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Sample records for ash quality characterization

  1. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  2. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  3. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  4. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  5. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  6. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  7. Characterization of Ash Standards for the Residues Project

    CERN Document Server

    Westsik, G A

    2001-01-01

    Measurements have been completed to characterize the plutonium content and isotopic composition of ash standards that are or may be used as quality control check sources for the Residues Stabilization Project. These standards are for use as check sources for the Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System (SGSAS) employed for the Residues Stabilization Project.

  8. Effects of Metals Associated with Wildfire Ash on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, J.; Clark, A.; Correa, N.; Ali, A.; Blake, J.; Bixby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The forests of the western United States are impacted dramatically by climate change and have suffered from large-scale increases in wildfire activity. This rise in wildfires introduces additional ash to ecosystems and can represent a serious and ongoing threat to water quality in streams and rivers from storm event runoff in burn areas. The effect of metals associated with wildfire ash (from wood collected from the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico) on solution pH and dissolved oxygen was assessed through a series of laboratory experiments. Microscopy and spectroscopy analyses were conducted to characterize the elemental content and oxidation state of metals in unreacted and reacted ash. Certain metals (e.g., Ca, K, Al, Mg) were detected in ash from ponderosa pine, one of the dominant species in the Valles Caldera, with mean concentrations ranging from 400-1750 mg kg-1. Other metals (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, V, Zn, Ni) were present at lower mean concentrations ranging from 12-210 mg kg-1. The initial pH after conducting batch experiments reacting ash with water started at 9.9 and the alkalinity of the water was 110 mg L-1 as CaCO3. Solution pH decreased to 8.0 after 48 hours of reaction, which is almost a delta of two pH units. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased by 2 mg L-1 over the course of 12 hours before the rate of reaeration surpassed the rate of consumption. This presentation will discuss how redox-active metals, such as Fe and Mn, could contribute to the increased dissolved oxygen demand and fluctuation of the oxidation/reduction potential in the system.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF TREATED AND UNTREATED RICH HUSH ASH & FLY ASH FOR METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Pal Singh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice Husk ash and fly ash are agricultural and coal wastes respectively. These are produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific community. The fly ash has been used as reinforcement for improved mechanical properties of composites (1,3-5,9. Rice husk ash can also be used for similar applications as its composition is almost similar to that of fly ash. This paper mainly deals with identification ofcharacteristics of both the fly ash and rice husk ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of treated and untreated ashes. The results were compared and it was observed that both ashes possesses nearly same chemical phases and otherfunctional groups thus proposing the use of rice husk ash as reinforcement like fly ash in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for wear resistance applications.

  10. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keka Ojha; Narayan C Pradhan; Amar Nath Samanta

    2004-12-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite with maximum BET surface area. The maximum surface area of the product was found to be 383 m2/g with high purity. The crystallinity of the prepared zeolite was found to change with fusion temperature and a maximum value was obtained at 823 K. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  11. Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stems: Implications for ash management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Russelle, M.P.; Nater, E.A.

    2000-06-01

    Electricity generation from biomass is an attractive option from an environmental perspective. Pilot studies have indicated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems are suitable feedstock for energy generation via gasification. Detailed information on chemical characteristics of the ash generated from gasification of alfalfa stem is required to develop environmentally and economically sound ash management strategies. Alfalfa fly and bottom ashes were characterized with respect to chemical properties that are important in developing ash management practices with emphasis on beneficial utilization as a soil amendment. Mean concentrations of total C, K, Ca, and Cl were 424, 120, 85, and 26 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively, in fly ash. In bottom ash, the mean concentrations of C, K, and Ca, were 63, 61, and 193 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Concentrations of total Pb, As, Cd, Co, and Se were below detection limits in both ash types. Naphthalene ranged from 6.2 to 74 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, but concentrations of many other polyaromatic hydrocarbons were low or below mg kg{sup {minus}1} detection limits. Available K and P in fly ash were 90 to 120 and 8 to 10 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Mean CaCO{sub 3} equivalent value of fly ash was 400 g kg{sup {minus}1}, its electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were 127 dS m{sup {minus}1} and 11.5, respectively. These results suggest that when managed properly, gasified alfalfa ash could potentially be utilized as a beneficial soil amendment with few potential environmental concerns.

  12. Effects of co-combustion of secondary fuels on fly ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, F.J.M.; Vissers, J.L.J.; Van den Berg, J.W. [Dutch Fly Ash Corp., (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In 1995, the Netherlands considered using secondary fuels in combination with hard coal for power generation. This decision was based on both economic and environmental advantages of co-combustion of secondary fuels. The combustion of non-fossil fuels results in lower carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Initially, the Dutch government only allowed 10 per cent co-combustion of secondary fuels, but in 2000, higher percentages were allowed in favour of decreasing fossil carbon dioxide production. This paper presented the results of a complete characterization of fly ashes. In particular, to show whether the quality of fly ash was affected by co-combustion, the technical and environmental quality of concrete with fly ash was evaluated in comparison to the quality of concrete with reference fly ashes. Fly ashes from co-combustion showed no significant changes in chemical composition from their reference ashes, except for the calcium oxide contents of PA10 and the phosphate content of RWZI. Fly ashes from co-combustion were found to be enriched in trace elements. The secondary fuels that were considered besides fly ash were wood, poultry, litter, sewage sludge, coffee grounds, and cocoa shells. These all contribute to lowering the emissions of fossil carbon dioxide because they all contain short cycle carbon dioxide. Co-combustion is viewed as a way for coal fired plants in the Netherlands to reach the targets of the Kyoto Agreement on climate change. European legislation is in preparation to make utilization of fly ashes from co-combustion possible. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2002-04-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused primarily on continuing measurements of the rate of ammonia loss from concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above concrete and flowable fill immediately after placement. Concrete slabs were prepared to monitor the loss of ammonia during mixing, the concentration in the airspace above the slabs soon after placement, and the total quantity of ammonia evolved over a longer time period. Variables tested include temperature, ventilation rate, water:cementitious (W:C) ratio, and fly ash source. Short-term data indicate that for concrete placed in areas with poor air ventilation the fly ash NH{sub 3} concentration should not exceed about 90 to 145 mg/kg ash, depending on the water:cement ratio and the fly ash replacement rate, if a concentration of 10 ppm NH{sub 3} in the air is assumed to be the maximum acceptable level. Longer-term experiments showed that the ammonia loss rate is dependent on ammonia source (that is ammoniated ash vs. non-ammoniated ash with ammonia added to the water), and is also dependent on W:C ratio and temperature. Experiments were also conducted to study the loss of ammonia from fresh concrete during mixing. It was found that a high water:cementitious mix lost a greater percentage of ammonia than a low W:C mix, with a medium W:C mix losing an amount intermediate between these two. However, a larger batch size resulted in a smaller percentage of ammonia lost. The data suggest that a significant quantity of ammonia could be lost from Ready Mix concrete during transit, depending on the transit time, batch size, and mix proportions.

  14. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2002-10-30

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require large reductions in emissions of NO{sub x} from coal-fired electric utility boilers. This will necessitate the use of ammonia injection, such as in selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in many power plants, resulting in the deposition of ammonia on the fly ash. The presence of ammonia could create a major barrier to fly ash utilization in concrete because of odor concerns. Although there have been limited studies of ammonia emission from concrete, little is known about the quantity of ammonia emitted during mixing and curing, and the kinetics of ammonia release. This is manifested as widely varying opinions within the concrete and ash marketing industry regarding the maximum acceptable levels of ammonia in fly ash. Therefore, practical guidelines for using ammoniated fly ash are needed in advance of the installation of many more SCR systems. The goal of this project was to develop practical guidelines for the handling and utilization of ammoniated fly ash in concrete, in order to prevent a decrease in the use of fly ash for this application. The objective was to determine the amount of ammonia that is released, over the short- and long-term, from concrete that contains ammoniated fly ash. The technical approach in this project was to measure the release of ammonia from mortar and concrete during mixing, placement, and curing. Work initially focused on laboratory mortar experiments to develop fundamental data on ammonia diffusion characteristics. Larger-scale laboratory experiments were then conducted to study the emission of ammonia from concrete containing ammoniated fly ash. The final phase comprised monitoring ammonia emissions from large concrete slabs. The data indicated that, on average, 15% of the initial ammonia was lost from concrete during 40 minutes of mixing, depending on the mix proportions and batch size. Long-term experiments indicated that ammonia diffusion from concrete was relatively slow, with greater

  15. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2001-10-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused on the measurement of the rate of ammonia loss from mortar and concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above the materials immediately after placement. The majority of mortar experiments have been completed, and testing has begun on concrete. The mortar experiments indicate that the rate of ammonia loss is greater in mortars prepared using a higher water content and water:cement (W:C) ratio, although the higher rate is primarily observed within the first 2 days, after which the loss rates are nearly the same. The source of low-calcium (Class F) fly ash exerted a negligible influence on the loss rate. However, mortar prepared using a higher-calcium fly ash evolved ammonia at a slightly slower rate than the Class F ash mortars. The data also indicate that an increase in ventilation increases the ammonia loss rate from mortar, and suggest that a well-ventilated space could substantially increase the loss of ammonia from mortar and, by inference, a concrete slab. Analysis of ammonia concentrations in the air above freshly-placed mortars in an enclosed space indicate that the fly ash ammonia concentration should not exceed 100 mg N/kg ash in confined space applications. For most other applications with some ventilation the maximum acceptable concentration would be approximately 200 mg/kg. Early results from experiments on concrete suggest that, under similar conditions, ammonia diffusion from concrete occurs at a higher rate than in mortar. In addition, increasing the slump of concrete through the use of chemical admixtures has only a minor effect on the ammonia loss rate.

  16. Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S.; Eble, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Fly ash quality, both as the amount of petrographically distinguishable carbons and in chemistry, varies in both time and space. Temporal variations are a function of a number of variables. Variables can include variations in the coal blend organic petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry; variations in the pulverization of the coal, both as a function of the coal's Hardgrove grindability index and as a function of the maintenance and settings of the pulverizers; and variations in the operating conditions of the boiler, including changes in the pollution control system. Spatial variation, as an instantaneous measure of fly ash characteristics, should not involve changes in the first two sets of variables listed above. Spatial variations are a function of the gas flow within the boiler and ducts, certain flow conditions leading to a tendency for segregation of the less-dense carbons in one portion of the gas stream. Caution must be applied in sampling fly ash. Samples from a single bin, or series of bins, m ay not be representative of the whole fly ash, providing a biased view of the nature of the material. Further, it is generally not possible to be certain about variation until the analysis of the ash is complete. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  18. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  19. Preparation and characterization of the porous ceramics from fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiang-jun; ZHANG Xue-bin; MENG Guang-yao; LIU Xing-qin

    2007-01-01

    Porous ceramics was made from coal fly ash,and the microstructure and other properties were characterized as a function of the amount of the pore-forming agent and firing temperature.The results indicated that the proper sintering temperature for the useful ceramic materials is 1250 ℃.and a liquid-phase was involved in the dansification process.

  20. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of geopolymer from bottom ash and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggarini, Ufafa; Sukmana, Ndaru C.

    2016-02-01

    All Geopolymer (GP) has been synthesized from bottom ash and rice husk ash. This research aims to determine the effect of Si/Al ratio on geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymer was synthesized with various Si/Al ratio of 2, 3 and 4. The characterization result using XRD and SEM indicated that by using a different ratio of Si/A, it will produce geopolymer with varied structure and morphology. Diffractogram result shows that polymerization has been done for all samples (GP2, GP3, Gp4) with the presence of hump peak at 2θ = 27-35°. In GP4, no peak at 2θ = 18° indicating sodalite phase forming. Besides that, the morphology of geopolymer with a varied ratio of Si/Al shows that higher ratio will produce geopolymer with higher particle size. The highest compressive strength of geopolymer was obtained at a ratio of Si/Al = 4, with a maximum load of 12866 kgf.

  2. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  3. Fly ash: Analysis and characterization. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and characterization of fly ash. Topics cover x-ray classification, trace analysis, particle size distribution, ash morphology, surface adsorption, toxicity, and mutagenic fly ash. Fluidized-bed-combustion technology for coal-combustion systems to meet air-emission standards is examined. The use of fly ash in concrete and cement manufacturing is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Fly ash: Analysis and characterization. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and characterization of fly ash. Topics cover x-ray classification, trace analysis, particle size distribution, ash morphology, surface adsorption, toxicity, and mutagenic fly ash. Fluidized-bed-combustion technology for coal-combustion systems to meet air-emission standards is examined. The use of fly ash in concrete and cement manufacturing is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for manufacturing superior quality bricks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyush Kant Pandey; Raj Kumar Agrawal

    2002-10-01

    Fly ash (FA) poses serious problems to the industries. Integrated steel plants generate huge quantity of FA from their captive power plants and other furnaces. This ash is generally disposed off in the ash ponds along with other sludges and residues of steel making operations. This changes the constitution of FA and makes the brick manufacturing difficult. This paper has attempted to devise the ways for the use of this mixed ash for manufacturing mixed ash clay bricks successfully. The bricks thus made are superior in structural and aesthetic qualities and portents huge saving in the manufacturing costs with better consumer response.

  6. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination.

  8. Wood fuel quality of two Salix viminalis stands fertilised with sludge, ash and sludge-ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Verwijst, Theo; Weih, Martin [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of stand structure and fertilisation with wood ash and/or sludge on wood fuel quality of Salix viminalis. The relative proportions of bark and wood in 1-, 2- and 3-year-old shoot populations were determined. The concentrations of essential elements (N, P, K) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) in bark and wood were used to assess the wood fuel quality in harvestable shoot biomass. Controlled field experiments were conducted on two newly harvested commercial short-rotation willow coppice fields. Five treatments were applied: sewage sludge at the maximum legally permitted amount; ash; two sludge-ash mixtures supplying the maximum and twice the maximum permitted sludge-ash amount; and a control receiving mineral nutrients only. The proportion of bark in the willow stands was decreasing with the age of the shoot population. The shoot population with few large stems, compared to that with many small stems, had a lower proportion of element-rich bark in the harvestable shoot biomass, meaning better quality of the wood fuel. Overall, wood fuel quality in terms of mineral concentrations was influenced by the age of the shoot population at harvest, stand structure, management practices (e.g. planting density, fertilisation) and site conditions (soil type, element availability). Our results imply that harvestable shoot biomass of willows grown as few large stems have better wood fuel quality, compared to harvestable shoot biomass of many small stems. Increased length of cutting cycle improves the wood fuel quality. (author)

  9. Characterization of Coconut Shell Ash for Potential Utilization in Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B Madakson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell ash is agricultural waste. The waste is produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific applications. This paper mainly deals with identification of characteristics of coconutshell ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. Density, Particle size, Refractoriness, SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of the coconut shell ash. The results were compared and it was observed that the ash possesses nearly same chemical phases and other functional groups as reinforcement like fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash that have been in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for automobile applications. Hence, coconut shell ash can be used as a low costreinforcement in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs.

  10. Characterization of the recent ash emissions at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L.; González-Morán, T.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Butron, M. A.; Reyes, M.

    2008-02-01

    Nine representative ash emissions from 1994-1997 were studied to characterize the recent activity and the eruptive process at Popocatepetl. A series of tephra eruptions began on December 21, 1994 and intermittent activity continues to present. The first eruptions were phreatomagmatic but in mid-March 1996 they turned magmatic. Cumulative volumes (529-1810 × 10 3 m 3), were determined for the first eruptions. However, when eruptions grew larger, more widely spaced (and magmatic), the volumes were then calculated individually (22-1107 × 10 3 m 3), both using the Simpson Rule and based on 244 sampling sites. This numerical integration method is more precise than other methods especially since sub-mm isopachs are neglected in most cases. Dominant winds carried ash mainly to the east (January through April 1995 and April 1996) except for the summer months when ash fell on Mexico City to the northwest (October 28 1996 and June 30 1997). In March 1996, changing wind direction produced ash fall to the southwest as well. During the first year, volume calculations indicated that emission rate was higher at the beginning of the eruptions and then declined and stopped. Activity resumed the following year with a similar pattern until larger amounts of magma ascended. Detailed studies of the ashfall provided constraints on the dynamics of the volcanic plumbing system. Tephra emission was related with clearing (December 1994 to March 1995), and clogging of the vent (May 1995 to February 1996), until a larger new ascending batch was able to clear its way to the surface (March 1996). After April 1996, dome formation and explosive destruction were related to individual small ascending magma batches. Tephra from December 1994 to early March 1996 was made up mostly of andesitic lithic clasts and plagioclase and pyroxene crystals with minor amounts of accidental and accessory minerals. In March 1996, prior to dome formation, glass was also detected. Afterwards, ash components were

  11. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    the co-combustion of wood and oil. The focus is laid on differences in ash characteristics and on the mobility of Cd and Cr. These two heavy metals are chosen because Cd is the problematic heavy metal in bio ashes and Cr is problematic in many ash stabilization methods (in the Cr(VI) state). Based...

  12. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul, E-mail: azrulrajak88@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Preparatory Centre of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Majid, Zaiton Abdul, E-mail: zaiton@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ismail, Mohammad [Department of Structure and Material, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m{sup 2}/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  13. The U.S. power industry's activities to expand coal ash utilization in face of lower ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, D.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The use of coal by electric power utilities results in more than 105 million tons of by products each year in the United States. More restrictive air quality emission limits have resulted in cleaner air, but this means the fly ash is more contaminated and cannot be used in its largest market, the concrete industry. For this reason, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a 5 year program at increasing ash utilization in the cement and concrete market in the United States. This initiative was in response to recent concerns regarding the impacts on ash quality due to more aggressive nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. The EPRI program provides the technical basis for protecting the bulk sale of coal ash in high-volume applications in cement and concrete and other high volume civil engineering applications. Fly ash derived from NOx control systems has higher carbon levels and ammonia levels. Problems with ammoniated ash are a major concern for coal-fired power plants. It was shown that there are four ways to minimize the impact of NOx controls that reduce ash quality directly affecting ash utilization. These are: (1) prevention of carbon accumulation in fly ash for use in sensitive markets, (2) carbon removal, (3) concentration of reactive ash fractions by removal of coarse fractions, and (4) ammonia removal. It was concluded that more studies are needed to examine long-term durability and other properties before any of these options can be exploited on an industrial scale. 21 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A., E-mail: s.agustin.martinez@uptc.edu.co; Moreno Gutiérrez, M. [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC, Grupo de Física Nuclear Aplicada y Simulación (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this work was apply {sup 57}Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion.

  15. Characterizing uncertainty in the motion, future location and ash concentrations of volcanic plumes and ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Pitman, E. B.; Dehn, J.; Singh, T.; Singla, P.; Stefanescu, E. R.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Morton, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting the location and airborne concentrations of volcanic ash plumes and their dispersing clouds is complex and knowledge of the uncertainty in these forecasts is critical to assess and mitigate the hazards that could exist. We show the results from an interdisciplinary project that brings together scientists drawn from the atmospheric sciences, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and geology. The project provides a novel integration of computational and statistical modeling with a widely-used volcanic particle dispersion code, to provide quantitative measures of confidence in predictions of the motion of ash clouds caused by volcanic eruptions. We combine high performance computing and stochastic analysis, resulting in real time predictions of ash cloud motion that account for varying wind conditions and a range of model variables. We show how coupling a real-time model for ash dispersal, PUFF, with a volcanic eruption model, BENT, allows for the definition of the variability in the dispersal model inputs and hence classify the uncertainty that can then propagate for the ash cloud location and downwind concentrations. We additionally analyze the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction forecast data used by the dispersal model by using ensemble forecasts and assess how this affects the downwind concentrations. These are all coupled together and by combining polynomical chaos quadrature with stochastic integration techniques, we provide a quantitative measure of the reliability (i.e. error) of those predictions. We show comparisons of the downwind height calculations and mass loadings with observations of ash clouds available from satellite remote sensing data. The aim is to provide a probabilistic forecast of location and ash concentration that can be generated in real-time and used by those end users in the operational ash cloud hazard assessment environment.

