanowires are interpreted by the seed-layer-assisted growth mechanism.

  16. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (the Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya [Structural Biology research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  18. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  19. The PAM-1 aminopeptidase regulates centrosome positioning to ensure anterior-posterior axis specification in one-cell C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Marshall, Sara L; Jaeger, Eva C; Greene, Pauline E; Brady, Lauren K; Isaac, R Elwyn; Schrandt, Jennifer C; Brooks, Darren R; Lyczak, Rebecca

    2010-08-15

    In the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is established when the sperm donated centrosome contacts the posterior cortex. While this contact appears to be essential for axis polarization, little is known about the mechanisms governing centrosome positioning during this process. pam-1 encodes a puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase that regulates centrosome positioning in the early embryo. Previously we showed that pam-1 mutants fail to polarize the A-P axis. Here we show that PAM-1 can be found in mature sperm and in cytoplasm throughout early embryogenesis where it concentrates around mitotic centrosomes and chromosomes. We provide further evidence that PAM-1 acts early in the polarization process by showing that PAR-1 and PAR-6 do not localize appropriately in pam-1 mutants. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that PAM-1's role in polarity establishment is to ensure centrosome contact with the posterior cortex. We inactivated the microtubule motor dynein, DHC-1, in pam-1 mutants, in an attempt to prevent centrosome movement from the cortex and restore anterior-posterior polarity. When this was done, the aberrant centrosome movements of pam-1 mutants were not observed and anterior-posterior polarity was properly established, with proper localization of cortical and cytoplasmic determinants. We conclude that PAM-1's role in axis polarization is to prevent premature movement of the centrosome from the posterior cortex, ensuring proper axis establishment in the embryo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The transporter SynPAM71 is located in the plasma membrane and thylakoids, and mediates manganese tolerance in Synechocystis PCC6803

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandini, Chiara; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    symptoms were observed in WT cells exposed to excess Mn. Moreover, CyanoP, which is involved in the early steps of PSII assembly, is massively upregulated in ΔSynPAM71. SynPAM71 was detected in both the plasma membrane and, to a lesser extent, the thylakoid membranes. Our results suggest that SynPAM71......Manganese (Mn) is an essential constituent of photosystem II (PSII) and therefore indispensable for oxygenic photosynthesis. Very little is known about how Mn is transported, delivered and retained in photosynthetic cells. Recently, the thylakoid-localized transporter PAM71 has been linked...... to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71...

  1. Engineered Cpf1 variants with altered PAM specificities increase genome targeting range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linyi; Cox, David B.T.; Yan, Winston X.; Manteiga, John C.; Schneider, Martin W.; Yamano, Takashi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Crosetto, Nicola; Zhang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells1–7. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells. Genome-wide assessment of off-target activity using BLISS7 assay indicated that these variants retain high DNA targeting specificity, which we further improved by introducing an additional non-PAM-interacting mutation. Introducing the identified mutations at their corresponding positions in LbCpf1 similarly altered its PAM specificity. Together, these variants increase the targeting range of Cpf1 by approximately three-fold in human coding sequences to one cleavage site per ~11 bp. PMID:28581492

  2. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  3. PAM-1616, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulator with preserved anti-diabetic efficacy and reduced adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chae, Yu Na; Choi, Song-hyen; Moon, Ho Sang; Son, Moon-Ho; Bae, Myung-Ho; Choi, Hyun-ho; Hur, Youn; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Yoo Hoi; Park, Chan Sun; Kim, Jae Gyu; Lim, Joong In; Shin, Chang Yell

    2011-01-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is known to be a key regulator of insulin resistance. PAM-1616 is a novel, non-thiazolidinedione small molecule compound synthesized in Dong-A Research Center. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological and safety profiles of PAM-1616 as a selective PPARγ modulator. PAM-1616 selectively binds to human PPARγ (IC(50), 24.1±5.6 nM) and is a partial agonist for human PPARγ with an EC(50) of 83.6±43.7 nM and a maximal response of 24.9±7.1% relative to the full agonist, rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 was selective for human PPARγ than for human PPARα (EC(50), 2658±828 nM) without activating human PPARδ, which makes it a selective modulator of PPARγ. Treatment of high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice with PAM-1616 for 21 days improved HOMA-IR. Furthermore, PAM-1616 significantly improved hyperglycemia in db/db mice with little side effect when orally administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Intriguingly, PAM-1616 was seen to increase the gene expression of inducible glucose transporter (GLUT4), while it partially induced that of a fatty acid carrier, aP2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and it also showed partial recruitment of an adipogenic cofactor, TRAP220 as compared to rosiglitazone. PAM-1616 did not cause a significant increase in plasma volume of ICR mice when orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 9 days. PAM-1616 increased the expression of fluid retention-inducing genes such as serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)-1 to a lesser extent as compared to rosiglitazone in human renal epithelial cells. These results suggest that PAM-1616 acts as a selective modulator of PPARγ with excellent antihyperglycemic property. The differential modulation of target gene by PAM-1616 might contribute to the improved side effect profiles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. STS-92 Pilot Pam Melroy suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy smiles during suit check before heading out to the Astrovan for the ride to Launch Pad 39A. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  5. 60 YEARS OF POMC: From POMC and α-MSH to PAM, molecular oxygen, copper, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhivya; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2016-05-01

    A critical role for peptide C-terminal amidation was apparent when the first bioactive peptides were identified. The conversion of POMC into adrenocorticotropic hormone and then into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an amidated peptide, provided a model system for identifying the amidating enzyme. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the only enzyme that catalyzes this modification, is essential; mice lacking PAM survive only until mid-gestation. Purification and cloning led to the discovery that the amidation of peptidylglycine substrates proceeds in two steps: peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase catalyzes the copper- and ascorbate-dependent α-hydroxylation of the peptidylglycine substrate; peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine α-amidating lyase cleaves the N-C bond, producing amidated product and glyoxylate. Both enzymes are contained in the luminal domain of PAM, a type 1 integral membrane protein. The structures of both catalytic cores have been determined, revealing how they interact with metals, molecular oxygen, and substrate to catalyze both reactions. Although not essential for activity, the intrinsically disordered cytosolic domain is essential for PAM trafficking. A phylogenetic survey led to the identification of bifunctional membrane PAM in Chlamydomonas, a unicellular eukaryote. Accumulating evidence points to a role for PAM in copper homeostasis and in retrograde signaling from the lumen of the secretory pathway to the nucleus. The discovery of PAM in cilia, cellular antennae that sense and respond to environmental stimuli, suggests that much remains to be learned about this ancient protein. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Review of UV spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods for the cholinesterase reactivating antidote pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Blum, Marc-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pralidoxime (2-PAM) belongs to the class of monopyridinium oximes with reactivating potency on cholinesterases inhibited by phosphylating organophosphorus compounds (OPC), for example, pesticides and nerve agents. 2-PAM represents an established antidote for the therapy of anticholinesterase poisoning since the late 1950s. Quite high therapeutic concentrations in human plasma (about 13 µg/ml) lead to concentrations in urine being about 100 times higher allowing the use of less sensitive analytical techniques that were used especially in the early years after 2-PAM was introduced. In this time (mid-1950s until the end of the 1970s) 2-PAM was most often analyzed by either paper chromatography or simple UV spectroscopic techniques omitting any sample separation step. These methods were displaced completely after the establishment of column liquid chromatography in the early 1980s. Since then, diverse techniques including cation exchange, size-exclusion, reversed-phase, and ligand-exchange chromatography have been introduced. Today, the most popular method for 2-PAM quantification is ion pair chromatography often combined with UV detection representing more than 50% of all column chromatographic procedures published. Furthermore, electrophoretic approaches by paper and capillary zone electrophoresis have been successfully used but are seldom applied. This review provides a commentary and exhaustive summary of analytical techniques applied to detect 2-PAM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples to characterize stability and pharmacokinetics as well as decomposition and biotransformation products. Separation techniques as well as diverse detectors are discussed in appropriate detail allowing comparison of individual preferences and limitations. In addition, novel data on mass spectrometric fragmentation of 2-PAM are provided. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  8. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M; Jennings, Gareth; Zhou, Wenxu; Aksenov, Alexander; Luth, Madeline R; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W David; McKerrow, James H; Podust, Larissa M

    2017-12-01

    Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  9. Insights into the interactions among Surfactin, betaines, and PAM: surface tension, small-angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingwen; Liu, Fang; Garamus, Vasil M; Almásy, László; Handge, Ulrich A; Willumeit, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2014-04-01

    The interactions among neutral polymer polyacrylamide (PAM) and the biosurfactant Surfactin and four betaines, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SDDAB), N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (STDAB), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SHDAB), and N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate (C12BE), in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been studied by surface tension measurements, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological experiments. It has been confirmed that the length of alkyl chain is a key parameter of interaction between betaines and PAM. Differences in scattering contrast between X-ray and neutrons for surfactants and PAM molecules provide the opportunity to separately follow the changes of structure of PAM and surfactant aggregates. At concentrations of betaines higher than CMC (critical micelle concentration) and C2 (CMC of surfactant with the presence of polymer), spherical micelles are formed in betaines and betaines/PAM solutions. Transition from spherical to rod-like aggregates (micelles) has been observed in solutions of Surfactin and Surfactin/SDDAB (αSurfactin = 0.67 (molar fraction)) with addition of 0.8 wt % of PAM. The conformation change of PAM molecules only can be observed for Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM system. Viscosity values follow the structural changes suggested from scattering measurements i.e., gradually increases for mixtures PAM → Surfactin/PAM → Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM in PBS.

  10. Kramers-Kronig PAM Transceiver and Two-Sided Polarization-Multiplexed Kramers-Kronig Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Cristian; Mecozzi, Antonio; Shtaif, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We propose two transceiver schemes based on Kramers Kronig (KK) detection. One targets low-cost high-throughput applications and uses PAM transmission in combination with direct detection and digital reconstruction of the optical phase. This scheme allows digital compensation of chromatic dispersion and provides a significant improvement in terms of spectral efficiency, compared to conventional PAM transmission. The second scheme targets high-channel-count coherent systems with the aim of simplifying the receiver complexity by reducing the optical components count.

  11. The endocytic pathways of a secretory granule membrane protein in HEK293 cells: PAM and EGF traverse a dynamic multivesicular body network together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihalli, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2017-08-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective PCR-based detection of Naegleria fowleri from cultured sample and PAM-developed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Mi Yeoun; Lee, Won-Ja; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) cases due to Naegleria fowleri are becoming a serious issue in subtropical and tropical countries as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). To establish a rapid and effective diagnostic tool, a PCR-based detection technique was developed based on previous PCR methods. Four kinds of primer pairs, Nfa1, Nae3, Nf-ITS, and Naegl, were employed in the cultured amoebic trophozoites and a mouse with PAM experimentally developed by N. fowleri inoculation (PAM-mouse). For the extraction of genomic DNA from N. fowleri trophozoites (1×10(6)), simple boiling with 10μl of PBS (pH 7.4) at 100°C for 30min was found to be the most rapid and efficient procedure, allowing amplification of 2.5×10(2) trophozoites using the Nfa-1 primer. The primers Nfa1 and Nae3 amplified only N. fowleri DNA, whereas the ITS primer detected N. fowleri and N. gruberi DNA. Using the PAM-mouse brain tissue, the Nfa1 primer was able to amplify the N. fowleri DNA 4 days post infection with 1ng/μl of genomic DNA being detectable. Using the PAM-mouse CSF, amplification of the N. fowleri DNA with the Nae3 primer was possible 5 days post infection showing a better performance than the Nfa1 primer at day 6. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Debnath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51 target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.

  14. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) engulf and regain elastin particles and do not respond to some stimuli of neutrophil (PMN) elastinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricomi, S.M.; Hyers, T.M.; Yu, S.Y.; Liao, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Elastin degradation by PMN and by PAM differs in the proteinases produced and in the method of cellular attack on the substrate. To further characterize the elastinolytic mechanisms of these two cells, 14 C-labelled bovine ligament elastin was dried onto 24-well culture plates and live cells were placed on the substrate in culture medium. Incubation times were 4 hours for PMN and 20 hours for PAM. Elastinolytic activity was determined by counting 14 C-elastin peptides in the supernatant. By lidocaine release of PAM from the surface, 14 C-elastin retained by the cell was measured. Studies on rabbit PAM showed that 40% of dpm remain associated with the cell at 20 hours. Transmission electron microscopy of human PAM confirmed that PAM can engulf and retain elastin particles at 4 and 24 hours of incubation when in close contact with the substrate. Of the number of dpm released by PMN in 4 hours, PAM in 20 hours released only 23% of that number into supernatant and retained 17% closely associated with the cell after lidocaine treatment. Platelet factor 4, a protein released by platelets upon aggregation which stimulates activity of PMN elastase on elastin, was shown to enhance elastinolysis by whole PMN by 57% at 10 μg/ml in this assay. Platelet factor 4 did not enhance elastinolysis by PAM at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml

  15. High Speed PAM -8 Optical Interconnects with Digital Equalization based on Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission.......We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission....

  16. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  17. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  18. Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I-E Cascade from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert P; Xiao, Yibei; Ding, Fran; van Erp, Paul B G; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake; Ke, Ailong

    2016-02-25

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the cas (CRISPR-associated) operon form an RNA-based adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements in prokaryotes. Type I accounts for 95% of CRISPR systems, and has been used to control gene expression and cell fate. During CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided interference, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defence) facilitates the crRNA-guided invasion of double-stranded DNA for complementary base-pairing with the target DNA strand while displacing the non-target strand, forming an R-loop. Cas3, which has nuclease and helicase activities, is subsequently recruited to degrade two DNA strands. A protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence flanking target DNA is crucial for self versus foreign discrimination. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli Cascade bound to a foreign double-stranded DNA target. The 5'-ATG PAM is recognized in duplex form, from the minor groove side, by three structural features in the Cascade Cse1 subunit. The promiscuity inherent to minor groove DNA recognition rationalizes the observation that a single Cascade complex can respond to several distinct PAM sequences. Optimal PAM recognition coincides with wedge insertion, initiating directional target DNA strand unwinding to allow segmented base-pairing with crRNA. The non-target strand is guided along a parallel path 25 Å apart, and the R-loop structure is further stabilized by locking this strand behind the Cse2 dimer. These observations provide the structural basis for understanding the PAM-dependent directional R-loop formation process.

  19. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  20. Biological applications of an LCoS-based programmable array microscope (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Guy M.; Caarls, Wouter; Thomas, Martin; Hill, Andrew; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd; Fritsch, Cornelia; van Geest, Bert; Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) instead of the DMD used in the original PAM design. The LCoS PAM (developed in collaboration with Cairn Research, Ltd.) can be attached to a port of a(ny) unmodified fluorescence microscope. The prototype system currently operated at the Max Planck Institute incorporates a 6-position high-intensity LED illuminator, modulated laser and lamp light sources, and an Andor iXon emCCD camera. The module is mounted on an Olympus IX71 inverted microscope with 60-150X objectives with a Prior Scientific x,y, and z high resolution scanning stages. Further enhancements recently include: (i) point- and line-wise spectral resolution and (ii) lifetime imaging (FLIM) in the frequency domain. Multiphoton operation and other nonlinear techniques should be feasible. The capabilities of the PAM are illustrated by several examples demonstrating single molecule as well as lifetime imaging in live cells, and the unique capability to perform photoconversion with arbitrary patterns and high spatial resolution. Using quantum dot coupled ligands we show real-time binding and subsequent trafficking of individual ligand-growth factor receptor complexes on and in live cells with a temporal resolution and sensitivity exceeding those of conventional CLSM systems. The combined use of a blue laser and parallel LED or visible laser sources permits photoactivation and rapid kinetic analysis of cellular processes probed by photoswitchable visible fluorescent proteins such as DRONPA.

  1. Surveillance for malaria outbreak on malaria-eliminating islands in Tafea Province, Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone Pam in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W; Iata, H; Yaviong, J; Kalkoa, M; Yamar, S; Taleo, G; Isozumi, R; Fukui, M; Aoyama, F; Pomer, A; Dancause, K N; Kaneko, A

    2017-01-01

    The risk of malaria outbreak surfaced in Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015. In June and July 2015 we conducted malariometric surveys on the islands of Tanna, Aneityum, and Erromango in Tafea Province, where malaria elimination had been targeted, to determine if malaria incidence had increased after TC Pam. No Plasmodium infection was detected by microscopy and PCR in 3009 survey participants. Only 6·3% (190/3007) of participants had fever. Spleen rates in children aged ⩽12 years from Aneityum and Tanna were low, at 3·6% (14/387) and 5·3% (27/510), respectively. Overall bed net use was high at 72·8% (2175/2986); however, a significantly higher (P Pam. The path towards malaria elimination in Tafea Province was not adversely affected by TC Pam.

  2. Experimental Comparison of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 and DMT for Data Center Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We experiment......Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We...... experimentally investigate and compare both modulation formats at a data rate of 56 Gb/s and a transmission wavelength of 1544 nm using the same experimental setup. We show that PAM-4 outperforms double sideband DMT and also vestigial sideband DMT for the optical back-to-back (b2b) case and also...... for a transmission distance of 80 km SSMF in terms of required OSNR at a FEC-threshold of 3.8e-3. However, it is also pointed out that both versions of DMT do not require any optical dispersion compensation to transmit over 80 km SSMF while this is essential for PAM-4. Thus, implementation effort and cost may...

  3. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, Wenfeng; van Hespen, Johan; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast cancer. Since photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound-like resolution, it is potentially an ideal method for early breast cancer imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been developed specifically for breast imaging. Recently, a large clinical study has been started in the Medisch Spectrum Twente in Oldenzaal using PAM. In PAM, the breast is slightly compressed between a window for laser light illumination and a flat array ultrasound detector. The measurements are performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulsed at 1064 nm and a 1 MHz unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three-dimensional data are reconstructed using a delay and sum reconstruction algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study 12 patients with a malignant lesion and 2 patients with a benign cyst have been measured. The results are used to guide developments in photoacoustic mammography in order to pave the way towards an optimal technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Application of Polyacrylamide (PAM) through Lay-Flat Polyethylene Tubing: Effects on Infiltration, Erosion, N and P Transport, and Corn Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, J P; Krutz, L J; Locke, M A; Kenty, M M; Atwill, R L; Pickelmann, D M; Bryant, C J; Wood, C W; Golden, B R; Cox, M S

    2017-07-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce offsite agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in furrow to mid-southern US production systems has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess PAM effects on infiltration, erosion, corn ( L.) grain yield, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport when applied at 10 mg L through lay-flat polyethylene tubing. A 2-yr field study was conducted at the Mississippi State Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, on a Dundee silt loam and a Forestdale silty clay loam. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each treatment: irrigated plus no PAM (control) and irrigated plus PAM at 10 mg L. Each irrigation event delivered 102 mm of water at 18.9 L m per furrow, and runoff was captured in a holding tank on the lower end of each plot. Pooled over year and soil texture, PAM increased infiltration and corn grain yield by 6% ( ≤ 0.0398). Polyacrylamide effects on the offsite transport of sediment and N and P were inconsistent, varying across year and soil texture. Results indicate that PAM improves infiltration and corn grain yield on silt loam and silty clay loam textured soils; however, further research is required before PAM can be recommended as a best management practice for mitigating erosion and offsite agrochemical transport in mid-southern production systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. PAM, OLA, and LNA are Differentially Taken Up and Trafficked Via Different Metabolic Pathways in Porcine Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caihua; Xi, Lingling; Chen, Jin; Jiang, Qin; Yi, Hongbo; Wang, Yizhen; Wang, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Dietary fatty acids have different effects on fat deposition in pigs. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of this difference, we compared the metabolism of palmitic (PAM, saturated), oleic (OLA, monounsaturated) and linoleic acid (LNA, polyunsaturated) in porcine adipocytes treated with 100 μM PAM, OLA or LNA. We observed that the adipocytes incubated with LNA accumulated more lipids compared with those treated with PAM and OLA. We then probed the metabolism of these fatty acids in porcine adipocytes by using isotope-labelled fatty acids. The results showed that 42% of the [1- 14 C] LNA, 34% of the [1- 14 C] PAM and 28% of the [1- 14 C] OLA were recovered in the cellular lipids. The gene expression analyses showed that LNA significantly increased the expression of adipogenesis- and oxidation-related genes including PPARγ, C/EBPα, ap2 and NRF1. In addition, the cells incubated with LNA showed a decreased Ser 112 phosphorylation in PPARγ compared to those incubated with PAM and OLA. Furthermore, when PPARγ Ser 112 phosphorylation was inhibited, no significant difference in the triacylglycerol contents in the adipocytes was observed. These results showed the dietary fatty acids had different metabolism pathways in porcine adipocytes, and LNA significantly promoted lipid accumulation, probably by regulating PPARγ phosphorylation in adipocytes.

  6. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootmaker, S.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Koppes, L.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged

  7. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Guarisco, John A; Myers, Todd M; Kan, Robert K; McDonough, John H

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether pro-2-PAM, a pro-drug dihydropyridine derivative of the oxime 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) that can penetrate the brain, could prevent or reverse the central toxic effects of three nerve agents; sarin, cyclosarin, and VX. The first experiment tested whether pro-2-PAM could reactivate guinea pig cholinesterase (ChE) in vivo in central and peripheral tissues inhibited by these nerve agents. Pro-2-PAM produced a dose-dependent reactivation of sarin- or VX-inhibited ChE in both peripheral and brain tissues, but with substantially greater reactivation in peripheral tissues compared to brain. Pro-2-PAM produced 9-25% reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited ChE in blood, heart, and spinal cord, but no reactivation in brain or muscle tissues. In a second experiment, the ability of pro-2-PAM to block or terminate nerve agent-induced electroencephalographic seizure activity was evaluated. Pro-2-PAM was able to block sarin- or VX-induced seizures (16-33%) over a dose range of 24-32 mg/kg, but was ineffective against cyclosarin-induced seizures. Animals that were protected from seizures showed significantly less weight loss and greater behavioral function 24 h after exposure than those animals that were not protected. Additionally, brains were free from neuropathology when pro-2-PAM prevented seizures. In summary, pro-2-PAM provided modest reactivation of sarin- and VX-inhibited ChE in the brain and periphery, which was reflected by a limited ability to block or terminate seizures elicited by these agents. Pro-2-PAM was able to reactivate blood, heart, and spinal cord ChE inhibited by cyclosarin, but was not effective against cyclosarin-induced seizures.

  8. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants; Biologia da mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), em tres plantas hospedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Marcia R.; Silva, Neliton M. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil).Lab. de Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: marciarpena@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: nmarques@ufam.edu.br; Venframim, Jose D.; Haddad, Marineia de L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Resistencia de Plantas e Plantas Inseticidas], e-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mlhaddad@esalq.usp.br; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br

    2009-03-15

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)

  9. High-Throughput Characterization of Cascade type I-E CRISPR Guide Efficacy Reveals Unexpected PAM Diversity and Target Sequence Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Becky Xu Hua; Wainberg, Michael; Kundaje, Anshul; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-08-01

    Interactions between Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The adaptive immune system utilizes segments of the genetic material of invasive foreign elements in the CRISPR locus. The loci are transcribed and processed to produce small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), with degradation of invading genetic material directed by a combination of complementarity between RNA and DNA and in some cases recognition of adjacent motifs called PAMs (Protospacer Adjacent Motifs). Here we describe a general, high-throughput procedure to test the efficacy of thousands of targets, applying this to the Escherichia coli type I-E Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) system. These studies were followed with reciprocal experiments in which the consequence of CRISPR activity was survival in the presence of a lytic phage. From the combined analysis of the Cascade system, we found that (i) type I-E Cascade PAM recognition is more expansive than previously reported, with at least 22 distinct PAMs, with many of the noncanonical PAMs having CRISPR-interference abilities similar to the canonical PAMs; (ii) PAM positioning appears precise, with no evidence for tolerance to PAM slippage in interference; and (iii) while increased guanine-cytosine (GC) content in the spacer is associated with higher CRISPR-interference efficiency, high GC content (>62.5%) decreases CRISPR-interference efficiency. Our findings provide a comprehensive functional profile of Cascade type I-E interference requirements and a method to assay spacer efficacy that can be applied to other CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. 4-PAM Dispersion-Uncompensated Transmission with Micro-Ring Resonator Enhanced 1.55-µm DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing.......Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing....