  16. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  17. Effect of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2001-05-01

    The effect of ash concentration on amino acid (AA) composition, true AA digestibility, and protein efficiency ratio (PER; weight gain per unit of protein intake) of meat and bone meal (MBM) was evaluated. Commercially rendered MBM samples containing 16 to 44% ash were obtained from two sources. Additional samples of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 63% were obtained by chloroform floatation or lab screening of a beef crax sample. Protein quality of selected MBM samples was assessed by determining true AA digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and by a PER chick growth assay wherein chicks were fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the only source of dietary protein from 8 to 18 d of age. Increases in Ala, Pro, Gly, and Arg as a percentage of CP were observed in all MBM samples as ash percentage increased, with Pro and Gly accounting for most of the increase. In contrast, the levels (% of CP) of all essential AA, other than Arg, decreased as ash level increased. For example, Lys concentrations per unit of CP decreased from 5.7 to 4.0% as ash increased from 9 to 63%. There was little or no effect of ash content on AA digestibility of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 44%. The PER of MBM markedly decreased from 3.34 to 0.72 as ash increased from 16 to 44%, and most of the effects of ash on PER were not due to differences in dietary Ca and P levels. The results indicate that the reduction in protein quality of MBM as ash content increases is almost entirely due to a decrease in analyzed essential AA per unit of CP, not a decrease in digestibility of AA.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm3 of 5 mol · dm−3 NaOH + 0.4...

  20. Coal ash fusion temperatures - new characterization techniques and implications for slagging and fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.; Coin, C.; Lowe, A. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-09-01

    The ash fusion test (AFT) is the accepted test for the propensity of coal ash to slag in the furnace. The well-documented shortcomings of this technique for estimating the fusion temperature of coal ash are its subjective nature and poor accuracy. Alternative measurements based on the shrinkage and electrical conductivity of heating samples are therefore examined here with laboratory ash prepared at about 800{degree}C in crucibles, as well as combustion ash samples from power stations. Sensitive shrinkage measurements indicate temperatures of rapid change which correspond to the formation of liquid phases that can be identified on ternary phase diagrams. The existence and extent of formation of these phases, as quantified by the magnitude of `peaks` in the test, provide alternative ash fusion temperatures. The peaks from laboratory ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evaporation of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash. A preliminary evaluation of data from nine power stations indicates that shrinkage measurements can provide an alternative approach to characterizing slagging. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Effect of Fly Ash Quality on the Engineering Properties of High-Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yuchu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Fly ash is the most inexpensive cementitious material,and its presence in concrete has increased in recent years because it has become more durable and environmentally friendly.This study examines densified mixture concrete and the effect of fly ash quality on high-flow,high-strength concrete.Tests show that when the same mixture achieves identical flow standards(slump > 250 mm;slump flow > 600 ram),the fly ash quality affects the nature of the concrete;additionally,and adding Class F fly ash to concrete(loss on ignition =6%)is more workable than adding Class C fly ash(loss on ignition =3%).However,adding fly ash with a high loss on ignition(9%)to concrete requires a substantial increase in the mixing water and a dose of superplasticizer to achieve the required workability.This reduces the quality of the concrete,which subsequently deteriorates its safety and durability.

  2. Characterization of Fly Ash Generated from Matla Power Station in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fly ash was obtained from Matla power station and the physicochemical properties investigated. The fly ash was characterized by x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Surface area, particle size, ash and carbon contents, pH, and point of zero charge were also measured. The results showed that the fly ash is alkaline and consists mainly of mullite (Al6Si2O13 and quartz (SiO2. Highly toxic metals As, Sb, Cd, Cr, and Pb as well as metals that are essential to health in trace amounts were also present. The storage and disposal of coal fly ash can thus lead to the release of leached metals into soils, surface and ground waters, find way into the ecological systems and then cause harmful effect to man and its environments.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and conductivity studies of polypyrrole–fly ash composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Murugendrappa; Syed Khasim; M V N Ambika Prasad

    2005-10-01

    in situ polymerization of pyrrole was carried out in the presence of fly ash (FA) to synthesize polypyrrole–fly ash composites (PPy/FA) by chemical oxidation method. The PPy/FA composites have been synthesized with various compositions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) of fly ash in pyrrole. The surface morphology of these composites was studied with scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The polypyrrole–fly ash composites were also characterized by employing X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The a.c. conductivity behaviour has been investigated in the frequency range 102–106 Hz. The d.c. conductivity was studied in the temperature range from 40–200°C. The dimensions of fly ash in the matrix have a greater influence on the observed conductivity values. The results obtained for these composites are of greater scientific and technological interest.

  4. Bacterial Treatment and Metal Characterization of Biomedical Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Heera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical waste ash generated due to the incineration of biomedical waste contains large amounts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which is disposed of in regular landfills, and results in unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground and may pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxicity of ash before disposal into landfills or reutilization. Environmental characteristic analysis of BMW ash showed increased hardness (1320 mg/L and chloride (8500 mg/L content in leachate compared to World Health Organization (WHO and Environment Protection Agency (EPA guidelines for drinking water (hardness, 300 mg/L; chloride, 250 mg/L. The alkalinity and pH of the ash leachate were 400 mg/L and 8.35, respectively. In this paper, study was carried out to investigate the metal tolerance level of bacterial isolates isolated from soil. The isolate Bacillus sp. KGMDI can tolerate up to 75 mg/L of metal concentration (Mn, Mo, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn in enriched growth medium. This shows that the isolated culture is capable of growing in presence of high concentration of heavy metals and acts as potential biological tool to reduce the negative impact of BMW ash on the environment during landfilling.

  5. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  6. Geotechnical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Low Lime Fly Ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of using low-lime fly ashes, the physical and chemical properties which have a direct bearing on their geotechnical and geoenvironmental behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, two types of low-lime fly ashes, originating from India, have been used. A brief account of various methods adopted in characterizing their physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties is presented. The relative importance of each of these properties in enhancing the bulk applicability of fly ashes has been brought out.

  7. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the

  8. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  9. Characterization of Class F Fly Ash Using STXM: Identifying Intraparticle Heterogeneity at Nanometer Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, J.; S. Chae; Chou, K.W.; Tyliszczak, T.; P.J.M. Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and physical characterization of fly ash particles were conducted using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Compositional and spatial investigation and correlation among the main elemental constituents of fly ash (Al, Si, and Fe) were conducted based on microscopic and NEXAFS spectral analysis. Homogeneous oxidation and coordination state of Al and Fe were observed whereas Si shows spatial variation in its chemical state. We also identified that Si and Al are spatially cor...

  10. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  11. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  12. Kaliophilite from fly ash: synthesis, characterization and stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao Zhitong; Xia Meisheng; Ye Ying; Zhang Lu

    2011-12-01

    Kaliophilite was synthesized by fusion method using fly ash as starting material. In this method, at first, alkaline fusion of fly ash with KOH occurs, followed by hydrothermal treatment in KOH medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that the synthesized kaliophilite (S-KAL) was a plate-like crystal. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed three characteristic diffraction peaks located at 2 = 19.56°, 20.78° and 28.71°, respectively. The thermal analysis indicated that the S-KAL had remarkable thermal stability when heated to 1000°C. Leaching test confirmed the high retention rate of potassium for S-KAL in boiling water for 10 h.

  13. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Composites Based on Recycled and Stabilized Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Besco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the use of an innovative inert, based on stabilized fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as a filler for polypropylene. The starting material, which contains large quantities of leachable Pb and Zn, was stabilized by means of an innovative process using rice husk ash as a waste silica source, together with other fly ashes, such as coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization residues. The use of all waste materials to obtain a new filler makes the proposed technology extremely sustainable and competitive. The new composites, obtained by using the stabilized material as a filler for polypropylene, were characterized and their mechanical properties were also investigated. A comparison with a traditional polypropylene and calcium carbonate based compound was also done. This research activity was realized in the frame of the COSMOS-RICE project, financed by the EU Commission.

  14. Sinabung Volcanic Ash Utilization As The Additive for Paving Block Quality A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, I. S.; Hastuty, I. P.

    2017-03-01

    Paving block is one of the building materials used as the top layer of the road structure besides asphalt and concrete. Paving block is made of mixed materials such as portland cement or other adhesive materials, water and aggregate. In this research, the material used as the additive of cement and concrete is volcanic ash from Mount Sinabung, it is based on the results of the material testing, Sinabung ash contains 74.3% silica (SiO2). The purpose of this research aims to analyze the behavior of the paving blocks quality A and B with and without a mixture of Sinabung ash, to analyze the workability of fresh concrete using Sinabung ash as an additive in concrete, and to compare the test results of paving blocks with and without using Sinabung ash. The samples that we made consist of four variations of the concrete mix to experiment a mixture of normal sample without additive, samples which are mixed with the addition of Sinabung ash 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the volume of concrete/m3. Each variation consists of 10 samples of the concrete with 28 days curing time period. We will do the compressive strength and water absorption test to the samples to determine whether the samples are in accordance with the type needed. According to the test result, paving blocks with Sinabung ash and curing time reach quality A at 0%, 5% and 10% mixture with the compressive strength of each 50.14 MPa, 46.20 MPa and 1.49Mpa, and reach quality B at 15%, 20 %,25% mixture with curing time and 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% mixture without curing time. According to the absorption values we got from the test which are 6.66%, 6.73%, 6.88%, 7.03%, 7.09% and 7.16%, the entire sample have average absorption exceeding SNI standardization which is above 6% and reach quality C. Based on compressive strength and absorption data obtained Sinabung ash can’t fully replace cement as the binder because of the low CaO content.

  15. Characterization of Class F Fly Ash Using STXM: Identifying Intraparticle Heterogeneity at Nanometer Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characterization of fly ash particles were conducted using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM. Compositional and spatial investigation and correlation among the main elemental constituents of fly ash (Al, Si, and Fe were conducted based on microscopic and NEXAFS spectral analysis. Homogeneous oxidation and coordination state of Al and Fe were observed whereas Si shows spatial variation in its chemical state. We also identified that Si and Al are spatially correlated at nanometer scale in which high concentration of Si and Al was concurrently and consistently observed within the 30 nm resolution whereas Fe distribution did not show any specific correlation to Al and Si. Results of this study indicate that fly ash chemical composition has heterogeneous distribution depending on the elements which would determine and result in the differences in the reactivity.

  16. Characterization of fly ash from a hazardous waste incinerator in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Martha; Gálvez, Araceli; Conesa, Juan A; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    2009-09-15

    Bag filter (BF) fly ash from a hazardous waste incinerator located in Medellín, Colombia was characterized. Particle size distribution, chemical composition, metal loading, surface area, morphology, and chemical environment were assessed before and after fly ash extraction with toluene. Fly ash consists of low surface area platelets of SiO(2) smaller than 0.5 microm agglomerated in spheres between 20 and 100 microm. High concentration of sodium chloride, carbon, and heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Pb, Hg, Cd, Co and Mn are deposited over the fly ash surface. The carbon is oxidized and forms different structures such as amorphous carbon black, nano balls and more crystalline fullerenes like nano onions. The high concentration of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs (superior to 185 ng WHO-TEQ/g) is favored by oxidized carbon, chlorine and metals such as Cu and Fe on the shell of the particles. Before and after toluene extraction, fly ash samples presented similar morphology. However, after extraction their particle size increased while their surface area decreased by 35% and the carbon and metal contents decreased by 35% and 50%, respectively.

  17. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.

  18. Preparation and characterization of carbon-enriched coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B.; Izquierdo, M.T.; Mayoral, M.C.; Bona, M.T.; Martinez-Tarazona, R.M. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Carbon-enriched fractions have been obtained from two coal fly ash (FA) samples. The FA came from two pulverized-coal fired power stations (Lada and Escucha, Spain) and were collected from baghouse filters. Sieving was used to obtain carbon-enriched fractions, which were further subjected to two beneficiation processes: acid demineralization using HCl and HF, and oil agglomeration using soya oil-water. Yield in weight after sieving, unburned carbon content, and several physicochemical characteristics, of the obtained fractions were used to compare the performance of the beneficiation methods. Low carbon concentration was obtained by sieving. particularly in the case of Escucha FA. However, after acid demineralization or oil agglomeration, fractions containing unburned carbon in a range of 63% to 68% were obtained. These fractions showed differences in mineral phase composition and distribution depending on the FA and oil the beneficiation method used. The textural properties of the obtained fractions varied as a function of their carbon content and the beneficiation method used. However, no significant differences in morphology of the carbonaceous particles were found

  19. Impact of the disposal and re-use of fly ash on water quality: the case of the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, M; Voltaggio, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2014-05-01

    An increasing amount of fly ash from thermal power plants is produced in India every year. Its disposal is generally done in ponds after it is mixed together in suitable proportion of water to form a slurry. Fly ash from Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Nagpur, Maharashtra) is commonly disposed in an area characterized by the presence of many small villages where the population uses the groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes. Here, the groundwater locally exceeds the concentration limits recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 2005) and by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2008) for Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and for some minor elements like As, Mo, V and U. A new geological map of the study area has been prepared to understand the possible water-rock interactions. An extensive geochemical survey of groundwater, stream water and fly ash was also carried out to clarify the possible origin of the pollutants by discriminating between geogenic and anthropogenic sources and to assess the influence of the ash ponds on water quality. The analytical results suggest that a large part of the sulfates in the groundwater of the villages of Masada, Khairi and Kawatha originate from the infiltration of industrial water from tens of factories that mix fly ash with relatively high quantities of gypsum and lime for the production of bricks. In addition, the interaction with the relatively U-rich Gondwana units, like Talchir formation, is probably the cause of the high concentration of this element. Results showed how the relatively high concentrations of Mo, As, B and F in circulating waters are linked to the leaching from fly ash, also pointing out a direct spatial correlation between the concentration of fluorides in the groundwater and their closeness to the ash ponds.

  20. Characterization of fly ash from a power plant and surroundings by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, A.; Valentim, B. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Prieto, A.C.; Sanz, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Cristalografia y Mineralogia. Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Flores, D.; Noronha, F. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geologia da Faculdade de Ciencias, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-02-01

    Fly ash samples were collected from a Portuguese power plant that burns low-sulphur coals from South Africa, U.S.A., Colombia, and Australia. The fly ashes were collected from the hoppers of the economizers, air heaters, electrostatic precipitators, and from the stack. The power plant air monitoring system was also sampled. The fly ash characterization was conducted by micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). The micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis permitted an efficient identification and characterization of different inorganic and organic materials present in fly ash: quartz, hematite, magnetite, calcite, glass, aluminium and calcium oxides, and different types of organic constituents. The study of the structural evolution of the unburned carbon/char material during their path through the power plant, though the use of Raman spectra and Raman parameters reveal that despite the high temperatures they reached, these materials are still structurally disordered. However, a structural evolution occurs in the char from the economizer up to the electrostatic precipitators where the char is structurally more disordered. The different features of the Raman spectra observed for carbon particles collected from the stack, together with the high range of variation of the Raman parameters, confirm the existence of different carbon particles in the stack, i.e., char and others (probably soot). The filters from the surroundings contain a variety of carbon particles with Raman parameters different from the ones obtained in the fly ash hoppers and stack. These are diesel particles as indicated by the values of W{sub D1}, FWHM{sub D1}, FWHM{sub G}, W{sub G} and ID1/IG obtained. (author)

  1. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of geopolymer synthesized from low calcium fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramar Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the mechanical and microstructural characterization of geopolymers synthesized from locally available fly ash. A low calcium fly ash was activated using a sodium silicate solution. Samples were characterized by means of flexural and compressive tests, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Porosity and pore size distributions were identified using mercury intrusion porosimetry and gas sorption. The compressive strength of the produced geopolymers, which is in the range of 1.6 to 53.3 N/mm2, is strongly related to the water content as well as SiO2/Na2O mass ratio of an alkali activator. The compressive strength significantly increased with decreases in the water content and increased silicon concentration used for the synthesis of geopolymers.

  2. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Janneth Torres Agredo; Ruby Mejía de Gutiérrez; Escandón Giraldo, Camilo E.; Luis Octavio González Salcedo

    2014-01-01

    Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA) is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows h...

  3. Recovered fuels - The connection between fuel preparation, combustion equipments and ash quality; Returbraenslen - kopplingen mellan braensleberedning, foerbraenningsutrustning och askkvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The lack of bio fuel and new regulations of waste treatment have increased the interest of recovered fuels. Co-combustion is of great interest, but the consequences and permit handling involved in introducing a new fuel into a plant have to be investigated. The aim of this study is to see if it is possible to affect the ash quality by pre-treatment of the fuel, or by firing in different combustion equipments. Ashes can be used in several different types of applications. Few of these have uniform requirements of ash quality. The ongoing research will hopefully help generating unified regulations and recommendations for the uses of ashes. However, right now the knowledge is limited and very specific. Every type of ash has to be analysed for the appropriate use. It is especially the requirements of leaching that are difficult to make general. The work started with a survey of recovered fuels. It contains roughly which fuels exist and which of those are accessible for the energy market in Sweden. The survey showed that there are approximately 13 Mton/y wastes partly accessible to the energy market; 50 % are used for material recycling, 32 % for energy recovery, 1.5 % for composting and the rest are used as landfill. Three recovered fuels were chosen and studied more thoroughly. These were PTP (paper, wood and plastic), tires and impregnated wood. The project showed that the recovered fuels have different qualifications as fuels and have different possibilities at co-combustion which results in variable ash quality. A pre-treated fuel is more homogeneous which give better combustion and cleaner ashes. A fluidised bed demands a more pre-treated fuel than a grate and the fluidised bed generate more ashes because the ashes contain bed material. As a result of this the ashes from a fluidised bed is generally easier to utilize. In this project the composition of ashes from co-combustion of the three recovered fuels together with wood fuel has been estimated. The aim was to

  4. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  5. Durability of concrete incorporating large volumes of low-quality fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhua Jiang; Zhenqing Liu; Yiqun Ye [Hohai University, Nanjing (China). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2004-08-01

    The carbonation, corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and corrosion resistance of concrete, incorporating large volumes of low-quality fly ash (LVLQFA), were studied. The effect of concentration of carbon dioxide used in the experiment on estimating the carbonation resistance of LVLQFA concrete were also investigated. Test results show that the LVLQFA concrete with an activator has good carbonation and corrosion resistances of steel reinforcement. The corrosion resistance of LVLQFA concrete is better than that of the control concrete. The concentration of carbon dioxide used in the experiment has considerable effect on estimating the carbonation resistance of LVLQFA concrete.

  6. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products.

  7. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and low frequency a.c. conduction of polyaniline/fly ash composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; Syed Khasim; M Revanasiddappa; M V N Ambika Prasad; A B Kulkarni

    2003-12-01

    in situ polymerization of aniline was carried out in the presence of fly ash (FA) to synthesize polyaniline/fly ash (PANI/FA) composites. The PANI/FA composites have been synthesized with various compositions (15, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) of FA in PANI. The composites, thus synthesized have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of these samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Further the a.c. conductivity of these composites have been investigated in the frequency range 102–106 Hz. The presence of polarons and bipolarons are made responsible for frequency dependence of a.c. conductivity in these composites. The Cole–Cole plots indicate clear shift in the distribution of relaxation times as the wt% of FA in PANI changes. These composites show almost symmetric semicircles of Cole–Cole plots indicating the Debye-type relaxation in their polarization response.

  9. Characterization of ashes from a 100 kWth pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed with oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.H.; Wang, C.B.; Tan, Y.W.; Jia, L.F.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion experiments have been carried out on an oxygen-fired 100 kW(th) mini-circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) facility. Coal and petroleum coke were used as fuel together with different limestones (and fixed Ca:S molar ratios) premixed with the fuel, for in situ SO{sub 2} capture. The bed ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) samples produced from this unit were collected and characterized to obtain physical and chemical properties of the ash samples. The characterization methods used included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), char carbon and free lime analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface analysis. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the CFBC ashes from oxy-fuel firing to obtain a better understanding of the combustion process, and to identify any significant differences from the ash generated by a conventional air-fired CFBC. The primary difference in the sulfur capture mechanism between atmospheric air-fired and oxy-fuel FBC, at typical FBC temperatures (similar to 850{sup o}C), is that, in the air-fired case the limestone sorbents calcine, whereas the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in oxy-fuel FBC is high enough to prevent calcination, and hence the sulfation process should mimic that seen in pressurized FBC (PFBC). Here, the char carbon content in the fly ash was much higher than that in the bed ash, and was also high by comparison with ash obtained from conventional commercial air-firing CFBC units. In addition, measurements of the free lime content in the bed and fly ash showed that the unreacted Ca sorbent was present primarily as CaCO{sub 3}, indicating that sulfur capture in the oxy-fuel combustor occurred via direct sulfation.

  10. Characterization of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing municipal solid waste incinerator ash using the dynamic modulus (E) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H.F. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). College of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, approximately 229 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced in the United States. MSW consists of items such as paper, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, appliances, paint, and batteries. MSW incinerator ash is the by-product produced during the combustion of municipal solid waste in combustor facilities and has two components, namely bottom ash and fly ash. To reduce the disposal problem, the incinerators are used to reduce the volume and weight of MSW. This is usually a self-sustained process using the waste as a fuel resulting in as much as a 90 and 75 per cent reduction in volume and weight, respectively. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the use of incinerator ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in hot-mix asphalt concrete. MSW incinerator ash was collected from an incinerator facility at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman and a physical and chemical characterization of the ash was conducted. MSW ash was used in the mixture to replace fine aggregate with a percentage ranging from 0 to 40 per cent, by total aggregate weight. The mixes were designed using the Marshall mix design method and the dynamic modulus test was conducted on samples prepared at optimum asphalt contents for mixes containing different percentage of ash and at different temperatures and frequencies. Master curves for different percentages of ash in the mix were developed from the testing results. It was found that the Marshall mix design results for the mixes containing MSW ash indicated a decrease in stability, and specific gravity, and an increase in air voids. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Characterization of high-calcium fly ash and its influence on ettringite formation in portland cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishmack, Jody Kathleen

    High-calcium Class C fly ashes derived from Powder River Basin coal are currently used as supplementary cementing materials in portland cement concrete. These fly ashes tend to contain significant amounts of sulfur, calcium, and aluminum, thus they are potential sources of ettringite. Characterization of six high-calcium fly ashes originating from Powder River Basin coal have been carried out. The hydration products formed in pastes made from fly ash and water were investigated. The principal phases produced at room temperature were ettringite, monosulfate, and stratlingite. The relative amounts formed varied with the specific fly ash. Removal of the soluble crystalline sulfur bearing minerals indicated that approximately a third of the sulfur is located in the fly ash glass. Pore solution analyses indicated that sulfur concentrations increased at later ages. Three fly ashes were selected for further study based on their ability to form ettringite. Portland cement-fly ash pastes made with the selected fly ashes were investigated to evaluate ettringite and monosulfate formation. Each of the fly ashes were mixed with four different types of portland cements (Type I, I/II, II, and III) as well as three different Type I cements exhibiting a range of C3A and sulfate contents. The pastes had 25% or 35% fly ash by total weight of solids and a water:cement-fly ash ratio of 0.45. The samples were placed in a curing room (R.H. = 100, 23°C) and were then analyzed at various ages by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the principal hydration products. The hydration products identified by XRD were portlandite, ettringite (an AFt phase), monosulfate, and generally smaller amounts of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate (all AFm phases). Although the amount of ettringite formed varied with the individual cement, only a modest correlation with cement sulfate content and no correlation with cement C3A content was observed. DSC

  12. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-α and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-α and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-α and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB.

  13. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011, affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously

  14. M(o)ssbauer spectroscopic studies the characterization of three China coal and the corresponding fly-ashes and bottom ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Duo-xi; ZHI Xia-chen

    2006-01-01

    Three fresh China coals (lignitie, bituminite and anthracite) from different geological origin and the corresponding fly and bottom ashes were studied by room temperature(RT) M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy(MS). The iron-bearing minerals were characterized to was found in bituminite and anthracite coal.The M(o)ssbauer spectra of the fly and bottom ashes as a result of pulverised coal combustion(PCC) in Xiaolongtan,Shuicheng and Luohuang Power Plants are comprised of superimposed sextets and doulets of oxides includes maghemite(γ-Fe2O3), magnitite(Fe3O4), haematite(α-Fe2O3), magnesioferite (MgFe2O4), Fe3+/Fe2+-mullite, Fe3+-glass silicate andmetallic iron. The studies also show that iron-bearing minerals in coals are largely dependant on geological regions and coal rank, the composition of the corresponding fly and bottom ashes will not only depend on the type and mineralogy of the feed coal but also on the local nature of combustion.

  15. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  16. Design and Characterization of Renewable Bioasphalt Containing Damar Resin, Fly Ash, Wasted Cooking Oil and Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Legowo, S. J.; Widiharjo, B.; Zai, A. K. S.; Pradana, A. A. W.; Rusadi, I. P.; Permana, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dasphalt is one alternative of bioasphalt, made from materials that can be renewed as a substitute for conventional asphalt. Dasphalt inspired from jabung made of damar resin, brick powder and wasted cooking oil. Jabung have the same character with conventional asphalt. Research has been conducted by the characteristics of jabung but there are still many shortcomings, softening point and ductility values are not qualify. In this research the brick powder will be replaced by fly ash, as fly ash has a finer grain so that it can become a better absorbent. The resin will act as a natural resin for dasphalt, wasted cooking oil will be a mixed solvent. Use of additional polymers latex, is expected to improve the elasticity of dasphalt in ductility test. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the modification dasphalt properties in accordance with the specifications of asphalt penetration test and find the optimal composition of dasphalt. This research method is done by direct testing in the laboratory. In the present study that became the basic composition of the resin is resin (100g pure resin+ 350g resin packaging or powder), fly ash (150g) and wasted cooking oil (205g) and latex were mixed at temperatures below 150°C. While variations of latex starting from 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Several asphalt characterization are performed include penetration tests, test softening point, ductility test, flash point test, specific gravity test, affinity test and solubility test. Dasphalt modification achieved optimum composition of resin (100g pure resin or resin chunk + 350Gr packaging), Fly Ash powder (150g), cooking oil (205g), and latex 4%, ductility increased from 63.5 cm to 119.5 cm, the value of the flash point was originally at temperature of 240°C to 260°C, dasphalt penetration from 68.2 dmm to 43 dmm, and the value of density decreases to 1.01 g/cm3 to 0.99 g/cm3. Dasphalt modifications meet some of the specifications and could be categorized as

  17. Utilization of fly ash to improve the quality of the acid mine drainage generated by oxidation of a sulphide-rich mining waste: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; de Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    The production of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as a result of the oxidative dissolution of sulphides is one of the main pollution problems affecting natural watercourses in mining environments with sulphide-rich residues. In this work, the generation of AMD was prevented by means of the addition of fly ash to sulphide-rich residues in non-saturated column experiments. A column experiment filled with a pyrite-rich sludge with artificial irrigation leached acid drainages (pH approx. 2) containing high concentrations of sulphate, iron and other metals. However, non-saturated column experiments filled with pyritic-rich sludge and fly ash drained leachates characterized by alkaline pH (pH up to 10), low sulphate concentration, and lack of iron and other metals in solution. The pyrite oxidative dissolution at high pH, as a consequence of the leaching of fly ash, favours the metal precipitation inside the column (mainly iron), the coating of pyrite grains, and the attenuation of the oxidation process, resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the leachates.

  18. Raman spectroscopy for characterizing and determining the pozzolanic reactivity of fly ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nishant

    The efficacy and potential of Raman spectroscopy in characterization of a commercial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and three fly ashes (FA's), and their evolving hydration products were studied in this Master's thesis work. While there have been several studies focusing on the application of Raman spectroscopy to synthetic, pure samples, work on commercial cementitious systems is scarce. This work covers this gap by evaluating mixtures containing cements and fly ashes. The study first involved determination followed by establishment of instrumental configuration and testing parameters optimum for studying cementitious materials both in the dry and wet form. It was found that by tweaking several parameters, collection methodologies and analysis techniques, improved, representative and reproducible data could be obtained. Mapping a representative area to determine the spatial distribution and concentration of sulfates and hydroxides on sample surfaces was found to be the most effective way to study these complex and heterogeneous systems. The Raman dry analysis of OPC and three different FA's of varying calcium contents and reactivity was able to identify the major mineralogical phases in these binders and the results were in correlation with the X-ray diffraction data. The observed calcium and sulfate phases and their relative concentration also agreed well with the supplementary compositional data obtained from X-ray fluorescence and Atomic absorption spectrometry. The wet analysis of pastes prepared with 100% OPC and 50%OPC+50%FA(1,2,3) followed the hydration process of the systems for 56 days (0, 0.2, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 hours, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days). Consistency of trends in the hydration mechanism of such pastes was only obtained when studies were focused on narrow wavenumber ranges: 950--1050 cm-1 for evolution of sulfates and 3600--3700cm-1 for evolution of hydroxides. Gradual disappearance of Gypsum with a parallel formation of Ettringite

  19. Coal ash fusion temperatures -- New characterization techniques, and associations with phase equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Creelman, R.A. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, New South Wales (Australia); Coin, C. [ACIRL Ipswich, Booval, Queensland (Australia); Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The well-documented shortcomings of the standard technique for estimating the fusion temperature of coal ash are its subjective nature and poor accuracy. Alternative measurements based on the shrinkage and electrical conductivity of heating samples are therefore examined with laboratory ash prepared at about 800 C in crucibles, as well as combustion ash sampled from power stations. Sensitive shrinkage measurements indicate temperatures of rapid change which correspond to the formation of liquid phases that can be identified on ternary phase diagrams. The existence and extent of formation of these phases, as quantified by the magnitude of peaks in the test, provide alternative ash fusion temperatures. The peaks from laboratory ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evaporation of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a novel bone graft composite containing bone ash and egg shell powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunasekaran Krithiga; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2011-02-01

    Egg shells which were hitherto discarded as wastes were collected, purified and powdered into a particle size in the range of 5–50 m. A composite bone graft material in cylindrical form was prepared using egg shell powder (ESP), bone ash (BA) and gelatin. These bone grafts were characterized for their FT–IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and mechanical properties. The mechanical studies indicate that the composite having a stoichiometric ratio of BA (3 g) and ESP (7 g) has shown better mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated the crystallographic nature of BA is akin to hydroxyapatite (HA) and both BA and ESP did not lose their crystalline nature when bone grafts were prepared. This revealed that ESP may be used as a component in bone graft utilizing the solid waste from the poultry industry.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Microwave Sintered Silica Xerogel Produced from Rice Husk Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiana, I. N.; Mitsudo, S.; Nishiwaki, T.; Susilowati, P. E.; Lestari, L.; Firihu, M. Z.; Aripin, H.

    2016-08-01

    Silica xerogel ceramic produced from rice husk ash (RHA) taken from South East Sulawesi Indonesia has been successfully sintered by using a millimeter waves (MMW) heating system with a 28 GHz gyrotron as radiation source. The ceramic was also sintered by using an electric furnace where served as a comparison. Densification, microstructural, and morphological characterization of the silica were then investigated by using an Archimedes densification measurement method device, a X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. Effect of microwave energy on the properties of silica xerogel ceramic were evaluated and discussed and compared to conventionally sintered results. The notably different densification and microstructure of sintered samples after sintering were found. The results suggest that microwave radiation provides a microwave effect during sintering.

  2. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  3. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine

  4. Surface and bulk characterization of an ultrafine South African coal fly ash with reference to polymer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, E. M.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Mathebula, C. L.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Doucet, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    South African coal-fired power stations produce about 25 million tons of fly ash per annum, of which only approximately 5% is currently reused. A growing concern about pollution and increasing landfill costs stimulates research into new ways to utilize coal fly ash for economically beneficial applications. Fly ash particles may be used as inorganic filler in polymers, an application which generally requires the modification of their surface properties. In order to design experiments that will result in controlled changes in surface chemistry and morphology, a detailed knowledge of the bulk chemical and mineralogical compositions of untreated fly ash particles, as well as their morphology and surface properties, is needed. In this paper, a combination of complementary bulk and surface techniques was explored to assess the physicochemical properties of a classified, ultrafine coal fly ash sample, and the findings were discussed in the context of polymer application as fillers. The sample was categorized as a Class F fly ash (XRF). Sixty-two percent of the sample was an amorphous glass phase, with mullite and quartz being the main identified crystalline phases (XRD, FTIR). Quantitative carbon and sulfur analysis reported a total bulk carbon and sulfur content of 0.37% and 0.16% respectively. The spatial distribution of the phases was determined by 2D mapping of Raman spectra, while TGA showed a very low weight loss for temperatures ranging between 25 and 1000 °C. Individual fly ash particles were characterized by a monomodal size distribution (PSD) of spherical particles with smooth surfaces (SEM, TEM, AFM), and a mean particle size of 4.6 μm (PSD). The BET active surface area of this sample was 1.52 m2/g and the chemical composition of the fly ash surface (AES, XPS) was significantly different from the bulk composition and varied considerably between spheres. Many properties of the sample (e.g. spherical morphology, small particle size, thermal stability) appeared

  5. Synthesis and characterization of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and metakaolin based geopolymer for possible application in nanocoating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Bhat, A. H.; Masset, Patrick J.; Khan, Farman Ullah; Rehman, Wajid Ur

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize highly amorphous geopolymer from palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and metakaolin, to be used as nanocoating. Geopolymers are man-made aluminosilicate materials that are amorphous analogues of zeolites. The geopolymers were made by condensing a mixture of raw materials metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) with alkaline activator at a fixed ratio at room temperature. The kaolin type clay was calcined at 700 °C for 4hrs to transform it into amorphous metakaolin which is more reactive precursor for geopolymer formation. The characteristics of metakaolin and geopolymers (metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash based geopolymers) were analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). FTIR revealed the presence of Al-O and Si-O stretching vibrations of amorphous alumino-silicate structure for metakaolin, palm oil fuel ash and geopolymers. SEM-EDX images showed the presence of reaction product complementary to NASH (N = Na2O, A = Al2O3, S = SiO2, H = H2O) solid. The resulting geopolymers that were synthesized with NaOH/Na2SiO3 solution cured at 60 °C for 3 days. The results demonstrated the suitability of metakaolin and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) for synthesis of geopolymer at room temperatures.

  6. Molecular characterization of mariner-like elements in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vega, L; Mittapalli, O

    2010-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an exotic invasive pest, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and continues to threaten the very survival of the entire Fraxinus genus. Despite its high-impact status, to date very little knowledge exists for this devastating insect pest at the molecular level. Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are transposable elements, which are ubiquitous in occurrence in insects and other invertebrates. Because of their low specificity and broad host range, they can be used for epitope-tagging, gene mapping, and in vitro mutagenesis. The majority of the known MLEs are inactive due to in-frame shifts and stop codons within the open reading frame (ORF). We report on the cloning and characterization of two MLEs in A. planipennis genome (Apmar1 and Apmar2). Southern analysis indicated a very high copy number for Apmar1 and a moderate copy number for Apmar2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both elements belong to the irritans subfamily. Based on the high copy number for Apmar1, the full-length sequence was obtained using degenerate primers designed to the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences of irritans MLEs. The recovered nucleotide sequence for Apmar1 consisted of 1,292 bases with perfect ITRs, and an ORF of 1,050 bases encoding a putative transposase of 349 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Apmar1 contained the conserved regions of mariner transposases including WVPHEL and YSPDLAP, and the D,D(34)D motif. Both Apmar1 and Apmar2 could represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on EAB adaptation.

  7. Characterization of bottom ashes from coal pulverized power plants to determine their potential use feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Alvaro, A. M.; Argiz, C.; Parra, J. L.; Moragues, A.

    2013-07-01

    The disposal of coal by products represents environmental and economical problems around the world. Therefore, the reuse and valorisation of this waste has become an important issue in the last decades. While high-value construction products containing fly ash were developed and its use is actually totally accepted as an addition to cement, the use of the bottom ash as supplementary cementitious material has not been allow. This paper examines the chemical and physical properties of fly ashes and bottom ashes from two different coal power plants in order to compare them and analyse the potential feasibility of bottom ash as cement replacement. The mechanical properties of cement mortars made with different percentages of both ashes were also study. The results obtained showed similar chemical composition of both kinds of ashes. The compressive strength values of mortars with 10 % and 25 % of cement replacement (at 28 days) were above the limits established in European standards and there were not significant differences between fly ash and bottom ash from both origins. (Author)

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-An; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-05-15

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and (29)Si and (27)Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin-Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Minmin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hou, Li-an, E-mail: 11liuminmin@tongji.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng [China Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 200012 (China)

    2013-05-15

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin–Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-an; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-05-01

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin-Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics.

  11. Soil quality, crop productivity and soil organic matter (SOM) priming in biochar and wood ash amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Eleanor Swain; Chadwick, David; Hill, Paul; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    The application of energy production by-products as soil amendments to agricultural land is rapidly growing in popularity, however the increasing body of literature on primarily biochar but also wood ash have yielded contrary evidence of the range of these soil amendments function sensitivity in soil. This study aims to assess the efficacy of two by-products; biochar and wood ash to provide nutrients to grassland as well as the potential to improve overall soil quality. The study of soil amendments at field scale are scarce, and the agronomic benefits of biochar and wood ash in temperate soils remain unclear. We used replicated field plots with three soil treatments (biochar, wood ash and control) to measure the soil and crop properties over twelve months, including PLFA analysis to quantify the total soil microbial biomass and community structure. After a soil residency of one year, there were no significant differences in soil EC, total N, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved organic C (DOC), NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations, between biochar amended, wood ash amended and un-amended soil. In contrast, the application of biochar had a significant effect on soil moisture, pH, PO4-P concentrations, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic carbon (TOC), whilst the wood ash amendment resulted in an increase in soil pH only. There were no significant treatment effects on the growth performance or nutrient uptake of the grass. In a parallel laboratory incubation study, the effects of biochar and wood ash on soil C priming was explored, in which soil with 14C-labelled native SOC was amended with either biochar or wood ash at the same rate as the field trial. The rates of 14CO2 (primed C) production was measured with a liquid scintillation counter over a 50 day period. The 14CO2 that evolved during decomposition likely originated from conversions in the (microbial) biomass. The results indicated that biochar application did not prime for the loss of native SOC (i.e. there

  12. Characterization of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed incinerator of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Su, Xiaowen; Zhang, Zhixuan; Liu, Siming; Xiao, Yuxin; Sun, Mingming; Su, Jixin

    2014-11-01

    Treatment and disposal of fly ash in China are becoming increasingly difficult, since its production has steadily risen and its features are uncertain. The excess pollutant components of fly ash are the key factor affecting its treatment and resource utilization. In this study, fly ash samples collected from a power plant with circulating fluidized incinerators of municipal solid waste (MSW) located in Shandong Province (eastern China) were studied. The results showed that there were no obvious seasonal differences in properties of fly ash. The content of total salt, Zn, and pH exceeded the national standards and low-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (Fs) were the main organic components of fly ash for this power plant, which posed great threats to the surrounding environment. The amount of Zn of fly ash was higher than other heavy metals, which should be due to alkaline batteries of MSW. The leachate of fly ash had low concentrations of heavy metals and the main soluble components were sulfates and chlorides. The major mineral crystals of fly ash were SiO2, CaSO4, and Fe2O3. The main organic pollutants were low-ring PAHs, polychlorinated PCDDs, and low-chlorinated PCDFs, and concentrations were lower than the limiting values of the national regulations. Additionally, the distribution of PCDD/Fs had either a positive or a negative linear correlation with fly ash and flue gas, which was associated with the chlorinated degree of PCDD/Fs. The analysis was conducted to fully understand the properties of fly ash and to take appropriate methods for further comprehensive utilization.

  13. Characterization of black carbon and organic contaminants in wood ash from different feedstocks and types of furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Agustin; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Due to their important concentration of nutrient and charcoal, wood ash from biomass power plants (WA) can be used as a fertilizer and organic amendment in intensively managed soils. Unlike biochar produced in under anoxic conditions, the nature of the organic compounds present in wood ash has been scarcely studied. Due to the incomplete combustion, wood ash may contain a wide range of organic compounds, from charred to highly condensed refractory biomass, which determines the possibilities of WA as an organic amendment. In addition, the possible environmental risk of this practice must be assessed by determining the content of water-soluble and insoluble organic contaminants. due to the incomplete combustion of organic matter, organic pollutants, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be formed and can remain in the combustion residue. Also, the four alkyl benzene volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the ortho, para, and meta xylenes) can be formed, depending on certain conditions during combustion. For this study 15 biomass power stations in Spain were selected. In all of them the feedstock is pine or eucalyptus branches and bark. Nine of them were bottom wood ash generated from wood fires furnaces, obtained from grate-fired or water-tube boilers. Whereas four of them were fly ash, obtained in cyclone separators. The samples were collected following a common procedure to ensure the representiveness of the sampling. Bottom ash samples were fraccionated in three fractions: 5mm. Each fraction was characterized for organic matter and BTEX, styrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. For each analyzes, three replicates were analyzed per sample. Mixes wood ash shows higher amounts of charred material than fly ash. The 13 C CPMAS NMR, DSC/TG and FTIR analysis showed the loss of carbohydrates and aliphatic constituents and revealed the formation of aromatic compounds. The atomic H/C ratios, NMR

  14. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  15. Improvement, characterization and use of waste corn cob ash in cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmaneechot, P.; Nochaiya, T.; Julphunthong, P.