  11. PAM in the Netherlands: activation level of diabetic patients and the relation with quality of health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The PAM has been proven to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure patient activation in the US and other countries and is used as a first step towards fully informed and involved patients. Given these promising results, the PAM has recently been introduced in the Netherlands. In

  12. Chirality of TLR-2 ligand Pam3CysSK4 in fully synthetic peptide conjugates critically influences the induction of specific CD8+ T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Selina; Weterings, Jimmy J; Britten, Cedrik M; de Jong, Ana R; Graafland, Dirk; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; van der Marel, Gijs; Overkleeft, Hermen S; Filippov, Dmitri V; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-03-01

    Covalent conjugation of synthetic Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides provides well-defined constructs that have significantly improved capacity to induce efficient priming of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo. We have recently explored the cellular mechanisms underlying the efficient induction of a CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by such synthetic model vaccines [Khan, S., Bijker, M.S., Weterings, J.J., Tanke, H.J., Adema, G.J., van, H.T., Drijfhout, J.W., Melief, C.J., Overkleeft, H.S., van der Marel, G.A., Filippov, D.V., van der Burg, S.H., Ossendorp, F., 2007. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 21145-21159.]. In the current study we have investigated the behaviour of two diastereomers of the TLR-2 ligand Pam(3)CSK(4) (Pam) derivatives, namely the R- and S-epimers at C-2 of the glycerol moiety. Other studies have shown that the Pam(3)Cys based lipopeptides of R-configuration (Pam(R)) in the glycerol moiety enhanced macrophage and B-cell activation compared to those with S-configuration (Pam(S)). Here we report that Pam(R)-conjugates lead to better activation of dendritic cells than the Pam(S)-conjugates as judged by higher IL-12 secretion, upregulation of relevant markers for dendritic cell maturation. In contrast both epimers were internalized equally efficient in a clathrin-dependent manner indicating no qualitative difference in the uptake of the two stereoisomeric Pam-conjugates. We conclude that the enhanced DC activation is due to enhanced TLR-2 triggering by the Pam(R)-conjugate in contrast to the Pam(S)-conjugate. Importantly, induction of specific CD8(+) T-cells was significantly higher in mice injected with the Pam(R)-conjugates compared to mice injected with the Pam(S)-conjugate. In summary we show that the favourable effects of the Pam(R)-configuration of TLR-2 ligand can be attributed to

  13. Ocular Tumours in Childhood | Pam | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Ocular Tumours in Childhood. V. Pam. Abstract.

  14. Re-exploration of the mGlu₁ PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold: Discovery of analogs with improved CNS penetration despite steep SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Cho, Hyekyung P; Starr, Tahj M; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-05-01

    This letter describes the re-exploration of the mGlu1 PAM Ro 07-11401 scaffold through a multi-dimensional, iterative parallel synthesis approach. Unlike recent series of mGlu1 PAMs with robust SAR, the SAR around the Ro 07-11401 structure was incredibly steep (only ∼6 of 200 analogs displayed mGlu1 PAM activity), and reminiscent of the CPPHA mGlu5 PAM scaffold. Despite the steep SAR, two new thiazole derivatives were discovered with improved in vitro DMPK profiles and ∼3- to 4-fold improvement in CNS exposure (Kps 1.01-1.19); albeit, with a ∼3-fold diminution in mGlu1 PAM potency, yet comparable efficacy (∼5-fold leftward shift of the glutamate concentration-response curve at 10μM). Thus, this effort has provided additional CNS penetrant mGlu1 PAM tools in a different chemotype than the VU0486321 scaffold. These compounds will permit a better understanding of the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of selective mGlu1 activation, while highlighting the steep SAR challenges that can often be encountered in GPCR allosteric modulator discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-lane 180  Gbit/s PAM-4 signal transmission over 2  km SSMF for short-reach applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Stojanovic, Nebojsa; Prodaniuc, Cristian; Xie, Changsong; Koenigsmann, Michael; Laskowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of a single-lane 180  Gbit/s (90 GBaud) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a 7.5 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The generated signal is transmitted over a 2 km standard single-mode fiber with, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported net data rate in the C-band: 150  Gbit/s. A net data rate of 168  Gbit/s is also reachable with 1 km reach. The PAM-4 and duobinary (DB) PAM-4 modulation schemes are compared; the obtained results show that DB-PAM-4 significantly outperforms PAM-4 in the considered strong bandwidth-constrained system. Both a feed-forward equalizer and a maximum-likelihood sequence estimator are investigated for data recovery.

  16. Measuring patient activation in Italy: Translation, adaptation and validation of the Italian version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo; Hibbard, Judith

    2015-12-23

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) is an instrument that assesses patient knowledge, skills, and confidence for disease self-management. This cross-sectional study was aimed to validate a culturally-adapted Italian Patient Activation Measure (PAM13-I) for patients with chronic conditions. 519 chronic patients were involved in the Italian validation study and responded to PAM13-I. The PAM 13 was translated into Italian by a standardized forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation), item-rest correlations. Rasch Model and differential item functioning assessed scale properties. Mean PAM13-I score was 66.2. Rasch analysis showed that the PAM13-I is a good measure of patient activation. The level of internal consistency was good (α = 0.88). For all items, the distribution of answers was left-skewed, with a small floor effect (range 1.7-4.5 %) and a moderate ceiling effect (range 27.6-55.0 %). The Italian version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 41 % of the variance. The PAM13-I has been demonstrated to be a valid and reliable measure of patient activation and the present study suggests its applicability to the Italian-speaking chronic patient population. The measure has good psychometric properties and appears to be consistent with the developmental nature of the patient activation phenomenon, although it presents a different ranking order of the items comparing to the American version. PAM13-I can be a useful assessment tool to evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient engagement in healthcare and to train doctors in attuning their communication to the level of patients' activation. Future research could be conducted to further confirm the validity of the PAM13-I.

  17. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Natural Resources & Environmental Control submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a...

  18. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Columbia's Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs submitted a plan for the establishment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. Measuring patient activation in The Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique; Rijken, Mieke

    2012-07-31

    The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD) in April 2010 (study A) and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973) in June 2010 (study B). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy) were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88) and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3) is comparable to the American (61.9) and lower than the Danish (64.2). The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  20. Comparison of PAM Systems for Acoustic Monitoring and Further Risk Mitigation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Stefan; Kreimeyer, Roman; Knoll, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the SIRENA 2011 research cruises conducted by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and the Universities of Kiel and Pavia. The cruises were carried out in the Ligurian Sea. The main aim of the FWG was to test and evaluate the newly developed towed hydrophone array as a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool for risk mitigation applications. The system was compared with the PAM equipment used by the other participating institutions. Recorded sounds were used to improve an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals, and validated acoustic detections by observers were compared with the results of the classifier.

  1. The Proteolytically Stable Peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-ßNSpe)6-NH2 Selectively Inhibits Human Neutrophil Activation via Formyl Peptide Receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release...... of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogues of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging...... flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines we found that a fluorescently labelled analogue of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating...

  2. LAYER STRUCTURES FORMED BY SILICA NANOPARTICLES AND CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS WITH CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (C-PAM ON CELLULOSE SURFACE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Salmi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D was used to study the adsorption of the layer formed by silica nanoparticles (SNP and cellulose nanofibrils (NFC together with cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM on cellulose surface, accompanied by use of atomic force microscope (AFM to study the interactions between cellulose surfaces. The purpose was to understand the multilayer build-up compared to complex structure adsorption. The layer thickness and consequently also the repulsion between surfaces increased with each addition step during layer formation in the SNP-C-PAM systems, whereas the second addition of C-PAM decreased the repulsion in the case of NFC-C-PAM multilayer formation. An exceptionally high repulsion between surfaces was observed when nanofibrillar cellulose was added. This together with the extremely high dissipation values recorded with QCM-D indicated that nanofibrillar cellulose formed a loose and thick layer containing a lot of water. The multilayer systems formed fully and uniformly covered the surfaces. Silica nanoparticles were able to penetrate inside the loose C-PAM structure due to their small size. In contrast, NFC formed individual layers between C-PAM layers. The complex of C-PAM and SNP formed only a partly covered surface, leading to long-ranged pull-off force. This might explain the good flocculation properties reported for polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle systems.

  3. Effect of SLC34A2 gene mutation on extracellular phosphorus transport in PAM alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tiangang; Qu, Danhua; Yan, Bingdi; Zhang, Qinghua; Ren, Jin; Hu, Yanbing

    2018-01-01

    A mutation in the IIb sodium phosphate transporter SLC34A2 gene has recently been described in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) patients. Experiments in this study were aimed at confirming the role of the gene product in PAM by comparing phosphorylated products in extracellular fluid of alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing the SLC34A2 gene or its mutated version. Eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transfected into A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. There were three groups of cells including those transfected with empty vector plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) (plasmid control group), those transfected with normal SLC34A2 gene expressed from pcDNA3.1 (normal control group), and those transfected with a version of the PAM SLC34A2 gene linked to the pcDNA3.1(+) (PAM group). Transfection efficiencies were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 48 h after transfection, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the culture medium was detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Our results showed the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the supernatant of the normal control group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control and PAM groups (PPAM group was significantly lower than that in the plasmid control group (PPAM patients, given that the function of the phosphate transporter seems to be affected and it is conceivable that it would lead to extracellular fluid alterations in vivo .

  4. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  5. Translation, adaptation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter

    2009-06-29

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation) and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8-4.2%). Floor effect was small (range 0.6-3.6%), but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6-62.7%). The alpha-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.

  6. Inter-data center 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission over 240 km standard single mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2018-01-01

    We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections.......We report on achieving 28 Gbaud 4-PAM transmission with post-equalization over a 240 km SSMF link without re-engineering the transmission link design. The results demonstrate the prospect of re-using conventional links for inter data center connections....

  7. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  8. PAM, MJ and Conventional Grills: Operative Experience on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, F.; Calabro, G.; Ridolfini, V.P.; Tuccillo, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for FTU (f = 8 GHz, P = 6 MW/1 s) has a modular configuration that gives it a high degree of flexibility in operations. The RF power generated by six gyrotrons is coupled to the plasma through six independent launchers, each one made by 4 superimposed arrays of 12 waveguides. In the last few years this system has had the unique opportunity to work with conventional grills, classical Multijunction (MJ) and Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launchers on the same plasma's scenarios. The conventional grill gives the possibility to vary the spectrum of the parallel index of refraction within quite wide margins (N parallel = 1.3 - 3.5) and to launch waves with high directivity at low N parallel . In FTU the coupled power can exceed 100 MW/m 2 at the grill mouth for proper launcher-plasma matching (average power reflection coefficient 10 - 15 %). The MJ reduces the coupling problems arising from impedance mismatching at the plasma-launcher interface. In FTU it has shown good performances also with plasma densities much lower than those normally acceptable for a conventional grill; in this condition an average reflection coefficient around 4% has been measured. Conversely the MJ has a lower flexibility in N|| spectrum and a lower power directivity. In FTU a power density close to 60 MW/m 2 in steady conditions and has been obtained. Limitation came from the upstream distribution lines that were not sufficiently conditioned. The PAM is the LH launcher proposed for ITER due to the possibility of installing an active cooling circuit between the active waveguides to extract the high thermal loads arising both from the plasma and from the RF dissipation into the waveguides' walls. In FTU the power density steadily coupled has been 80 MW/m 2 , 1.4 times the target value for ITER. Very low power reflection (around 3%) also with the PAM mouth flush to the walls, thus in presence of an almost vanishing plasma, has been obtained. This

  9. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Nijman, J.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version;

  10. Enhancement of the optical, thermal and electrical properties of PEO/PAM:Li polymer electrolyte films doped with Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, M. A.; El-Khodary, Sherif A.; Rajeh, A.

    2018-06-01

    Both lithium bromide (LiBr) and biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with average size 2-30 nm have been incorporated into the polymeric matrix of polyethylene oxide and polyacrylamide (PEO/PAM) blend by the casting method. FT-IR analysis indicates the formation of hydrogen bond between the blend components. Also, LiBr and Ag NPs interact with the functional groups of PEO/PAM matrix. The results of XRD analysis depict the semi-crystalline nature of these polymer samples and the degree of crystallinity is decreased due to the addition process. The values of optical energy gap from UV-Vis. data are decreased from 3.55 eV for blend to 3.26 for the nanocomposite sample in the indirect transition. LiBr/Ag NPs assist the improvement of the thermal stability of the PEO/PAM blend, as evidenced by TGA and DTA techniques. Upon the addition of LiBr and Ag NPs, an improvement for the conductivity, dielectric permittivity (έ) and dielectric loss (ἕ) of PEO/PAM solid polymer electrolytes are observed. It's clear that the improvement of the electrical conductivity and dielectric parameters for PEO/PAM: Li+/Ag NPs polymer electrolyte system makes it as a promising candidate for solid-state Li battery applications.

  11. Electrochemical examination of ability of dsDNA/PAM composites for storing and releasing of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabost, Ewelina; Liwinska, Wioletta; Karbarz, Marcin; Kurek, Eliza; Lyp, Marek; Donten, Mikolaj; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Composites consisting of ss- and ds-DNA strands and polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel have been synthesized. DNA was entrapped non-covalently. The obtained DNA biomaterial exhibited a strong increase in guanine and adenine anodic currents when temperature reached the physiological level. This increase was related to the unique oligonucleotide structural changes in the composite. The structural alterations in the PAM lattices were employed for the release of the drug accumulated in the composite. Doxorubicin (Dox) was selected as the drug; it was accumulated by intercalation to dsDNA and was slowly released from the dsDNA/PAM system by using a minor temperature increase (up to 40÷45 °C) as it is routinely done in hyperthermia. The applied release temperature was either constant or oscillating. The binding strength, the rate of Dox release and the properties of the composite were examined using voltammetry, SEM and ICP-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of conditioning by PAM polymers with different charges on the structural and characteristic evolutions of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Y J

    2013-11-01

    Three types of polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants with different charges (cationic PAM WD4960, nonionic PAM M351, and anionic PAM WDA110) were used for water treatment residuals (WTRs) conditioning, and the physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics of raw and conditioned WTRs were investigated. Rheological methods were employed to analyze the internal structural transition between the raw and conditioned WTRs under a typical dosage of WD4960. Results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymers, the optimum dosage of WD4960 was 4.82 g/kg total suspended solid (TSS) while that of both M351 and WDA110 was 7.24 g/kg TSS. The residual PAM content in the supernatant of the WTR matrix conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was 5.59 mg/L, which is the least among the supernatants obtained with the three types of PAM. Furthermore, the visible fulvic acid (FA) in the supernatant disappeared and the intensity of the ultraviolet FA decreased. The average diameter of irregularly shaped aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 35.73 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing PAM dosage. The size of WTR aggregates conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was much larger than that of aggregates obtained at the optimum M351 or WDA110 dosages. Two-dimensional fractal dimension (D2) values presented an increasing trend with increasing PAM dosage. D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates were 1.87, 1.76, and 1.83 at optimum WD4960, M351, and WDA110 dosages, respectively. The cationic PAM (CPAM) WD4960 thus appears to be a more ideal conditioner for WTRs. Consistent relationships were observed among the capillary suction time (CST), average particle size, and D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates at the optimum WD4960 dosage. Mass fractal dimensions (D(f)) indicated that both the raw and WD4960-conditioned WTRs behave like weak-link flocs/aggregates. D(f) values (log G'-log TSS) of the WTR aggregates before and after

  13. Estimation of human absorbed dose for (166)Ho-PAM: comparison with (166)Ho-DOTMP and (166)Ho-TTHMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez-Tehrani, Mahdokht; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Afarideh, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the human absorbed dose of holmium-166 ((166)Ho)-pamidronate (PAM) as a potential agent for the management of multiple myeloma was estimated. (166)Ho-PAM complex was prepared at optimized conditions and injected into the rats. The equivalent and effective absorbed doses to human organs after injection of the complex were estimated by radiation-absorbed dose assessment resource and methods proposed by Sparks et al based on rat data. The red marrow to other organ absorbed dose ratios were compared with these data for (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used (166)Ho bone marrow ablative agent, and (166)Ho-TTHMP. The highest absorbed dose amounts are observed in the bone surface and bone marrow with 1.11 and 0.903 mGy MBq(-1), respectively. Most other organs would receive approximately insignificant absorbed dose. While (166)Ho-PAM demonstrated a higher red marrow to total body absorbed dose ratio than (166)Ho-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo dodecane-1,4,7,10 tetra ethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and (166)Ho-triethylene tetramine hexa (methylene phosphonic acid) (TTHMP), the red marrow to most organ absorbed dose ratios for (166)Ho-TTHMP and (166)Ho-PAM are much higher than the ratios for (166)Ho-DOTMP. The result showed that (166)Ho-PAM has significant characteristics than (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore, this complex can be considered as a good agent for bone marrow ablative therapy. In this work, two separate points have been investigated: (1) human absorbed dose of (166)Ho-PAM, as a potential bone marrow ablative agent, has been estimated; and (2) the complex has been compared with (166)Ho-DOTMP, as the only clinically used bone marrow ablative radiopharmaceutical, showing significant characteristics.

  14. Design of test kits for the RF characterization of the PAM antenna of LHCD system for Aditya-upgrade Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Yogesh M.; Sharma, P.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Ambulkar, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of the ADITYA-Upgrade tokamak will employ a Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna to launch 250 kW of RF power at 3.7 GHz to drive plasma current non inductively in the tokamak. To evaluate the RF performance of the designed PAM antenna, it is characterized with the help of VNA measurements. The performance of the PAM antenna is mainly decided by the integrated performance of the entire antenna (with a differential phase shift of 270° and equal power distribution between each of the output waveguides) and the performance of mode converter, which transforms input TE 10 mode to TE 30 mode (with a mode purity of 98.5% at the output). This poster thus reports the design and analysis of these testing kits. Also, the test results of PAM antenna obtained by using these test kits would also be presented and discussed in this poster

  15. Selective binding and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins using Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Li, Mengyun; Tu, Shu; Sun, Honghao

    2018-03-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized. The magnetic core, with an average hydrodynamic size of 235.5 nm, allowed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) rapid separation from solutions under an external magnetic field. NTA-Ni2+ was modified on the surface of Fe3O4/PAM MNPs to selectively trap his-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP). The results showed that Fe3O4/PAM/NTA-Ni2+ MNPs exhibited remarkable capability of selective binding and separating his-tagged GFP. The adsorption efficiency was 93.37%.

  16. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans: the Nordic PAM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L; Laasonen, L; Ejstrup, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM. Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (33 ± 14 years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 ± 12 years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60 years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group. PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.

  17. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  18. STS-93: Crew Watches the Installation of Chandra's Solar Panel in the VPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The crew (Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michael Tognini) are dressed in cleanroom suits while overseeing the solar panel installation.

  19. Translation, adaptation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13 in a Danish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowski Ineta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13 in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. Methods 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. Results The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8–4.2%. Floor effect was small (range 0.6–3.6%, but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6–62.7%. The α-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. Conclusion A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.

  20. Further optimization of the M1 PAM VU0453595: Discovery of novel heterobicyclic core motifs with improved CNS penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Joseph D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Adams, Jeffrey J; Nance, Kellie D; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Chang, Sichen; Morrison, Ryan D; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    This Letter describes the continued chemical optimization of the VU0453595 series of M1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By surveying alternative 5,6- and 6,6-heterobicylic cores for the 6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-one core of VU453595, we found new cores that engendered not only comparable or improved M1 PAM potency, but significantly improved CNS distribution (Kps 0.3-3.1). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M1 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this valuable CNS target, devoid of hydrogen-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery of a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline-6-carboxamide M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype via scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Madeline F; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Niswender, Colleen M; Bridges, Thomas M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-11-15

    This Letter details our efforts to replace the 3-amino moiety, an essential pharmacophore for M 4 PAM activity in most M 4 PAMs to date, within the thieno[2,3-b]pyridine core, as the β-amino carboxamide motif has been shown to engender poor solubility, varying degrees of P-gp efflux and represents a structural alert. A scaffold hopping exercise identified a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline carboxamide core that provided M 4 PAM activity and good CNS penetration without an amino moiety. In addition, MacMillan photoredox catalysis chemistry was essential for construction of the 2,4-dimethylquinoline core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological applications of an LCoS-BASED PROGRAMMABLE ARRAY MICROSCOPE (PAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, G.M.; Caarls, W.; Thomas, M.; Hill, A.; Lidke, K.A.; Rieger, B.; Fritsch, C.; Van Geest, B.; Jovin, T.M.; Arndt-Jovin, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a

  3. The proteolytically stable peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 selectively inhibits human neutrophil activation via formyl peptide receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Camilla J; Franzyk, Henrik; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2015-01-15

    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogs of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines, we found that a fluorescently labeled analog of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore, the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating peptide agonist Cy5-WKYMWM, while the binding of an FPR1-selective agonist was not inhibited. To our knowledge, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 is the first HDP mimic found to inhibit activation of human neutrophils via direct interaction with FPR2. Hence, we consider Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 to be a convenient tool in the further dissection of the role of FPR2 in inflammation and homeostasis as well as for investigation of the importance of neutrophil stimulation in anti-infective therapy involving HDPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Demonstration of 32 Gbaud 4-PAM for Data Center Interconnections of up to 320 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Clausen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm.......This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm....

  5. Comparing 52 Gbps Duobinary and 4-PAM Transmission Over 100m OM-3 Fiber With 25GHz Class VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Lyubomirsky, Ilya; Daghighian, Henry M.

    This paper compares VCSEL based transmission of 52 Gbps duobinary-NRZ and 4-PAM over 100m OM-3 fiber employing a linear equalizer in the receiver.......This paper compares VCSEL based transmission of 52 Gbps duobinary-NRZ and 4-PAM over 100m OM-3 fiber employing a linear equalizer in the receiver....

  6. Regeneration of Red Cell Cholinesterase Activity Following Pralidoxime (2-PAM) Infusion in First 24 h in Organophosphate Poisoned Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Parul; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Surjit; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Gill, K D

    2012-01-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime chloride reactivate acetylcholinesterase. However their role in management of organophosphate poisoning is controversial. The study was carried out to find effectiveness of pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) in regenerating red cell acetyl cholinesterase in first 24 h following administration of it in dose recommended by WHO. Eight patients with OPP [chlorpyriphos (3), phorate (3), dichlorvos (1) and monocrotophos (1) who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were investigated. In addition to decontamination and atropine, all these patients were administered 30 mg/kg body wt of 2-PAM as bolus dose followed by 7.5 mg/kg body wt/h with maximum dose being 500 mg/h as continuous infusion till first 24 h. Red cell AChE activity was estimated every 15 min for first 4 h, one hourly for next 4 h and then 2 hourly till 24 h and subsequently without 2-PAM every 12 h till 7 days or discharge or death which ever earlier. In all the patients maximum increase in activity was observed in first 4 h following which rise was very slow despite continued 2-PAM infusion and reaching a steady state in 20 h in all the cases. The increase in red cell AChE activity observed in diethyl group at 24 h of 2-PAM infusion was 154% vs. 81% in dimethyl group. At 7 days the increase in activity was 215% vs. 118% respectively. However on multiple repeated ANOVA, no statistically significant difference was observed between diethyl and dimethyl groups at admission and discharge (P > 0.05). Similarly no significant difference was observed in three groups when patients were categorized according to WHO classification of organophosphates (P > 0.05). The maximum increase in red cell AChE activity occurs in first 4 h of 2-PAM administration followed by a slow increase despite 2-PAM infusion till 24 h.

  7. The peptidylglycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) gene rs13175330 A>G polymorphism is associated with hypertension in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-11-21

    Peptidylglycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) may play a role in the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is a hormone involved in the maintenance of blood pressure (BP). The objective of the present study was to determine whether PAM is a novel candidate gene for hypertension (HTN). A total of 2153 Korean participants with normotension and HTN were included. Genotype data were obtained using the Korean Chip. The rs13175330 polymorphism of the PAM gene was selected from the ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most strongly associated with BP. The presence of the G allele of the PAM rs13175330 A>G SNP was associated with a higher risk of HTN after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and drinking [OR 1.607 (95% CI 1.220-2.116), p = 0.001]. The rs13175330 G allele carriers in the HTN group treated without antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/o therapy) had significantly higher systolic and diastolic BP than the AA carriers, whereas the G allele carriers in the HTN group treated with antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/ therapy) showed significantly higher diastolic BP. Furthermore, rs13175330 G allele carriers in the HTN w/o therapy group had significantly increased levels of insulin, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol levels and LDL particle sizes compared to the AA carriers. These results suggest that the PAM rs13175330 A>G SNP is a novel candidate gene for HTN in the Korean population. Additionally, the PAM rs13175330 G allele might be associated with insulin resistance and LDL atherogenicity in patients with HTN.

  8. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) through lay-flat polyethylene 1 tubing: effects on infiltration, erosion, N and P transport, and corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce off-site agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in-furrow to Mid-South production systems has...