    2015-12-01

    This work investigates the development of waste corn cob ash as supplementary cement replacement materials. The study focused on the effects of heat treatment on chemical composition, physical properties and engineering properties of corn cob ash. The results suggest corn cob ash that was heat treated at 600°C for 4 h shows percentage of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 around 72%, which can be classified as Class N calcined natural pozzolan, as prescribed by ASTM C618. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the amorphous silica phase increased with increasing calcining temperatures. The water requirement, initial setting time and final setting time of specimens increased with increasing replacement percentage of raw or treated corn cob ash. The morta cubes which used 20% of treated corn cob ash replaced cement showed 103% of the 28 days compressive strength as compared to reference samples. The corn cob ash that was treated at 600°C for 4 h samples shows slightly higher effectiveness for improving the splitting tensile strength and compressive strength of concrete when compared to the untreated corn cob ash.

  16. Preparation and characterization of fly ash cenospheres supported CuO-BiVO4 heterojunction composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Cui, Hao; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuang; Zhai, Jianping; Li, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Novel fly ash cenospheres supported CuO-BiVO4 heterojunction composites (CuO-BiVO4/FACs) were prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XPS and SEM analyses indicated that Cu was present as CuO dispersed on the surface of BiVO4. The DRS spectra revealed that the composites had improved optical adsorption in the visible light region, and the composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 5 wt% CuO-loaded composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment. FACs, a by-product generated in coal-firing power plants, were used as a low cost support which favored phase separation after the reaction owing to their low density.

  17. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  18. Ash chemistry in MSW incineration plants: Advanced characterization and thermodynamic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Laursen, Karin; Arvelakis, S. (and others)

    2004-07-15

    A number of ash samples where collected at four Danish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants. Samples of bottom ash/slag, 2nd-3rd pass ashes and ESP/E-filter ash were collected at the plants. The ashes were analyzed by a number of standard chemical analyses, and a number of advanced analytical techniques. The wet chemical analyses of the different ash fractions revealed that residual ash is formed on the grate by interaction of the main ash forming elements, Al, Ca, Fe and Si. Some of this ash is entrained from the grate and carried with the flue gas along the flue gas duct, where volatile species of K, Na, Pb, Zn, Cl and S starts to condense heterogeneously on the fly ash, thereby causing a dilution of the main ash forming elements. When compared plant-by-plant, the ash chemical analyses showed that the plant with the highest S-content in the fly ash is the one with the most often operational problems in relation to deposition, while a high Cl-content is indicative of a high corrosive potential. An existing Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) algorithm was extended with chemical classes covering Pb- and Zn-rich phases. This has made it possible also to analyze MSW-derived ashes by use of CCSEM. Representative samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ashes from the four plants have been analyzed by Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis. Only a few crystalline phases were identified: KCl, NaCl, CaSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3} being the main ones. No crystalline phases containing Pb or Zn were identified by QXRD. A comparison between CCSEM and QXRD revealed the expected surface nature of the CCSEM analysis. Samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ash from the four plants where investigated for melting behavior in the Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA). It was shown that it is possible to quantify the melting behavior of these ashes, and that the melting goes on in two steps (salts followed by silicates/oxides). The

  19. Chemical characterization of ash generated from alfalfa stem gasification: Agricultural and environmental implications. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C.; Mozaffari, M.; Russelle, M.; Nater, E.

    1997-10-30

    This progress report provides results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and Synthetic Leachate Test Procedure (SLTP) for the alfalfa stem ash. The TCLP simulates solute leaching in landfill by using acetic acid as a solvent and SLTP simulates potential for leaching from synthetic acid rain. This report also provides information on detailed chemical characterization of organic and inorganic constituents of the ash. The analysis performed includes information on compounds that may represent a potential risk to human or animal health and those constituents that may have beneficial use as soil amendments and conditioners. A sample of the fly (filter) ash from the test burn conducted in Finland was received in May 1997 and used for initial investigation. Three additional fly ash samples and one sample of bottom ash (reactor bed ash) were received in June 1997. The samples were either tested at the University of Minnesota or sent to a reputable laboratory, and various tests were conducted according to the standard methods. The result of the comprehensive tests conducted in May 1997 (report submitted previously) were used as a screening procedure for conducting tests on June 1997 samples. To provide a more comprehensive representation of ash characteristics the results for fly ash received in May are presented along with results from fly ash samples received in July. The average, range and coefficient of variation (CV) are provided. The TCLP and SLTP tests conducted in the laboratory indicated that the concentration of heavy metals were below or close to the detection limits for fly and bottom ash samples (Tables 1 and 2). The ash was also characterized for a number of classes of organic compounds that may pose potential environmental or health risks. These are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total and individual dioxin and furan compounds.

  20. Characterization and electrodialytic treatment of wood combustion fly ash for removal of cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2003-01-01

    Due to a high content of macronutrients and a potential liming capacity, recycling of ashes from biomass combustion to agricultural fields as fertilisers and/or for soil improvement is considered in Denmark and other countries utilising biomass as an energy source. However, the fly ash fractions......-for the aim of recycling-was described. Initial characterisation of the experimental ash showed that the Cd content exceeded the limiting values for agricultural use and therefore needed treatment before being recycled. The pH in the ash was very high (13.3), and the Cd was not soluble at these alkaline...... conditions. However, significant amounts of Cd could be extracted at neutral to alkaline conditions using an ammonium citrate solution as a desorption agent.Electrodialytic remediation experiments showed that, under optimised remediation conditions using a mixture of ammonium citrate (0.25M) and NH"3 (1...

  1. Characterization of animal manure and cornstalk ashes as affected by incineration temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.; Dong, H.; Shang, B.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Agro-environment and Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081 (China); Xin, H. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Incineration has been proposed as an alternative technology to reuse animal manure by producing energy and ash fertilizers. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of incineration temperature on the physical (ash yield) and chemical (nutrient) properties of ashes for different types of animal manure and cornstalk. The source materials were incinerated in a temperature-controlled muffle furnace at the temperature of 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 C and the properties of the resultant ashes were determined following the procedures set by China National Standards. The results indicated that ash yield (AY, %), total nitrogen (TN) recovery and total potassium (K{sub 2}O) recovery all decreased with increasing incineration temperature. The ranges of AY, ash TN and K{sub 2}O recovery were, respectively, 43.6-30.2%, 6.9-0.6%, and 80-61% for laying-hen manure; 34.3-32.1%, 18.8-15.4%, and 95-56% for cattle manure; 25.3-20.7%, 14-0%, and 78-57% for swine manure; and 8.4-7.5%, 2.1-1.4%, and 37-19% for cornstalk. However, total phosphorus (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) content of the ashes increased with incineration temperature, being 20.7-24.0% for swine manure, 4.5-7.5% for layer manure, and 2.7-3.4% for cornstalk. Animal manures have greater TN and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} volatilization but less K{sub 2}O and total sodium (Na{sub 2}O) volatilization as compared to the cornstalk. The results provide a basis for incineration as an alternative means to reuse animal manures and cornstalk and suitability of the resultant ash co-product for different applications. (author)

  2. Effect of Fly Ash Disposal on Ground Water Quality Near Parichha Thermal Power Plant, Jhansi – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kanchan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plant generates a huge amount of fly ash on combustion of coal which is becoming a major environmental issue. Thermal power plants are greatly facing a fly ash management problem. Open dumping of fly ash can deteriorate the groundwater quality by runoff. In the present investigation, the ground water samples were collected from nearby areas of Parichha Thermal Power Plant at six locations during the period of Jan 2014 to May 2014. The samples were taken to the laboratory and analyzed for physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content. The physico-chemical analysis was done for the parameters like pH, Turbidity, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness and Magnesium Hardness. The concentration of Turbidity, EC and Alkalinity was exceeding the standard at all locations and shows that the groundwater of the area is not fit for drinking. The ground water samples were also analyzed for the presence of lead and cadmium and it was found that lead was exceeding the limit although cadmium was found within the limit.

  3. Eifel maars: Quantitative shape characterization of juvenile ash particles (Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Juanita; Grobéty, Bernard; Vonlanthen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The Eifel region in western central Germany is the type locality for maar volcanism, which is classically interpreted to be the result of explosive eruptions due to shallow interaction between magma and external water (i.e. phreatomagmatic eruptions). Sedimentary structures, deposit features and particle morphology found in many maar deposits of the West Eifel Volcanic Field (WEVF), in contrast to deposits in the East Eifel Volcanic Field (EEVF), lack the diagnostic criteria of typical phreatomagmatic deposits. The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively the shape of WEVF and EEVF maar ash particles in order to infer the governing eruption style in Eifel maar volcanoes. The quantitative shape characterization was done by analyzing fractal dimensions of particle contours (125-250 μm sieve fraction) obtained from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM micro-computed tomography (SEM micro-CT) images. The fractal analysis (dilation method) and the fractal spectrum technique confirmed that the WEVF and EEVF maar particles have contrasting multifractal shapes. Whereas the low small-scale dimensions of EEVF particles (Eppelsberg Green Unit) coincide with previously published values for phreatomagmatic particles, the WEVF particles (Meerfelder Maar, Pulvermaar and Ulmener Maar) have larger values indicating more complex small-scale features, which are characteristic for magmatic particles. These quantitative results are strengthening the qualitative microscopic observations, that the studied WEVF maar eruptions are rather dominated by magmatic processes. The different eruption styles in the two volcanic fields can be explained by the different geological and hydrological settings found in both regions and the different chemical compositions of the magmas.

  4. Caracterização das cinzas de incineração de resíduos industriais e de serviços de saúde Characterization of incineration ashes of industrial and hospital solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Lopes Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three ash samples from an incinerator in Belo Horizonte (Brazil were physically and chemically characterized. The chemical composition of the ashes was not always the same, neither in terms of the chemical species nor in terms of the quantities of those that are common to the three ashes. The ashes called CF1 and CF3D contain heavy metals above the detection limits of the analytical methods and the zinc concentration is high enough to justify treatment of the ashes. For these ashes, a high loss on ignition was found, indicating that the process of incineration might present failures.

  5. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, E.M. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program was to perform bench-scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  6. Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform bench scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).

  7. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of novel solid base catalyst from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepti Jain; Chitralekha Khatri; Ashu Rani [University of Kota, Rajasthan (India). Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    A new type of solid base catalyst was synthesized by chemical and thermal activation of fly ash, collected from Thermal Super Power Station situated in Kota, Rajasthan, India. The chemical activation was carried out by 50 wt.% NaOH followed by thermal activation at 450{sup o}C. The modified physiochemical property of solid base fly ash (SBFA) was determined by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption studies and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results reveal that the catalyst is nano-crystalline in nature with crystallite size 11 nm and particle size in the range 840 nm to 6.95 {mu}m. The surface basicity and therefore, catalytic activity in SBFA was originated by increased hydroxyl content as compared to fly ash, suggesting that the catalyst possess higher surface active sites. The basicity of the catalyst was measured by liquid phase, solvent free, single step condensation of benzaldehyde with cyclohexanone giving higher conversion ({gt}70%) and selectivity ({gt}80%) of desired product a,a'-dibenzylidenecyclohexanone. This excellent conversion shows that the catalyst has sufficient basic sites both on the surface and in the bulk, responsible for the catalytic activity. Furthermore, this catalyst may replace conventional environmentally hazardous homogeneous liquid bases making an ecofriendly, solvent free, solid base catalyzed process. The application of fly ash to synthesize a solid base catalyst finds a noble way to utilize this abundant waste material. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  10. Physical, mechanical and microscopic characterization of cold bonded fly ash lightweight aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the different tests carried out on fly ash lightweight aggregates produced with three different kinds of binders: Lime, Portland cement and Pozzolan Portland cement. The elaboration process used for the aggregates consisted in an agglomeration system by agitation under cold bonded hardening conditions. The tests carried out were a physical characterization of the aggregates, the determination of mechanical properties with a crushing test and, finally, the study of the microstructure of the aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dispersive energy X ray (EDX. From the point of view of mechanical strength, the results indicate that the best kind of aggregate is the one made with a 5% Pozzolan Portland cement. This result was confirmed by the microstructure analysis, which shows that this kind of aggregate presents the highest hydration speed.

    El estudio presenta los resultados obtenidos de ensayos realizados sobre áridos ligeros de cenizas volantes fabricados con tres tipos de conglomerantes: cal, cemento Portland puro y cemento portland puzolánico. El proceso de fabricación empleado para la elaboración de los áridos consistió en un sistema de aglomeración por agitación bajo condiciones de endurecimiento enfrío. Los ensayos efectuados comprenden la caracterización física de los áridos, la determinación de las propiedades mecánicas por medio de un ensayo de trituración y, finalmente, el estudio de la microestructura de los áridos con técnicas de microscopía de barrido (SEM y energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX. Desde el punto de vista de resistencia mecánica los resultados indican que el mejor tipo de árido es el fabricado con un 5% de cemento portland puzolánico. Este resultado se confirma con el análisis de la microestructura que demuestra que este tipo de árido presenta la mayor velocidad de hidratación.

  11. Quality criteria for bottom ashes for civil construction. Part II Technical characteristics of bottom ashes; Kvalitetskriterier foer bottenaskor till vaegoch anlaeggningsbyggnad. Etapp II Bottenaskors tekniska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Bo von; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Ekvall, Annika; Arvidsson, Haakan [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    This report is the presentation of the second of two stages. This stage deals mainly with the testing of three different types of ashes and the evaluation and suitability of the chosen test methods. The project only relates to the technical aspects of ashes. The report is written in such a way that both ash owners (e.g. Energy companies) and those who build roads and constructions will find it meaningful. All test methods that are used for traditional materials (gravel and crushed rock) is not fitting for ashes. New test methods for some properties that will be tested must therefore be presented, tested practically and evaluated. The project encompasses both road and construction building but has a focus on road construction since there the highest and comprising demands are defined. Three bottom ashes of different types have been studied regarding some tenfold mechanical/physical parameters, essential for the functionality of the ash as a construction material. An important conclusion is that ash is from a functionality and characterisation point of view, an undefined concept that encloses materials with widely different properties. Despite that only three ashes have been looked into the range of results are varying large for some properties. This is especially true for the loose bulk density, water absorption and grain size distribution. It is also clear that some of the standard test methods for aggregates need to be exchanged by other methods, which are more adapted to alternative materials. One such example is water absorption, a property that further influences frost resistance, frost heave and such. All the proposed test methods that been used in the project is considered fitting for its purpose. The test methods can be divided into two categories the ones that yield easy assessable results and those that yield results hard to appraise. To the first group belong grain size distribution, loose bulk density, thermal conductivity, permeability and frost heave

  12. Sewage sludge ash (SSA in high performance concrete: characterization and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Fontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sewage sludge originated from the process of treatment of wastewater has become an environmental issue for three main reasons: contains pathogens, heavy metals and organic compounds that are harmful to the environmental and human health; high volumes are daily generated; and shortage of landfill sites for proper disposal. This research deals with the viability study of sewage sludge utilization, after calcination process, as mineral admixture in the production of concrete. High-performance concretes were produced with replacement content of 5% and 10% by weight of Portland cement with sewage sludge ash (SSA. The influence of this ash was analyzed through physical and mechanical tests. Analysis showed that the mixtures containing SSA have lower values of compressive strength than the reference. The results of absorptivity, porosity and accelerated penetration of chloride ions, presents that mixtures containing ash showed reductions compared to the reference. This indicates that SSA provided refinement of the pore structure, which was confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimetry test.

  13. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  14. Agglomeration in Stripper Ash Coolers and Its Possible Remedial Solutions: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi Inder

    2016-04-01

    The bottom ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler contains large amounts of physical heat. When low quality coals are used in these types of boilers, the ash content is normally more than 40 % and the physical heat loss is approximately 3 % if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. Bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to facilitate the easily handling and transportation of ash. The CFB boiler at BLA Power, Newari, MP (India) is facing problems of clinker formation in strip ash coolers of plant since the installation of unit. These clinkers are basically agglomerates, which leads to defluidization of stripper ash cooler (BAC) units. There are two strip ash coolers in unit. Each strip ash cooler is capable of working independently. The proper functioning of both strip coolers is very important as it is going to increase the combustion efficiency of boiler by stripping of fine unburnt coal particles from ash, which are injected into the furnace. In this paper causes, characterization of agglomerates, thermo gravimetric analysis of fuel used, particular size distribution of coal and sand and possible remedial solution to overcome these agglomerates in strip ash coolers has also been presented. High temperature in compact separators, non uniform supply of coal and not removing small agglomerates from stripper ash cooler are among main causes of agglomeration in stripper ash cooler. Control of compact separator temperature, replacing 10-12 % of bed material and cleaning stripper ash cooler periodically will decrease agglomeration in stripper ash cooler of unit.

  15. Improved prediction and tracking of volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P.; Mastin, L.

    2009-01-01

    During the past 30??years, more than 100 airplanes have inadvertently flown through clouds of volcanic ash from erupting volcanoes. Such encounters have caused millions of dollars in damage to the aircraft and have endangered the lives of tens of thousands of passengers. In a few severe cases, total engine failure resulted when ash was ingested into turbines and coating turbine blades. These incidents have prompted the establishment of cooperative efforts by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the volcanological community to provide rapid notification of eruptive activity, and to monitor and forecast the trajectories of ash clouds so that they can be avoided by air traffic. Ash-cloud properties such as plume height, ash concentration, and three-dimensional ash distribution have been monitored through non-conventional remote sensing techniques that are under active development. Forecasting the trajectories of ash clouds has required the development of volcanic ash transport and dispersion models that can calculate the path of an ash cloud over the scale of a continent or a hemisphere. Volcanological inputs to these models, such as plume height, mass eruption rate, eruption duration, ash distribution with altitude, and grain-size distribution, must be assigned in real time during an event, often with limited observations. Databases and protocols are currently being developed that allow for rapid assignment of such source parameters. In this paper, we summarize how an interdisciplinary working group on eruption source parameters has been instigating research to improve upon the current understanding of volcanic ash cloud characterization and predictions. Improved predictions of ash cloud movement and air fall will aid in making better hazard assessments for aviation and for public health and air quality. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Twelve Months of Air Quality Monitoring at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Southwestern Rural Nevada, U.S.A (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P; Shafer, David S; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; McCurdy, Greg; Kohl, Steven D; Nikolich, George; Sheetz, Larry

    2011-08-01

    The one year of air quality monitoring data collected at the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) was the final part of the air quality "Scoping Studies" for the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) in southern and central Nevada. The objective of monitoring at Ash Meadows was to examine aerosol and meteorological data, seasonal trends in aerosol and meteorological parameters as well as to examine evidence for long distance transport of some constituents. The 9,307 hectare refuge supports more than 50 springs and 24 endemic species, including the only population of the federally listed endangered Devil’s Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990). Ash Meadows NWR is located in a Class II air quality area, and the aerosol measurements collected with this study are compared to those of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites. Measurements taken at Ash Meadows NWR over a period of 12 months provide new baseline air quality and meteorological information for rural southwestern Nevada, specifically Nye County and the Amargosa Valley.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  18. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): gene characterization and expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mamidala, Praveen; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-06-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of ash trees and continues to invade North America at a rapid pace. From an on-going expressed sequence tag (EST) project of A. planipennis larval tissues, we identified ESTs coding for a Cu-Zn SOD (ApSOD1), a CAT (ApCAT1) and a GPX (ApGPX1). A multiple sequence alignment of the derived A. planipennis sequences revealed high homology with other insect sequences at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of ApSOD1 grouped it with Cu-Zn SODs of other insect taxa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different larval tissues (midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubule and cuticle) revealed high mRNA levels of ApCAT1 in the midgut. Interestingly, high mRNA levels for both ApSOD1 and ApGPX1 were observed in the Malpighian tubules. Assay of mRNA levels in developmental stages (larva, prepupa and adults) by qRT-PCR indicated high transcript levels of ApCAT1 and ApGPX1 in larval and prepupal stages with a decline in adults. On the other hand, the transcript levels of ApSOD1 were observed to be constitutive in all the developmental stages assayed. Results obtained reflect a plausible role of these A. planipennis antioxidant genes in quenching ROS from both diet (ash allelochemicals) as well as endogenous sources. These studies further help in understanding the adaptation/invasiveness of A. planipennis.

  19. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  20. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment.

  1. Pozzolanic Characterization Of Waste Rice Husk Ash (RHA) From Muar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipramana, J.; Riza, F. V.; Rahman, I. A.; Loon, L. Y.; Adnan, S. H.; Zaidi, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) thoroughly under controlled burning is regular issue to obtain result to produce the amorphous silica that has high pozzolanic reactivity characteristic. This paper offered an observation about characteristic of ground and un-ground of un-controlled burning temperature RHA that were taken from rice millings in Muar, Johor Malaysia. Such tests as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle Size Analysis and Specific Area Surface, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) were conducted in this investigation to carry out the characteristic of RHA samples. The results show that the RHA was consist approximately 89.90% of silica and the RHA possessed the amorphous particle were dominant than its crystalline part. This proves that the RHA has a big potential as a pozzolanic material considering the silica content and porous structure. In addition, particle size analysis decides whether the pozzolanic reactivity can be increased by grinding process.