  9. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  10. Fabrication and atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM) studies of polyacrylamide-carbon nanotubes (PAM-CNTs) copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuefeng; Guan Wenchao; Yan Haibiao; Huang Lan

    2004-01-01

    A novel polyacrylamide-carbon nanotubes (PAM-CNTs) copolymer has been prepared by ultraviolet radiation initiated polymerization. The PAM-CNTs copolymer was characterized by the instruments of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectra, fluorescence spectra and transmission electron microscope. The morphology and microtribological properties of PAM-CNTs thin films on mica were investigated by atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). The friction of the films was stable with the change of applied load and the friction coefficient decreased significantly as the CNTs addition. The results show that the rigid rod-like CNTs in polymer would enhance load-bearing and anti-wear properties of the thin films

  11. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Marcia R.; Silva, Neliton M. da

    2009-01-01

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)

  12. PAM50: Unbiased multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord aligned with the ICBM152 space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2018-01-15

    Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for standardization and reproducibility, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. While MRI templates of the spinal cord have been recently introduced, none of them cover the entire spinal cord. In this study, we introduced an unbiased multimodal MRI template of the spinal cord and the brainstem, called PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The PAM50 template is based on 50 healthy subjects, covers the full spinal cord (C1 to L2 vertebral levels) and the brainstem, is available for T1-, T2-and T2*-weighted MRI contrasts and includes a probabilistic atlas of the gray matter and white matter tracts. Template creation accuracy was assessed by computing the mean and maximum distance error between each individual spinal cord centerline and the PAM50 centerline, after registration to the template. Results showed high accuracy for both T1- (mean = 0.37 ± 0.06 mm; max = 1.39 ± 0.58 mm) and T2-weighted (mean = 0.11 ± 0.03 mm; max = 0.71 ± 0.27 mm) contrasts. Additionally, the preservation of the spinal cord topology during the template creation process was verified by comparing the cross-sectional area (CSA) profile, averaged over all subjects, and the CSA profile of the PAM50 template. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates will facilitate group and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI, and enable the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient activation in Europe: an international comparison of psychometric properties and patients' scores on the short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Gensichen, Jochen; Brenk-Franz, Katja; Hendriks, Michelle

    2016-10-12

    To allow better assessment of patients' individual competencies for self-management, the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) has been developed in the USA. Because the American studies have shown the PAM to be a valuable tool, several European countries have translated the instrument into their native languages (Danish, Dutch, German, Norwegian). The aim was to compare the psychometric properties in studies from the different countries and establish whether the scores on the PAM vary between the studies. Data from the four separate studies were subjected to the same data cleaning procedures and statistical analyses. The psychometric properties of the instruments were established with measures of data quality and scale structure. The mean patient activation score and distribution across four predefined activation levels were described and the differences between the four studies were tested with ANOVA (unadjusted and adjusted) followed by a post-hoc Tukey HSD test and the Pearson chi-squared test respectively. The total N of the four studies was 5184. The percentage of missing values was low in all datasets, confirming the good quality of the datasets. Factor analyses revealed moderate to strong factor loadings on the first factor in all datasets. Cronbach's α was high for all version, ranging from .80 (German) to .88 (Dutch). Item-rest correlations varied between .32 and .66, indicating a moderate to strong correlation of the individual items to the sum scale. Both the mean PAM score and the distribution across activation levels differed between the four datasets. After adjustment of the PAM score, patients in Norway in particular had a higher patient activation level. The European translations of PAM-13 (into Danish, Dutch, German and Norwegian) resulted in four instruments with good psychometric capabilities for measuring patient activation. The mean PAM score and the distribution across activation levels differed between the four datasets.

  14. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  15. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Nicole S; Pelisch, Nicolas; Orem, Ben C; Williams, Joshua; Nally, Jacqueline M; Stirling, David P

    2017-08-01

    Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one hour after injury induced a significant increase in the extent and timing of the microglial response to injury compared to vehicle controls. This enhanced response was observed 2 to 4h following SCI and was most prominent in areas closer to the ablation site. In addition, Pam3CSK4 treatment significantly reduced axonal dieback rostral and caudal to the ablation at 6h post-SCI. This protective effect of Pam3CSK4 was also mirrored when assessing secondary bystander axonal damage (i.e., axons spared by the primary injury that then succumb to secondary degeneration), and when assessing the survival of oligodendroglia. Following these imaging experiments, custom microarray analysis of the ex vivo spinal cord preparations revealed that Pam3CSK4-treatment induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can

  16. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F 0 /F v . Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F ′ q /F ′ m , EC 50 = 303 ± 64 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC 50 = 142 ± 98 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from

  17. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  18. Experimental Study of 1.55-μm EML-Based Optical IM/DD PAM-4/8 Short Reach Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate high-speed intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) transmissions with a 1.55-μm broadband electro-absorption modulated laser and pulse amplitude modulations (PAM). We demonstrate 80 Gb/s/λ PAM-4 and 96 Gb/s/λ PAM-8 transmissions with low-complexity digital...... equalizers at the receiver. Performance comparison with different types of equalizers are performed, including linear symbol-spaced feed-forward equalizer (FFE), fractional (half-symbol) spaced FFE and decision feedback equalizer (DFE), with different tap number. It is found that for both cases, a 6-tap...... symbol-spaced FFE is sufficient to achieve a stable performance with bit-error-rate below the 7% overhead hard decision forward error correction (7%-OH HD-FEC) threshold over a 4 km standard single mode fiber link. Practical considerations including comparison between adaptive and static equalizer...

  19. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Li, Huan; Hallstrøm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    -adjacent motif (PAM)-dependent DNA targeting activity and mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in this organism, mutants deleting individual genes of the type IA system or removing each of other Cas modules were constructed. Characterization of these mutants revealed that Cas7, Cas5, Cas6, Cas3' and Cas3......" are essential for PAM-dependent DNA targeting activity, whereas Csa5, along with all other Cas modules, is dispensable for the targeting in the crenarchaeon. Cas6 is implicated as the only enzyme for pre-crRNA processing and the crRNA maturation is independent of the DNA targeting activity. Importantly, we show...

  1. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  2. Asynchronous monitoring of the quality of multilevel optical PAM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuzdak, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, there is analyzed the signal quality assessment method based on delay tap asynchronous sampling, both for binary and multilevel PAM signals. The obtained multilevel phase diagrams are far more complicated than binary ones. The phase diagrams are affected by the signal distortions but it is difficult to relate reliably the phase diagram form to the distortion type and its influence on the signal quality.

  3. Optimum quantum receiver for detecting weak signals in PAM communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Gautam, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of an optimum quantum receiver for pulse amplitude modulator (PAM) communication systems. The information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1} is estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML method is based on quantum mechanical measurements of an observable X in the Hilbert space of the quantum system at discrete times, when the Hamiltonian of the system is perturbed by an operator obtained by modulating a potential V with a PAM signal derived from the information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1}. The measurement process at each time instant causes collapse of the system state to an observable eigenstate. All probabilities of getting different outcomes from an observable are calculated using the perturbed evolution operator combined with the collapse postulate. For given probability densities, calculation of the mean square error evaluates the performance of the receiver. Finally, we present an example involving estimating an information bearing sequence that modulates a quantum electromagnetic field incident on a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  4. Clinicians' beliefs and attitudes toward patient self-management in the Netherlands; translation and testing of the American Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Jansen, Daphne; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique

    2015-04-03

    The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients' self-management, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners and other primary care providers. The CS-PAM was translated in Dutch and data were collected in a sample of 489 general practitioners and other primary care providers. Statistical analyses (RASCH, Cronbach's α) were performed to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. The psychometric scores of the Dutch CS-PAM were acceptable to good, and the difficulty level and structure was comparable to that of the original instrument. The average score of Dutch clinicians on the CS-PAM was 65.1 (SD 10.7), somewhat lower compared to their colleagues in the US (69; SD 12.1) and the UK (69, SD 12.8). Dutch general practitioners scored significantly lower on the CS-PAM compared to other primary care providers. The Dutch CS-PAM is a reliable instrument to measure beliefs of clinicians regarding patient self-management. Further validation studies are necessary to establish the distribution of scores in specific provider populations and to assess the clinical relevance of the instrument for different outcomes.

  5. Discovery of VU6005649, a CNS Penetrant mGlu7/8 Receptor PAM Derived from a Series of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahito; Seto, Mabel; Gogliotti, Rocco G; Loch, Matthew T; Bollinger, Katrina A; Chang, Sichen; Engelberg, Eileen M; Luscombe, Vincent B; Harp, Joel M; Bubser, Michael; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Rodriguez, Alice L; Blobaum, Anna L; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-10-12

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of mGlu 7 PAMs based on a pyrazolo[1,5- a ]pyrimidine core with excellent CNS penetration ( K p s > 1 and K p,uu s > 1). Analogues in this series proved to display a range of Group III mGlu receptor selectivity, but VU6005649 emerged as the first dual mGlu 7/8 PAM, filling a void in the Group III mGlu receptor PAM toolbox and demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a mouse contextual fear conditioning model.

  6. PAMs ameliorates the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease in mice by inhibition of translocation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongkun Dou

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease seriously affecting the quality of human life. In this study, we reported an ancient formula of Chinese folk medicine, the natural plant antimicrobial solution (PAMs for its anti-inflammatory effects and proposed the primary mechanisms on inhibiting the inflammatory response in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells and imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease mouse model. Two main functional components of hydroxysafflor Yellow A and allantoin in PAMs were quantified by HPLC to be 94.2±2.2 and 262.9±12.5 μg/mL respectively. PAMs could significantly reduce the gene expression and inflammatory cytokines production of Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC, IL-8 and IL-6 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. PAMs also significantly ameliorates the psoriatic-like symptoms in a mouse model with the evaluation scores for both the single (scales, thickness, erythema and cumulative features were in the order of blank control < Dexamethasone < PAMs < 50% ethanol < model groups. The results were further confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The down-regulated gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and IL-23 in mouse tissues was consistent with the results from those of the HaCaT cells. The inhibition of psoriasis-like skin inflammation by PAMs was correlated with the inactivation of the translocation of P65 protein into cellular nucleus, indicating the inhibition of the inflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that PAMs may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis.

  7. KUALITAS FISIK DAN KIMIA AIR PAM DI JAKARTA, BOGOR, TANGERANG, BEKASI TAHUN 1999 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality of PAM in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi between the year of 1999 - 2001 has been studied. Water quality was determined by a series of physical and chemical test at Chemical Laboratory Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Farmasi dan Obat Tradisional as stated in Permenkes no.416/Menkes/Per/IX/1990 on condition and water quality control including smell, color, turbidity, contents of manganese, iron, nitrite, sulphate, organic subtance, turbidity, hardness and pH. Total sampling was done on all drinking water samples from DKI Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi delivered to be tested at Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Farmasi dan Obat Tradisional between 1999-2001 and destilled water as control. Result of the study from 431 drinking water samples shows that samples that met the requirements as drinking water is 91,65% and 8,35% sub standard, most of the the sub standard drinking water is cause by the contents of manganese (4,41%, iron (2,09%, organic subtance (1,62%, chloride (0,93% and high water hardness (0,23% as well as pH (3,15%, turbidity (1,86% and colors (1,62% Statistically, the water quality of PAM in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi at 1999, 2000 and 2001 is not different.  Key word : water quality of PAM, drinking water, physical test, chemical test.

  8. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Yamada, Yusuke; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Matsugaki, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable

  9. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp; Yamada, Yusuke; Chavas, Leonard M. G. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Wakatsuki, Soichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 69, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Stanford University, Beckman Center B105, Stanford, CA 94305-5126 (United States); Matsugaki, Naohiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable.

  10. From the Field: Speech Therapy Outcome Measures--Interview with Dr. Pam Enderby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article is an interview with Dr. Pam Enderby--a speech language therapist and professor at the Institute of General Practice and Primary Care at the University of Sheffield, Community Sciences Centre, Northern General Hospital, in the United Kingdom--conducted by Judy Montgomery, Editor in Chief, of "Communication Disorders…

  11. Neuroprotection by biodegradable PAMAM ester (e-PAM-R)-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery in primary cortical cultures and in the postischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Doo; Lim, Chae-Moon; Kim, Jung-Bin; Nam, Hye Yeong; Nam, Kihoon; Kim, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Sang; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2010-03-19

    Although RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing provides a powerful strategy for modulating specific gene functions, difficulties associated with siRNA delivery have impeded the development of efficient therapeutic applications. In particular, the efficacy of siRNA delivery into neurons has been limited by extremely low transfection efficiencies. e-PAM-R is a biodegradable arginine ester of PAMAM dendrimer, which is readily degradable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of siRNA delivery by e-PAM-R in primary cortical cultures and in rat brain. e-PAM-R/siRNA complexes showed high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicities in primary cortical cultures. Localization of fluorescence-tagged siRNA revealed that siRNA was delivered not only into the nucleus and cytoplasm, but also along the processes of the neuron. e-PAM-R/siRNA complex-mediated target gene reduction was observed in over 40% of cells and it was persistent for over 48 h. The potential use of e-PAM-R was demonstrated by gene knockdown after transfecting High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a novel cytokine-like molecule) siRNA into H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures. In these cells, HMGB1 siRNA delivery successfully reduced both basal and H(2)O(2)- or NMDA-induced HMGB1 levels, and as a result of that, neuronal cell death was significantly suppressed in both cases. Furthermore, we showed that e-PAM-R successfully delivered HMGB1 siRNA into the rat brain, wherein HMGB1 expression was depleted in over 40% of neurons and astrocytes of the normal brain. Moreover, e-PAM-R-mediated HMGB1 siRNA delivery notably reduced infarct volume in the postischemic rat brain, which is generated by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 60 min. These results indicate that e-PAM-R, a novel biodegradable nonviral gene carrier, offers an efficient means of transfecting siRNA into primary neuronal cells and in the brain and of

  12. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlory, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.herlory@gmail.com [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gilbin, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.gilbin@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire de Biogéochimie, Biodisponibilité et Transferts des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F{sub 0}/F{sub v}. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F{sup ′}{sub q}/F{sup ′}{sub m}, EC{sub 50} = 303 ± 64 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC{sub 50} = 142 ± 98 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown

  13. ANTS/PAM: Future Exploration of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Cheung, C. Y.

    2004-05-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is applied to the Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) concept, as part of a NASA RASC study. The ANTS architecture is inspired by success of social insect colonies, based on the division of labor within the colonies: 1) within their specialties, individual specialists generally outperform general-ists, and 2) with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, the group of specialists generally outper-forms the group of generalists. ANTS as applied to PAM involves a thousand individual specialist `sciencecraft', one subswarm per target, in an environment where detection and tracking of irregular, infrequent targets is a major chal-lenge. Workers, carry and operate eight to nine different scientific instruments, including spectrometers, ranging and radio science devices, imagers. The remaining specialists, Messenger/Rulers, provide communication and coordina-tion. The non-expendable propulsion system is based on autonomously deployable and configurable solar sails, a system suitable to a low gravity environment. The design of the neural basis function requires a minimum of 4 or 5 specialists for collective decision making. Allowing for ten instrument specialist teams and compensating for antici-pated high attrition, we calculate an initial minimum of 100 per subswarm should allow characterization of hundreds of asteroids. The difficulty in observing irregular, rapidly moving, poorly illuminated objects is largely overcome by the ANT sciencecraft capability to optimize conditions for each instrument. Components are composed of carbon nanotubules reversibly deployable from NEMS nodes, allowing 100 times decrease in packaging volume. 1000 smart 10 centimeter, 1 kg cubic boxes create a 1000 kg 1 meter cube.

  14. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  15. Time skewing and amplitude nonlinearity mitigation by feedback equalization for 56 Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 links

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yue; Zhang, Wenjia; Sun, Lin; Du, Jiangbing; Liang, Chenyu; Yang, Fan; He, Zuyuan

    2018-03-01

    The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based multimode optical transceivers enabled by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 will be commercialized in near future to meet the 400-Gbps standard short reach optical interconnects. It is still challenging to achieve over 56/112-Gbps with the multilevel signaling as the multimode property of the device and link would introduce the nonlinear temporal response for the different levels. In this work, we scrutinize the distortions that relates to the multilevel feature of PAM-4 modulation, and propose an effective feedback equalization scheme for 56-Gbps VCSEL-based PAM-4 optical interconnects system to mitigate the distortions caused by eye timing-skew and nonlinear power-dependent noise. Level redistribution at Tx side is theoretically modeled and constructed to achieve equivalent symbol error ratios (SERs) of four levels and improved BER performance. The cause of the eye skewing and the mitigation approach are also simulated at 100-Gbps and experimentally investigated at 56-Gbps. The results indicate more than 2-dB power penalty improvement has been achieved by using such a distortion aware equalizer.

  16. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Jiang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG) technique, the subject's active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments. PMID:29065566

  17. Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot Powered by PAMs Cooperates with FES Arrays to Realize Reach-to-Grasp Trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xikai Tu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs. In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings. Hand function rehabilitation refers to grasping. Because of tiny finger muscles, grasping and releasing are realized by FES array electrodes and matrix scan method. By using the surface electromyography (EMG technique, the subject’s active intent is identified. The upper limb rehabilitation robot powered by PAMs cooperates with FES arrays to realize active reach-to-grasp trainings, which was verified through experiments.

  18. Experimental Demonstration of 84 Gb/s PAM-4 Over up to 1.6 km SSMF Using a 20-GHz VCSEL at 1525 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate 84-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over up to 1.6-km standard single mode fiber using a 20-GHz single mode short cavity vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode at a transmission wavelength of 1525 nm. Different equalizer approaches including a common...... feedforward equalizer, a nonlinear Volterra equalizer (NLVE), a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE) and their combinations are evaluated working either as an equalizer for a standard PAM-4 or a partial response PAM-4 signal with seven levels. It is demonstrated that a standard FFE is not enough...... for a transmission distance of >0.6 km, while the use of an NLVE or FFE + MLSE is able to improve the transmission distance towards 1 km. The use of partial-response PAM-4 FFE in combination with a short memory MLSE is able to efficiently equalize the bandwidth limitations, showing more than 10-times BER improvement...

  19. Dynamic bending of bionic flexible body driven by pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs) for spinning gait of quadruped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jingtao; Yu, Huangying; Wang, Tianmiao

    2016-01-01

    The body of quadruped robot is generally developed with the rigid structure. The mobility of quadruped robot depends on the mechanical properties of the body mechanism. It is difficult for quadruped robot with rigid structure to achieve better mobility walking or running in the unstructured environment. A kind of bionic flexible body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which is composed of one bionic spine and four pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs). This kind of body imitates the four-legged creatures' kinematical structure and physical properties, which has the characteristic of changeable stiffness, lightweight, flexible and better bionics. The kinematics of body bending is derived, and the coordinated movement between the flexible body and legs is analyzed. The relationship between the body bending angle and the PAM length is obtained. The dynamics of the body bending is derived by the floating coordinate method and Lagrangian method, and the driving force of PAM is determined. The experiment of body bending is conducted, and the dynamic bending characteristic of bionic flexible body is evaluated. Experimental results show that the bending angle of the bionic flexible body can reach 18°. An innovation body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which has the characteristic of flexibility and achieve bending by changing gas pressure of PAMs. The coordinated movement of the body and legs can achieve spinning gait in order to improve the mobility of quadruped robot.

  20. Real-Time Evaluation of 26-GBaud PAM-4 Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection Systems for Data-Center Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Real-time transmission with 26-GBaud PAM-4 as a promising modulation format for data-center interconnects with operation in C-band is evaluated. For an OSNR penalty below 2 dB a dispersion tolerance of up to 10 km of SSMF is achieved......Real-time transmission with 26-GBaud PAM-4 as a promising modulation format for data-center interconnects with operation in C-band is evaluated. For an OSNR penalty below 2 dB a dispersion tolerance of up to 10 km of SSMF is achieved...

  1. Multiband LTE-A, WiFi ac, and 4-PAM baseband simultaneous transmission over 50 m thick-core POF for in-home network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; Van Den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated the simultaneous transmission of multiband LTE-A signals, a WiFi IEEE802.11ac and a gigabit/s baseband 4-PAM signal over 1mm core diameter PMMA GI-POF. The optical link used a red light 650 nm laser diode and a p-i-n photodiode with a transimpedance amplifier. The 4-PAM transmission

  2. Discovery of a novel, CNS penetrant M4 PAM chemotype based on a 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Blake R; Spearing, Paul K; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Rodriguez, Alice L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-09-15

    This Letter details the discovery and subsequent optimization of a novel M 4 PAM scaffold based on an 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core, which represents a distinct departure from the classical M 4 PAM chemotypes. Optimized compounds in this series demonstrated improved M 4 PAM potency on both human and rat M 4 (4 to 5-fold relative to HTS hit), and displayed attractive physicochemical and DMPK profiles, including good CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma K p =5.3, K p,uu =2.4; MDCK-MDR1 (P-gp) ER=1.1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SaCas9 Requires 5'-NNGRRT-3' PAM for Sufficient Cleavage and Possesses Higher Cleavage Activity than SpCas9 or FnCpf1 in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haihua; Tang, Lianchao; He, Xiubin; Liu, Xiexie; Zhou, Chenchen; Liu, Junjie; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Jin; Liu, Changbao; Zhao, Junzhao; Qu, Jia; Song, Zongming; Gu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of human diseases. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), the sequence adjacent to the target sequence, is an essential targeting component for the design of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. However, currently, very few studies have attempted to directly study the PAM sequence in human cells. To address this issue, the authors develop a dual fluorescence reporter system that could be harnessed for identifying functional PAMs for genome editing endonuclease, including Cas9. With this system, the authors investigate the effects of different PAM sequences for SaCas9, which is small and has the advantage of allowing in vivo genome editing, and found only 5'-NNGRRT-3' PAM could induced sufficient target cleavage with multi-sites. The authors also found SaCas9 possesses higher activity than SpCas9 or FnCpf1 via plasmids (episomal) and chromosomes with integrated eGFP-based comparison. Taken together, the authors show that a dual fluorescence reporter system is a means to identifying a functional PAM and quantitatively comparing the efficiency of different genome editing endonucleases with the similar or identical target sequence in human cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Discovery of VU0467485/AZ13713945: An M4 PAM Evaluated as a Preclinical Candidate for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Poslusney, Michael S; Nance, Kellie D; Hurtado, Miguel A; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Bubser, Michael; Blobaum, Anna L; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-02-09

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M 4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Compound 6c (VU0467485) possesses robust in vitro M 4 PAM potency across species and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Coupled with an attractive DMPK profile and suitable predicted human PK, 6c (VU0467485) was evaluated as a preclinical development candidate.

  5. Traffic disruption in PAM DIRAC road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    From 8th September to 19th September, ST Division will be doing some road works to install HDPE ducts for optical fibre cables under the PAM DIRAC road. For this reason, the road will be closed during 2 days and alternative arrangements will be put in place to reroute the traffic. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 77779 - 160484 / 75498 - 163198

  6. Of Wondrous Places and "Benevolent Neglect": An Interview with Pam Munoz Ryan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbi, Jennifer; Johnson, Amy

    2007-01-01

    With her recent book, "Paint the Wind" (2007), hitting the shelves this fall, author Pam Munoz Ryan delivers a welcome addition to the 25 plus books she has written for young people, including her award-winning novels "Esperanza Rising" (2000) and "Riding Freedom" (1998) and picture books "Amelia and Eleanor Go for a Ride" (1999) and "When Marian…

  7. PAM50 Breast Cancer Subtyping by RT-qPCR and Concordance with Standard Clinical Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Roy RL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methodologies have been used in research to identify the “intrinsic” subtypes of breast cancer commonly known as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-Enriched (HER2-E and Basal-like. The PAM50 gene set is often used for gene expression-based subtyping; however, surrogate subtyping using panels of immunohistochemical (IHC markers are still widely used clinically. Discrepancies between these methods may lead to different treatment decisions. Methods We used the PAM50 RT-qPCR assay to expression profile 814 tumors from the GEICAM/9906 phase III clinical trial that enrolled women with locally advanced primary invasive breast cancer. All samples were scored at a single site by IHC for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2/neu (HER2 protein expression. Equivocal HER2 cases were confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Single gene scores by IHC/CISH were compared with RT-qPCR continuous gene expression values and “intrinsic” subtype assignment by the PAM50. High, medium, and low expression for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and proliferation were selected using quartile cut-points from the continuous RT-qPCR data across the PAM50 subtype assignments. Results ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 gene expression had high agreement with established binary IHC cut-points (area under the curve (AUC ≥ 0.9. Estrogen receptor positivity by IHC was strongly associated with Luminal (A and B subtypes (92%, but only 75% of ER negative tumors were classified into the HER2-E and Basal-like subtypes. Luminal A tumors more frequently expressed PR than Luminal B (94% vs 74% and Luminal A tumors were less likely to have high proliferation (11% vs 77%. Seventy-seven percent (30/39 of ER-/HER2+ tumors by IHC were classified as the HER2-E subtype. Triple negative tumors were mainly comprised of Basal-like (57% and HER2-E (30% subtypes. Single gene scoring for ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 was more prognostic than the corresponding IHC markers as

  8. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Probability approaching method (PAM) and its application on fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Hu, Y.; Shi, G.

    2004-01-01

    For multi-cycle reloading optimization problem, a new solving scheme is presented. The multi-cycle problem is de-coupled into a number of relatively independent mono-cycle issues, then this non-linear programming problem with complex constraints is solved by an advanced new algorithm -probability approaching method (PAM), which is based on probability theory. The result on simplified core model shows well effect of this new multi-cycle optimization scheme. (authors)

  10. Utility of 2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl Chloride (2-PAM) for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Adam; Benabbas, Roshanak; deSouza, Ian S; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Warman, Elliot; Sinert, Richard; Wiener, Sage W

    2018-03-01

    Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to March 2017. The Cochrane review handbook was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were abstracted and risk ratios (RR) were calculated for mortality, rate of intubation, duration of intubation, intermediate syndrome, and complications such as hospital-acquired infections, dysrhythmias, and pulmonary edema. We found five studies comprising 586 patients with varying risks of bias. The risk of death (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5); intubation (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6); intermediate syndrome (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6); complications (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8); and the duration of intubation (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI - 1.6-1.6) were not significantly different between the atropine plus 2-PAM and atropine alone. Based on our meta-analysis of the available RCTs, 2-PAM was not shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute OP poisoning.