  2. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  3. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sungchul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Meral, Cagla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Oh, Jae-eun [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Juhyuk [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using μ-SXRD patterns prove that μ-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. μ-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  4. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  5. Characterization of gaseous emissions and ashes from the combustion of furniture waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Isabel; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-12-01

    Gaseous emissions and ash obtained in the combustion of furniture waste have been studied, with particular emphasis on the emissions of hazardous pollutants, such as PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBS. Two different combustion procedures were carried out, one of them in a conventional residential stove (without an automatic control of combustion air and bad mixing of combustion gases with air), and the other in a laboratory-scale reactor (operating under substoichiometric conditions). Three different experiments were carried out in the residential stove, in which the gaseous emissions and ashes obtained were analysed. The fuel burnt out in two of the experiments was furniture wood waste and in one of the experiments, the fuel burnt out was briquettes composed of a mixture of furniture wood with 10wt.% of polyurethane foam. One of the purposes of these experiments was the evaluation of the possible inhibition effect of the higher nitrogen content on the formation of PCDD/Fs. Slight inhibition of the PCDD/F formation was found although, it is noteworthy that the lowest yield of PAHs, volatile and semi-volatile compounds were obtained in the combustion of these briquettes. In all experiments, the emission factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) were between 29 and 74ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample burnt, lower than that obtained by other authors in the burning of pine needles and cones. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs emissions from furniture wood waste combustion were also analysed in the laboratory scale reactor at 850°C and the results were compared with the values obtained from the combustion of solid wood (untreated wood). The total equivalent toxicity obtained was 21.1ng WHO-TEQ/kg sample for combustion of furniture wood waste, which is low in comparison with those obtained for other waste combustion in similar conditions. In the laboratory scale reactor, PCDFs were the dominant compounds in the profiles of PCDD

  6. Preparation and characterization of Fe3+-doped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres for photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Li, Qin; Wang, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhai, Jianping

    2011-02-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 film deposited on fly ash cenosphere (Fe-TiO2/FAC) was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. These fresh photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The XRD results showed that Fe element can maintain metastable anatase phase of TiO2, and effect of temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 °C for 0.01% Fe-TiO2/FAC. The SEM analysis revealed the Fe-TiO2 films on the surface of a fly ash cenosphere with a thickness of 2 μm. The absorption threshold of Fe-TiO2/FACs shifted to a longer wavelength compared to the photocatalyst without Fe3+-doping in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity and kinetics of Fe-TiO2/FAC with varying the iron content and the calcination temperatures were investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) during visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO2/FAC and Fe3+-doped TiO2 powder (Fe-TiO2), the degradation ratio using Fe-TiO2/FAC increased by 33% and 30%, respectively, and the best calcined temperature was 450 °C and the optimum doping of Fe/Ti molar ratio was 0.01%. The Fe-TiO2/FAC particles can float in water due to the low density of FAC in favor of phase separation to recover these photocatalyst after the reaction, and the recovery test shows that calcination contributes to regaining photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO2/FAC photocatalyst.

  7. Performance Evaluation and Microstructure Characterization of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Containing Oil Palm Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideng Hawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the microstructure, compressive strength, and drying shrinkage of metakaolin (MK based geopolymers produced by partially replacing MK by oil palm ash (OPA. The OPA was used as raw material producing different molar ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and CaO/SiO2. The geopolymer samples were cured at 80°C for 1, 2, or 4 hours and kept at ambient temperature until testing. The compressive strength was measured after 2, 6, and 24 hours and 7 and 28 days. The testing results revealed that the geopolymer with 5% OPA (SiO2 : Al2O3 = 2.88 : 1 gave the highest compressive strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicated that the 5% OPA sample had a dense-compact matrix and less unreacted raw materials which contributed to the higher compressive strength. In the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns, the change of the crystalline phase after heat curing for 4 hours was easily detectable compared to the samples subjected to a shorter period of heat curing.

  8. Performance evaluation and microstructure characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer containing oil palm ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Abideng; Tonnayopas, Danupon; Prachasaree, Woraphot

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the microstructure, compressive strength, and drying shrinkage of metakaolin (MK) based geopolymers produced by partially replacing MK by oil palm ash (OPA). The OPA was used as raw material producing different molar ratios of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ and CaO/SiO₂. The geopolymer samples were cured at 80°C for 1, 2, or 4 hours and kept at ambient temperature until testing. The compressive strength was measured after 2, 6, and 24 hours and 7 and 28 days. The testing results revealed that the geopolymer with 5% OPA (SiO₂  : Al₂O₃ = 2.88 : 1) gave the highest compressive strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the 5% OPA sample had a dense-compact matrix and less unreacted raw materials which contributed to the higher compressive strength. In the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, the change of the crystalline phase after heat curing for 4 hours was easily detectable compared to the samples subjected to a shorter period of heat curing.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCTION OF CONDUCTIVE FILLER FROM OIL PALM ASH AND ITS PERFORMANCE IN EPOXY MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTHMAN MAMAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Ash (OPA was investigated and the FESEM studies showed medium sized particle with a crushed structure. An XRD diffractogram of OPA showed that the obtained OPA contain aluminum, silicon and they exist in their oxide form as indicated by the high percentage of oxygen (36% with little traces of potassium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide. while FTIR analysis indicated the occurrence of functional groups such as OH groups, silanol hydroxyl groups of silica or the N-H stretching vibration free imines, aromatic C-H and C-Br alkyl functional group and the presence of methyl CH3. OPA was carbonized in a furnace with the control flow of nitrogen and ball milled at 100 rpm for 3 hours to obtain a carbonized particle with a diameter of 77.9- 140.9 nm. The synthesized carbon black (CB Particle was dispersed in epoxy resin (DGEBA at different loading to produce an electrically conductive polymer with a well-dispersed network of electrical conducting particles.

  10. MSWI Boiler Ashes: Production and Quality Through the Horizontal Section of a Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    SUMMARY: the central role of waste-to-energy (WtE) plants in Denmark asks for a deep knowledge of all different residues produced by these facilities. The main objective of solid residues characterization is the optimization of their management system. In this study we present the results of the ...

  11. Metals accumulations during thermal processing of sewage sludge - characterization of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing mass of sewage sludge, problems in its management have appeared. Over years sewage sludge was landfilled, however due to EU directives concerning environmental issues this option is no longer possible. This type of material is considered hazardous due to highly concentrated metals and harmful elements, toxic organic substances and biological components (e.g. parasites, microbes). Currently in Europe, incineration is considered to be the most reasonable method for sewage sludge treatment. As a result of sludge incineration significant amount of energy is recovered due to high calorific value of sewage sludge but bottom ash and APC residues are being produced. In this study we show the preliminary results of chemical and mineral analyses of both bottom ash and APC residues produced in fluidized bed boiler in sewage sludge incineration plant in Poland, with a special emphasis on metals which, as a part of incombustible fraction can accumulate in the residual materials after thermal processing. The bottom ash was a SiO2-P2O5-Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3 dominated material. Main mineral phases identified in X-ray diffraction patterns were: quartz, feldspar, hematite, and phosphates (apatite and scholzite). The bottom ash was characterized by high content of Zn - 4472 mg kg-1, Cu - 665.5 mg kg-1, Pb - 138 mg kg-1, Ni - 119.5 mg kg-1, and interestingly high content of Au - 0.858 mg kg-1 The APC residues composition was dominated by soluble phases which represent more than 90% of the material. The XRD patterns indicated thenardite, halite, anhydrite, calcite and apatite as main mineral phases. The removal of soluble phases by dissolution in deionised water caused a significant mass reduction (ca. 3% of material remained on the filters). Calcite, apatite and quartz were main identified phases. The content of metals in insoluble material is relatively high: Zn - 6326 mg kg-1, Pb - 514.3 mg kg-1, Cu - 476.6 mg kg-1, Ni - 43.3 mg kg-1. The content of Cd, As, Se and Hg was

  12. Characterization of fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator to explore its using in construction; Caracterizacion de cenizas procedentes de plantas de incineracion de residuos solidos urbanos para su posible utilizacion en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, M. P.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerator. The objective is to explore potential applications of this residue in construction products. The results show the no pozzolanic nature of the fly ashes, so its utilization as mineral admixture is discarded. however, the study reveals the expansive character of the fly ashes when are mixed with water. The results of X-ray diffraction confirm the presence of metallic aluminium in the fly ash as the origin of this expansion. This chemical reaction generates a considerable amount of hydrogen, inflammable gas. Three ways to avoid this reaction are proposed. On the other way, the expansive behaviour of the fly ashes allow to explore its possible application to produce cellular mortars, as the traditional production of these mortars have several similarities with the reaction of fly ash and water. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Studies of technology of mass production and quality control in road base material using coal ash; Sekitanbai wo genryo to suru robanzai no ryosan hinshitsu kanri gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Ozasa, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzura, K. [Naruto Salt Mfg. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Izumi, H. [Nippon Hodo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    Use of granular solidified coal ash as a road base material has been studied to facilitate the large scale utilization of powdered material. The proposed technology of producing granular solidified coal ash includes steam curing combined with different unit operations. Investigations on the technological and quality control aspects make clear the followings: (1) A proper technology for large scale processing may consists of the following steps: kneading of coal ash with water around its plastic limit, low pressure molding, steam curing and crushing. (2) A road base material of good quality can be produced in large qualities from coal ash of fixed CaO content and unburnt carbon content. Further processing includes mixing with the amount of water based on the size and the time change degree of the consuming power in kneader, kneading and molding. The temperature of the kneading water should be adjusted to the ambient conditions. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Preparation and characterization of fly ash cenospheres supported CuO–BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing 211171 (China); Cui, Hao; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuang; Zhai, Jianping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Li, Qin, E-mail: qli@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel CuO–BiVO{sub 4}/FACs heterojunction composites have been synthesized. • CuO–BiVO{sub 4} are loaded on the surface of lightweight hollow microspheres. • The CuO–BiVO{sub 4}/FACs exhibit enhanced absorption in the visible light region. • The CuO–BiVO{sub 4}/FACs show efficient photocatalytic activities. • The composites are floatable and can be recovered easily. - Abstract: Novel fly ash cenospheres supported CuO–BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction composites (CuO–BiVO{sub 4}/FACs) were prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and UV–vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XPS and SEM analyses indicated that Cu was present as CuO dispersed on the surface of BiVO{sub 4}. The DRS spectra revealed that the composites had improved optical adsorption in the visible light region, and the composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 5 wt% CuO-loaded composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment. FACs, a by-product generated in coal-firing power plants, were used as a low cost support which favored phase separation after the reaction owing to their low density.

  15. Characterization of Pozzolanic Reaction and Its Effect on the C-S-H Gel in Fly Ash-cement Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HE Zhen; CAI Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    High resolution solid-state 29Si MAS NMR, combined with XRD, SEM and FTIR were used to characterize the pozzolanic activity of FA, type of main pozzolanic reaction products, and the effect of pozzolanic reaction on the C-S-H microstructure in fly ash-cement (FC) paste. The experimental results indicate that in the hydrated FC paste with 30% dosage of FA at 3 d, FA partially participated in the pozzolanic reaction, while, at 120 d, FA largely reacts. During the hydration of FCpaste at laboratory temperature, the pozzolanic reaction products are C-S-H gel rather than zeolitic gel.Moreover, after the covalent bonds of Si-O-Si, Si-O-Al and Al-O-Al in the structure of FA are broken,monosilicates Si-OH and Al-OH groups form, these chemical species can connect C-S-H dimers, thus producing more Al-free C-S-H and aluminous C-S-H than in the plain cement paste. The increased content of Al for Si substitution in the bridging tetrahedra of C-S-H may decrease the stability of C-S-H, which results in a rather obvious loss in the mechanical strength of hardened FC paste.

  16. Ashes from biofuels and mixed fuels - amount and qualities; Askor fraan biobraenslen och blandbraenslen - maengder och kvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Berg, Magnus [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    In this study, ashes from biofuels used in the energy utilities, the pulp and paper industry and the wood-working industries have been inventoried. The selection of plants to which enquiries were addressed consists of about 50 utilities, all pulp and paper plants and about 20 wood-working industries (e.g. sawmills). The purpose of the study was to estimate the quantities of bio ashes that are recycled to the forests and those that could be recycled. The background to this study is that logging slash is harvested from ca 30,000 ha per year, while ash is recycled only to 2 to 4,000 ha per year. A working hypothesis has been that logging slash or clean wooden fuels are mixed with other fuels to such an extent that the ash is too contaminated to be recycled. The consequence would be that there is a shortage of suitable ash. Therefore, it was desirable that motives for mixing fuels be chartered. In Sweden, approximately one million ton ashes are produced each year and the share of the three industries that have been studied is estimated as: 200 - 340,000 tons from utilities about 275,000 tons from the pulp and paper industry and 100,000 tons from the woodworking industry. These quantities include unburned carbon, water added when the ash is extracted from the boilers etc. Additional quantities of ash are those produced by waste combustion (447,000 tons), wood-burning in residential buildings (50 - 100,000 tons) etc. In all, ash that may be recycled should total about 300,000 tons (Recyclable ash in t/a: Utilities - 80,000; Pulp and Paper Industry - 100-130,000; Woodworking Industry 100,000). Logging slash is seldom burned alone in the boilers at the utilities, but are almost always mixed with other wood fuel fractions such as waste from sawmills. The mixtures can be very complex. Clean mixtures of wood fuel fractions represent ca 4,500 GWh of the ca 7,800 GWh in this study. Other fuels that are often used in mixtures are peat and Salix, which does not necessarily lead

  17. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  18. Study and rheological characterization of various bone ash porcelain formulations; Estudo e caracterizacao reologica de diferentes formulacoes de porcelana de cinza de ossos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carus, L.A.; Bento, L.; Braganca, S.R., E-mail: laucarus@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The bone ash porcelain is a widely accepted product on the market because their qualities such as high strength and whiteness, to differ from common table porcelains. Its traditional formulation comes from an English recipe, consisting of 25% of kaolin, 25% of feldspar and 50% of bovine bone ash. In some studies, this proportion is adapted to regional conditions, optimizing the formulation according to the raw materials available. In this study, the rheological behavior of bone porcelain suspensions, in which the flux feldspar is partially substituted by an alternative flux (espudomenio, wollastonite and glass). The results show that the rheological behavior of porcelain is affected by the size, shape, surface area and particle size distribution of particles in suspension.

  19. Caracterização de cinzas volantes para aproveitamento cerâmico Characterization of fly ash for ceramic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Warpechowski da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinzas volantes são minerais produzidos a partir da queima de carvão mineral. A Usina Termelétrica de Candiota, RS produz aproximadamente 1.000.000 toneladas/ano de cinzas, sendo que 80% volantes e 20% pesadas. O aproveitamento deste material em compostos cerâmicos é altamente recomendável pois, como resíduo sólido da queima do carvão, sua disposição no meio ambiente acarreta vários problemas ambientais sérios e custos volumosos. Mineralogicamente as cinzas volantes são constituídas por mulita, quartzo e hematita, e material amorfo determinado por difração de raios X; na caracterização química foram determinados os elementos maiores e como menores Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd e Ni. Para a caracterização física realizou-se ensaios de análise granulométrica, superfície específica, MEG, limites de Atterberg e índice de atividade pozolânica (cimento e cal.Fly ashes are minerals produced in the combustion of mineral coal. The Candiota Power Station, at RS State, produces approximately 1,000,000 ton/yr. ashes. A fraction of around 80% of this quantity is constituted by fly ash and just 20% by bottom ash. The maximum capacity of production of ashes is close to 1,900,000 ton/yr. The utilization of this material in ceramic composites is highly recommended since, as solid reject from coal combustion, the disposal of this residue in the environment gives rise to severe environmental problems and high costs for correction. X-ray analyses have determined the mineralogical constitution of fly ash; the material is made of mullite, quartz and hematite, in addition to amorphous material. The chemical characterization has identified the major elements and Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd and Ni as minor constituents. For the physical characterization, the tests were particle size analysis and the measurement of specific surface, MEG, Atterberg’s limit and the index of pozolanic activity (for cement and lime.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH BELITE SULFOALUMINATE CEMENT THROUGH RICH ALUMINA FLY ASH AND DESULFURIZATION GYPSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BING MA,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the preparation and characterization of high belite sulfoaluminate cement (HBSC from industrial residues. HBSC promises eco-friendly building materials with great mechanical performance at earlier ages than Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC. Preliminary results show the formation of main phase dicalcium silicate (C2S and ye’elimite (C4A3$ at 1250°C, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, are promising. The formation of minerals in the clinker was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC–TG. Likewise, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and XRD were used to carry out the analysis of the micro-structural and hydration products. The main HBSC hydration products, Ettringite and amorphous Al(OH3, were formed in the early stages; however, during the later stages, monosulfate and Strätlingite were formed. Isothermal conduction calorimetry measurements indicate that hydration properties of the cements are comparable to OPC; the total hydration heat after 3 days was 438 J/g. The optimum compressive strength values of the mortars after 1-, 3-, 7-, and 28-days were 24.9 MPa, 33.2 MPa, 35.6 MPa and 52.8 MPa which can meet the requirement of special structures.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite material from coal ashes modified by surfactant; Sintese e caracterizacao de material zeolitico de cinzas de carvao modificado por surfactante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, D.A., E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CQMA/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente; Borrely, S.I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2010-07-01

    Coal ash was used as starting material for zeolite synthesis by means of hydrothermal treatment. The surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) was prepared by adsorbing the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) on the external surface of the zeolite from coal ash. The zeolite structure stability was monitored during the characterization of the materials by FTIR, XDR and SEM. The structural parameters of surfactant-modified zeolite are very close to that of corresponding non-modified zeolite which indicates that the crystalline nature of the zeolite remained intact after required chemical treatment with HDTMA-Br molecules and heating treatment for drying. The most intense peaks in the FTIR spectrum of HDTMA-Br were observed in SMZ spectrum confirming adsorption of surfactant on zeolites. (author)

  2. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity evaluation of Fe-N-codoped TiO2/fly ash cenospheres floating photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingke; Wang, Xuejiang; Bu, Yunjie; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Huang, Jiayu; Chen, Jie; Zhao, Jianfu

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Fe-N-codoped TiO2 layers on fly ash cenospheres (FAC) as floating photocatalyst were successfully prepared through sol-gel method. Photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet (UV)-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and nitrogen adsorption analyses for Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area. Photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared catalyst was evaluated through using the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. Photocatalytic activity and kinetics of catalyst under visible light were detected in details from different Fe/Ti mole ratios by detecting photodegradation of RhB. Experimental results show that when the calcination temperature was 550 °C, the dosage of FAC was 3.0 g, and the mole ratio of Fe/Ti was 0.71 %; the synthesized Fe-N-TiO2/FAC photocatalyst presented as anatase phase and that N and Fe ions were doped into TiO2 lattice. The material's specific surface area was 34.027 m(2)/g, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows that the edge of the photon absorption has been red shifted up to 400-500 nm. Fe-N-codoped titanium dioxide on FAC had excellent photocatalytic activity during the process of photodegradation of RhB under visible light irradiation.

  3. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A1 to A3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, I.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kloeft, H.; Boejer, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with incineration bottom ash leaching properties; design and construction of rotary kiln facility; manual to rotary kiln experiments. (Author)

  4. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  5. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln

  6. Characterization of moderate ash-and-gas explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, from infrasound waveform inversion and thermal infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, S. De; Lamb, O. D.; Lamur, A.; Hornby, A. J.; Aulock, F. W.; Chigna, G.; Lavallée, Y.; Rietbrock, A.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid discharge of gas and rock fragments during volcanic eruptions generates acoustic infrasound. Here we present results from the inversion of infrasound signals associated with small and moderate gas-and-ash explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, to retrieve the time history of mass eruption rate at the vent. Acoustic waveform inversion is complemented by analyses of thermal infrared imagery to constrain the volume and rise dynamics of the eruption plume. Finally, we combine results from the two methods in order to assess the bulk density of the erupted mixture, constrain the timing of the transition from a momentum-driven jet to a buoyant plume, and to evaluate the relative volume fractions of ash and gas during the initial thrust phase. Our results demonstrate that eruptive plumes associated with small-to-moderate size explosions at Santiaguito only carry minor fractions of ash, suggesting that these events may not involve extensive magma fragmentation in the conduit.

  7. Characterization of multi-scale porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures: from submillimeter to nano-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Gaohui; Jiang, Longtao; Sun, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures (FPGHSS), prepared by pre-bonding and curing technology, has been characterized by multi-resolution methods from sub-millimeter to nano-scale. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy could provide the macroscopic distribution of porous structure on sub-millimeter scale, and hollow fly ashes with sphere shape and several sub-millimeter open cells with irregular shape were identified. SEM is more suitable to illustrate the distribution of micro-sized open and closed cells, and it was found that the open cells of FPGHSS were mainly formed in the interstitial porosity between fly ashes. Mercury porosimeter measurement showed that the micro-sized open cell of FPGHSS demonstrated a normal/bimodal distribution, and the peaks of pore size distribution were mainly around 100 and 10 μm. TEM observation revealed that the phosphate geopolymer was mainly composed of the porous area with nano-pores and dense areas, which were amorphous Al-O-P phase and α-Al2O3 respectively. The pore size of nano-pores demonstrated a quasi-normal distribution from about 10 to 100 nm. Therefore, detailed information of the porous structure of FPGHSS could be revealed using multiple methods.

  8. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A11 to A14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Boejer, M.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with electrical efficiency by dividing the combustion products; release of potentially corrosive constituents from the grate; CFD modeling of grate with and without vertical divider. (Author)

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR EMISSIONS AND RESIDUAL ASH FROM OPEN BURNING OF ELECTRONIC WASTES DURING SIMULATED RUDIMENTALRY RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air emissions and residual ash measurements were made from open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) during simulations of practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recycling operations. Circuit boards and insulated wires were separately burned to simulate p...

  10. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  11. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  12. Characterization and stabilization of suspension of bovine bone ash; Caracterizacao e estabilizacao de suspensao de po de ossos bovinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carus, L.A.; Bento, L.; Takimi, A.S.; Braganca, S.R., E-mail: laucarus@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The bovine bone powder is the main component in the production of bone china, which is known to be one of the finest and most expensive tableware. This special type of porcelain has unique aesthetic characteristics, among which stands out the whiteness, translucency and brightness. The properties of this porcelain, as well as its manufacture, depend on the characteristics of the bone ash. In this study the rheological properties of the suspensions using exclusively bovine bone ash were evaluated by testing the influence of the concentration of solids in suspension, the calcination temperature and the use of dispersing agents. It was found that the powder calcination temperature affects the rheology of the suspension by lowering the viscosity. (author)

  13. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  14. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  15. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics; Caracterizacao de cinzas de bagaco de cana como materia prima para producao de ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G., E-mail: catiaf@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Metalurgia e Materiais Ceramicos; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (Poli/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO{sub 2} ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} as crystalline phases. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  17. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  18. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  19. Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash Samples from the June 2007 Angora Wildfire Near Lake Tahoe in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Martin, Deborah A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Todorov, Todor; Anthony, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    This report releases leachate geochemical data for ash samples produced by the Angora wildfire that burned from June 24 to July 2, 2007, near Lake Tahoe in northern California. The leaching studies are part of a larger interdisciplinary study whose goal is to identify geochemical characteristics and properties of the ash that may adversely affect human health, water quality, air quality, animal habitat, endangered species, debris flows, and flooding hazards. The leaching study helps characterize and understand the interactions that occur when the ash comes in contact with rain or snowmelt, and helps identify the constituents that may be mobilized as run-off from these materials. Similar leaching studies were conducted on ash and burned soils from the October 2007 southern California wildfires (Hageman and others, 2008; Plumlee and others, 2007).

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal ashes modified by cationic surfactant; Sintese e caracterizacao de zeolita de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante cationico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, D.A.; Borrely, S.I., E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash was modified with different concentrations (2 and 20 mmol.L{sup -1}) of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). The Non-Modified Zeolite (NMZ) and Surfactant-Modified Zeolites (SMZ) were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, among others. The SMS presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of NMZ. A decrease in surface area was observed for SMZ as compared to NMZ indicating zeolite surface coverage with HDTMA-Br molecules. The crystalline nature of the zeolite remained intact after adsorption of surfactant and heating for drying. FTIR analysis indicated that there were no significant changes in the structure of the zeolite after adsorption of surfactant. (author)

  1. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... importantly, by reaction with Al and Si in the fly ash. About 70-80% K in the fly ash appears as alumina silicates while the remainder K is mainly present as sulphate. Lignite/straw co-firing produces fly ash with relatively high Cl content. This is probably because of the high content of calcium...

  2. Synthesis of zeolites from boiler fly ash: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization; Sintese de zeolitas a partir de cinza volante de caldeiras: caracterizacao fisica, quimica e mineralogica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Junior, C.A.F.; Santos, S.C.A.; Souza, C.A.G., E-mail: augustorocha2@gmail.com [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica (PPEQ-UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Angelica, R.S.; Neves, R.F. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia e Geoquimica, Instituto de Geociencias (PPGG-IG-UFPA), Ananindeua, PA (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Along the years, worldwide industrial development has causing a growing generation of residues, bringing potentials environmental problems. A study of the characteristics of these wastes, as well as the development of techniques for their use in new processes becomes indispensable for the environment preservation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the possible use of two important industrial residues from the Amazon region for zeolite synthesis: (a) the fly ash (particle size < 100 {mu}m) that comes from burning of mineral coal in boiler; and (b) the micro silica, a by-product of the reaction between quartz and coal in the production of metallic silicon and alloys iron-silicon.The following chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization methods were carried out: X-ray diffractometry, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, granulometric analysis, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG). The analyses were carried out at the following conditions: 60, 100, 150 and 190 deg C, Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio of 5 and Si/Al molar ratio ranging from 2.12 to 15, and reaction time of 24 h. The results of the fly characterization demonstrate its enormous potential as raw material for the zeolite synthesis. SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} represent more than 50% of its composition, mineralogical phases defined, low humidity content, low particle size (d{sub 90} < 10 {mu}m), among others. Mineralogical analyses of the synthesized products showed the formation of some zeolite types, as follow: analcime, phillipsite, sodalite, zeolite P and tobermorite. The results show that the mixture fly ash-micro silica in these reaction conditions point to a promising material for zeolite synthesis (author)

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  4. Characterization of Glasses in One Type of Alumina Rich Fly Ash by Chemical Digestion Methods: Implications for Alumina Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one type of alumina rich fly ash (ARFA with about 50 wt% of alumina has been extensively investigated for alumina extraction in China. Due to the silica in ARFA, alumina extraction would have to generate a huge amount of solid waste. There is a growing interest in the glasses in ARFA, because they are composed mainly of silica and could be removed prior to alumina extraction. In this work, the glasses in ARFA have been investigated by chemical methods, that is, acid and base digestions. The chemical compositions have been measured by XRF for ARFA from the digestion processes. The K2O standard, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopies were successfully used to define the digestions processes, and size analysis and SEM-EDX provided rich information on particle transformations. As a result, acid and base digestion methods were found to produce very similar results for the glasses in ARFA. The K2O standard was attributed to the formation of glasses by illites, and TiO2 and Fe2O3 were proposed to originate from ilmenite in alumina rich coals (ARC. Some implications of the results were also discussed for the alumina extraction from ARFA.

  5. High-resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence characterization of heterogeneous calcium and heavy metal distributions in alkali-activated fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provis, John L; Rose, Volker; Bernal, Susan A; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2009-10-06

    The nanoscale distribution of elements within fly ash and the aluminosilicate gel products of its alkaline activation ("fly ash geopolymers") are analyzed by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence using a hard X-ray Nanoprobe instrument. The distribution of calcium within a hydroxide-activated (fly ash/KOH solution) geopolymer gel is seen to be highly heterogeneous, with these data providing for the first time direct evidence of the formation of discrete high-calcium particles within the binder structure of a geopolymer synthesized from a low-calcium (geopolymer gel binder structure surrounding the unreacted fly ash particles. This has important implications for the understanding of calcium chemistry within aluminosilicate geopolymer gel phases. Additionally, chromium and iron are seen to be very closely correlated within the structures of both fly ash and the geopolymer product and remain within the regions of the geopolymer which can be identified as unreacted fly ash particles. Given that the potential for chromium release has been one of the queries surrounding the widespread utilization of construction materials derived from fly ash, the observation that this element appears to be localized within the fly ash rather than dispersed throughout the gel binder indicates that it is unlikely to be released problematically into the environment.

  6. Characterization of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption by means of single-particle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieke, K. I.; Kristensen, T. B.; Korsholm, U. S.; Sørensen, J. H.; Kandler, K.; Weinbruch, S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Bilde, M.

    2013-11-01

    This work focuses on transport and properties of ash from the Icelandic volcano Grímsvötn that erupted in spring 2011. Atmospheric transport of volcanic ash from the eruption was simulated using the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA). The arrivals of volcanic particles were detected on-line at Mace Head at the West coast of Ireland during volcanic plume advection identified by high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF AMS). Based on DERMA information aerosol particles were collected in Copenhagen, Denmark, before predicted arrival of the ash plume and during a period where ash was present in the air. Analysis of the meteorological conditions shows that the particles collected before arrival of the volcanic ash may serve as a good reference sample allowing identification of significant changes in ambient aerosol properties during the volcanic ash event over Copenhagen. Using single particle analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), data on structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of individual volcanic ash particles from the Grímsvötn eruption after atmospheric transport to Scandinavia are provided. Particles were sliced with Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Element mappings from cross-sections through collected volcanic ash particles reveal inhomogeneous distributions of the elements K, Mg, Fe and Ti.

  7. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  8. Characterization of homocysteine γ-lyase from submerged and solid cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus ASH (JX006238).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S; Khalaf, Salwa A; Aziz, Hani A

    2013-04-01

    Among 25 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus ASH (JX006238) was identified as a potent producer of homocysteine gamma- lyase. The nutritional requirements to maximize the enzyme yield were optimized under submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, resulting in a 5.2- and 2.3-fold increase, respectively, after the last purification step. The enzyme exhibited a single homogenous band of 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE, along with an optimum pH of 7.8 and pH stability range of 6.5 to 7.8. It also showed a pI of 5.0, as detected by pH precipitation with no glycosyl residues. The highest enzyme activity was obtained at 37-40 degrees C, with a Tm value of 70.1 degrees C. The enzyme showed clear catalytic and thermal stability below 40 degrees C, with T1/2 values of 18.1, 9.9, 5.9, 3.3, and 1.9 h at 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Additionally, the enzyme Kr values were 0.002, 0.054, 0.097, 0.184, and 0.341 S-1 at 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme displayed a strong affinity to homocysteine, followed by methionine and cysteine when compared with non-S amino acids, confirming its potency against homocysteinuriarelated diseases, and as an anti-cardiovascular agent and a specific biosensor for homocysteinuria. The enzyme showed its maximum affinity for homocysteine (Km 2.46 mM, Kcat 1.39 × 10(-3) s(-1)), methionine (Km 4.1 mM, Kcat 0.97 × 10(-3) s(-1)), and cysteine (Km 4.9 m M, Kcat 0.77 × 10(-3) s(-1)). The enzyme was also strongly inhibited by hydroxylamine and DDT, confirming its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) identity, yet not inhibited by EDTA. In vivo, using Swiss Albino mice, the enzyme showed no detectable negative effects on platelet aggregation, the RBC number, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or creatinine titer when compared with negative controls.

  9. Fusion characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to aviation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Damby, David E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-04-01

    The fusion dynamics of volcanic ash strongly impacts deposition in hot parts of jet engines. In this study, we investigate the sintering behavior of volcanic ash using natural ash of intermediate composition, erupted in 2012 at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala. A material science procedure was followed in which we monitored the geometrical evolution of cylindrical-shaped volcanic ash compact upon heating from 50 to 1400°C in a heating microscope. Combined morphological, mineralogical, and rheological analyses helped define the evolution of volcanic ash during fusion and sintering and constrain their sticking potential as well as their ability to flow at characteristic temperatures. For the ash investigated, 1240°C marks the onset of adhesion and flowability. The much higher fusibility of ash compared to that of typical test sands demonstrates for the need of a more extensive fusion characterization of volcanic ash in order to mitigate the risk posed on jet engine operation.

  10. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  11. Characterization of the image quality in neutron radioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Engelhardt, M.; Frei, G.; Gildemeister, A.; Lehmann, E.; Hillenbach, A.; Schillinger, B.

    2005-04-01

    Neutron radioscopy, or dynamic neutron radiography, is a non-destructive testing method, which has made big steps in the last years. Depending on the neutron flux, the object and the detector, for single events a time resolution down to a few milliseconds is possible. In the case of repetitive processes the object can be synchronized with the detector and better statistics in the image can be reached by adding radiographies of the same phase with a time resolution down to 100 μs. By stepwise delaying the trigger signal a radiography movie can be composed. Radiography images of a combustion engine and an injection nozzle were evaluated quantitatively by different methods trying to characterize the image quality of an imaging system. The main factors which influence the image quality are listed and discussed.

  12. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): An introduction of occupational health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Development Department of Touristic Opportunities, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Saikia, Binoy K. [Coal Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006 (India); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); DaBoit, Kátia [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Baruah, Bimala P. [Coal Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006 (India); and others

    2014-01-01

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. - Highlights: • We research changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles about coal–ash quality. • Increasing dates will increase human health quality in this Indian coal area. • Welfare effects depend on ex-ante or ex-post assumptions about

  13. Surfaces. [characterization of surface properties for predicting bond quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for the characterization of surface cleanliness and roughness for predicting the quality of an adhesive bond are outlined. Generally, smooth surfaces are only available from cleavage of crystalline materials along a natural cleavage plane. Films must be deposited on metal surfaces to achieve the same smoothness. Once the surfaces are clean, however, reaction with the ambient atmosphere becomes likely through diffusive and absorption processes, producing asperities. Electron diffraction, Auger electron, and X ray emission spectroscopy are used to characterize surface condition. Once the surface is observed to be clean, the application of an adhesive will usually prohibit separation along the adhesive; separation is then confined to the weaker of the two materials. Finally, the use of polytetrafluorothylene adhesive to test the adhesion between polymers and metal surfaces is described.

  14. 海水为溶剂合成纳米粉煤灰沸石及其性能表征%Synthesis and characterization of nano-fly ash zeolites made using seawater for crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艳卿; 邹晓兰; 李超峰; 朱校斌

    2012-01-01

    以海水为溶剂,采用熔融法合成了纳米粉煤灰沸石。粉煤灰与NaOH的质量比为1:1.2,熔融温度550℃,熟料质量与海水固液的体积比为1:5(g/mL),晶化温度100℃,晶化时间6h。通过仪器分析和化学方法,对产物的结构、形貌、性能进行表征。同时,研究了产物的矿物组成、形貌、比表面积、阳离子交换量及化学组成。结果表明:产物为Nax型沸石和羟基方钠石的复合型沸石,海水晶化粉煤灰通过碱熔融法得到沸石质量优于传统水热法。合成沸石的性能和各项应用指标表明,所合成的沸石具有良好的实际应用价值。%Nano-fly ash zeolites were synthesized using fusion method with seawater as solvent. The synthetic conditions were as follows: ash/NaOH quality ratio is 1:1.2, fusion temperature is 550℃, the mixture/seawater volume ratio is 1:5, reaction temperature is 100℃ and reaction time is 6h. The structure, appearance and properties of the products were characterized and analyzed in detail with both instrumental and chemical analysis methods. In addi- tion, the mineral composition, crystallization, surface area, capacity of the cation exchange, average particle size and chemical composition of synthesized zeolites were investigated and compared. The results showed that the product is a mixture of NaX zeolite and hydroxysodalite. This synthesized zeolite by fusion method using seawater for crystallization has higher purity and better crystallization than that by conventional hydrothermal method. The properties and characters of this synthesized zeolite show that it has good application values.

  15. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  16. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las Vegas...

  17. 水泥粉煤灰稳定碎石基层施工和质量控制的分析%Analysis on the Fly Ash Cement Stabilized Macadam Base Construction and Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾爱军

    2015-01-01

    水泥粉煤灰稳定碎石基层有着施工操作性能较好、早期强度较高的优点,能够满足当前路面设计的要求和规范。文章立足于施工实践,对水泥粉煤灰稳定碎石基层的施工工艺流程以及质量控制的要点,进行了详细的探讨。%Fly ash cement stabilized gravel base has good operation performance , the advantages of high early strength, can meet the requirements of the current pavement design and specifications. Based on the construction practice, the main points of the construction process and quality control of the fly ash cement stabilized gravel base is discussed concretely in the paper.

  18. Ash and heavy metals in fluidized bed-combustion; Tuhka ja raskasmetallit puuperaeisen jaetteen kerrosleijupoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaessi, T.; Aittoniemi, P. [IVO International, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Combustion ashes and submicron fly ash particles were characterized in two industrial boilers (bubbling vs. circulating fluidized bed) burning paper mill deinking sludge and bark or wood as support fuel. Bulk samples from fly ash, circulating ash and bottom ash were analyzed. Fine particles in fly ash were monitored and sampled for microscopic studies. The mass size distribution of fly ash was measured and the chemical composition according to particle size was analyzed. The results showed that ash consists of large and friable clusters formed by sintering of small mineral particles originating from paper fillers. Very few ash particles were fused and they were found only among the smallest particles. No agglomerates of fused particles were found. If the residence time in furnace is long enough sintering may proceed further and ash structure grows more dense. No indication of ash vaporization was detected. These results were similar for bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers. (author)

  19. Rice husk ash as a renewable source for the production of zeolite NaY and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite Y in sodium form (NaY was synthesized using silica source from rice husk. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, BET. As results, we verify that NaY zeolite obtained from the two-step route, presents a good degree of crystallinity and then can be suitable for using in various applications.

  20. Automated quality characterization of 3D printed bone scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of design is an important step in obtaining tissue engineering scaffolds with appropriate shapes and inner microstructures. Different shapes and sizes of scaffolds are modeled using UGS NX 6.0 software with variable pore sizes. The quality issue we are concerned is the scaffold porosity, which is mainly caused by the fabrication inaccuracies. Bone scaffolds are usually characterized using a scanning electron microscope, but this study presents a new automated inspection and classification technique. Due to many numbers and size variations for the pores, the manual inspection of the fabricated scaffolds tends to be error-prone and costly. Manual inspection also raises the chance of contamination. Thus, non-contact, precise inspection is preferred. In this study, the critical dimensions are automatically measured by the vision camera. The measured data are analyzed to classify the quality characteristics. The automated inspection and classification techniques developed in this study are expected to improve the quality of the fabricated scaffolds and reduce the overall cost of manufacturing.

  1. "无钠低灰"煤沥青对预焙阳极质量的改善%"Sodium-free and Low-ash" Coal Tar Pitch on Prebaked Anode Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林峰; 徐香

    2011-01-01

    Shanxi Coking Co., Ltd. imported from Germany, super-centrifuge for removing water and slag, and licensed from France the advanced alkali IRH coal tar processing technology, the coal tar pitch thus produced had no sodium and with only little ash. The paper expatiates on the impact on the quality of the prebaked anode by the sodium ion and ash that exist in the coal tar pitch. Through analysis of the ash in the "sodium-free and low-ash" coal tar pitch and the sodium ion content, it can be predicted that the anode carbon consumption shall be reduced by 15kg/t of aluminum in the electroanalysis process of aluminum. This is a new way for the utilization of the excellent coal tar pitch.%介绍了山西焦化股份有限公司采用德国进口超级离心机脱水脱渣,引进法国IRH先进的后加碱煤焦油加工技术,生产的"无钠低灰"煤沥青产品质量指标.详细阐述了煤沥青在预焙阳极生产中的作用,重点分析了煤沥青中的灰分和钠离子对预焙阳极质量的影响.通过分析"无钠低灰"煤沥青的灰分及钠离子含量的数据,预测在电解铝过程中,该煤沥青可降低阳极炭耗约15kg/t铝,为优质煤沥青的利用找到一条出路.