  11. LHCD and coupling experiments with an ITER-like PAM launcher on the FTU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Barbato, E.; Buratti, P.; Calabro, G.; Cardinali, A.; Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L.; Podda, S.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Bibet, Ph.; Granucci, G.; Sozzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    Successful experimental tests on a PAM (passive active multijunction) prototype antenna for the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves similar to that foreseen for ITER have been carried out on FTU. The power level routinely achieved without any fault in the transmission lines for the maximum time allowed by the LH power plant, i.e. 0.9 s, is 250 kW versus a design value of 270. It corresponds to 50 MW/m 2 through the ITER antenna active area if it is scaled for the different LH frequencies (5 GHz in ITER, 8 GHz in FTU) and it is more than 1.4 times the goal of the ITER design (33 MW/m 2 ). The test results validate the main features indicated by the simulation codes, concerning the power handling, the coupling and the launched N parallel spectrum. The power reflection coefficient R c is always ≤ 2.5%, once the PAM launcher has been properly conditioned, even with the grill mouth retracted 2 mm inside the port shadow, with density in front of the launcher very close or even lower than the cut-off value. The current drive efficiency is comparable to a conventional grill in similar conditions, once the lower directivity is taken into account. The flexibility in the N parallel spectrum is confirmed by the HXR and ECE spectra. Conditioning the PAM to operate at the ITER equivalent power level has required only one day of RF operation, without a previous baking of the waveguides. (author)

  12. IM/DD vs. 4-PAM Using a 1550-nm VCSEL over Short-Range SMF/MMF Links for Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Prince, Kamau

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects.......We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects....

  13. Differential effects of the Toll-like receptor 2 agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on anti-IgE induced human mast cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Yu

    Full Text Available Mast cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mechanism involving crosslinking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI, mast cells are also activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs which are at the center of innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the response of LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line to anti-IgE was altered in the presence of the TLR2 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys4 (Pam3CSK4. Pretreatment of PGN and Pam3CSK4 inhibited anti-IgE induced calcium mobilization and degranulation without down-regulation of FcεRI expression. Pam3CSK4 but not PGN acted in synergy with anti-IgE for IL-8 release when the TLR2 agonist was added simultaneously with anti-IgE. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes implicated in mast cell signaling revealed that the synergistic release of IL-8 induced by Pam3CSK4 and anti-IgE involved ERK and calcineurin signaling cascades. The differential modulations of anti-IgE induced mast cell activation by PGN and Pam3CSK4 suggest that dimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 produced different modulating actions on FcεRI mediated human mast cell activation.

  14. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...

  15. AL-PAM assisted filtration of mature fine tailings produced from oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.; Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The inventory of mature fine tailings (MFT) produced by the oil sands extraction process continues to grow, and is considered as a long-term environmental liability. Large amounts of water are trapped in the MFT, and the tailings ponds present a threat to local wildlife and ecosystems. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a research project that is being conducted to identify conditions for producing stackable MFT deposits. The study is investigating various types and dosages of polymers and evaluating the degrees of MFT dilution and process configurations needed to maximize re-usable water recovery. Polymeric flocculants include AL-PAM and Magnafloc 1011. Settling tests have demonstrated that 50 ppm is the optimum dosage for both polymers when MFT is diluted to 5 wt percent solids, while 75 ppm of AL-PAM and 100 ppm of MF1011 are optimum dosages for MFT diluted to 10 wt percent solids. A novel supernatant filtration method was then used to produce filtration cakes and water. The study showed that the supernatant can be used to further dilute the MFTs. tabs., figs.

  16. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Songhie An,* Kihoon Nam,* Sunghyun Choi, Cheng Z Bai, Yan Lee, Jong-Sang ParkDepartment of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model.Methods and results: The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4. Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of >40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, 4´,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining.Conclusion: The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%–40% in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of

  17. Characterization of the peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) from the venom ducts of neogastropods, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hasan, Sabah; Burgess, Daniel M; Gajewiak, Joanna; Li, Qing; Hu, Hao; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K

    2013-11-01

    Cone snails, genus Conus, are predatory marine snails that use venom to capture their prey. This venom contains a diverse array of peptide toxins, known as conotoxins, which undergo a diverse set of posttranslational modifications. Amidating enzymes modify peptides and proteins containing a C-terminal glycine residue, resulting in loss of the glycine residue and amidation of the preceding residue. A significant fraction of peptides present in the venom of cone snails contain C-terminal amidated residues, which are important for optimizing biological activity. This study describes the characterization of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), present in the venom duct of cone snails, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus. PAM is known to carry out two functions, peptidyl α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamido-glycolate lyase (PAL). In some animals, such as Drosophila melanogaster, these two functions are present in separate polypeptides, working as individual enzymes. In other animals, such as mammals and in Aplysia californica, PAM activity resides in a single, bifunctional polypeptide. Using specific oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction we have identified and cloned from the venom duct cDNA library, a cDNA with 49% homology to PAM from A. californica. We have determined that both the PHM and PAL activities are encoded in one mRNA polynucleotide in both C. bullatus and C. geographus. We have directly demonstrated enzymatic activity catalyzing the conversion of dansyl-YVG-COOH to dansyl-YV-NH2 in cloned cDNA expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore understand the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) items: a cognitive interviewing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngooi, Bi Xia; Packer, Tanya L; Warner, Grace; Kephart, George; Koh, Karen Wei Ling; Wong, Raymond Ching Chiew; Lim, Serene Peiying

    2018-03-01

    Validation studies of the PAM-13 have found differences in scale performance, suggesting that health beliefs embedded in different cultures and/or self-management needs of different client groups influence how people respond to the items. The purpose of this study was to examine how adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore interpreted and responded to the PAM-13, to investigate possible reasons for differences in responses and to propose solutions to overcome them. We conducted retrospective cognitive interviews with 13 participants in an out-patient heart center. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on the framework approach to qualitative analysis. The four stages from Tourangeau's cognitive model were used as a framework to index the data from each item. There was variation in comprehension of questions leading to variation in responses. Comprehension issues were due to terms perceived by participants to be vague and the use of English terms uncommon in Singapore. Cultural influences impacted decision processes and problems with response processes of the self-rating Likert scale surfaced. This study reinforces the need to culturally adapt the tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Providing Likert scales with a larger number of may widen the relevance of PAM-13 in Singapore. Implications for rehabilitation Need to culturally adapt assessment tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Consider using Likert scales with a larger number of categories when using in Asian countries such as Singapore. Caution must be taken when using PAM-13 levels to decide interventions for each individual.

  19. Positive and negative metacognitions about alcohol use among university students: Psychometric properties of the PAMS and NAMS French versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierski, Fabien; Spada, Marcantonio M; Fois, Eveline; Picard, Aurélie; Naassila, Mickaël; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-08-01

    Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of alcohol use have been associated with various patterns of drinking. The aim of the present study was to validate French versions of the Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS) developed by Spada and Wells (2008, Addict. Behav. 33, 515) and to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and patterns of alcohol use among university students. Responses of 1600 university students who participated in an internet survey-based study on alcohol use were submitted to confirmatory (N=800, mean age 20.40 years, 45.50% male) and exploratory (N=800, mean age 20.34 years, 45.38% male) factor analyses in two separate samples. Alcohol use, binge drinking and mood were also assessed. In line with the original versions of the scales, results provided support for a two-factor structure of the French PAMS and NAMS. Both scales revealed adequate internal reliability. Good temporal stability was found for the two factors of the NAMS, whereas one factor of the PAMS showed weakness across time. Predictive validity revealed that negative alcohol metacognitions about the uncontrollability of alcohol use were found to be consistently associated with alcohol use and binge drinking, whereas positive metacognitions about alcohol use were found to be differentially associated with alcohol use and binge drinking. The French versions of the PAMS and NAMS exhibited suitable psychometric properties. This study also emphasized the role of metacognitions about alcohol use in drinking behaviour among university students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of the German version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-D in an international multicentre study of primary care patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brenk-Franz

    Full Text Available The patients' active participation in their medical care is important for patients with chronic diseases. Measurements of patient activation are needed for studies and in clinical practice. This study aims to validate the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13-D in German-speaking primary care patients. This international cross-sectional multicentre study enrolled consecutively patients from primary care practices in three German-speaking countries: Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Patients completed the PAM13-D questionnaire. General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE was used to assess convergent validity. Furthermore Cronbach's alpha was performed to assess internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying factor structure of the items. We included 508 patients from 16 primary care practices in the final analysis. Results were internally consistent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84. Factor analysis revealed one major underlying factor. The mean values of the PAM13-D correlated significantly (r = 0.43 with those of the GSE. The German PAM13 is a reliable and valid measure of patient activation. Thus, it may be useful in primary care clinical practice and research.

  1. Escaping the Ashby limit for mechanical damping/stiffness trade-off using a constrained high internal friction interfacial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, A P; Hine, P J; Ward, I M; Fujita, M; Tanaka, E; Gusev, A A

    2018-02-06

    The development of new materials with reduced noise and vibration levels is an active area of research due to concerns in various aspects of environmental noise pollution and its effects on health. Excessive vibrations also reduce the service live of the structures and limit the fields of their utilization. In oscillations, the viscoelastic moduli of a material are complex and it is their loss part - the product of the stiffness part and loss tangent - that is commonly viewed as a figure of merit in noise and vibration damping applications. The stiffness modulus and loss tangent are usually mutually exclusive properties so it is a technological challenge to develop materials that simultaneously combine high stiffness and high loss. Here we achieve this rare balance of properties by filling a solid polymer matrix with rigid inorganic spheres coated by a sub-micron layer of a viscoelastic material with a high level of internal friction. We demonstrate that this combination can be experimentally realised and that the analytically predicted behaviour is closely reproduced, thereby escaping the often termed 'Ashby' limit for mechanical stiffness/damping trade-off and offering a new route for manufacturing advanced composite structures with markedly reduced noise and vibration levels.

  2. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  3. User Instructions for the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Van Buskirk, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-13

    PAMS uses country-specific and product-specific data to calculate estimates of impacts of a Minimum Efficiency Performance Standard (MEPS) program. The analysis tool is self-contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, and requires no links to external data, or special code additions to run. The analysis can be customized to a particular program without additional user input, through the use of the pull-down menus located on the Summary page. In addition, the spreadsheet contains many areas into which user-generated input data can be entered for increased accuracy of projection. The following is a step-by-step guide for using and customizing the tool.

  4. Current status and future prospects of an automated sample exchange system PAM for protein crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Chavas, L. M. G.; Matsugaki, N.; Igarashi, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    To achieve fully-automated and/or remote data collection in high-throughput X-ray experiments, the Structural Biology Research Centre at the Photon Factory (PF) has installed PF automated mounting system (PAM) for sample exchange robots at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We are upgrading the experimental systems, including the PAM for stable and efficient operation. To prevent human error in automated data collection, we installed a two-dimensional barcode reader for identification of the cassettes and sample pins. Because no liquid nitrogen pipeline in the PF experimental hutch is installed, the users commonly add liquid nitrogen using a small Dewar. To address this issue, an automated liquid nitrogen filling system that links a 100-liter tank to the robot Dewar has been installed on the PF macromolecular beamline. Here we describe this new implementation, as well as future prospects.

  5. Detection of weed algae in open pond cultures of Cyanobacterium aponinum using PAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Winckelmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential use of non-arable land in the al-Wusta region of the Sultanate of Oman for the production of algae biomass was examined. Brackish cleaned production water from oil production supplemented with commercial fertilizer was used as growth medium. The indigenous isolate Cyanobacterium aponinum WP7(1 was grown in open ponds using batch or semi-continuous cultivation. Biomass production rates of 15–24 g/m2/day were achieved. The change of salinity due to evaporation, which was thought to be a major challenge, did not exceed 35 ppt. All cultures showed contaminations with weed algae. Contaminations with green algae or diatoms were detectable using fluorescence pattern excited by four different wavelengths using a pulse-amplitude-modulation chlorophyll fluorometer (PAM. It is possible to estimate the health level and the mayor groups of which a culture is composed using the PAM method. Therefore, the fluorescence of the photosynthetically inactive sample is compared with the fluorescence after all copies of photosystem II were closed by exposing the sample to a high-intensity light beam. A detection limit of one weed algae cell in a hundred cells was achieved.

  6. The Toll-like receptor 1/2 agonists Pam(3) CSK(4) and human β-defensin-3 differentially induce interleukin-10 and nuclear factor-κB signalling patterns in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Lederman, Michael M; Feng, Zhimin; Weinberg, Aaron; Sieg, Scott F

    2011-10-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD-3) activates antigen-presenting cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1/2. Several TLR1/2 agonists have been identified but little is known about how they might differentially affect cellular activation. We compared the effects of hBD-3 with those of another TLR1/2 agonist, Pam(3) CSK(4) , in human monocytes. Monocytes incubated with hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1β, but only Pam(3) CSK(4) induced IL-10. The IL-10 induction by Pam(3) CSK(4) caused down-modulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, whereas CD86 expression was increased in monocytes exposed to hBD-3. Assessment of signalling pathways linked to IL-10 induction indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated similarly by hBD-3 or Pam(3) CSK(4) , whereas the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway was only induced by Pam(3) CSK(4) . Our data suggest that the lack of non-canonical nuclear factor-κB signalling by hBD-3 could contribute to the failure of this TLR agonist to induce production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in human monocytes. © 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Yi, Lilin; Yang, Qi; Fu, Songnian

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate C-band 2 × 56 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 signal transmission over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using 18 GHz direct-modulated lasers (DMLs) and direct detection, without inline optical amplifier. A delay interferometer (DI) at the transmitter side is used to extend the transmission reach from 40 to 100 km. A digital Volterra filter at the receiver side is used to mitigate the nonlinear distortions. We obtain an average bit error ratio (BER) of 1.5 × 10(-3) for 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal after 100 km SSMF transmission at the optimal input power, which is below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)).

  8. Expression of PAM50 Genes in Lung Cancer: Evidence that Interactions between Hormone Receptors and HER2/HER3 Contribute to Poor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs frequently express estrogen receptor (ER β, and estrogen signaling is active in many lung tumors. We investigated the ability of genes contained in the prediction analysis of microarray 50 (PAM50 breast cancer risk predictor gene signature to provide prognostic information in NSCLC. Supervised principal component analysis of mRNA expression data was used to evaluate the ability of the PAM50 panel to provide prognostic information in a stage I NSCLC cohort, in an all-stage NSCLC cohort, and in The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine status of ERβ and other proteins in lung tumor tissue. Associations with prognosis were observed in the stage I cohort. Cross-validation identified seven genes that, when analyzed together, consistently showed survival associations. In pathway analysis, the seven-gene panel described one network containing the ER and progesterone receptor, as well as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2/HER3 and neuregulin-1. NSCLC cases also showed a significant association between ERβ and HER2 protein expression. Cases positive for HER2 expression were more likely to express HER3, and ERβ-positive cases were less likely to be both HER2 and HER3 negative. Prognostic ability of genes in the PAM50 panel was verified in an ERβ-positive cohort representing all NSCLC stages. In The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets, the PAM50 gene set was prognostic in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the seven-gene panel was prognostic only in squamous cell carcinoma. Genes in the PAM50 panel, including those linking ER and HER2, identify lung cancer patients at risk for poor outcome, especially among ERβ-positive cases and squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. PAM-OBG: A monoamine oxidase B specific prodrug that inhibits MGMT and generates DNA interstrand crosslinks, potentiating temozolomide and chemoradiation therapy in intracranial glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Martyn A.; Raghavan, Sudhir; Baskin, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Via extensive analyses of genetic databases, we have characterized the DNA-repair capacity of glioblastoma with respect to patient survival. In addition to elevation of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), down-regulation of three DNA repair pathways; canonical mismatch repair (MMR), Non-Homologous End-Joining (NHEJ), and Homologous Recombination (HR) are correlated with poor patient outcome. We have designed and tested both in vitro and in vivo, a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) specific prodrug, PAM-OBG, that is converted by glioma MAOB into the MGMT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) and the DNA crosslinking agent acrolein. In cultured glioma cells, we show that PAM-OBG is converted to O6BG, inhibiting MGMT and sensitizing cells to DNA alkylating agents such as BCNU, CCNU, and Temozolomide (TMZ). In addition, we demonstrate that the acrolein generated is highly toxic in glioma treated with an inhibitor of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). In mouse intracranial models of primary human glioma, we show that PAM-OBG increases survival of mice treated with either BCNU or CCNU by a factor of six and that in a chemoradiation model utilizing six rounds of TMZ/2Gy radiation, pre-treatment with PAM-OBG more than doubled survival time. PMID:29844863

  10. Evaluation of High-Speed EML-based IM/DD links with PAM Modulations and Low-Complexity Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated up to 96 Gb/s/lambda PAM IM/DD transmissions with an EML and digital equalizations. Symbol-spaced FFE/DFEs with fewer than 10 taps are shown being sufficient for a high and stable performance over a 4 km SMF link....

  11. Dual-wavelength OR-PAM with compressed sensing for cell tracking in a 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rou-Xuan; Fu, Ying; Liu, Wang; Ma, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching; Sun, Mingjian; Li, Pai-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring dynamic interactions of T cells migrating toward tumor is beneficial to understand how cancer immunotherapy works. Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) can provide not only high spatial resolution but also deeper penetration than conventional optical microscopy. With the aid of exogenous contrast agents, the dual-wavelength OR-PAM can be applied to map the distribution of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with gold nanospheres (AuNS) under 523nm laser irradiation and Hepta1-6 tumor spheres with indocyanine green (ICG) under 800nm irradiation. However, at 1K laser PRF, it takes approximately 20 minutes to obtain a full sample volume of 160 × 160 × 150 μm3 . To increase the imaging rate, we propose a random non-uniform sparse sampling mechanism to achieve fast sparse photoacoustic data acquisition. The image recovery process is formulated as a low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR) based on compressed sensing (CS) theory. We show that it could be stably recovered via nuclear-norm minimization optimization problem to maintain image quality from a significantly fewer measurement. In this study, we use the dual-wavelength OR-PAM with CS to visualize T cell trafficking in a 3D culture system with higher temporal resolution. Data acquisition time is reduced by 40% in such sample volume where sampling density is 0.5. The imaging system reveals the potential to understand the dynamic cellular process for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  12. Combined Atropine and 2-PAM Cl Effects on Tracking Performance and Visual, Physiological, and Psychological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    tracking task reveals the magnitude Akitrihm. Spare. and Environmental Medicine • December. I$ II I ANTIDOTE EFFECTS--PEN ETAR ET AL. and duration of the... marihuana on dynamic visual acu- blood pressure following the combination of 2-PAM Cl ity: I. Threshold measurements. Perception Psychophys. 1975

  13. Capacity upgrade in short-reach optical fibre networks: simultaneous 4-PAM 20 Gbps data and polarization-modulated PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) format with a polarization-modulated pulse per second (PPS) clock signal using a single vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) carrier is for the first time experimentally demonstrated. We propose uncomplex alternative technique for increasing capacity and flexibility in short-reach optical communication links through multi-signal modulation onto a single VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated onto a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by exploiting the inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL carrier with changing bias in transmission of a PPS clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a signal VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing (DSP)-assisted receiver as an alternative to costly receiver hardware. Experimental results show that a 3.21 km fibre transmission with simultaneous 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and polarization-based PPS clock signal introduced a penalty of 3.76 dB. The contribution of polarization-based PPS clock signal to this penalty was found out to be 0.41 dB. Simultaneous distribution of data and timing clock signals over shared network infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units (ONUs), without costly investment.

  14. ITER-like PAM launcher for tore supra's LHCD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, J.H.; Bibet, Ph.; Missirlian, M.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.; Bertrand, B.; Chantant, M.; Chappuis, Ph.; Doceul, L.; Durocher, A.; Gargiulo, L.; Saille, A.; Samaille, F.; Villedieu, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new launcher based upon the PAM concept (Passive-Active Multijunction) already proposed for ITER has been developed and is currently under realisation at Tore Supra. It was designed for an injection power capability of 2.7 MW CW at 3.7 GHz, a power density of 25 MW/m 2 , to radiate a power spectrum peaked at N || = 1.7 with a maximum power directivity near the electron cut-off density and with very good coupling properties on a wide range of electron densities. In this paper an overall description of the antenna as well as the foreseen manufacturing and assembling processes are given, followed by the results from studies and optimizations of its RF components, and by a stress analysis of its thermomechanical behaviour. (authors)

  15. The validity of the PAM-RL device for evaluating periodic limb movements in sleep and an investigation on night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder using this system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mina; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Eiki; Nishida, Shingo; Nakamura, Masaki; Ueki, Yoichiro; Furudate, Naomichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Usui, Akira; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The status of night-to-night variability for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) has not been clarified. With this in mind, we investigated the validity of PLMS measurement by actigraphy with the PAM-RL device in Japanese patients with suspected restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and the night-to-night variability of PLMS among the subjects. Forty-one subjects (mean age, 52.1±16.1 years) underwent polysomnography (PSG) and PAM-RL measurement simultaneously. Thereafter, subjects used the PAM-RL at home on four more consecutive nights. The correlation between PLMS index on PSG (PLMSI-PSG) and PLM index on PAM-RL (PLMI-PAM) was 0.781 (PPAM-RL. PAM-RL is thought to be valuable for assessing PLMS even in Japanese subjects. Recording of PAM-RL for three or more consecutive nights may be required to ensure the screening reliability of a patient with suspected pathologically frequent PLMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiband LTE-A and 4-PAM signals over large-core plastic fibers for in-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This letter presents the transmission of eight standard compliant 64-QAM long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) bands and 1.4 Gb/s 4-pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signals over 20 m of 1 mm core diameter graded-index polymethyl methacrylate plastic optical fiber. The optical transceiver consists of

  17. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  18. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-09-15

    Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonviral gene therapy in vivo with PAM-RG4/apoptin as a potential brain tumor therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Songhie; Nam, Kihoon; Choi, Sunghyun; Bai, Cheng Z; Lee, Yan; Park, Jong-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is still one of the most complicated forms of brain tumor to remove completely due to its location and the lack of an efficient means to specifically eliminate tumor cells. For these reasons, this study has examined the effectiveness of a nonviral gene therapy approach utilizing a tumor-selective killer gene on a brain tumor xenograft model. The therapeutic apoptin gene was recombined into the JDK plasmid and delivered into human brain tumor cells (U87MG) by using a polyamidoamine dendrimer with an arginine surface (PAM-RG4). Studies in vitro showed that the PAM-RG4/apoptin plasmid polyplex exhibited a particularly high transfection activity of .40%. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) TUNEL assay, DAPI staining, and caspase-3 activity assay verified that the tumor cells had undergone apoptosis induced by apoptin. For in vivo studies, the polyplex was injected into tumors, which were induced by injecting U87MG cells intradermally into nude mice. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry results and tumor volume measurement results, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and no specific edema, irritation, or other harm to the skin was observed after polyplex injection. The in vivo expression of apoptin and the induction of apoptosis were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, TUNEL assay, and DAPI staining. The PAM-RG4/apoptin gene polyplex is a strong candidate for brain tumor therapeutics because of the synergistic effect of the carrier's high transfection efficiency (35%-40%) in glioma cells and the selective apoptosis-inducing activity of apoptin in tumor cells.

  20. Analog-based duobinary-4-PAM for electrical bandwidth limited optical fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a seven level duobinary-4-PAM signal operating at 10.16 Gbit/s. The polybinary generation is achieved by a simple electrical Bessel filter of 5th order, with a frequency cut-off of 1.8 GHz. We assess the impact of the filter placement, either at the transmit...... at the transmitter or the receiver, and find the impact is minimal in terms of bit error rate performance in transmissions of up to 40 km of single mode fiber....

  1. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  2. Curriculation and Competence Based Education Training (CBET in Tanzania: A Critical Assessment of Public Administration and Management (PAM Curricula at Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Marijani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article directs the discourse in Public Administration and Management (PAM curricula at Tanzania Public Service College. The motive for this attempt is based on the fact that Public Administration (PA is itself recognized as a profession whose teaching aims at producing competent professionals and therefore needs constant review to conform to the current work complexities. Five big questions and content analysis are used as the basis for directing the discourse. The findings indicate that curriculation for PAM is complex and dynamic. Moreover, the findings indicate that the two curricula are more vocational than educational as there is little weight allocated for occupational course modules (36 out of 360 in PA and (126 out of 360 in HRM. This may pose the danger of “pourtpouri” problem in curriculum design. The article proposes rethinking interventions on curriculation for PAM at TPSC to benefit from Public Administration discipline.

  3. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; Eiselt, N.; Griesser, H.; Olmos, J. J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual

  4. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual chr...

  5. PamR, a new MarR-like regulator affecting prophages and metabolic genes expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba De San Eustaquio-Campillo

    Full Text Available B. subtilis adapts to changing environments by reprogramming its genetic expression through a variety of transcriptional regulators from the global transition state regulators that allow a complete resetting of the cell genetic expression, to stress specific regulators controlling only a limited number of key genes required for optimal adaptation. Among them, MarR-type transcriptional regulators are known to respond to a variety of stresses including antibiotics or oxidative stress, and to control catabolic or virulence gene expression. Here we report the characterization of the ydcFGH operon of B. subtilis, containing a putative MarR-type transcriptional regulator. Using a combination of molecular genetics and high-throughput approaches, we show that this regulator, renamed PamR, controls directly its own expression and influence the expression of large sets of prophage-related and metabolic genes. The extent of the regulon impacted by PamR suggests that this regulator reprograms the metabolic landscape of B. subtilis in response to a yet unknown signal.

  6. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  7. Identification and Molecular Typing of Naegleria fowleri from a Patient of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Mao; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Chen, Hua-Liang; Pan, Jin-Ren; Ruan, Wei; Yao, Li-Nong

    2018-05-08

    Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in human. In 2016, a suspected PAM patient was found in Zhejiang Province of China. The pathogen was identified by microscopic examination and PCR. The positive PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were aligned using NCBI BLAST programme. The homologous and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the MEGA 6 programme. Under the microscopy, the motile cells with pseudopodia were observed in the direct smear, the motion characteristics of pseudopodia as well as the cell morphology suggested that the pathogen were amoeba trophozoites. The smears stained with Wright-Giemsa showed amoeba trophozoites with various sharps, which were measured of 10-25μm and characterized by the prominent, centrally placed nucleolus and the vacuolated cytoplasm. The PCR showed negative for E. histolytica and E. dispar, while positive for Naegleria spp.and N. fowleri. The nucleotide sequences acquired from this study were submitted to the Genbank with accession numbers of KX909928 and KX909927, respectively. The Blast analysis revealed that the sequences of KX909928 and KX909927 have 100% similarity with the sequence of N. fowleri gene (KT375442.1). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree reavealed that N. fowleri collected from this study was classified as genotype 2 and had a closest relative with N. lovaniensis. This study confirms N. fowleri as the agent responsible for this patient, however, PAM normally progresses fast and universally fatal within a week, so the patient still died at two weeks after the onset of symptoms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Analysis of the Performance of a PAM/PPM/OOK System Operating with OCDMA, under Nonlinear Optical Effects in Optical Fiber Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, D. G.; Sales, J. C.; Pinto, P. V. F.; Moura, L. P.; Ferreira, A. C.; Menezes, J. W. M.; Guimarães, G. F.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we present a numerical simulation study of encoding, decoding and propagation performance of short optical pulses and words with modulations OOK, PAM and PPM in OCDMA systems (Optical Code Division Multiple Access). The encoding and decoding of short pulses are obtained through fiber Bragg grating(FBG - FBG optical) devices, where the codes are inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π) where Gold codes were used. A figure of merit (SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio) was obtained to quantify the interference in propagation of short optical pulses. An increase in the temporal width was observed. For decoded pulses due to the nonlinearity effect, we observed an increase of 1.3 ps considering the propagation with γ=3 W-1 km-1 and γ=24 W-1 km-1. Analysis of coding and decoding words "a" and "w" was done. Considering the propagation (with γ=9 W-1 km-1) of a word "w", an error occurred in all modulations except for simultaneous PPM/PAM modulation, which is associated to the better autocorrelation characteristics obtained with the OOK, PAM and PPM modulations alone, and could double the transmission rate. The nonlinear effects directly affect the process of the autocorrelation codes due to interference from adjacent chip components of the code.

  9. Intrinsic subtypes from PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer cohort: differences by age, race, and tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Factor, Rachel E; Kwan, Marilyn L; Habel, Laurel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Shakespear, Kaylynn; Weltzien, Erin K; Stijleman, Inge J; Davis, Carole A; Ebbert, Mark T W; Castillo, Adrienne; Kushi, Lawrence H; Caan, Bette J

    2014-05-01

    Data are lacking to describe gene expression-based breast cancer intrinsic subtype patterns for population-based patient groups. We studied a diverse cohort of women with breast cancer from the Life After Cancer Epidemiology and Pathways studies. RNA was extracted from 1 mm punches from fixed tumor tissue. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was conducted for the 50 genes that comprise the PAM50 intrinsic subtype classifier. In a subcohort of 1,319 women, the overall subtype distribution based on PAM50 was 53.1% luminal A, 20.5% luminal B, 13.0% HER2-enriched, 9.8% basal-like, and 3.6% normal-like. Among low-risk endocrine-positive tumors (i.e., estrogen and progesterone receptor positive by immunohistochemistry, HER2 negative, and low histologic grade), only 76.5% were categorized as luminal A by PAM50. Continuous-scale luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and normal-like scores from PAM50 were mutually positively correlated. Basal-like score was inversely correlated with other subtypes. The proportion with non-luminal A subtype decreased with older age at diagnosis, P Trend < 0.0001. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, African American women were more likely to have basal-like tumors, age-adjusted OR = 4.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.3-8.4], whereas Asian and Pacific Islander women had reduced odds of basal-like subtype, OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Our data indicate that over 50% of breast cancers treated in the community have luminal A subtype. Gene expression-based classification shifted some tumors categorized as low risk by surrogate clinicopathologic criteria to higher-risk subtypes. Subtyping in a population-based cohort revealed distinct profiles by age and race. ©2014 AACR.

  10. Coherency Identification of Generators Using a PAM Algorithm for Dynamic Reduction of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Il Moon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new coherency identification method for dynamic reduction of a power system. To achieve dynamic reduction, coherency-based equivalence techniques divide generators into groups according to coherency, and then aggregate them. In order to minimize the changes in the dynamic response of the reduced equivalent system, coherency identification of the generators should be clearly defined. The objective of the proposed coherency identification method is to determine the optimal coherent groups of generators with respect to the dynamic response, using the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM algorithm. For this purpose, the coherency between generators is first evaluated from the dynamic simulation time response, and in the proposed method this result is then used to define a dissimilarity index. Based on the PAM algorithm, the coherent generator groups are then determined so that the sum of the index in each group is minimized. This approach ensures that the dynamic characteristics of the original system are preserved, by providing the optimized coherency identification. To validate the effectiveness of the technique, simulated cases with an IEEE 39-bus test system are evaluated using PSS/E. The proposed method is compared with an existing coherency identification method, which uses the K-means algorithm, and is found to provide a better estimate of the original system. 

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 DNA cleavage at SNP-derived PAM enables both in vitro and in vivo KRT12 mutation-specific targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, D G; Moore, J E; Atkinson, S D; Maurizi, E; Allen, E H A; Pedrioli, D M L; McLean, W H I; Nesbit, M A; Moore, C B T

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-based therapeutics hold the possibility for permanent treatment of genetic disease. The potency and specificity of this system has been used to target dominantly inherited conditions caused by heterozygous missense mutations through inclusion of the mutated base in the short-guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence. This research evaluates a novel approach for targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using CRISPR/Cas9. We determined that a mutation within KRT12, which causes Meesmann's epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD), leads to the occurrence of a novel protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). We designed an sgRNA complementary to the sequence adjacent to this SNP-derived PAM and evaluated its potency and allele specificity both in vitro and in vivo. This sgRNA was found to be highly effective at reducing the expression of mutant KRT12 mRNA and protein in vitro. To assess its activity in vivo we injected a combined Cas9/sgRNA expression construct into the corneal stroma of a humanized MECD mouse model. Sequence analysis of corneal genomic DNA revealed non-homologous end-joining repair resulting in frame-shifting deletions within the mutant KRT12 allele. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo gene editing of a heterozygous disease-causing SNP that results in a novel PAM, further highlighting the potential for CRISPR/Cas9-based therapeutics.

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase protein associated with Myc (Pam) regulates mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in vivo through N- and C-terminal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyeul; Kim, Sun; Bahl, Samira; Li, Lin; Burande, Clara F; Smith, Nicole; James, Marianne; Beauchamp, Roberta L; Bhide, Pradeep; DiAntonio, Aaron; Ramesh, Vijaya

    2012-08-31

    Pam and its homologs (the PHR protein family) are large E3 ubiquitin ligases that function to regulate synapse formation and growth in mammals, zebrafish, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Phr1-deficient mouse models (Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan), with deletions in the N-terminal putative guanine exchange factor region and the C-terminal ubiquitin ligase region, respectively) exhibit axon guidance/outgrowth defects and striking defects of major axon tracts in the CNS. Our earlier studies identified Pam to be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) proteins, ubiquitinating TSC2 and regulating mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Here, we examine the potential involvement of the TSC/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) signaling pathway in Phr1-deficient mouse models. We observed attenuation of mTORC1 signaling in the brains of both Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mouse models. Our results establish that Pam regulates TSC/mTOR signaling in vitro and in vivo through two distinct domains. To further address whether Pam regulates mTORC1 through two functionally independent domains, we undertook heterozygous mutant crossing between Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan) mice to generate a compound heterozygous model to determine whether these two domains can complement each other. mTORC1 signaling was not attenuated in the brains of double mutants (Phr1(Δ8,9/Mag)), confirming that Pam displays dual regulation of the mTORC1 pathway through two functional domains. Our results also suggest that although dysregulation of mTORC1 signaling may be responsible for the corpus callosum defects, other neurodevelopmental defects observed with Phr1 deficiency are independent of mTORC1 signaling. The ubiquitin ligase complex containing Pam-Fbxo45 likely targets additional synaptic and axonal proteins, which may explain the overlapping neurodevelopmental defects observed in Phr1 and Fbxo45 deficiency.

  13. Low-cost and miniaturized 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 TO-packaged ROSA for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Huh, Joon Young; Lee, Jie Hyun; Lee, Joon Ki

    2018-03-05

    We design and implement a cost-effective and compact 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) by using a TO-can package instead of an expensive box-type package. It consists of an optical demultiplexer, two PIN-PDs and a 2-channel linear transimpedance amplifier. The components are passively aligned and assembled using alignment marks engraved on each part. With a real-time PAM-4 DSP chip, we measured the back-to-back receiver sensitivities of the 100-Gb/s ROSA based on TO-56 to be less than -13.2 dBm for both channels at a bit error rate of 2.4e-4. The crosstalk penalty due to the adjacent channel interference was observed around 0.1 dB.

  14. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM in vivo tool compound: The discovery of VU0467154 and unexpected DMPK profiles of close analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Engers, Darren W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-15

    This letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core, developed via iterative parallel synthesis, and culminating in the highly utilized rodent in vivo tool compound, VU0467154 (5). This is the first report of the optimization campaign (SAR and DMPK profiling) that led to the discovery of VU0467154, and details all of the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (steep SAR, species differences in PAM pharmacology and subtle structural changes affecting CNS penetration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging c-PAM-induced flocculation of paper fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William H; Banerjee, Sujit

    2008-04-01

    The flocculation of paper fibers by cationic polyacrylamides (c-PAM) was studied by imaging the fibers that remain free during flocculation. Studies with fibers of different lengths showed that the degree of flocculation increases with fiber length, with the best flocs being formed with mixtures of short and long fibers. Short fibers did not flocculate by themselves but were captured by flocs formed with longer fibers. The short fibers strengthen the floc and give it shear resistance. Shear had the expected effect of promoting flocculation at low Reynolds number but disrupting it at higher values. For a given polymer the maximum floc size for a mixture of fibers is dictated by the length distribution of the fibers. The polymer dose governs the rate of flocculation. The technique is especially useful in following the tail end of the flocculation process. At this stage a floc is almost fully grown and a small increase in its size would be very difficult to measure by conventional techniques. In contrast, the number of free fibers measured by single fiber imaging decreases rapidly at this point.

  16. Re-engineering of the PAM1 phage display monoclonal antibody to produce a soluble, versatile anti-homogalacturonan scFv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfield, I. W.; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Møller, I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibody phage display is an increasingly important alternative method for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and involves the expression of antibody fragments (scFvs) at the surface of bacteriophage particles. We have previously used this technique to generate a phage mAb (PAM1phage...

  17. Comparison of PAM and CAP modulations robustness against mode partition noise in optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    Mode partition noise (MPN) of the laser employed at the transmitter can significantly degrade the transmission performance. In the paper, we introduce a simulation model of MPN in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and simulate transmission of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) signals in multimode fiber (MMF) link. By turning off other effects, like relative intensity noise (RIN), we focus solely on the influence of MPN on transmission performance degradation. Robustness of modulation and equalization type against MPN is studied.

  18. Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

  19. A study of photochemical againg of ambient air using Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Sung, K.; Park, G.; Link, M.; Park, T.; Kim, K.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research proposed that Secondary Aerosol (SA) is important class of predicting future climate change scenarios, health effect, and a general air quality. However, there has been lack of studies to investigate SA formation all over the world. This study tried to focus on understanding potential secondary aerosol formation and its local impact by the photochemical aging of inorganic and organic aerosols in the ambient air using the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber under the different sources and types of emissions. PAM chamber manufactured by Aerodyne make an oxidizing environment that simulates oxidation processes on timescales of 12-15 hrs in the atmosphere. Chemical compositions of ambient aerosol and aerosol that was aged in the PAM chamber were alternately measured every 2-minutes using the High Resolution-Time of Flight-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). HR-ToF-AMS provides non-refractory aerosol mass concentrations including nitrate, sulfate, hydrocarbon-like and oxygenated organic aerosol in real time. This study includes a residence area of mixture of sources, a forest site of dominant source of biogenic VOCs, an underground parking lot of dominant vehicle emission, and laboratory experiment of vehicle emissions under different fuels and speeds using the chassis dynamometer. As a result, it was revealed that gasoline and LPG vehicle relatively made more potential SA than diesel vehicle.

  20. Comparison of OOK- and PAM-4 modulation for 10 Gbit/s transmission over up to 300 m polymer optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breyer, F.; Lee, S.C.J.; Randel, S.; Hanik, N.

    2008-01-01

    10 Gbit/s Transmission over up to 300 m of multimode 62.5 µm core-diameter perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber is compared using on-off-keying (OOK) or 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and feed-forward or decision-feedback equalization.

  1. Seasonal and diel changes in photosynthetic activity of the snow algae Chlamydomonas nivalis (Chlorophyceae) from Svalbard determined by PAM fluorometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stibal, Marek; Elster, Josef; Šabacká, Marie; Kaštovská, Klára

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2007), s. 265-273 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Chlamydomonas nivalis * photosynthetic activity * PAM fluorometry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.039, year: 2007

  2. Experimental demonstration of 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over up to 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm for Inter-DCI applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiselt, N.; van der Heide, S.; Griesser, H.; Eiselt, M.; Okonkwo, C.; Olmos, J.J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm. It is shown, that a channel shortening filter (CSF) matched to the memory of a subsequent MLSE significantly improves the performance while keeping complexity manageable.

  3. Experimental demonstration of 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over up to 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm for inter-DCI applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 over 80 km SSMF at 1550 nm. It is shown that a channel shortening filter (CSF) matched to the memory of a subsequent MLSE significantly improves the performance while keeping complexity manageable....

  4. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  5. Diagnose Test-Taker's Profile in Terms of Core Profile Patterns: Principal Component (PC) vs. Profile Analysis via MDS (PAMS) Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.

    A study was conducted to examine how principal components analysis (PCA) and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) can be used to diagnose individuals observed score profiles in terms of core profile patterns identified by each method. The standardization sample from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition…

  6. Focusing on the adult attachment style in schizophrenia in community mental health centres: validation of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) in a German-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvrgic, Sara; Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland

    2012-07-01

    Assessing attachment style in people with schizophrenia may be important to identify a risk factor in building a strong therapeutic relationship and so indirectly to understand the development of mal-compliance as one of the major obstacles in the treatment of schizophrenia. The present study analysed the psychometric properties of the German version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), which assesses avoidant and anxious attachment style. A sample of 127 patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in this study. In testing discriminant validity, we assessed psychopathology, depression, therapeutic relationship and service engagement. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure were analysed. The German version of PAM exhibited acceptable to good internal and test-retest reliabilities and the two-factor structure of the English version could be replicated. Avoidant attachment style was related to higher levels of positive symptoms and to a poorer therapeutic relationship. In the context of external validation, a regression analysis revealed that a poor therapeutic relationship correlated with avoidant attachment style, independent of anxious attachment style and depressive symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with higher treatment adherence. Both insecure attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) were found to be correlated with higher levels of depression, but only attachment anxiety had an independent predictive value for self-reported depression in regression analysis. The German version of PAM displayed satisfactory psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable measure for assessing attachment style in individuals with schizophrenia. Validation of PAM led to the finding that only the avoidant attachment style might be a risk factor when building a strong therapeutic relationship in schizophrenia. In future studies, other factors influencing therapeutic relationship should be

  7. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and in vivo characterization of a series of 3-aminoazetidine-derived amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Bertron, Jeanette L; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-07-01

    This letter details the continued chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core by incorporating a 3-amino azetidine amide moiety. The analogs described within this work represent the most potent M 4 PAMs reported for this series to date. The SAR to address potency, clearance, subtype selectivity, CNS exposure, and P-gp efflux are described. This work culminated in the discovery of VU6000918, which demonstrated robust efficacy in a rat amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion reversal model at a minimum efficacious dose of 0.3mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First Real-Time 400G PAM-4 Demonstration for Inter-Data Center Transmission over 100 km of SSMF at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Wei, Jinlong; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 400G (8x50G DWDM) PAM-4 signals for data center interconnects up to 100 km SSMF is successfully demonstrated. All channels stay well below the 802.3bj KR4 FEC limit, thus allowing error free transmission...

  9. PAM4 based symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Minming; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Choi, Michael; Chang, Donald; Lei, Gordon K. P.; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate cost effective symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) over 70-km standard signal mode fiber (SSMF), based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4. Four 10G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs) at C-band are used for achieving 4 × 28-Gbps downstream transmission, while two 18G-class DMLs at O-band are used to realize 2 × 56-Gbps upstream transmission, without any optical amplification in optical distributed network (ODN). Both dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for downstream signal and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) for upstream signal are equipped at optical line terminal (OLT). Meanwhile, sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer is proposed to mitigate the transmission impairments with substantial reduction of computation complexity. Finally, we can successfully provide a loss budget of 33 dB per downstream wavelength channel, indicating of 64 optical network units (ONUs) with more than 1.25 Gbps per ONU.

  10. Secrecy Dimming Capacity in Multi-LED PAM-Based Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mobile cloud computing (MCC has gained a lot of interest for researchers building the next-generation mobile applications. Because unauthorized access may cause serious problems, security and privacy with MCC have become significant issues. This paper addresses the secrecy dimming capacity of secure transmission in MCC over visible light communication (VLC channels. By obtaining the entropy-maximizing symbol probability of multiple light emitting diode- (LED- based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM, mathematical analysis of the secrecy dimming capacity of VLC was derived. Simulation results show that the secure transmission ability of multi-LED-based VLC is determined according to the number of activated LEDs and target dimming level. This can be a guideline for practical VLC-based mobile network designers intending to secure wireless transmission and to decide on the number of activated LEDs at target dimming level to operate.

  11. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  12. Validation of the German version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-D) in an international multicentre study of primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenk-Franz, K.; Hibbard, J.H.; Herrmann, W.J.; Freund, T.; Szecsenyi, J.; Djalali, S.; Steurer-Stey, C.; Sonnichsen, A.; Tiesler, F.; Storch, M.; Schneider, N.; Gensichen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The patients' active participation in their medical care is important for patients with chronic diseases. Measurements of patient activation are needed for studies and in clinical practice. This study aims to validate the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13-D) in German-speaking primary care

  13. Evaluating the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid on Microcystis aeruginosa by pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hua, Ming; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Xian, Qi-Ming; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of allelochemical ferulic acid (FA) on a series of physiological and biochemical processes of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa, in order to find sensitive diagnostic variables for allelopathic effects. Algal cell density was significantly suppressed by FA (0.31-5.17 mM) only after 48 h exposure. Inhibitions of photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m) and F(v)'/F(m)') occurred more rapidly than cell growth, and the stimulation of non-photochemical quenching was observed as a feed-back mechanisms induced by photosystem II blockage, determining by PAM fluorometry. Inhibitions on esterase activity, membrane potential and integrity, as well as disturbance on cell size, were all detected by flow cytometry with specific fluorescent markers, although exhibiting varied sensitivities. Membrane potential and esterase activity were identified as the most sensitive parameters (with relatively lower EC50 values), and responded more rapidly (significantly inhibited only after 8 h exposure) than photosynthetic parameters and cell growth, thus may be the primary responses of cyanobacteria to FA exposure. The use of PAM fluorometry and flow cytometry for rapid assessment of those sensitive variables may contribute to future mechanistic studies of allolepathic effects on phytoplankton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinicians’ beliefs and attitudes toward patient self-management in the Netherlands: translation and testing of the American Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Jansen, D.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients’ selfmanagement, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners

  15. Monitoring energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} abatement policies: what can we learn from indicators UNFCC workshop best practices in PAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosseboeuf, D. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France); Chaterau, B.; Lapillonne, B. [ENERDATA 38 - Gieres (France)

    2000-04-01

    Since 1992, 15 national agencies in charge of implementing energy efficiency and environmental policies have developed a monitoring tool for energy efficiency assessment called 'ODYSSEE'. To monitor trends of energy efficiency CO{sub 2}, a set of comparable energy efficiency indicators and CO{sub 2} indicators among countries has been commonly defined, calculated and interpreted by participants. Supported by the European Commission, This project will be used to provide 'official indicators' by the Commission. These indicators are calculated at different levels: by sector, end uses etc. This presentation will focus on how these indicators can be used to assess energy efficiency policy measures through examples over the different sectors. A selection of a priority set of indicators could be used to report on the impact of policies and measures. Such a framework for a set of indicators and reporting on PAM's could emerge under the condition of transparencies with respect to the methodology used. Since the first oil shock, various policies and measures (PAM's) on energy efficiency have been set up in Europe with different amplitudes and timing They have been reinforced with a new legitimacy with the raise of climate change concerns. Ministries, energy And environmental agencies or organisations in charge of the implementation of the programmes are directly concerned by the question of the evaluation of their actions. Among the different methodologies, macro-sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} indicators are helpful to monitor and evaluate energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} trends and policies. This paper presents an European initiative (the ODYSSEE project) carried out by 15 European countries since 1992. The use of indicators Certainly requires a transparent and consensual methodology which will be firstly presented. In a second part, we will illustrate how these indicators could be used to assess sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2

  16. The ability of PAM50 risk of recurrence score to predict 10-year distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal women with special histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Eriksen, Jens Ole

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup of postmenop...

  17. Some comments on cybernetics and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kickert, W.J.M.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Praagman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of cybernetics as introduced by Ashby and developed by Ashby and Conant will be analyzed and commented upon. Ashby's law of requisite variety and, in particular, the underlying measure of optimality-the quantity of entropy-are examined. Next the cybernetic theorem of error control and

  18. Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyu; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Sadeghipour, Khosrov; Scarcella, Carmelo; Eason, Cormac; Rensing, Marc; Power, Mark J; Antony, Cleitus; O'Brien, Peter; Townsend, Paul D; Ossieur, Peter

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate how to optimize the performance of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped Silicon Photonic Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZMs) for short-reach optical links. Firstly, we analyze the trade-off that occurs between extinction ratio and modulation loss when driving an MZM with a voltage swing less than the MZM's Vπ. This is important when driver circuits are realized in deep submicron CMOS process nodes. Next, a driving scheme based upon a switched capacitor approach is proposed to maximize the achievable bandwidth of the combined lumped MZM and CMOS driver chip. This scheme allows the use of lumped MZM for high speed optical links with reduced RF driver power consumption compared to the conventional approach of driving MZMs (with transmission line based electrodes) with a power amplifier. This is critical for upcoming short-reach link standards such as 400Gb/s 802.3 Ethernet. The driver chip was fabricated using a 65nm CMOS technology and flip-chipped on top of the Silicon Photonic chip (fabricated using IMEC's ISIPP25G technology) that contains the MZM. Open eyes with 4dB extinction ratio for a 36Gb/s (18Gbaud) PAM-4 signal are experimentally demonstrated. The electronic driver chip has a core area of only 0.11mm2 and consumes 236mW from 1.2V and 2.4V supply voltages. This corresponds to an energy efficiency of 6.55pJ/bit including Gray encoder and retiming, or 5.37pJ/bit for the driver circuit only.

  19. PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold

    2016-01-21

    The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. When activation changes, what else changes? the relationship between change in patient activation measure (PAM) and employees' health status and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lisa; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Terry, Paul

    2012-08-01

    To test whether changes in the patient activation measure (PAM) are related to changes in health status and healthy behaviors. Data for this secondary analysis were taken from a group-randomized, controlled trial comparing a traditional health promotion program for employees with an activated consumer program and a control program. The study population included 320 employees (with and without chronic disease) from two U.S. companies: a large, integrated health care system and a national airline. Survey and biometric data were collected in Spring 2005 (baseline) and Spring 2007 (follow-up). Change in PAM was associated with changes in health behaviors at every level (1-4), especially at level 4. Changes related to overall risk score and many of its components: aerobic exercise, safety, cancer risk, stress and mental health. Other changes included frequency of eating breakfast and the likelihood of knowing about health plans and how they compare. Level 4 of patient activation is not an end-point. People are capable of continuing to make significant change within this level. Interventions should be designed to encourage movement from lower to higher levels of activation. Even people at the most activated level improve health behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest basal breast cancers are more sensitive to gemcitabine relative to other intrinsic subtypes. The main objective of this study was to use specimens from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether the basal-like subtype identifies patients with advanced...... breast cancer who benefit from gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) compared to single agent docetaxel (D). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From patients randomly assigned to GD or D, RNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and used for PAM50 intrinsic subtyping...... chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...

  2. WiFi, multiband clipped LTE-A and Gbps 4-PAM simultaneous transmission over 50m Thick-core POF and wireless link for home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    An IEEE802.11n-compliant 40MHz WiFi, 9 bands 64-QAM LTE-A with reduced PAPR by clipping and 1.7Gb/s 4-PAM signals were successfully transmitted over 50m PMMA GI-POF and 12m wireless. This proves that POF is suitable for multi-standard wireless-wired in-home networks.

  3. Real-Time 200 Gb/s (4x56.25 Gb/s) PAM-4 Transmission over 80 km SSMF using Quantum-Dot Laser and Silicon Ring-Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC...

  4. Linking the Pilot Structural Model and Pilot Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Aponso, Bimal; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots using markedly different control techniques while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to either issue or cease a pulse command. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to sense and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess's pilot Structural Model. A Pilot Cost Index was developed, whose elements include estimated workload, performance, and the degree to which the pilot employs kinesthetic feedback. Preliminary results suggest that a pilot's operating point (parameter values) may be based on control style and index minimization.