  2. Groundwater quality characterization around Jawaharnagar open dumpsite, Telangana State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnisa, Syeda Azeem; Zainab Bi, Shaik

    2017-03-01

    In the present work groundwater samples were collected from ten different data points in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite, Telangana State Hyderabad city from May 2015 to May 2016 on monthly basis for groundwater quality characterization. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) value was determined using correlation matrix to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water quality standards issued by Bureau of Indian Standard (IS-10500:2012). It is found that most of the groundwater samples are above acceptable limits and are not potable. The chemical analysis results revealed that pH range from 7.2 to 7.8, TA 222 to 427 mg/l, TDS 512 to 854 mg/l, TH 420 to 584 mg/l, Calcium 115 to 140 mg/l, Magnesium 55 to 115 mg/l, Chlorides 202 to 290 mg/l, Sulphates 170 to 250 mg/l, Nitrates 6.5 to 11.3 mg/l, and Fluoride 0.9 to 1.7 mg/l. All samples showed higher range of physicochemical parameters except nitrate content which was lower than permissible limit. Highly positive correlation was observed between pH-TH (r = 0.5063), TA-Cl- (r = 0.5896), TDS-SO4 - (r = 0.5125), Mg2+-NO3 - (r = 0.5543) and Cl--F- (r = 0.7786). The groundwater samples in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite implies that groundwater samples were contaminated by municipal leachate migration from open dumpsite. The results revealed that the systematic calculations of correlation coefficient between water parameters and regression analysis provide qualitative and rapid monitoring of groundwater quality.

  3. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  4. Rhizobacterial characterization for quality control of eucalyptus biogrowth promoter products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talyta Galafassi Zarpelon

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strains from special formulations have been used to optimize eucalyptus cutting production. To undertake quality control for the formulated products, the rhizobacterial strains should be characterized to assess their purity and authentication. In the present study, we characterized nine strains of rhizobacteria, including three Bacillus subtilis (S1, S2 and 3918, two Pseudomonas sp. (MF4 and FL2, P. putida (MF2, P. fulva (Ca, Frateuria aurantia (R1, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CIIb. The strains were differentiated by colony morphology after 24 h of incubation in three different solid state culture media (glucose-nutritive agar, 523 medium and yeast extract-mannitol agar, sensitivity to a panel of 28 antibiotics (expressed according to the formation of inhibition halos of bacterial growth in the presence of antibiotics, and PCR-RFLP profiles of the 16S rDNA gene produced using nine restriction enzymes. It was possible to differentiate all nine strains of rhizobacteria using their morphological characteristics and sensitivity to antibiotics. The molecular analysis allowed us to separate the strains CIIb, FL2 and R1 from the strains belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. By using these three methods concomitantly, we were able to determine strain purity and perform the authentication.

  5. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  8. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sous vide: characterization and quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane de Cássia Pontes Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physical and physico-chemical quality parameters of sous vide preparation of pen-reared tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. To prepare the tambaqui sous vide, 200 g of fillet, 50 g of basil sauce (1:4 fish fillet:sauce ratio and 10 mL of 5% sodium lactate were used. The product was then vacuum-packaged, pasteurized at 65 ºC for 12.5 min and refrigerated. The presence of Salmonella spp., sulfite-reducing Clostridium and Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the samples analyzed. The coliform count at 45 ºC and coagulase-positive staphylococci were below the limit (103 permitted by the law in vigor. Water retention capacity and chloride content analyses revealed that the tambaqui fillet differed significantly (P<0.05 from the sous vide because of the addition of basil sauce. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content of the fillet and sous vide were below the limits established by the law, indicating good quality. The lightness (L* and yellow color (b* of the fillet and the sous vide did not differ significantly (P>0.05, but the red color (a* decreased in the sous vide, which is related to the addition of basil sauce. The chroma (C* and hue angle (ho differed significantly (P<0.05, and the fillet samples were lighter in color, whereas the sous vide was characterized by yellow color. The n-6/n-3 ratios found for the fillet and the sous vide are within the recommended values, which is important for human metabolism. The fillet and sous vide also had high calcium, zinc, magnesium and potassium concentrations. It is concluded that tambaqui sous vide is a good source of nutrients, rich in fatty acids and minerals essential for human health.

  9. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    The purpose of this research was twofold: (i) to develop a system for screening lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels and (ii) to evaluate brown midrib corn stover as feedstock for ethanol production. In the first study (Chapter 2), we investigated the potential of corn stover from bm1-4 hybrids for increased ethanol production and reduced pretreatment intensity compared to corn stover from the isogenic normal hybrid. Corn stover from hybrid W64A X A619 and respective isogenic bm hybrids was pretreated by aqueous ammonia steeping using ammonium hydroxide concentrations from 0 to 30%, by weight, and the resulting residues underwent simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) to ethanol. Dry matter (DM) digested by SSCF increased with increasing ammonium hydroxide concentration across all genotypes (P>0.0001) from 277 g kg-1 DM in the control to 439 g kg-1 DM in the 30% ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. The bm corn stover materials averaged 373 g kg-1 DM of DM digested by SSCF compared with 335 g kg-1 DM for the normal corn stover (Pcell-wall carbohydrate hydrolysis of corn stover, (ii) the lowest initial cell-wall carbohydrate concentration, (iii) the lowest dry matter remaining after pretreatment, and (iv) the highest amount of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. However, bm corn stover did not reduce the severity of aqueous ammonia steeping pretreatment needed to maximize DM hydrolysis during SSCF compared with normal corn stover. In the remaining studies (Chapters 3 thru 5), a system for analyzing the quality of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biochemical conversion to biofuels (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation) was developed. To accomplish this, a carbohydrate availability model was developed to characterize feedstock quality. The model partitions carbohydrates within a feedstock material into fractions based on their availability to be converted to fermentable

  10. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  11. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  12. Combustion experiments in a small furnace using natural biogenic solid fuels. Emissions and ash quality. Final report; Verbrennungsversuche mit naturbelassenen biogenen Festbrennstoffen in einer Kleinfeuerungsanlage. Emissionen und Aschequalitaet. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launhardt, T.; Hartmann, H.; Link, H.; Schmid, V.

    2000-09-01

    Emissions and ash qualities of the fuels were compared in order to assess their pollutant emissions CO, dust, C{sub n}H{sub m}, NO{sub x}, particle size distribution of airborne dust, organic and inorganic chlorinated pollutants (including PCDD/F), PAH and heavy metals. Quality characteristics of the fuels and ashes were investigated as well (nutrient and pollutant concentrations including heavy metals, chlorine, PCDD/F, PAH). The focus was on agricultural biomass, which was compared with chopped pinewood. [German] Ziel des Messvorhabens ist eine umfassende Analyse der Emissionen und der Aschenqualitaet beim Einsatz verschiedener biogener Festbrennstoffe in einer Kleinfeuerungsanlage (50 kW{sub th}). Dadurch soll eine vergleichende Bewertung der unterschiedlichen Brennstoffarten und Aufbereitungsformen (Pellet, Haeckselgut) moeglich werden und eine generelle Aussage ueber das Niveau des Schadstoffausstosses inklusive hochtoxischer organischer Komponenten abgeleitet werden. Ergaenzend dazu soll eine Quantifizierung moeglicher Einfluesse durch den Wassergehalt im Brennstoff und die Heizlast der Feuerungsanlage vorgenommen werden. Zielgroessen der Untersuchung sind der Wirkungsgrad der Feuerungsanlage, die Standard-Emissionsgroessen CO, Staub, C{sub n}H{sub m} und NO{sub x}, die Partikelgroessenverteilung des Flugstaubes, organisch und anorganisch chlorierte Schadstoffe (u.a. PCDD/F), PAK und Schwermetalle. Zusaetzlich werden eine Reihe von Qualitaetsmerkmalen im Brennstoff und in den Aschen betrachtet (Naehr- und Schadstoffgehalte, einschliesslich Schwermetalle, Chlor, PCDD/F, PAK). Im Vordergrund stehen die Biomassebrennstoffe, die speziell in der Landwirtschaft erzeugt werden. Sie werden mit dem Referenzbrennstoff Fichtenhackgut verglichen. (orig.)

  13. Validation of a kinetic-diffusive model to characterize pozzolanic reaction kinetics in sugar cane straw-clay ash/lime systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Cociña, E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic-diffusive model proposed by the authors in previous papers to describe pozzolanic reaction kinetics in sugar cane straw-clay ash (SCSCA/calcium hydroxide (CH systems is validated in this study. Two different methods (direct and indirect for determining pozzolanic activity were applied and their effect on pozzolanic reaction rate kinetic constants evaluated. Determined by fitting a model to the data, these constants are used to quantitatively characterize pozzolanic activity. The values of the kinetic constants calculated with the model were similar for the two methods. Classic kinetic models, such as the Jander, modified Jander and Zhuravlev models, were also applied to the system studied and the results were compared to the figures calculated with the model proposed. The kinetic-diffusive approach proposed was found to be valid regardless of the method for determining pozzolanic activity used, and to be the most suitable model for describing pozzolanic reaction kinetics in the SCSCA/lime system.

    Se valida la aplicación de un modelo cinético-difusivo propuesto por los autores en trabajos anteriores para describir la cinética de reacción puzolánica en sistemas ceniza de paja de caña-arcilla (CPCAñúdróxido de calcio (CH. Se aplican 2 métodos diferentes de actividad puzolánica (directo e indirecto y se valora el efecto que pudieran tener los mismos sobre las constantes cinéticas de velocidad de reacción de la reacción puzolánica. Estas constantes cinéticas son determinadas en el proceso de ajuste del modelo y permiten caracterizar cuantitativamente la actividad puzolánica. Los resultados muestran la similitud de las constantes cinéticas de velocidad de reacción calculadas, aplicando el modelo a los resultados experimentales obtenidos por ambos métodos. Además, fueron aplicados al sistema estudiado modelos cinéticos el chicos como: modelo de Jander, modelo de Jander Modificado y el modelo de Zhuravlev y

  14. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample.

  15. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  16. Environmental impact of manganese due to its leaching from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal K R

    2009-01-01

    In India, so far not much efforts have been made to use coal ash as backfill material in underground/ open cast mines and to predict its subsequent effect on ground water quality. One of the main problems in disposing of big quantities of coal ash is the possible leaching of different pollutants, including manganese. A thorough investigation regarding leaching of manganese from different fly ashes is required to know the impact of manganese due to its leaching from fly ash to ground water as well as surface water. In the present study, short term and long term leaching studies have been carried out on fly ash, bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant, Bokaro, Jharkhand and Ramagundam thermal power plant, Ramagundam, Andhra Pradesh. The amount of manganese released in different experiments has been evaluated. The leachate of Chandrapura fly ash has more manganese concentration (0.2001 mg/L) than the leachate of bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash. A field investigation at Damoda abandoned open cast mine, filled with pond ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant revealed that concentration of manganese in ground water beneath the ash filled mine has been found very high (maximum up to 6.0 mg/L). But its migration to a long distance has not been seen. Remedial measures for coal ash disposal have also been formulated.

  17. H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesis by Sourcing Silica from the Wheat Husk Ash: Characterization and Application as a Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst in Organic Transformations including Some Multicomponent Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Rajjak Shaikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized by sourcing silica from wheat husk ash and was converted into its protonated form following careful, conventionally accepted ion-exchange method and calcinations. The H-ZSM-5 zeolite (Si/Al ratio = 30 prepared was appropriately characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, TG-DTA, CV, and so forth, and evaluated as recyclable catalyst in selective organic transformations including three- and four-component reactions. The catalytic activity of the zeolite sample supposedly relates to increased density of the accessible acid sites.

  18. Application of the electrical characterization to the study of the hydrated phases of the cement with coal bottom ash; Aplicacion de la caracterizacion electrica al estudio de las fases hidratadas de cemento con adicion de escorias de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de; Alvaro, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of using Bottom and Fly Ash as partial replacement of cement in the hydration process. Through measurements of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X -ray diffraction (XRD), we analyze from the early stages to the hydration process to the end. Values of EIS, XRD and its relation, are used to determine transformation of hydrated phases, and for each of the substitutions, is indicated as modified the hydrated phase as a function of time and compared it with the reference material. It also proves the relevance of using EIS measures in real time, and as non destructive testing to characterize the hydration process of these materials. (Author)

  19. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    different volcanic ashes at four characteristic temperatures and there are good linear correlation with different chemical composition. The melting dynamic between different characteristic temperature is strongly controlled by viscosity of the molten volcanic ash. Our analyses allowed us to estimate the probability of the deposition behavior of volcanic ash ingested into the high-temperature sections of jet engines and yielding a standard protocol for high temperature ash characterization.

  20. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth;

    2011-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...... period in spring 2005. On average, 19 ton wood chips (dry weight) were combusted each day. The combustion of the wood chips produced 0.70% ash and sludge (dry weight). The ash and sludge dry matter was distributed as 81% fly ash, 16% bottom and residual grate ash and 3% sludge solid phase. Substantial...

  1. Characteristics of industrial and laboratory meat and bone meal ashes and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Marie; Cyr, Martin; Deydier, Eric; Guilet, Richard; Clastres, Pierre

    2008-02-11

    This paper reports the characterization of four meat and bone meal (MBM) ashes obtained from specific incineration (laboratory) and from co-incineration (industrial process). Three out of the four MBM ashes were mainly composed of calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite and whitlockite). Their compositions (major and trace) were in the range for natural phosphate rocks. Trace element contents, including heavy metals, were below 0.6% and industrial ashes contained much more heavy metals than laboratory ash. The amounts of leached elements were low, especially for laboratory ash. According to the European classification of waste to be landfilled, the laboratory ash can be classified as an inert waste. Two industrial ashes are mostly inert. Only one ash is highly leachable and needs a stabilization treatment to be classified at least in the category of hazardous waste. It seems, from these results, that possibilities other than landfilling could be considered to give economic value to these ashes.

  2. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  3. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  4. Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species.

  5. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  6. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River.

  7. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    obtained during coal/straw co-firing, substantive sintering strength was observed to build up in the ashes below the melting onset. The strength obtained was thus assumed to be due to viscous flow sintering, and the sintering onset was for the four ashes investigated simultaneous to a calculated ash......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results...

  8. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  9. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Basu; Manish Pande; P.B.S. Bhadoria; S.C. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Though in last four decades various alternate energy sources have come into the limelight, the hyperbolic use of coal as a prime energy source cannot be counterbalanced. Disposal of high amount of fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge amount of water, energy and land area by ash ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand, various environmental, economic and social problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash management would remain a great concern of the century. Fly-ash has great potentiality in agriculture due to its efficacy in modification of soil health and crop performance. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops. But compared to other sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture is limited. An exhaustive review of numerous studies of last four decades took place in this paper, which systematically covers the importance, scope and apprehension regarding utilization of fly-ash in agriculture. The authors concluded that though studies have established some solutions to handle the problems of radioactivity and heavy metal content in flyash, long-term confirmatory research and demonstration are necessary. This paper also identified some areas, like proper handling of dry ash in plants as well as in fields, ash pond management (i.e., faster decantation, recycling of water, vertical expansion rather than horizontal), monitoring of soil health, crop quality, and fate of fly-ash in time domain, where research thrust is required. Agricultural lime application contributes to global warming as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes that all the carbon in agricultural lime is finally released as CO2to the atmosphere. It is expected that use of fly-ash instead of lime in agriculture can reduce net CO2emission, thus reduce global warming also.

  10. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  11. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology.

  12. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  13. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  14. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    along with the fly ash and bottom ash from the plant were characterized extensively by SEM-EDS, ICP-OES/IC and XRD. Based on the results from the present work, the deposit formation and shedding mechanisms under different operational conditions were proposed and discussed. The influence of coal ash...... addition on deposit formation during wood suspension-firing at AVV2 was evaluated. It was revealed that the addition of coal fly ash could significantly influence the ash deposition/shedding behaviors and the deposit properties. The effect was evident at both measurement locations. At the location...

  15. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability.

  16. 不同提取方法对花椒提取物提取率和品质的影响%Effect of different extraction methods on extraction yield and quality of Chinese prickly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆君; 李凤飞; 杨文江

    2011-01-01

    目的:分别采用水蒸气蒸馏法、植物油浸提法、食用酒精提取法、无水乙醚提取法、超临界二氧化碳流体萃取法提取花椒的有效成分,对比不同提取方法对花椒提取物提取率和品质的影响;方法:采用五种不同方法分别提取花椒的有效成分,检测提取物有效成分含量、计算提取率,并分别评价各提取物的感官品质;结论:五种方法所得产物提取率和有效成分含量存在明显差异,其中超临界二氧化碳提取所得产品的有效成分含量和提取率最高,花椒挥发油和麻素提取率分别达到100%和94.6%.植物油浸提所得产品的品质较好,但有效成分提取率偏低,花椒挥发油和麻素提取率分别只有5.7%和23.5%.水蒸气蒸馏法只能得到花椒挥发油.食用酒精提取法和无水乙醚提取法获得了大部分花椒麻素和少量的挥发油.%Objective: The effective components of Chinese Prickly ash were extracted by steam distillation method, the vegetable oil extraction method, edible alcohol extraction method, anhydrous ether extraction method, and the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction respectively. The effect of different extraction methods on extraction yield and quality of Chinese prickly ash extracts were compared. Methods: The effective components were extracted from Chinese prickly ash by using five different extraction methods respectively. Then the effective components content of the Chinese prickly ash extracts was detected, the extraction yield was calculated and the sensorial quality of extracts were evaluated respectively. Conclusion; There were significant differences in the effective components content and extraction yield by five different extraction methods. The extracts of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction had the highest content of effective components and the best extraction yield. The extract yield of essential oil and numb-taste components were 100% and 94. 6

  17. Characterizing air quality data from complex network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Wang, Li; Xu, Huihui; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Air quality depends mainly on changes in emission of pollutants and their precursors. Understanding its characteristics is the key to predicting and controlling air quality. In this study, complex networks were built to analyze topological characteristics of air quality data by correlation coefficient method. Firstly, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) indexes of eight monitoring sites in Beijing were selected as samples from January 2013 to December 2014. Secondly, the C-C method was applied to determine the structure of phase space. Points in the reconstructed phase space were considered to be nodes of the network mapped. Then, edges were determined by nodes having the correlation greater than a critical threshold. Three properties of the constructed networks, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and modularity, were used to determine the optimal value of the critical threshold. Finally, by analyzing and comparing topological properties, we pointed out that similarities and difference in the constructed complex networks revealed influence factors and their different roles on real air quality system.

  18. Protein and quality characterization of triticale translocation lines in breadmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-D1d locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of high molecular weight glutenin loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the breadmaking quality of triticale. One means of achieving such restor...

  19. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  20. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  1. Sewage sludge ash — A promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzel, Hannes, E-mail: hannes.herzel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, Oliver [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Ludwig [Outotec GmbH & Co KG, Ludwig-Erhard-Straße 21, 61440 Oberursel (Germany); Adam, Christian [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Sewage sludge incineration is extensively practiced in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. A survey of German sewage sludge ash showed that the recovery potential is high, approx. 19,000 t of phosphorus per year. However, the survey also discovered that the bioavailability of phosphorus in the sewage sludge ash is poor and that more than half of the ashes cannot be used as fertilizers due to high heavy metal content. A new thermochemical process for sewage sludge ash treatment was developed that transforms the ash into marketable fertilizer products. Sewage sludge ash was thermochemically treated with sodium and potassium additives under reducing conditions, whereby the phosphate-bearing mineral phases were transformed into plant available phosphates. High P-bioavailability was achieved with a molar Na/P ratio > 1.75 in the starting materials. Sodium sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide performed comparably as additives for this calcination process. Potassium carbonate and -hydroxide have to be added in a molar K/P ratio > 2.5 to achieve comparable P-solubility. The findings of the laboratory scale investigations were confirmed by an industrial demonstration trial for an ash treatment with sodium sulfate. Simultaneously, the volatile transition metal arsenic (61% removal) as well as volatile heavy metals such as cadmium (80%), mercury (68%), lead (39%) and zinc (9%) were removed via the off-gas treatment system. The product of the demonstration trial is characterized by high bioavailability and a toxic trace element mass fraction below the limit values of the German fertilizer ordinance, thus fulfilling the quality parameters for a P-fertilizer. - Highlights: • Direct use of sewage sludge ashes (SSA) as fertilizer often not possible • New approach of SSA treatment aiming at P-fertilizers with high P-bioavailability • Comparison of different Na- and K-bearing additives for the thermochemical process • Evaporation of

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Fly Ash-based Geopolymer%粉煤灰基地聚合物的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彩红; 聂金合; 高莉; 李小宁; 蔡文亮

    2016-01-01

    以电厂废渣Ⅱ级低钙粉煤灰为原料,利用碱激发搅拌法制备了粉煤灰基地质聚合物。当水玻璃模数为1.2,nSi/nAl为1.96,养护温度为60℃时,强度最高为41.13 MPa,体积密度为1.66 g/cm3;水玻璃的模数、nSi/nAl、养护温度对地质聚合物的强度、体积密度影响较大,随着参数的增加,抗压强度都表现为先增加后降低的趋势;粉煤灰地质聚合物XRD谱图与原灰相比,在29.508°处出现非晶的漫散射宽峰,且莫来石、石英衍射峰降低,说明地质聚合反应已发生,形成一种“半晶态”物质。%AbstractBased on power plant waste residueⅡ level low calcium lfy ash as raw material, lfy ash-based geopolymer was prepared by alkali excitation mixing method. Modulus sodium silicate was 1.2, thenSi/nAl was 1.96, the curing temperature of 60℃, The compressive strength of geopolymer by optimum process was 41.13 MPa, volume density was 1.66 g/cm3; Modulus of sodium silicate,nSi/nAl, curing temperature had a great inlfuence on the strength and bulk density of the geopolymer, with the increase of parameters, the compressive strength was ifrst increased after reducing trend; X-ray Diffraction (XRD) of lfy ash geopolymer compared with the original grey, at 29.508° amorphous non-relfecting wide peak, and mullite, quartz to reduce the diffraction peak, explain geological polymerization has occurred, “semi-crystalline materials” was synthesized.