  5. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  6. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2006-26661; Amendment No., 141-14] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School..., certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools...: Background On August 21, 2009, the FAA published the ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School...

  7. Experimental comparison of simultaneous transmission of LTE-A multi-band and gigabit/s 4-PAM signals up to 50 m of large-core graded-index POF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; Van Den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of the co-transmission of a multi-band LTE-A and gigabit/s baseband 4-PAM signals over 35 m and over 50 m of 1 mm core diameter PMMA GI-POF, using low-cost components. Both links used a red light 650nm laser diode and p-i-n photodiode with transimpedance

  8. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  9. Applications of the TVO piping and component analysis and monitoring system (PAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeekes, P. (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)); Kuuluvainen, O. (Rostedt Oy, Luvia (Finland)); Torkkeli, E. (FEMdata Oy, Haukilahti (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    To make fitness, safety and lifetime related assessments for piping and components, the amount of data to be managed is getting larger and larger. At the same time it is essential that the data is reliable, up-to-date, well traceable and easy and fast to obtain. At present the main focus of PAMS is still on piping, but in the future the component related databases and applications will be more and more developed. This paper presents a piping and component database system, consisting of separate geometrical, material, loading, result and document databases as well as current and future applications of the system. By means of a user configurable interface program the user can generate indata files, run application programs and define what data to write back into the result database. The data in the result database can subsequently be used in new input files to perform postprocessing on previous results, for instance fatigue analysis. crack growth analysis or RI-ISI. The system is intended to facilitate the analyses of piping and components and generate well-documented appendices comprising significant parts of the input and output and the associated source references. (orig.)

  10. 76 FR 54095 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2008-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules AGENCY... regulations concerning pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification. This rule will require pilot...

  11. The simulation of magnesium wheel low pressure die casting based on PAM-CASTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yinghong; Wang Yingchun; Li Dayong; Zeng Xiaoqin

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used in engineering, with various excellent characteristics such as high strength and electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Particularly, the usage of magnesium in automotive industry can meet better the need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Nowadays, most current magnesium components in automobiles are made by die casting. In this paper, commercial software for die casting, PAM-CAST TM , was utilized to simulate the low pressure die casting process of magnesium wheel. Through calculating temperature field and velocity field during filling and solidification stages, the evolution of temperature distribution and liquid fraction was analyzed. Then, the potential defects including the gas entrapments in the middle of the spokes, shrinkages between the rim and the spokes were forecasted. The analytical results revealed that the mold geometry and die casting parameters should be improved in order to get the sound magnesium wheel. The reasons leading to these defects were also analyzed and the solutions to eliminate them were put forward. Furthermore, through reducing the pouring velocity, the air gas entrapments and partial shrinkages were eliminated effectively

  12. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duracinsky, Martin; Lalanne, Christophe; Rous, Laurence; Dara, Aichata Fofana; Baudoin, Lesya; Pellet, Claire; Descamps, Alexandre; Péretz, Fabienne; Chassany, Olivier

    2017-07-10

    As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d'Articles Médicaux) survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France), the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers' satisfaction and perceived needs. A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d'Interrogation, de Gestion et d'Analyse des Publications Scientifiques) bibliometric database. Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (write (79%) or submit (27%), limited skills in English (40%) or in writing (32%), and difficulty in starting writing (35%). 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%), critical reediting (63%), formatting (52%), and/or writing (41%), to save time (92%) and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%). 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%), medical writing (21%), or publication (38%) fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73%) and/or by the added financial value obtained by their department from previous publications (56%). The DIAzePAM survey highlights difficulties experienced by researchers preparing articles for biomedical journals, and details room for improvement.

  13. 76 FR 63183 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules; Correction AGENCY: Federal... regulations to revise the pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification requirements. In particular...

  14. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  15. PILOT DECONTAMINATION THROUGH PILOT SEQUENCE HOPPING IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    path between one of the users and one of the base stations define one of the channels. The system comprises a pilot generation unit configured to assign pilot sequences randomly among the users and a pilot processing unit configured to filter the pilot sequences received from a user of interest so...... that the channel coefficient of the channel of the user of interest is determined. The pilot sequences received from the user of interest are contaminated by other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from other users of the cell of interest or other cells. The filter is configured so that the contamination...... caused by the other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from the other users is reduced....

  16. 76 FR 19267 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... No. 61-127] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical... for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document reinstates two... entitled, ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Final Rule'' (74 FR 42500). That...

  17. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  18. Pressure-activated microsyringe (PAM) fabrication of bioactive glass-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli-Belmonte, M; De Maria, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Baino, F; Dicarlo, M; Vozzi, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was the fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite scaffolds mimicking the topological features of cancellous bone. Porous multilayer PLGA-CEL2 composite scaffolds were innovatively produced by a pressure-activated microsyringe (PAM) method, a CAD/CAM processing technique originally developed at the University of Pisa. In order to select the optimal formulations to be extruded by PAM, CEL2-PLGA composite films (CEL2 is an experimental bioactive SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -CaO-MgO-Na 2 O-K 2 O glass developed at Politecnico di Torino) were produced and mechanically tested. The elastic modulus of the films increased from 30 to > 400 MPa, increasing the CEL2 amount (10-50 wt%) in the composite. The mixture containing 20 wt% CEL2 was used to fabricate 2D and 3D bone-like scaffolds composed by layers with different topologies (square, hexagonal and octagonal pores). It was observed that the increase of complexity of 2D topological structures led to an increment of the elastic modulus from 3 to 9 MPa in the composite porous monolayer. The elastic modulus of 3D multilayer scaffolds was intermediate (about 6.5 MPa) between the values of the monolayers with square and octagonal pores (corresponding to the lowest and highest complexity, respectively). MG63 osteoblast-like cells and periosteal-derived precursor cells (PDPCs) were used to assess the biocompatibility of the 3D bone-like scaffolds. A significant increase in cell proliferation between 48 h and 7 days of culture was observed for both cell phenotypes. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis evidenced an induction of early genes of osteogenesis in PDPCs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Op. No A4495 Columbia, STS-93 Chandra - Breakfast, Suiting, and Walkout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts after breakfast getting into spacesuits, walking out to board the bus, and boarding the bus prior to launch.

  20. 76 FR 78141 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-26661; Amdt. No. 61-129] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification... requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document corrects an... a practical test for the issuance of a sport pilot certificate in a light-sport aircraft other than...

  1. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the extension of SBA's GO Loan Pilot, with modifications, until December 31... processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the eligible parishes/counties through...

  2. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs: a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mitroo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate. While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study.

  3. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroo, Dhruv; Sun, Yujian; Combest, Daniel P.; Kumar, Purushottam; Williams, Brent J.

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate). While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs) inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM) reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS) model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study).

  4. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  5. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S...'s GO Loan Pilot until September 30, 2011. Due to the scope and magnitude of the devastation to... streamlined and centralized loan processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the...

  6. Influência de Fatores Abióticos na Infestação de Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em Plantio de Citros em Sistema Agroflorestal no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Silva

    2011-03-01

    Abstract. An important part of citrus production at Pará state is planted by Agroforestry System (AFS, that presents, amongst major phytosanitary problems, the citrus blackfly, that by severe attacks cause estimated redution of 80% in its’ production. Beside that, it constitutes a quarentenary pest of maximun alert level A2. Given the relevance of this sucking insect and the lack of basic knowledge, as well pest studies associated to agroforestry planting, the objective of this study was to evaluate the abiotic factors influence on blackfly infestation in citrus planting by agroforestry planting at Pará state. This study was carried out at Capitão Poço county, northeast mesoregion of Pará. 12 samplings were made evaluating the presence or abscence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby alive nymphs and/or adults. Correlation analisys was carried out to evaluate abiotic parameters (temperature and precipitation and kriging maps to evaluate Teca plants shading effects on the pest under study infestation. Amongst the main results obtained, there was pest infestation in every evaluated moth; there was temperature influence onto citrus blackfly population regulation and high precipitations reduced the number of plants with A. woglumi presence. Still, it can be inferred that the citrus blackfly infestations present preference for moderate shading intensity. However, changes occuring by the forestry species introduction onto agricultural cultivations must be better investigated.

  7. 77 FR 61721 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...-26661; Amdt. No. 61-129A] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification... revise the training, qualification, certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. A portion of the codified text was inadvertently deleted...

  8. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Duracinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d’Articles Médicaux survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France, the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers’ satisfaction and perceived needs. Methods A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d’Interrogation, de Gestion et d’Analyse des Publications Scientifiques bibliometric database. Results Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches––accreditation to direct research––: 45%. 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79% or submit (27%, limited skills in English (40% or in writing (32%, and difficulty in starting writing (35%. 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%, critical reediting (63%, formatting (52%, and/or writing (41%, to save time (92% and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%. 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%, medical writing (21%, or publication (38% fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73% and/or by the added financial value obtained by their

  9. Roll paper pilot. [mathematical model for predicting pilot rating of aircraft in roll task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, F. R.; Dillow, J. D.; Hannen, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for predicting the pilot rating of an aircraft in a roll task is described. The model includes: (1) the lateral-directional aircraft equations of motion; (2) a stochastic gust model; (3) a pilot model with two free parameters; and (4) a pilot rating expression that is a function of rms roll angle and the pilot lead time constant. The pilot gain and lead time constant are selected to minimize the pilot rating expression. The pilot parameters are then adjusted to provide a 20% stability margin and the adjusted pilot parameters are used to compute a roll paper pilot rating of the aircraft/gust configuration. The roll paper pilot rating was computed for 25 aircraft/gust configurations. A range of actual ratings from 2 to 9 were encountered and the roll paper pilot ratings agree quite well with the actual ratings. In addition there is good correlation between predicted and measured rms roll angle.

  10. Pilot Certification, Age of Pilot, and Drug Use in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akparibo, Issaka Y; Stolfi, Adrienne

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the association between mean age of pilot, pilot license, pilot medical certificate and drug use trends in pilots fatally injured in aircraft accidents. The prevalence of prescription drugs, OTC drugs, controlled drugs and drugs that may be potentially impairing was also examined. This study was a descriptive observational study in which the NTSB Aviation Accident Database was searched from the period beginning January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. During the study period a total of 706 accidents involving 711 fatalities were investigated by the NTSB. This study included 633 of these accidents, involving 646 fatalities. Of these pilots, 42.1% had drugs in their biological samples. The prevalence of prescription drugs, controlled drugs, OTC drugs, opioids, and potentially impairing drugs in the fatally injured pilot population over the study period was 28.9%, 15.0%, 20.1%, 5.1%, and 25.5%, respectively. Pilots with any drugs in their samples were significantly older than those without drugs. Medical certificate held was associated with drug use; pilots who held third class certificates had the highest prevalence at 54.1%. Pilot license was not associated with drug use. In 3.8% of the accidents, drugs were a contributing factor in the cause. Despite current FAA medical regulations, potentially impairing drugs are frequently found in biological samples of fatally injured pilots in the U.S. More education of airmen by aviation medical examiners is needed on the safety of drug use.Akparibo IY, Stolfi A. Pilot certification, age of pilot, and drug use in fatal civil aviation accidents. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):931-936.

  11. PAM-Dependent Target DNA Recognition and Cleavage by C2c1 CRISPR-Cas Endonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Gao, Pu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Cornell); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-12-01

    C2c1 is a newly identified guide RNA-mediated type V-B CRISPR-Cas endonuclease that site-specifically targets and cleaves both strands of target DNA. We have determined crystal structures of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris C2c1 (AacC2c1) bound to sgRNA as a binary complex and to target DNAs as ternary complexes, thereby capturing catalytically competent conformations of AacC2c1 with both target and non-target DNA strands independently positioned within a single RuvC catalytic pocket. Moreover, C2c1-mediated cleavage results in a staggered seven-nucleotide break of target DNA. crRNA adopts a pre-ordered five-nucleotide A-form seed sequence in the binary complex, with release of an inserted tryptophan, facilitating zippering up of 20-bp guide RNA:target DNA heteroduplex on ternary complex formation. Notably, the PAM-interacting cleft adopts a “locked” conformation on ternary complex formation. Structural comparison of C2c1 ternary complexes with their Cas9 and Cpf1 counterparts highlights the diverse mechanisms adopted by these distinct CRISPR-Cas systems, thereby broadening and enhancing their applicability as genome editing tools.

  12. 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 70 km SSMF using O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Yang, Qi

    2017-04-03

    We experimentally demonstrate 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over a 70 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using two O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs). Only one praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) at the receiver side is used to compensate the transmission loss. Meanwhile, transmission impairments are compensated by a sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer, which can achieve similar system performance but with half the computational complexity (CC), in comparison with a traditional VF equalizer. Finally, we optimize the insignificant factor (IF) of SVF to identify the trade-off between the transmission performance and the CC. Thus, the redundancy of individual SVF kernels can be reasonably removed.

  13. 14 CFR 61.113 - Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command. 61.113 Section 61.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  15. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  16. Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm William; Seery, Cliff Ross

    2017-06-01

    Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Additionally, measurements on healthy laboratory-reared E. pallida provide baseline data demonstrating the normal effective quantum yield (EQY) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETR m ) for Symbiodinium spp. in the absence of herbicide stress. Concentration-dependant reductions in the EQY and ETR m occurred during diuron and atrazine exposures; a mean 48-h EC50 (effective concentration; 50%) of 8μg/L of diuron was estimated, however atrazine elicited a much lower toxicity. Twelve-day exposures to 10-200μg/L diuron showed that the greatest EQY effect occurred during the first 48h, with little subsequent change. However, longer exposures to the lowest diuron treatment (1μg/L) showed the lowest EQYs after 96h followed by recovery to control levels within 12d. Furthermore, asexual reproduction was inhibited during 12-d exposures to diuron, and 12-d EC50 values of 100 and 132μg/L were estimated to inhibit successful reproduction of pedal lacerates and juveniles by 50% respectively. This study provides much needed data contributions to species sensitivity curves for development of diuron and atrazine water quality guidelines in tropical marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a MRI-compatible dielectric elastomer powered jet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Sylvain; Chouinard, Patrick; Lucking Bigue, Jean-Philippe; Miron, Geneviève; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-04-01

    Binary Pneumatic Air Muscles (PAM) arranged in an elastically-averaged configuration can form a cost effective solution for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions like prostate cancer biopsies and brachytherapies. Such binary pneumatic manipulators require about 10 to 20 MRI-compatible valves to control the pressure state of each PAM. In this perspective, this paper presents the design of a novel dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) driven jet-valve to control the states of the PAMs. DEAs are MRI compatible actuators that are well suited to the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the binary manipulation approach. The key feature of the proposed valve design is its 2 stages configuration in which the pilot stage is moved with minimal mechanical friction by a rotary antagonistic DEA made with acrylic polymer films. The prismatic geometry also integrates the jet nozzle within the DEA volume to provide a compact embodiment with a reduced number of parts. The low actuation stretches enabled by the rotary configuration minimize viscoelastic losses, and thus, maximize the frequency response of the actuator while maximizing its reliability potential. The design space of the proposed jet valve is studied using an Ogden hyperelastic model and the valve dynamics is predicted with a 1D Bergstrom-Boyce viscoelastic model. Altogether, the low friction of the pilot stage and optimized DEA dynamics provide an experimental shifting time of the complete assembly in the 200-300ms range. Results from this work suggest that the DEA driven jet valve has great potential for switching a large number of pneumatic circuits in a MRI environment with a compact, low cost and simple embodiment.

  18. Evaluation of Real-Time 8 x 56.25 Gb/s (400G) PAM-4 for Inter-Data Center Application Over 80 km of SSMF at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Wei, Jinlong; Griesser, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    error rate of 1e-6 are achieved and indicate sufficient margin to transmit over even longer distances, if an forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8e-3 is assumed. Moreover, single channel 28.125 GBd PAM4 is evaluated against optical effects such as optical bandwidth limitations, chromatic......Leveraging client optics based on intensity modulation and direct detection for point-to-point inter-data center interconnect applications is a cost and power efficient solution, but challenging in terms of optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements and chromatic dispersion tolerance. In this paper...

  19. Properties and toughening mechanisms of PVA/PAM double-network hydrogels prepared by freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Kangkang; Dong, Xia; Qin, Chengling; Ji, Xinan; He, Jinxin

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that preparation method of hydrogels has a significant effect on their properties. In this paper, freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling were applied to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide (PVA/PAM) double-network hydrogels with covalently and physically cross-linked networks. The properties of these hydrogels were investigated and compared to control hydrogels. Results indicated that hydrogels fabricated by freeze-thawing show larger pores size and higher swelling capacity than those made by anneal-swelling and control hydrogels. Hydrogels prepared by anneal-swelling exhibit higher mechanical strength, energy dissipation, fracture energy, gel fraction and crystallinity than those made by freeze-thawing and control hydrogels. Physical cross-linking plays a key role in formation of physical-chemical double-network. The toughening mechanism of double-network hydrogel is related to their chain-fracture behavior and elasticity. The results also indicated that appropriate methods can endow hydrogels with specific microstructures and properties which would broaden current hydrogels research and applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and development of algal photosynthesis in sea ice during a spring bloom: A novel application of Imaging-PAM fluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    were able to migrate with ice growth. Furthermore, increases in maximum fluorescence (Fm) and photosynthesis yield (Y) allowed us to document the progression of a spring bloom in algal biomass and activity. Maximum light intensities in the ice algal communities were ca. 40 µmol PPFD m-2 s-1 and light......Sea ice algae are important marine primary producers that may contribute as much as 15% of total global carbon fixation. The difficulties of studying photosynthesis in ice have, however, hampered accurate assessments of their productivity, and much previous research has involved liquid...... cores from the Kangerlussuaq Fjord, Greenland, over two weeks in March 2011, and used Imaging-PAM to explore the spatial distribution of algal biomass (predominantly pennate diatoms), fluorescence yield, and light response curves. Algae were largely confined to the lowest 1 cm of the ice column, where...

  1. Experimental demonstration of a real-time PAM-4 Q-band RoF system based on CMMA equalization and interleaved RS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Yu, Jianjun; He, Jing; Wei, Yiran

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a complete real-time 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) Q-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system with optical heterodyning and envelope detector (ED) down-conversion. Meanwhile, a cost-efficient real-time implementation scheme of cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization is proposed in this paper. By using the proposed scheme, the CMMA equalization is applied in the system for signal recovery. In addition, to improve the transmission performance of the system, an interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code is applied in the real-time system. Although there is serious power impulse noise in the system, the system can still achieve a bit error rate (BER) at below 1 × 10-7 after 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission and 1-m wireless transmission.

  2. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance shall...

  3. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  4. Analysis of Pilot-Induced-Oscillation and Pilot Vehicle System Stability Using UAS Flight Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay K. Mandal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO and human pilot control characterization study performed using flight data collected with a Remotely Controlled (R/C unmanned research aircraft. The study was carried out on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Several existing Category 1 and Category 2 PIO criteria developed for manned aircraft are first surveyed and their effectiveness for predicting the PIO susceptibility for the R/C unmanned aircraft is evaluated using several flight experiments. It was found that the Bandwidth/Pitch rate overshoot and open loop onset point (OLOP criteria prediction results matched flight test observations. However, other criteria failed to provide accurate prediction results. To further characterize the human pilot control behavior during these experiments, a quasi-linear pilot model is used. The parameters of the pilot model estimated using data obtained from flight tests are then used to obtain information about the stability of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS for Category 1 PIOs occurred during straight and level flights. The batch estimation technique used to estimate the parameters of the quasi-linear pilot model failed to completely capture the compatibility nature of the human pilot. The estimation results however provided valuable insights into the frequency characteristics of the human pilot commands. Additionally, stability analysis of the Category 2 PIOs for elevator actuator rate limiting is carried out using simulations and the results are compared with actual flight results.

  5. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  6. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  7. Retaining U.S. Air Force Pilots When the Civilian Demand for Pilots Is Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    compensation, so a 1-percent increase in basic pay is like a 0.6-percent increase in total pay, other things being equal . If so, the retention change...at other major airlines.3 The collective bargaining agreement called for American/US Airways pilots to reach pay parity with Delta and United pilots...non-veterans in non- pilot occupations after controlling for age, education, and gender . But the results show that pilots who are veterans earn 10 to

  8. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  9. Pilot-model measurements of pilot responses in a lateral-directional control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot response during an aircraft bank-angle compensatory control task was measured by using an adaptive modeling technique. In the main control loop, which is the bank angle to aileron command loop, the pilot response was the same as that measured previously in single-input, single-output systems. The pilot used a rudder to aileron control coordination that canceled up to 80 percent of the vehicle yawing moment due to aileron deflection.

  10. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  11. The Atrial Fibrillation Health Literacy Information Technology System: Pilot Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Jared W; Schlusser, Courtney L; Kimani, Everlyne; Rollman, Bruce L; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2017-01-01

    Measure (PAM). Participants (mean age 68 [SD 11]; 39% [12/31] women) used the relational agent for an average 17.8 (SD 10.0) days. The mean number of independent log-ins was 19.6 (SD 10.7), with a median of 20 times over 30 days. The mean number of Kardia uses was 26.5 (SD 5.9), and participants using Kardia were in AF for 14.3 (SD 11.0) days. AFEQT scores improved significantly from 64.5 (SD 22.9) at baseline to 76.3 (SD 19.4) units at 30 days ( P improvement in self-reported medication adherence (baseline: 7.3 [SD 0.9], 30 days: 7.7 [SD 0.5]; P =.01). Assessments of acceptability identified that most of the participants found the relational agent useful, informative, and trustworthy. We piloted a 30-day smartphone-based intervention that combined a relational agent with dedicated content for AF alongside Kardia heart rate and rhythm monitoring. Pilot participants had favorable improvements in HRQoL and self-reported medication adherence, as well as positive responses to the intervention. These data will guide a larger, enhanced randomized trial implementing the smartphone relational agent and the Kardia monitor system.

  12. EURObservational Research Programme: the Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Aldo P; Dahlström, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating...

  13. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The pilot model used by the ATLAS production system has been in use for many years. The model has proven to be a success with many advantages over push models. However one of the negative side-effects of using a pilot model is the presence of 'empty pilots' running on sites which consume a small amount of walltime and not running a useful payload job. The impact on a site can be significant with previous studies showing a total 0.5% walltime usage with no benefit to either the site or to ATLAS. Another impact is the number of empty pilots being processed by a site's Compute Element and batch system which can be 5% of the total number of pilots being handled. In this paper we review the latest statistics using both ATLAS and site data and highlight edge cases where the number of empty pilots dominate. We also study the effect of tuning the pilot factories to reduce the number of empty pilots.

  14. The effectiveness of Microsoft Project in assessing extension of time under PAM 2006 standard form of contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, S. K.; Wong, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    Time is equal to money; and it is applies in the construction industry where time is very important. Most of the standard form of contracts provide contractual clauses to ascertain time and money related to the scenarios while Extension of Time (EOT) is one of them. Under circumstance and delays, contractor is allow to apply EOT in order to complete the works on a later completion date without Liquidated Damages (LD) imposed to the claimant. However, both claimants and assessors encountered problems in assessing the EOT. The aim of this research is to recommend the usage of Microsoft Project as a tool in assessing EOT associated with the standard form of contract, PAM 2006. A quantitative method is applied towards the respondents that consisted of architects and quantity surveyors (QS) in order to collect data on challenges in assessing EOT claims and the effectiveness of Microsoft Project as a tool. The finding of this research highlighted that Microsoft Project can serve as a basis to perform EOT tasks as this software can be used as a data bank to store handy information which crucial for preparing and evaluating EOT.

  15. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  16. EURObservational Research Programme : The Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Dahlstrom, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Crespo Leiro, Marisa; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Gullestad, Lars; Logeart, Damien; Metra, Marco; Parissis, John; Persson, Hans; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Voors, Adriaan A.; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Zannad, Faiez; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating the

  17. Racial Differences in PAM50 Subtypes in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Melissa A; Sun, Xuezheng; Allott, Emma H; Geradts, Joseph; Cohen, Stephanie M; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Kirk, Erin L; Thorne, Leigh B; Mathews, Michelle; Li, Yan; Hu, Zhiyuan; Robinson, Whitney R; Hoadley, Katherine A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Earp, H Shelton; Olshan, Andrew F; Carey, Lisa A; Perou, Charles M

    2018-02-01

    African American breast cancer patients have lower frequency of hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease and higher subtype-specific mortality. Racial differences in molecular subtype within clinically defined subgroups are not well understood. Using data and biospecimens from the population-based Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) Phase 3 (2008-2013), we classified 980 invasive breast cancers using RNA expression-based PAM50 subtype and recurrence (ROR) score that reflects proliferation and tumor size. Molecular subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, and Basal-like) and ROR scores (high vs low/medium) were compared by race (blacks vs whites) and age (≤50 years vs > 50 years) using chi-square tests and analysis of variance tests. Black women of all ages had a statistically significantly lower frequency of Luminal A breast cancer (25.4% and 33.6% in blacks vs 42.8% and 52.1% in whites; younger and older, respectively). All other subtype frequencies were higher in black women (case-only odds ratio [OR] = 3.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22 to 4.37, for Basal-like; OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.06, for Luminal B; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.33 to 3.13, for HER2-enriched). Among clinically HR+/HER2- cases, Luminal A subtype was less common and ROR scores were statistically significantly higher among black women. Multigene assays highlight racial disparities in tumor subtype distribution that persist even in clinically defined subgroups. Differences in tumor biology (eg, HER2-enriched status) may be targetable to reduce disparities among clinically ER+/HER2- cases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Simulation of mineral dust aerosol with Piecewise Log-normal Approximation (PLA in CanAM4-PAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Peng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new size-resolved dust scheme based on the numerical method of piecewise log-normal approximation (PLA was developed and implemented in the fourth generation of the Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model with the PLA Aerosol Model (CanAM4-PAM. The total simulated annual global dust emission is 2500 Tg yr−1, and the dust mass load is 19.3 Tg for year 2000. Both are consistent with estimates from other models. Results from simulations are compared with multiple surface measurements near and away from dust source regions, validating the generation, transport and deposition of dust in the model. Most discrepancies between model results and surface measurements are due to unresolved aerosol processes. Biases in long-range transport are also contributing. Radiative properties of dust aerosol are derived from approximated parameters in two size modes using Mie theory. The simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD is compared with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements and shows general agreement in terms of the dust distribution around sources. The model yields a dust AOD of 0.042 and dust aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF of −1.24 W m−2 respectively, which show good consistency with model estimates from other studies.

  19. 76 FR 22412 - Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5514-C-02] Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot Contact Information Correction AGENCY... published a notice announcing HUD's proposal to conduct a Fellowship Placement Pilot (fellowship program...

  20. The Importance of Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2001-01-01

    The term 'pilot studies' refers to mini versions of a full-scale study (also called 'feasibility' studies), as well as the specific pre-testing of a particular research instrument such as a questionnaire or interview schedule. \\ud Pilot studies are a crucial element of a good study design. Conducting a pilot study does not guarantee success in the main study, but it does increase the likelihood. \\ud Pilot studies fulfil a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for othe...

  1. Prediction of pilot opinion ratings using an optimal pilot model. [of aircraft handling qualities in multiaxis tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of some of the more pertinent applications of analytical pilot models to the prediction of aircraft handling qualities is undertaken. The relative ease with which multiloop piloting tasks can be modeled via the optimal control formulation makes the use of optimal pilot models particularly attractive for handling qualities research. To this end, a rating hypothesis is introduced which relates the numerical pilot opinion rating assigned to a particular vehicle and task to the numerical value of the index of performance resulting from an optimal pilot modeling procedure as applied to that vehicle and task. This hypothesis is tested using data from piloted simulations and is shown to be reasonable. An example concerning a helicopter landing approach is introduced to outline the predictive capability of the rating hypothesis in multiaxis piloting tasks.

  2. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling of Sequential Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    learning during declarative control. 8. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory , and Cognition . 9. Crossley, M. J., Ashby, F. G., & Maddox...learning: Sensitivity to feedback timing. Frontiers in Psychology – Cognitive Science, 5, article 643, 1-9. 15. Worthy, D.A. & Maddox, W.T. (2014). A...Learning, Memory , and Cognition . Crossley, M. J., Ashby, F. G., & Maddox, W. T. (2014). Context-dependent savings in procedural category learning

  3. The combined SPE:ToxY-PAM phytotoxicity assay; application and appraisal of a novel biomonitoring tool for the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, S M; Schreiber, U; Ralph, P J; Müller, J F

    2005-01-15

    Mounting concerns regarding the environmental impact of herbicides has meant a growing requirement for accurate, timely information regarding herbicide residue contamination of, in particular, aquatic systems. Conventional methods of detection remain limited in terms of practicality due to high costs of operation and the specialised information that analysis provides. A new phytotoxicity bioassay was trialled for the detection of herbicide residues in filter-purified (Milli-Q) as well as natural waters. The performance of the system, which combines solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the ToxY-PAM dual-channel yield analyser (Heinz Walz GmbH), was tested alongside the traditional method of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay methodology was found to be highly sensitive (LOD 0.1 ng L(-1) diuron) with good reproducibility. The study showed that the assay protocol is time effective and can be employed for the aquatic screening of herbicide residues in purified as well as natural waters.

  4. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  5. Algal biomass harvesting by graft copolymer of polyacrylamide on guar gum (GGg-PAM: a sustainable method for alternative source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Pal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal cells has been utilized as a rich source of food, feed and fuel. The process of concentrating algal cells from water suspension is called harvesting. This article deals with the algal biomass harvesting by flocculation process using acrylamide grafted guar gum. Acrylamide has been successfully grafted onto the backbone of guar gum by microwave initiated method in which microwave radiation alone (without chemical free radical initiator is used to initiate the grafting reaction. Simultaneously with the synthesis of graft copolymer, water removal capability of various grades of GGg-PAM have also been studied as a flocculant for algal biomass harvesting through standard jar test procedure for collection of algal biomass. The collected biomass can be hand carried. The collected biomass has been characterized in terms of crude fat content and elemental composition. Calorific value of this collected biomass has also been theoretically calculated.

  6. 46 CFR 402.220 - Registration of pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration of pilots. 402.220 Section 402.220 Shipping... ORDERS Registration of Pilots § 402.220 Registration of pilots. (a) Each applicant pilot must complete the number of round trips specified in this section prior to registration as a U.S. registered pilot...

  7. 46 CFR 401.220 - Registration of pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration of pilots. 401.220 Section 401.220 Shipping... Registration of Pilots § 401.220 Registration of pilots. (a) The Director shall determine the number of pilots... waters of the Great Lakes and to provide for equitable participation of United States Registered Pilots...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively...

  10. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia lights up the night sky on its successful liftoff from Launch Pad 39-B on mission STS-93. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  11. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  12. 46 CFR 15.812 - Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 15.812 Section 15.812 Shipping COAST GUARD....812 Pilots. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (f) of this section, the following vessels, not... direction and control of an individual qualified to serve as pilot under paragraph (b) or (c) of this...

  13. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  14. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  15. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  16. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft (or... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that...

  17. Poika on suruissansa (2/4 F)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Poika on suruissansa, kun on jäänyt kullastansa; kiertää piirin ympäri ja ottaa uuden taas, kiertää piirin ympäri ja ottaa uuden taas! Hih-hei, ja pili-pam-pam-pam, pili-pam-pam-pam, pili-pam-pam-pam! Hih-hei, ja pili-pam-pam-pam! Kiertää piirin ympäri ja

  18. Rand Symposium on Pilot Training and the Pilot Career. (Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 23-27, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W. A.; Wainstein, E. S.

    This document contains discussions of the following: The pilot career; Career and education; The pilot skill--definition, measurement, and retention; Relevance of training to combat; Selection; Motivation; Training innovations and the role of research; Simulators; The instructor pilot; Topics for research. (Author/CK)

  19. Pilot and pilot-commercial plants for reprocessing spent fuels of FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaldaev, V.S.; Sokolova, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    A review of modern state of investigations on the FBR mixed oxide uranium-plutonium fuel reprocessing abroad is given. Great Britain and France occupy the leading place in this field, operating pilot plants of 5 tons a year capacity. Technology of spent fuel reprocessing and specific features of certain stages of the technological process are considered. Projects of pilot and pilot-commercial plants of Great Britain, France, Japan, USA are described. Economic problems of the FBR fuel reprocessing are touched upon

  20. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2009-01-01

    Pilot implementation is a powerful and widely used approach in identifying design flaws and implementation issues before the full-scale deployment of new health information systems. However, pilot implementations often fail in the sense that they say little about the usability and usefulness...... of the proposed system designs. This calls for studies that seek to uncover and analyze the reasons for failure, so that guidelines for conducting such pilots can be developed. In this paper, we present a qualitative field study of an ambitious, but unsuccessful pilot implementation of a Danish healthcare...... information system. Based on the findings from this study, we identify three main challenges: (1) defining an appropriate scope for pilot implementation, (2) managing the implementation process, and (3) ensuring commitment to the pilot. Finally, recommendations for future research and implications...

  1. Simplified pilot module development and testing within the ATLAS PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drizhuk, Daniil; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the LHC data processing scale. The PanDA pilot is one of the major components in the PanDA system. It runs on a worker node and takes care of setting up the environment, fetching and pushing data to storage, getting jobs from the PanDA server and executing them. The original PanDA Pilot was designed over 10 years ago and has since then grown organically. Large parts of the original pilot code base are now getting old and are difficult to maintain. Incremental changes and refactoring have been pushed to the limit, and the time is now right for a fresh start, informed by a decade of experience, with the PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project. To create a testing environment for module development and automated unit and functional testing for next generation pilot tasks, a simple pilot version was developed. It resembles the basic workf...

  2. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Rate of information processing and reaction time of aircraft pilots and non-pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Barkhuizen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction time and rate of information processing are cited as critical components in the make-up of pilots. A need was identified to establish the validity of various chronometric measures in the selection of pilots. Fifty-eight military and commercial pilots and twenty non-pilots were subjected to Schepers’ Computerised Information Processing Test Battery, which measures reaction time, form discrimination time, colour discrimination time, rate of information processing (perceptual and rate of information processing (conceptual. Five hypotheses and one postulate were formulated and tested. The results indicate that pilots could be differentiated from non-pilots with 92,3% accuracy. However, the results need to be cross-validated before they are used for selection. Opsomming Reaksietyd en tempo van inligtingverwerking word as kritieke komponente in die samestelling van vlieëniers beskou. ‘n Behoefte is geïdentifiseer om die geldigheid van verskeie chronometriese metinge in vlieënierskeuring te bepaal. Agt en vyftig militêre en kommersiële vlieëniers en twintig nie-vlieëniers is onderwerp aan Schepers se Gerekenariseerde Inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery wat reaksietyd, vormdiskriminasietyd, kleurdiskriminasietyd, tempo van inligtingverwerking (perseptueel en tempo van inligtingverwerking (konseptueel meet. Vyf hipoteses en een postulaat is gestel en getoets. Die resultate dui daarop dat vlieëniers met 92,3% akkuraatheid van nievlieëniers onderskei kan word. Die resultate behoort egter eers gekruisvalideer te word voordat dit finaal vir keuring gebruik kan word.

  5. Clustering box office movie with Partition Around Medoids (PAM) Algorithm based on Text Mining of Indonesian subtitle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarizy, A. D.; Indahwati; Sartono, B.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest Hollywood movie industry target market in Southeast Asia in 2015. Hollywood movies distributed in Indonesia targeted people in all range of ages including children. Low awareness of guiding children while watching movies make them could watch any rated films even the unsuitable ones for their ages. Even after being translated into Bahasa and passed the censorship phase, words that uncomfortable for children to watch still exist. The purpose of this research is to cluster box office Hollywood movies based on Indonesian subtitle, revenue, IMDb user rating and genres as one of the reference for adults to choose right movies for their children to watch. Text mining is used to extract words from the subtitles and count the frequency for three group of words (bad words, sexual words and terror words), while Partition Around Medoids (PAM) Algorithm with Gower similarity coefficient as proximity matrix is used as clustering method. We clustered 624 movies from 2006 until first half of 2016 from IMDb. Cluster with highest silhouette coefficient value (0.36) is the one with 5 clusters. Animation, Adventure and Comedy movies with high revenue like in cluster 5 is recommended for children to watch, while Comedy movies with high revenue like in cluster 4 should be avoided to watch.

  6. Improved Characterization of Groundwater Flow in Heterogeneous Aquifers Using Granular Polyacrylamide (PAM) Gel as Temporary Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Loew, Simon; Selker, John

    2018-02-01

    The range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we show how a new temporary borehole sealing technique using soft grains of polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as a sealing material can be used to investigate natural groundwater flow dynamics and discuss other possible applications of the technology. If no compressive stress is applied, the gel packing, with a permeability similar to open gravel, suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature measurements and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel packing. Active heating laboratory and field experiments combined with temperature measurements along fiber optic cables were conducted in water-filled boreholes and boreholes filled with soft grains of polyacrylamide gel. The gel packing is shown to minimize the effect of free convection within the well column and enable detection of thin zones of relatively high or low velocity in a highly transmissive alluvial aquifer, thus providing a significant improvement compared to temperature measurements in open boreholes. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that under modest compressive stress to the gel media the permeability transitions from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Under this configuration the gel packing could potentially allow for monitoring local response pressure from the formation with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated.

  7. 48 CFR 212.7002 - Pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot program. 212.7002... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Pilot Program for Transition to Follow-On Contracting After Use of Other Transaction Authority 212.7002 Pilot program. ...

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total nitrogen in milligrams at the end of ten days in each fias. - - - - - -. ; Nitrogen after i0 day's : Nitrogen Average of gait as: to begin the three. --------|-- i. ss are : 0.67 0.66 ... Asiy Solution 66 0.66 ( 0.66 f. 2. Ashby solution and rice root le y extract . . 0.76 0.84 0-87 0.82 n : 3. Ashby solution and rice root grana & 8 . . 5.24 6.29 ...

  9. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  10. 17 CFR 249.821 - Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this... Associations § 249.821 Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this chapter. This form shall be used by all self-regulatory...

  11. 28 CFR 11.2 - Pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pilot program. 11.2 Section 11.2 Judicial... Pilot program. The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with the Executive Office for United States Attorneys, shall designate the districts that will participate in the pilot...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and positively...

  13. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  14. Using pre-distorted PAM-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the passive solar cell based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Jhao-Ting; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Liao, Xin-Lan; Lin, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Using solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) for visible light communication (VLC) is attractive. Apart from acting as a VLC receiver (Rx), the solar cell can provide energy harvesting. This can be used in self-powered smart devices, particularly in the emerging ;Internet of Things (IoT); networks. Here, we propose and demonstrate for the first time using pre-distortion pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM)-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the transmission performance of solar cell Rx based VLC. Pre-distortion is a simple non-adaptive equalization technique that can significantly mitigate the slow charging and discharging of the solar cell. The equivalent circuit model of the solar cell and the operation of using parallel resistance to increase the bandwidth of the solar cell are discussed. By using the proposed schemes, the experimental results show that the data rate of the solar cell Rx based VLC can increase from 20 kbit/s to 1.25 Mbit/s (about 60 times) with the bit error-rate (BER) satisfying the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit.

  15. The psychophysiological assessment method for pilot's professional reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L M; Yu, L S; Wang, K N; Jing, B S; Fang, C

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has shown that a pilot's professional reliability depends on two relative factors: the pilot's functional state and the demands of task workload. The Psychophysiological Reserve Capacity (PRC) is defined as a pilot's ability to accomplish additive tasks without reducing the performance of the primary task (flight task). We hypothesized that the PRC was a mirror of the pilot's functional state. The purpose of this study was to probe the psychophysiological method for evaluating a pilot's professional reliability on a simulator. The PRC Comprehensive Evaluating System (PRCCES) which was used in the experiment included four subsystems: a) quantitative evaluation system for pilot's performance on simulator; b) secondary task display and quantitative estimating system; c) multiphysiological data monitoring and statistical system; and d) comprehensive evaluation system for pilot PRC. Two studies were performed. In study one, 63 healthy and 13 hospitalized pilots participated. Each pilot performed a double 180 degrees circuit flight program with and without secondary task (three digit operation). The operator performance, score of secondary task and cost of physiological effort were measured and compared by PRCCES in the two conditions. Then, each pilot's flight skill in training was subjectively scored by instructor pilot ratings. In study two, 7 healthy pilots volunteered to take part in the experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation on pilot's PRC. Each participant had PRC tested pre- and post-8 h sleep deprivation. The results show that the PRC values of a healthy pilot was positively correlated with abilities of flexibility, operating and correcting deviation, attention distribution, and accuracy of instrument flight in the air (r = 0.27-0.40, p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with emotional anxiety in flight (r = -0.40, p < 0.05). The values of PRC in healthy pilots (0.61 +/- 0.17) were significantly higher than that of hospitalized pilots

  16. 7 CFR 1955.132 - Pilot projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pilot projects. 1955.132 Section 1955.132 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.132 Pilot projects. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 may conduct pilot projects to test policies and...

  17. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  18. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course...... was revised for the piloting in the spring of 2007. A second aim of the pilot evaluation has therefore been to assess the revision of the course following the Action Research....

  19. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  20. 49 CFR 381.400 - What is a pilot program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a pilot program? 381.400 Section 381.400... PILOT PROGRAMS Initiation of Pilot Programs § 381.400 What is a pilot program? (a) A pilot program is a... that would be subject to the regulations. (b) During a pilot program, the participants would be given...

  1. STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  2. STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  3. STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Commander Eileen M. Collins tries on her helmet with her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  4. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, P. A.; Alef, M.; Dal Pra, S.; Di Girolamo, A.; Forti, A.; Templon, J.; Vamvakopoulos, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    In this analysis we quantify the wallclock time used by short empty pilot jobs on a number of WLCG compute resources. Pilot factory logs and site batch logs are used to provide independent accounts of the usage. Results show a wide variation of wallclock time used by short jobs depending on the site and queue, and changing with time. For a reference dataset of all jobs in August 2016, the fraction of wallclock time used by empty jobs per studied site ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. Aside from the wall time used by empty pilots, we also looked at how many pilots were empty as a fraction of all pilots sent. Binning the August dataset into days, empty fractions between 2% and 90% were observed. The higher fractions correlate well with periods of few actual payloads being sent to the site.

  5. 38 CFR 21.5290 - Educational Assistance Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Program. 21.5290 Section 21.5290 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Educational Assistance Pilot Program § 21.5290 Educational Assistance Pilot Program. (a) Purpose. The Educational Assistance Pilot Program is designed to encourage...

  6. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student pilot...

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Dana; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-02-01

    The health of an airline pilot is imperative to the safe travels of millions of people worldwide. Medical providers evaluate the cardiovascular risks for airline pilots and the medical requirements to obtain and maintain licensure as an airline pilot. It is the role of the occupational health nurse practitioner to evaluate and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  8. International Space Station Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    negotiators to move beyond an impasse.108  Don’t be so ready to chase revolutionary designs over evolutionary designs. A key lesson from Russian...112 2002 Oct. 7 2002 Oct. 18 9A S1 truss delivery Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pamela A. Melroy, David A. Wolf, Piers J. Sellers, Sandra H. Magnus , Fyodor...2002 Oct. 18 9A S1 truss delivery Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pamela A. Melroy, David A. Wolf, Piers J. Sellers, Sandra H. Magnus , Fyodor N. Yurchikhin

  9. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  10. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  11. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA 2011-0003] Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot... Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA modified or waived as appropriate certain regulations...

  12. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  13. 46 CFR 401.510 - Operation without Registered Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation without Registered Pilots. 401.510 Section 401... REGULATIONS Penalties; Operations Without Registered Pilots § 401.510 Operation without Registered Pilots. (a... Registered Pilot when the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy. (b) A vessel may be navigated in...

  14. 46 CFR 78.90-1 - Pilot boarding operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operation. 78.90-1 Section 78.90-1... Boarding Operations § 78.90-1 Pilot boarding operation. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding... instructions. (b) The master shall ensure compliance with the following during pilot boarding operations: (1...

  15. 46 CFR 96.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 96.40-1 Section 96.40-1... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Pilot Boarding Equipment § 96.40-1 Pilot boarding... boat or other vessel. (b) Each vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on...

  16. 46 CFR 195.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 195.40-1 Section 195.40-1... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Pilot Boarding Equipment § 195.40-1 Pilot boarding... boat or other vessel. (b) Each vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on...

  17. 46 CFR 35.01-55 - Pilot boarding operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operation. 35.01-55 Section 35.01-55... Requirements § 35.01-55 Pilot boarding operation. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is... instructions. (b) The master shall ensure compliance with the following during pilot boarding operations: (1...

  18. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  19. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...

  20. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  1. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed... methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program [email protected] in... (USPTO) is implementing a streamlined examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to...

  2. 46 CFR 32.90-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 32.90-1 Section 32.90-1... REQUIREMENTS Pilot Boarding Equipment § 32.90-1 Pilot boarding equipment. (a) This section applies to each... must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on each side of the vessel. If a vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 196.95-1 - Pilot boarding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operations. 196.95-1 Section 196.95-1... Pilot Boarding Operations § 196.95-1 Pilot boarding operations. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is maintained as follows: (1) The equipment must be kept clean and in good working order...

  4. 46 CFR 77.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 77.40-1 Section 77.40-1... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Pilot Boarding Equipment § 77.40-1 Pilot boarding equipment. (a) This... vessel. (b) Each vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on each side of the...

  5. 46 CFR 97.90-1 - Pilot boarding operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operation. 97.90-1 Section 97.90-1... OPERATIONS Pilot Boarding Operations § 97.90-1 Pilot boarding operation. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is maintained as follows: (1) The equipment must be kept clean and in good...

  6. Predicting Active Duty Air Force Pilot Attrition Given an Anticipated Increase in Major Airline Pilot Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the Air Force in addressing some quality-of-life issues, such as updating 3,800 family housing units, 21 dormitories, and building three child ...of pilots into the airlines (Air Force Personnel Center, FY 07). By allowing this crop of pilots to leave on the Air Force’s terms, the service felt...attrition rates compared with pilots with more general skills (flying mobility aircraft) (Stephen P. Barrows, 1993). This may be due to the phenomenon in

  7. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00006364; The ATLAS collaboration; Dal Pra, S.; Di Girolamo, A.; Forti, A.; Templon, J.; Vamvakopoulos, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis we quantify the wallclock time used by short empty pilot jobs on a number of WLCG compute resources. Pilot factory logs and site batch logs are used to provide independent accounts of the usage. Results show a wide variation of wallclock time used by short jobs depending on the site and queue, and changing with time. For a reference dataset of all jobs in August 2016, the fraction of wallclock time used by empty jobs per studied site ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. The variation in wallclock usage may be explained by different workloads for each resource with a greater fraction when the workload is low. Aside from the wall time used by empty pilots, we also looked at how many pilots were empty as a fraction of all pilots sent. Binning the August dataset into days, empty fractions between 2% and 90% were observed.  The higher fractions correlate well with periods of few actual payloads being sent to the site.

  8. Prevalence of fatigue in a group of airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a common phenomenon in airline pilots that can impair alertness and ability of crewmembers to safely operate an aircraft and perform safety related tasks. Fatigue can increase the risk of an incident or even an accident. This study provides the first prevalence values for clinically significant fatigue in Portuguese airline pilots. The hypothesis that medium/short-haul pilots may currently present different levels of fatigue than long-haul pilots was also tested. A survey was conducted by requesting Portuguese airline pilots to complete questionnaires placed in the pilots' personal lockers from 1 April until 15 May 2012. The questionnaire included the self-response Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure subjective fatigue and some additional questions concerning perception of fatigue by pilots. The prevalence values for total and mental fatigue achieved in the Portuguese airline pilots were: 89.3% (FSS > or = 4) and 94.1% (FSS > or = 4) when splitting the sample in two subsamples, long- and medium/short-haul pilots. Levels of total and mental fatigue were higher for medium/short-haul pilots. The analysis of fatigue levels in each type of aviator showed that medium/short-haul pilots presented the highest levels of total and mental fatigue. This study produced the first prevalence values of total and mental fatigue among Portuguese airline pilots, which represents a great step to understanding and addressing this critical phenomenon.

  9. 78 FR 50399 - Spectrum Monitoring Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... 130809703-3703-01] RIN 0660-XC007 Spectrum Monitoring Pilot Program AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) to design and conduct a pilot program to... investment for a two-year pilot program to determine the benefits of an automated spectrum measurement and...

  10. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed...- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: 571-273-0112... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented a pilot program on December 8, 2009, that...

  11. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    units). Pilot positions can be divided into two categories: absorbing and nonabsorbing. Absorbing positions are in operational units to which...Continued Attention to Aircrew Management Dynamics The primary source of stress in fighter- pilot management has been reductions in aircraft inventories...Fighter Pilot Shortages C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are

  12. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  13. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C... final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. Section 47134 establishes...

  14. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. 47134. The... application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. 47134 establishes an airport...

  15. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section 47134. The preliminary application is accepted for review... operator, negotiate an agreement and submit a final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot...

  16. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to extend the term... Pilot Program was introduced to increase the number of SBA-guaranteed loans made to small businesses in...

  17. PILOT STUDY: Report on the CCPR Pilot Comparison: Spectral Responsivity 10 nm to 20 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank; Vest, Robert; Saito, Terubumi

    2010-01-01

    The CCPR Pilot Comparison on spectral responsivity in the 10 nm to 20 nm spectral range was carried out within the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by three laboratories: PTB (Germany), NIST (USA), and NMIJ/AIST (Japan) with PTB acting as the central and reporting laboratory. All participating laboratories used monochromatized synchrotron radiation. PTB and NIST used a cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard detector and NMIJ, an ionization chamber with extrapolation by a wavelength-independent detector. The aim of the pilot comparison was to check the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectral responsivity in the short wavelength EUV spectral range which has recently gained in technological importance. The wavelengths of measurement were from 11.5 nm to 20 nm in 0.5 nm steps and additionally 12.2 nm. The comparison was carried out through the calibration of a group of transfer standard detectors. Two sets of three diodes of types AXUV and SXUV from International Radiation Detectors, Inc. were used for the comparison. The comparison had the form of a star comparison: Pilot-lab A-pilot-lab B-pilot, PTB acting as the pilot laboratory. All results were communicated directly to the pilot laboratory. The report describes in detail the measurements made at PTB and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. Measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the detectors proved that the stability of the detectors was sufficient for the comparison. For the type AXUV detectors, however, changes in their responsivity contributed to the uncertainty of the comparison. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation. The uncertainty contributions were separated, as to whether they are wavelength dependent or not. All bilateral DoE are well within the respective k = 2 expanded uncertainty

  18. 46 CFR 108.719 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 108.719 Section 108.719... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.719 Pilot boarding equipment. (a) This section applies to... vessel must have suitable pilot boarding equipment available for use on each side of the vessel. If a...

  19. 46 CFR 109.347 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 109.347 Section 109.347... OPERATIONS Operation and Stowage of Safety Equipment § 109.347 Pilot boarding equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is maintained as follows: (1) The equipment...

  20. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  1. Evaluation report. Pilot - Trondheim and Elverum : Energy labeling of houses; Evalueringsrapport. Pilot - Trondheim og Elverum : Energimerking av boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-15

    This report is an evaluation of the pilot project related to energy labeling of buildings. The document provides reviews of communication initiatives that have been implemented in the pilot. In addition, comments on the usability of the Online Energy Label system. Last in the document the recommendations for national roll-out of energy labeling of buildings, based on experiences from the pilot. (AG)

  2. 75 FR 51058 - Web-Distributed Labeling User Acceptance Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Acceptance Pilot AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Office of...- distributed labeling ``User Acceptance Pilot'' and is soliciting interest from entities potentially willing to participate in this pilot program. Through the User Acceptance Pilot, EPA intends to demonstrate how users...

  3. 14 CFR 21.37 - Flight test pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part. [Doc. No. 5085...

  4. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-25

    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  5. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  6. Pilot factory - a Condor-based system for scalable Pilot Job generation in the Panda WMS framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Po-Hsiang; Potekhin, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    The Panda Workload Management System is designed around the concept of the Pilot Job - a 'smart wrapper' for the payload executable that can probe the environment on the remote worker node before pulling down the payload from the server and executing it. Such design allows for improved logging and monitoring capabilities as well as flexibility in Workload Management. In the Grid environment (such as the Open Science Grid), Panda Pilot Jobs are submitted to remote sites via mechanisms that ultimately rely on Condor-G. As our experience has shown, in cases where a large number of Panda jobs are simultaneously routed to a particular remote site, the increased load on the head node of the cluster, which is caused by the Pilot Job submission, may lead to overall lack of scalability. We have developed a Condor-inspired solution to this problem, which is using the schedd-based glidein, whose mission is to redirect pilots to the native batch system. Once a glidein schedd is installed and running, it can be utilized exactly the same way as local schedds and therefore, from the user's perspective, Pilots thus submitted are quite similar to jobs submitted to the local Condor pool.

  7. Enlisted or Officer Drone Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the property of the United States government. AU/ACSC/Rafnson, Gary B/AY10 3 Abstract This paper compares remotely piloted aircraft— drones ...operations in both the US Army and US Air Force. It argues that officers should continue to pilot Air Force drones because of the increased risks and

  8. From vision to reality--managing change in the provision of library and information services to nurses, midwives, health visitors and PAMs: (professions allied to medicine) a case study of the North Thames experience with the Inner London Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbolt, S; Williamson, J; Wilson, A

    1997-06-01

    One of the North Thames' pioneering consortia, the Inner London Consortium (ILC) is a complex body which includes NHS Trusts with teaching hospital university connections, community-based Trusts and general hospital acute Trusts. Within the consortium there are 12,000 trained nurses, midwives, health visitors and other professional staff working in the professions allied to medicine (PAMs), all of whom require access to and provision of appropriate library information services. In 1994, taking into account experiences elsewhere in the Region and nationally, it became clear that library issues were complex and would become acute with the move of nursing libraries from ILC Trust sites over a very short timescale. A report on the issues commissioned by the Consortium recommended that a library project, which built on existing NHS Trust PGMDE funded library resources and moved these to a multidisciplinary base to serve the consortium membership, be implemented. The objective of providing access to library information services for nurses and PAMs was achieved. Successes that emerged from the implementation included: The registration in Trust libraries of almost 12 000 new members within the initial 6-month monitoring period. The development of service level agreements and standards for the delivery of services to these new user groups. This paper describes the processes behind these significant and complex changes.

  9. Modeling organic aerosol from the oxidation of α-pinene in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A model has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and was tested against data produced in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor and a large environmental chamber. The model framework is based on the two-dimensional volatility basis set approach (2D-VBS, in which SOA oxidation products in the model are distributed on the 2-D space of effective saturation concentration (Ci* and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C. The modeled organic aerosol mass concentrations (COA and O : C agree with laboratory measurements within estimated uncertainties. However, while both measured and modeled O : C increase with increasing OH exposure as expected, the increase of modeled O : C is rapid at low OH exposure and then slows as OH exposure increases while the increase of measured O : C is initially slow and then accelerates as OH exposure increases. A global sensitivity analysis indicates that modeled COA values are most sensitive to the assumed values for the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the yield of first-generation products. Modeled SOA O : C values are most sensitive to the assumed O : C of first-generation oxidation products, the number of Ci* bins, the heterogeneous OH reaction rate coefficient, and the number of O : C bins. All these sensitivities vary as a function of OH exposure. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the 2D-VBS model framework may require modifications to resolve discrepancies between modeled and measured O : C as a function of OH exposure.

  10. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m -3 in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha -1 as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO 4 ) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH 4 , PO 4 and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO 4 ) 3 , and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facility effluents

  11. The effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.

  12. Pilot Implementations as an Approach to Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie; Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á

    In this paper we introduce pilot implementation, a supplement to information systems development, as an approach to study and design work infrastructures. We report from two pilot implementations in the Danish healthcare, which showed signs of grappling with aligning the past, present...... and the future while using a pilot system in real use situations and with real users. Based on our initial findings we believe that pilot implementations can address some of the challenges of studying infrastructures, because they make the infrastructure visible and because they can integrate the long......-term with the short-term aspects. The paper is based on work-in-progress and the purpose is not as much to make conclusions as to spark discussion about whether pilot implementations could offer a way to study and design work infrastructures during information system development....

  13. 14 CFR 91.1055 - Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot operating limitations and pairing... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1055 Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement. (a... aircraft being flown, and the pilot in command is not an appropriately qualified check pilot, the pilot in...

  14. STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins waves to her family

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves to her family nearby, a last meeting before launch of mission STS-93 on July 20. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  15. STS-93 M.S. Michel Tognini suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), waves after donning his launch and entry suit during final launch preparations. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Tognini. Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  16. STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) waves after donning his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  17. Physiological Indices of Pilots' Abilities Under Varying Task Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Lingxiao; Lu, Yanyu; Fu, Shan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated pilots' ability by examining the effects of flight experience and task demand on physiological reactions, and analyzing the diagnostic meanings underlying correlated parameters. A total of 12 experienced pilots and 12 less experienced pilots performed 4 simulated flight tasks, including normal and emergency situations. Fixation duration (FD), saccade rate (SR), blink rate (BR), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and respiration amplitude (RA) were measured during the tasks. More experienced pilots adapted their SR flexibly to changing task demands and had significantly lower SR than less experienced pilots during emergency tasks (29.6 ± 20.0 vs. 70.1 ± 67.1 saccades/min). BR, HR, and RR were affected by pilot experience but not by task demand. More experienced pilots had lower BR, HR, and RR than less experienced pilots during both normal tasks (BR: 14.3 ± 13.0 vs. 32.9 ± 25.8 blinks/min; HR: 72.7 ± 7.9 vs. 83.2 ± 7.2 bpm; RR: 15.4 ± 2.1 vs. 19.5 ± 5.2 breaths/min) and emergency tasks (BR: 10.2 ± 5.0 vs. 32.3 ± 20.8 blinks/min; HR: 73.3 ± 7.3 vs. 82.2 ± 11.6 bpm; RR: 15.6 ± 1.9 vs. 18.0 ± 3.2 breaths/min). FD and RA were not sensitive to either flight experience or task demand. Physiological reactions have the potential to reflect pilots' ability from different aspects. SR and BR could indicate pilots' differences in information access strategy. HR and RR could reflect a pilot's physical fitness. These findings are useful for understanding a pilot's ability.

  18. Air transport pilot involvement in general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    General aviation (GA) fatal accident records of airport transport pilots (ATPs) : were : compared to those of private pilots (PVTs). : ATPs are safer GA pilots than the PVTs. : They have comparable exposure in GA airplanes and account for 7.5% of all...

  19. The effects of motion and g-seat cues on pilot simulator performance of three piloting tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, T. W.; Parris, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of motion system cues, g-seat cues, and pilot experience on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures, during in-flight precision turns, and during landings with wind shear. Eight groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The basic cueing system was a fixed-base type (no-motion cueing) with visual cueing. The other three systems were produced by the presence of either a motion system or a g-seat, or both. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was performed and representative performance means were examined. These data show that the addition of motion system cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance for all three tasks; however, the use of g-seat cueing, either alone or in conjunction with the motion system, provides little if any performance improvement for these tasks and for this aircraft type.

  20. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  1. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  2. 14 CFR 135.89 - Pilot requirements: Use of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot requirements: Use of oxygen. 135.89... Operations § 135.89 Pilot requirements: Use of oxygen. (a) Unpressurized aircraft. Each pilot of an... operated with the cabin pressure altitude more than 10,000 feet MSL, each pilot shall comply with paragraph...

  3. 78 FR 43263 - Paperless Hazard Communications Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    .... PHMSA-2013-0124, Notice No. 13-7] Paperless Hazard Communications Pilot Program AGENCY: Pipeline and...: PHMSA invites volunteers for a pilot program to evaluate the effectiveness of paperless hazard communications systems and comments on an information collection activity associated with the pilot program...

  4. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  5. Piloted Aircraft Environment Simulation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    raS’I.Al. lIIf~iiI~.1 labL. lot. Rolmotion -oft. skylicav - ow d Roll rMotion -oft Skylicape - Off Fig 6 a A Effect of roll motion and akyscape, an msatwntn...greater realism and pilot involvement than ground based simu- lation, it still lacks some of the pilot motivating factors of actual combat. Flight

  6. 75 FR 77935 - Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative in its current form through December 31, 2013...

  7. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong [Southern Medical University, The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Feng, Jie-Ying [Nanhai Hospital Affiliated Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Foshan, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hong-Jun [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2018-02-15

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jie-Ying; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  9. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  10. 36 CFR 223.275 - Establishment of a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of a pilot... Establishment of a pilot program. This subpart governs the Forest Service's pilot program for the disposal of... of Title III of H.R. 3423)), as amended in 2004 by Section 335 of Public Law 108-108. The pilot...

  11. 46 CFR 78.19-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 78.19-1 Section 78.19-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 78.19-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used in— (a...

  12. 46 CFR 97.16-1 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 97.16-1 Section 97.16-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Auto Pilot § 97.16-1 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used...

  13. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  14. Tracking Seasonal and Diurnal Photosynthesis and Plant Water Status in Maize Using SIF, Eddy Covariance Fluxes, PAM Fluorescence and Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Melkonian, J.; Riha, S. J.; Gu, L.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the sensitivity of methods for crop monitoring and yield forecasting is crucial as the frequency of extreme weather events increases. Conventional remote monitoring methods rely on greenness-based indices such as NDVI and EVI, which do not directly measure photosynthesis and are not sufficiently sensitive to rapid plant stress response. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a promising new technology that serves as a direct functional proxy of photosynthesis. We developed the first system utilizing dual QE Pro spectrometers to continuously measure the diurnal and seasonal cycle of SIF, and deployed the system in a corn field in upstate New York in 2017. To complement SIF, canopy-level measurements of carbon and water fluxes were also measured, along with concurrent leaf-level measurements of gas exchange and PAM fluorescence, midday water potential, leaf pigments, phenology, LAI, and soil moisture. We show that SIF is well correlated to GPP during the growing season and show that both are controlled by similar environmental conditions including PAR and water availability. We also describe diurnal changes in photosynthesis and plant water status and demonstrate the sensitivity of SIF to diurnal plant response.

  15. Intelligent Pilot Aids for Flight Re-Planning in Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Ockerman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Effective and safe control of an aircraft may be difficult or nearly impossible for a pilot following an unexpected system failure. Without prior training, the pilot must ascertain on the fly those changes in both manual control technique and procedures that will lead to a safe landing of the aircraft. Sophisticated techniques for determining the required control techniques are now available. Likewise, a body of literature on pilot decision making provides formalisms for examining how pilots approach discrete decisions framed as the selection between options. However, other aspects of behavior, such as the task of route planning and guidance, are not as well studied. Not only is the pilot faced with possible performance changes to the aircraft dynamics, but he or she is also tasked to create a plan of actions that will effectively take the aircraft down to a safe landing. In this plan, the many actions that the pilot can perform are closely intertwined with the trajectory of the aircraft, making it difficult to accurately predict the final outcome. Coupled with the vast number of potential actions to be taken, this problem may seem intractable. This is reflected in the lack of a pre-specified procedure capable of giving pilots the ability to find a resolution for this task. This report summarizes a multi-year effort to examine methods to aid pilots in planning an approach and arrival to an airport following an aircraft systems failure. Ultimately, we hypothesize that automatic assistance to pilots can be provided in real-time in the form of improving pilot control of a damaged aircraft and providing pilots with procedural directives suitable for critical flight conditions; such systems may also benefit pilot training and procedure design. To achieve this result, a systematic, comprehensive research program was followed, building on prior research. This approach included a pencil-and-paper study with airline pilots examining methods of representing a flight route in

  16. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Planting Transferability Pilot Project. 1412.48... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.48 Planting Transferability Pilot Project. (a) Notwithstanding § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  17. 14 CFR 135.247 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 135.247 Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying...

  18. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Stradling, A; Caballero, J; Maeno, T; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) was designed to meet ATLAS requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  19. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-12-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m{sup -3} in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha{sup -1} as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal

  20. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Krishnamoorthi, S., E-mail: dr.skmoorthi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  1. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Program implementation with request for comments. SUMMARY: SBA is introducing a new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make... Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. Under the new Dealer Floor Plan...

  2. 14 CFR 125.285 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience... Requirements § 125.285 Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as a required pilot flight crewmember unless within the preceding 90...

  3. Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Homan, Gregory [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Anderson, Robert [Olivine, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Hernandez, John [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with direct participation of third-parties and customers including customer acceptance; market transformation challenges (wholesale market, technology); technical and operational feasibility; and value to the rate payers, DR resource owners and the utility on providing an enabling mechanism for DR resources into the wholesale markets. The customer had the option of committing to either three contiguous hour blocks for 24 days or six contiguous hours for 12 days a month with day-ahead notification that aligned with the CAISO integrated forward market. As a result of their being available, the customer was paid $10/ kilowatt (kW)-month for capacity in addition to CAISO energy settlements. The participants were limited to no more than a 2 megawatt (MW) capacity with a six-month commitment. Four participants successfully engaged in the pilot. In this report, we provide the description of the pilot, participant performance results, costs and value to participants as well as outline some of the issues encountered through the pilot. Results show that participants chose to participate with storage and the value of CAISO settlements were significantly lower than the capacity payments provided by the utility as incentive payments. In addition, this pilot revealed issues both on the participant side and system operations side. These issues are summarized in the report.The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with

  4. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  5. Humboldt SK pilot biodigester receives funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-30

    The Canada-Saskatchewan Western Economic Partnership Agreement (WEPA) will provide funding for Canada's first pilot-scale biodigester to be built in Humboldt, Saskatchewan. The $208,138 pilot facility will use household garbage as well as agricultural waste such as manure and livestock operations, abattoirs and food processing to create heat or power and fertilizer. Support for this bio-energy facility, which could also reduce greenhouse gases, will come from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute which has received $186,138 from Canada and Saskatchewan in the form of cost-shared federal-provincial funding. The pilot plant will test different combinations of waste material feedstocks and the characteristics of the resulting gas end products. The pilot facility will also provide design information for full-scale biodigester manufacturers in Canada. It is expected that 25 full-scale biodigesters will be constructed in Canada in the near future.

  6. 14 CFR 121.439 - Pilot qualification: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Recent experience. 121... Pilot qualification: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flight crewmember, unless within the preceding 90 days, that person has made...

  7. 46 CFR 131.960 - Use of auto-pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto-pilot. 131.960 Section 131.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.960 Use of auto-pilot. When the automatic pilot is used in areas of high traffic density...

  8. 46 CFR 185.360 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 185.360 Section 185.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.360 Use of auto pilot. Whenever an automatic pilot is...

  9. 75 FR 70871 - Photo Requirements for Pilot Certificates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... upgrading a pilot certificate (such as going from a student to a sport, recreational, or private pilot... interaction with the FAA (for example, change of name, citizenship, date of birth, or gender) would be a... final rule. Finally, a private, recreational, or sport pilot certificate holder would have 5 years after...

  10. Development and pilot testing of daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls to support antiretroviral adherence in India: A mixed-methods pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Swendeman, Dallas; Jana, Smarajit; Ray, Protim; Mindry, Deborah; Das, Madhushree; Bhakta, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board (CAB) for IVR message development, one-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients’ dosing schedules, with brief messages (

  11. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  12. An Investigation of Sensory Information, Levels of Automation, and Piloting Experience on Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Development.of. NASA - TLX .(Task.Load.Index):.Results.of.empiri- cal.and.theoretical.research ..In.P .A ..Hancock.&.N .. Meshkati.(Eds .),.Human...8 Automated Manual Level of Automation Hi gh Z oo m M an ip ul at io n Pilot Non-pilot Figure 4. Number of participants with high levels of zoom

  13. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  14. Functional ability and fate of pulmonary alveolar macrophages after intratracheal instillation into rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Feddersen, D.; Mueller, H.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Haley, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) from donor rats were intratracheally instilled into recipient rats to determine if donor macrophages were functionally similar to the recipient's own macrophages. Recipient and donor (extrinsic) PAM were equivalent in their ability to phagocytize 1.7 μm and 3.9 μm latex microspheres in vivo and sensitized sheep red blood cells in vitro. Also, the extrinsic PAM appeared functionally equivalent to recipient PAM with respect to ability to translocate into interstitial tissue and migrate to the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN). The recipient PAN appeared to phagocytize the extrinsic PAM, but the extrinsic PAM did not appear to phagocytize the recipient PAM. This could represent a different degree of physiological coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic PAM activities in the lung. Overall, results indicated that extrinsic PAM can live and function in the lungs of recipient rats, and perform most or all of the functions ascribed to recipient PAM. Results also support the hypothesis that PAM are able to move into the pulmonary interstitium and translocate to the LALM without the involvement of other pulmonary macrophages. (author)

  15. 48 CFR 1819.7208 - Award Fee Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award Fee Pilot Program... Pilot Program. (a) Mentors will be eligible to earn a separate award fee associated with the provision... related to the mentor-protégé relationship. (d) The Award Fee Pilot Program is an addition to the credit...

  16. 46 CFR 401.425 - Provision for additional pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for additional pilot. 401.425 Section 401.425... REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.425 Provision for additional pilot. The... Authority, Ltd., Canada, may require the assignment of two pilots to a ship upon request of the ship or when...

  17. 46 CFR 109.585 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 109.585 Section 109.585 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.585 Use of auto pilot. Except as provided in 33 CFR 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used...

  18. 46 CFR 122.360 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 122.360 Section 122.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Requirements § 122.360 Use of auto pilot. Whenever an automatic pilot is used the master shall ensure that: (a...

  19. The Necessity of ASEAN Community in Producing Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saowaros, Thanoo; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to identify the reasons for the shortage of pilots; the necessity of producing Pilots and the obstacles and problems faced by ASEAN Community in producing pilots. The study is conducted by official documents, observations, in-depth interview from personnel who are working for Airports Authority of Thailand,…

  20. Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  1. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  2. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  3. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  4. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  5. CellPilot: Seamless communication within Cell BE and heterogeneous clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, N; Carter, J; Gardner, W B; Grewal, G

    2010-01-01

    The Pilot library is targeted to novice scientific programmers within High Performance Computing. The CellPilot library extends the Pilot library to the Cell Broadband Engine processor and heterogeneous clusters. Using Pilot's process and channel abstractions, the CellPilot library can create a process on any of the processor types, both PPEs and SPEs, across the cluster. Communication is achieved by creating a channel between any two processes, and using the write/read channel functions in the participating processes. The CellPilot library uses MPI for the inter-node communication and the Cell SDK within a Cell node. All the architecture specific details of Cell communications are hidden from the user.

  6. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  7. Personality Test Scores that Distinguish U.S. Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft Drone Pilot Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    advancement of aviation drone technology has led to significant developments and improvements in the capabilities of military remotely piloted aircraft...stress; less excitement seeking and action oriented; less assertive; more socially introverted and withdrawn; more socially compliant and...to age and educational differences. Fifth, evaluations that involve selection and assessment of pilot applicants should include collateral sources of

  8. Personnel thermoluminescent dosimetry of plane pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of the research realized in the pilots of commercial planes of the different flight equipment existing. The results obtained show that the pilots receive during their work, doses of ionizing radiation greater than the limit recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. (Author)

  9. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  10. Americium/Curium Vitrification Pilot Tests - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.; Baich, M.A.; Fellinger, A.P.; Hardy, B.J.; Herman, D.T.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T. K.; Stone, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing

  11. Development and Pilot Testing of Daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Calls to Support Antiretroviral Adherence in India: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Jana, Smarajit; Ray, Protim; Mindry, Deborah; Das, Madhushree; Bhakta, Bhumi

    2015-06-01

    This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated interactive voice response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board for IVR message development, 1-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients' dosing schedules, with brief messages (pilot results (n = 46, 80 % women, 60 % sex workers) found significant increases in self-reported ART adherence, both within past three days (p = 0.05) and time since missed last dose (p = 0.015). Depression was common. Messaging content and assessment domains were expanded for testing in a randomized trial currently underway.

  12. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  13. Stakeholder Engagement/Capacity Building Pilot Opportunity FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the pilot opportunity for stakeholder engagement/capacity building. EPA is offering an opportunity for community stakeholders and ports to participate in a pilot project to test and refine capacity building tools.

  14. Effects of pregnancy and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Taylor, Diane W

    2005-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women expresses particular variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) on the surface of infected erythrocytes that differ from VSA found in parasitized nonpregnant...... individuals (non-PAM type VSA). We studied levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclasses with specificity for VSA(PAM) and for non-PAM type VSA in pregnant and nonpregnant women from two sites with different endemicities in Cameroon. We found that VSA(PAM)-specific responses depended on the pregnancy......(PAM)-specific immunity to pregnancy-associated malaria....

  15. HOPE: An On-Line Piloted Handling Qualities Experiment Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. B.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel on-line database for capturing most of the information obtained during piloted handling qualities experiments (either flight or simulated) is described. The Hyperlinked Overview of Piloted Evaluations (HOPE) web application is based on an open-source object-oriented Web-based front end (Ruby-on-Rails) that can be used with a variety of back-end relational database engines. The hyperlinked, on-line data book approach allows an easily-traversed way of looking at a variety of collected data, including pilot ratings, pilot information, vehicle and configuration characteristics, test maneuvers, and individual flight test cards and repeat runs. It allows for on-line retrieval of pilot comments, both audio and transcribed, as well as time history data retrieval and video playback. Pilot questionnaires are recorded as are pilot biographies. Simple statistics are calculated for each selected group of pilot ratings, allowing multiple ways to aggregate the data set (by pilot, by task, or by vehicle configuration, for example). Any number of per-run or per-task metrics can be captured in the database. The entire run metrics dataset can be downloaded in comma-separated text for further analysis off-line. It is expected that this tool will be made available upon request

  16. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P; De, K; Bejar, J Caballero; Maeno, T; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T; Compostella, G; Contreras, C; Dos Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  17. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... in the Agency's long-haul pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico- domiciled... cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the ability of Mexico-domiciled...

  18. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Ghugare, Shivkumar V. [Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Liu, Song, E-mail: Song.Liu@umanitoba.ca [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact.

  19. Controlled in situ formation of polyacrylamide hydrogel on PET surface via SI-ARGET-ATRP for wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Pour, Sedigheh; Ghugare, Shivkumar V.; Wiens, Richard; Gough, Kathleen; Liu, Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow poly(acrylamide) (PAM) hydrgol from a polymer surface in a controlled way. • Divinyl crosslinker doesn't compromise the control chain growth feature of ARGET-ATRP. • ATR-FTIR-FPA images (spatial resolution 220 nm) reveal a uniform grafting of PAM. • PAM grafted wound dressing can be dual functional: low-adherent and antibacterial. - Abstract: Well-defined polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was synthesized on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film via surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP). Following the deposition of an ATRP initiator (2-bromoisobutyrylbromide) on PET film, PAM hydrogel was grafted from the functionalized PET surface via ARGET-ATRP. XPS and FTIR-ATR confirmed that PAM hydrogel was successfully grafted on the PET surface. Results from AFM, SEM, and FTIR-FPA microscopic investigations showed that PAM hydrogel uniformly covers the surface of PET film. The grafting yield increases linearly with increasing reaction time, indicating that the growth of PAM hydrogel on the surface of PET is well controlled. In a cell adhesion assay, PAM hydrogel grafted PET films (PAM hydrogel-g-PET) showed low adhesion to keratinocyte cells. To impart PAM hydrogel-g-PET with antibacterial function, AgNPs were self-assembled along the amide side chains of PAM hydrogel. AgNPs loaded-PAM hydrogel-g-PET shows 99% reduction in the number of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 3 h contact

  20. The STS-93 crew pose in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew pose in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following their landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. From left to right, they are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins, and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.