  3. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  4. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  5. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant; Caracterizacao quimica das cinzas de fundo originadas pela combustao, em usina termoeletrica, de um carvao mineral do nordeste da Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M., E-mail: hspfisica@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  6. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  7. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  8. MAT 126 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    stylia

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 126 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Written Assignment (Arithmetic and geometric sequence) (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Assignment Is It Fat Free (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Assignment Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126...

  9. Utilization of MSWI Fly Ash in Making Ceramic Brick and Product Characterization%生活垃圾焚烧飞灰制陶瓷砖表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海英; 赵由才; 祈景玉

    2011-01-01

    为了探索生活垃圾焚烧飞灰资源化利用途径,在对飞灰化学组成及矿物成分分析的基础上,利用飞灰、黄陶土、耐火砂及长石研制陶瓷砖,最佳配比方案为:飞灰20%,黄陶土61%,长石10%,耐火砂10%,分析了最佳配比制品的吸水率、抗压强度、微观结构及水平振荡浸出毒性.结果表明:飞灰属SiO-AlO-金属氧化物体系,主要矿物成分是钙硅酸盐及铝硅酸盐等,可用于制陶瓷砖;最佳配比制品达MU15强度等级,满足抗风化的要求;随煅烧温度的升高,制品结构不断密实化,960℃烧成的制品显示出完全烧结的特点,960~1 000℃烧成的制品中出现明显的晶化、玻璃化过程.最佳配比制品重金属浸出毒性完全达标,重金属的浸出率与坯体相比大大降低.%Based on chemical and mineralogical composition analysis, MSWI fly ash, together with yellow ceramic clay,ripe sand and feldspar, was used to make ceramic brick, to explore a new way of fly ash recycling. An orthogonal test was designed to determine the optimum mixing ratio of materials, which registers 20% fly ash,60% yellow ceramic clay, 10%feldspar and 10% ripe sand. Besides, water absorption, compressive strength, microstructure and HVEP leaching toxicity were performed on ceramic bricks made in accordance with the optimum mixing ratio of materials. It is found that main mineralogical components of fly ash are calcium silicates and alumino-silicates, registering as a SiO2-Al2O3-metal oxides system, which can be used as a raw material of ceramic brick. Ceramic bricks made in accordance with the optimum mixing ratio register MU15 in terms of compressive strength and meet requirements of anti-weathering based on its water absorption.The bricks are much more hardened with increase of sintering temperature. The bricks sintered at 960 ℃ show characteristics of complete sintering, and obvious crystallization and vitrification process was seen in bricks sintered

  10. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification.

  11. Effects Of Crystallographic Properties On The Ice Nucleation Properties Of Volcanic Ash Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Madaan, Nitesh; Devaraj, Arun; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Varga, Tamas

    2015-04-28

    Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood. In this study, the ice nucleating properties of size-selected volcanic ash and mineral dust particles in relation to their surface chemistry and crystalline structure at temperatures ranging from –30 to –38 °C were investigated in deposition mode. Ice nucleation efficiency of dust particles was higher compared to ash particles at all temperature and relative humidity conditions. Particle characterization analysis shows that surface elemental composition of ash and dust particles was similar; however, the structural properties of ash samples were different.

  12. Effects of crystallographic properties on the ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; Nandasiri, Manjula; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Madaan, Nitesh; Devaraj, Arun; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Varga, Tamas

    2015-04-01

    Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood. In this study, the ice nucleating properties of size-selected volcanic ash and mineral dust particles in relation to their surface chemistry and crystalline structure at temperatures ranging from -30 to -38°C were investigated in deposition mode. Ice nucleation efficiency of dust particles was higher compared to ash particles at all temperature and relative humidity conditions. Particle characterization analysis shows that surface elemental composition of ash and dust particles was similar; however, the structural properties of ash samples were different.

  13. Evaluation of water quality management problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering Modoc national wildlife refuge and the Ash Creek wildlife management area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation was to determine water quality problems or potential problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering the Modoc National...

  14. Performance of fly ash concretes in accelerated and natural chloride exposure regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorn, V.; Oshiro, T.; Yamada, Y. [Ryukyus Univ., Okinawa (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Sugiyama, T. [Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Matsufuji, Y. [Kyusyu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Architecture

    2001-07-01

    Serious effort has been made in Japan to make use of the huge quantity of fly ash that is generated each year by coal-based thermal power plants. The produced fly ash contains unburned carbon, rendering it a low quality material classified as Japan Industrial Standard A 6201 class 3. The most efficient use of this kind of fly ash is to use it in concrete, where fly ash is added to the concrete without a corresponding reduction in the quantity of cement. A study was conducted to examine the penetrating characteristics of chloride ions into fly ash concrete and the corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete, where portions of fine and coarse aggregates were replaced by fly ash. Compressive strength tests were conducted along with chloride penetration tests. Corrosion diagnosis of steel reinforcements was also performed. The physical properties and durability of fly ash concrete against aggressive environments was studied. It was determined that fly ash concretes have higher compressive strength than the control concrete. The strength development of fly ash concrete is very large, particularly on high-volume fly ash concretes. Chloride diffusion coefficients of fly ash concretes derived from the rapid chloride permeability test were found to decrease according to the volume of fly ash added. Chloride penetration of fly ash concretes also decreases with an increase in the volume of fly ash added. Corrosion diagnosis of steel reinforcement in concrete was shown to be effective for evaluating corrosive behaviour of steel reinforcement in fly ash concretes. The values of half-cell potential and polarization resistance measured on fly ash concretes become higher, suggesting no corrosion on steel reinforcement. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  15. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB.

  16. Emerging developments in the standardized chemical characterization of indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Sascha; Hösen, Elisabeth; Tanabe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the special characteristics of indoor air pollution make closed environments quite different from outdoor environments, the conceptual ideas for assessing air quality indoors and outdoors are similar. Therefore, the elaboration of International Standards for air quality characterization in view of controlling indoor air quality should resort to this common basis. In this short review we describe the possibilities of standardization of tools dedicated to indoor air quality characterization with a focus on the tools permitting to study the indoor air chemistry. The link between indoor exposure and health as well as the critical processes driving the indoor air quality are introduced. Available International Standards for the assessment of indoor air quality are depicted. The standards comprise requirements for the sampling on site, the analytical procedures, and the determination of material emissions. To date, these standardized procedures assure that indoor air, settled dust and material samples are analyzed in a comparable manner. However, existing International Standards exclusively specify conventional, event-driven target-screening using discontinuous measurement methods for long-lived pollutants. Therefore, this review draws a parallel between physico-chemical processes in indoor and outdoor environments. The achievements in atmospheric sciences also improve our understanding of indoor environments. The community of atmospheric scientists can be both ideal and supporter for researchers in the area of indoor air quality characterization. This short review concludes with propositions for future standardization activities for the chemical characterization of indoor air quality. Future standardization efforts should focus on: (i) the elaboration of standardized measurement methods and measurement strategies for online monitoring of long-lived and short-lived pollutants, (ii) the assessment of the potential and the limitations of non

  17. MGT 330 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    alfoniz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 330 Week 1 Individual Assignment Functions of Management Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 3 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Team Assignment External Internal Factors Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Individual Assignment Delegation (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 W...

  18. Spectroscopic and Microscopic Characterization of Volcanic Ash from Puyehue-(Chile Eruption: Preliminary Approach for the Application in the Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Lia Botto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash from Puyehue Cordon Caulle Volcanic Complex (Chile, emitted on June 4, 2011, and deposited in Villa La Angostura at ~40 km of the source, was collected and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, surface area (BET, and chemical analysis (ICP-AES-MS technique. The mineralogical and physicochemical study revealed that the pyroclastic mixture contains iron oxides in the form of magnetite and hematite as well as pyroxene and plagioclase mineral species and amorphous pumiceous shards. Carbonaceous material was also identified. Physicochemical techniques allow us to select two representative samples (average composition and Fe-rich materials which were used to analyze their performances in the adsorption process to remove arsenic from water. Additional iron activation by means of ferric salts was performed under original sample. Results showed that the low-cost feedstock exhibited a good adsorption capacity to remove the contaminant, depending on the iron content and the water pH.

  19. A review of the interference of carbon containing fly ash with air entrainment in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov;

    2008-01-01

    Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash...... on the adsorption capacity of AEAs. The type of fuel used in the combustion process influences the amount and properties of the residual carbon. Fly ash derived from bituminous coal has generally higher carbon content compared with fly ash produced from subbituminous coal or lignite, but shows a lower AEA......-treatment methods applied to improve fly ash quality are described in the review. Ozonation, thermal treatment and physical cleaning of carbon have been found to improve the fly ash performance for concrete utilization. Ultimately, recommendations for further work are outlined in the discussion....

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1994 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1994. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, a baseline is established that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify adverse trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the fourth annual status report.

  1. Sustainable use of biofuel by recycling ash to forests: treatment of biofuel ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans

    2007-06-01

    The influence of treatment techniques on leaching properties of alkaline species from biofuel ash is investigated in this paper. Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. The samples are treated using three different treatment techniques; self-hardening, thermal treatment, and hardening bythe addition of binding materials. Nontreated and treated samples are evaluated for the leaching properties of the alkaline compounds and, furthermore, are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical characteristics. The results show the influence of treatment techniques on the physical structure and leaching characteristics of alkaline species. Results also indicate that ash samples show different behavior when treated with different methods, i.e., the influence of treatment technique on controlling the leaching properties is highly dependent on the initial chemical composition of ash. It was also found that there is an interaction between leaching of limited and easily soluble species, e.g., calcium and potassium leaching. Therefore, to control the leaching rate of alkaline species from ash, the characteristics that correlate the leaching properties of both easily and limited soluble species need to be adjusted.

  2. Material Characteristics of Clinker Ash and Examination of Applicability for Embankment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakatsuki, Yoshitaka; Hyodo, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Norimasa; Nakashita, Akifumi; Ikeda, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The clinker ash is a coal ash generated by the coal-fired power station. It is characterized by its lightweight particle with asperity due to foaming during production process resulted in high shear stiffness and strength and high permeability. It is, therefore, increasingly used for the embankment material, the base course material, and the drainage material. Moreover, the application has started to be investigated for the vertical drain method and the compaction pile method. However, the physical characteristics and the mechanical characteristics of clinker ash have not been understood yet. It is expected that the stock yard for coal ashes will be insufficient as production of the coal ash will increase. It is necessary to use the coal ash more to maintain the global environment. The design parameter for clinker ash to apply to the embankment material was experimentally investigated in this research.

  3. Electroremediation of straw and co-combustion ash under acidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, such as wood and straw, is currently used in EU as a renewable energy source for energy production and this application is expected to rise in coming years. Combined heat and power installations produce fly ash, which is considered hazardous waste. The fly ash management issue should...... be addressed before biomass combustion is considered a truly sustainable technology. The electrodialytic process is a remediation technique able to assist the management of fly ash. For this work, straw and co-combustion of wood ash are briefly characterized and their electrodialytic treatment is carried out...... under acidic conditions.Straw ashes presented high removal rates for Ca, Cu, Cr and particularly for Cd, which has been reduced to a level bellow the established by Danish regulations. Acidification also induced a high dissolution and a lower pH of the ash. Fly ash from co-combustion of wood presents...

  4. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  5. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-03-02

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  6. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  7. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  8. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  9. MGT 401 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    kennith

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 401 Week 1 Individual Assignment Strategic Management Process Paper (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 Class Activity Week 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Learning Team Business Model Comparison Example (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Class Activity (Ash) MGT 401 Week 3 Individual Assignment Business Plan Evaluation (Ash) ...

  10. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  12. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  13. Methodology for Quantitative Characterization of Fluorophore Photoswitching to Predict Superresolution Microscopy Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittel, Amy M.; Nickerson, Andrew; Saldivar, Isaac S.; Dolman, Nick J.; Nan, Xiaolin; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2016-07-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) image quality and resolution strongly depend on the photoswitching properties of fluorophores used for sample labeling. Development of fluorophores with optimized photoswitching will considerably improve SMLM spatial and spectral resolution. Currently, evaluating fluorophore photoswitching requires protein-conjugation before assessment mandating specific fluorophore functionality, which is a major hurdle for systematic characterization. Herein, we validated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a single-molecule environment to efficiently quantify the photoswitching properties of fluorophores and identified photoswitching properties predictive of quality SMLM images. We demonstrated that the same fluorophore photoswitching properties measured in PVA films and using antibody adsorption, a protein-conjugation environment analogous to labeled cells, were significantly correlated to microtubule width and continuity, surrogate measures of SMLM image quality. Defining PVA as a fluorophore photoswitching screening platform will facilitate SMLM fluorophore development and optimal image buffer assessment through facile and accurate photoswitching property characterization, which translates to SMLM fluorophore imaging performance.

  14. Environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill. 2. Effect of coal ash on methylmercury in historically contaminated river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Bartov, Gideon; Johnson, Thomas M; Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2013-02-19

    The Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill in December 2008 deposited approximately 4.1 million m(3) of fly ash and bottom ash into the Emory and Clinch River system (Harriman, Tennessee, U.S.A.). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the ash on surface water and sediment quality over an eighteen month period after the spill, with a specific focus on mercury and methylmercury in sediments. Our results indicated that surface water quality was not impaired with respect to total mercury concentrations. However, in the sediments of the Emory River near the coal ash spill, total mercury concentrations were 3- to 4-times greater than sediments several miles upstream of the ash spill. Similarly, methylmercury content in the Emory and Clinch River sediments near the ash spill were slightly elevated (up to a factor of 3) at certain locations compared to upstream sediments. Up to 2% of the total mercury in sediments containing coal ash was present as methylmercury. Mercury isotope composition and sediment geochemical data suggested that elevated methylmercury concentrations occurred in regions where native sediments were mixed with coal ash (e.g., less than 28% as coal ash in the Emory River). This coal ash may have provided substrates (such as sulfate) that stimulated biomethylation of mercury. The production of methylmercury in these areas is a concern because this neurotoxic organomercury compound can be highly bioaccumulative. Future risk assessments of coal ash spills should consider not only the leaching potential of mercury from the wastes but also the potential for methylmercury production in receiving waters.

  15. Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, S; Kawaguchi, M; Yasuhara, K

    2000-09-15

    A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years and reported its potential for (1) underwater fills, (2) light weight backfills, and (3) light weight structural fills, through both laboratory tests and construction works. This paper is an overview of the results obtained for slurry, focusing on the following. (1) Coal fly ash reclaimed by slurry placement shows lower compressibility, higher ground density, and higher strength than by the other methods. This higher strength increases stability against liquefaction during earthquake. (2) Higher stability of the fly ash ground formed by slurry placement is caused by higher density and its self-hardening property. (3) Stability of fly ash reclaimed ground can be increased by increasing density and also by strength enhancement by cement addition. (4) Technical data obtained through a man-made island construction project shows the advantages of fly ash slurry in terms of mechanical properties such as higher stability against sliding failure, sufficient ground strength, and also in terms of cost saving. (5) Concentration in leachates from the placed slurry is lower than the Japanese environmental law. (6) In order to enlarge the fly ash slurry application toward a lightweight fill, mixtures of air foam, cement and fly ash were examined. Test results shows sufficient durability of this material against creep failure. This material was then used as lightweight structural fill around a high-rise building, and showed sufficient quality. From the above data, it can be concluded that coal fly ash slurry can be effectively utilized in civil engineering projects.

  16. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  17. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  18. The relation between pre-eruptive bubble size distribution, ash particle morphology, and their internal density: Implications to volcanic ash transport and dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Parameterization of volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models strongly depends on particle morphology and their internal properties. Shape of ash particles affects terminal fall velocities (TFV) and, mostly, dispersion. Internal density combined with particle size has a very strong impact on TFV and ultimately on the rate of ash cloud thinning and particle sedimentation on the ground. Unlike other parameters, internal particle density cannot be measured directly because of the micron scale sizes of fine ash particles, but we demonstrate that it varies greatly depending on the particle size. Small simple type ash particles (fragments of bubble walls, 5-20 micron size) do not contain whole large magmatic bubbles inside and their internal density is almost the same as that of volcanic glass matrix. On the other side, the larger compound type ash particles (>40 microns for silicic fine ashes) always contain some bubbles or the whole spectra of bubble size distribution (BSD), i.e. bubbles of all sizes, bringing their internal density down as compared to simple ash. So, density of the larger ash particles is a function of the void fraction inside them (magmatic bubbles) which, in turn, is controlled by BSD. Volcanic ash is a product of the fragmentation of magmatic foam formed by pre-eruptive bubble population and characterized by BSD. The latter can now be measured from bubble imprints on ash particle surfaces using stereo-scanning electron microscopy (SSEM) and BubbleMaker software developed at UNH, or using traditional high-resolution X-Ray tomography. In this work we present the mathematical and statistical formulation for this problem connecting internal ash density with particle size and BSD, and demonstrate how the TFV of the ash population is affected by variation of particle density.

  19. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  20. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  1. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  2. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  3. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  4. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kylling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  5. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-10-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  6. Influence of Bed Ash and Fly Ash Replacement in Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Summoogum-Utchanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the influence of fly ash and bottom ash as partial cement substitutes in mortars by studying the particle size distribution, consistency, flow, fresh density, air content, compressive strength and flexural strength characteristics. The results revealed that fly ash and cement had relatively the same particle size distribution unlike bottom ash. In the fresh state, as the amount of pozzolans increased in the mixtures, the mortars showed an enhancement in workability, were susceptible to water loss by bleeding, and exhibited a decline in fresh density. The early strength gains of the fly ash samples were low but reached higher than the control after 28 days of curing. The flexural strength increased as the fly ash content rose to reach a maximum at 20 % replacement. However, the 2-day compressive strength of bottom ash samples was higher than the control but decreased after 28 days of curing while the flexural strength declined with addition of bottom ash except at 5 % substitution.

  7. HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NAP1 ZEOLITE AND GISOMDINE FROM SLUDGE INCINERATION ASH%污泥焚烧残渣水热合成NaPl型沸石和水钙沸石的性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小亮; 谷麟; 王艳; 朱南文; 楼紫阳

    2011-01-01

    Zeolite is effective in the ammonia removal in waste water treatment process, while the raw materials for the zeolite are limited. In this work, bottom ash from the incineration plant for sewage sludge was applied to produce NaP1 zeolite and Gisomdine by traditional hydrothermal reaction and the index of correlation were characterized. According to the X-ray diffraction, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the infrared spectroscopy analysis, zeolite NaP1 and Gismondine were predominated in these products with the radial crystal structure and the zeolitic framework structure. The specific surface area and the cation exchange capacity values of the zeolite was 93.8 mZ-g-1 and 126 mmol.100 g-1, with 47 times and 17 times more than that of the sludge before combustion. In addition, the analysis of adsorption isothermal curves of NH4+ was demonstrated that synthesised zeolite had a good potential for ammonia adsorption at 25 ~C, and the maximum quantity for NH4+ removal was 34.9 mg-g-1 ,which also provides an effective way for the utilization of sludge incineration ash.%本文以污泥焚烧残渣为原料,以传统水热合成方法制得NaPl型沸石和水钙沸石,并对其相关指标进行表征.经x射线衍射、扫描电镜和红外光谱测定表明,制得的产物为无其它杂晶生成的NaPl型沸石和水钙沸石,且具有放射束片状晶体形貌和沸石骨架结构.与原污泥焚烧残渣相比,合成沸石的比表面积和阳离子交换容量提高了47倍、17倍,分别达到93.8m^2·g^-1、126mmol·100g^-1.而合成沸石在25℃下对氨氮的吸附等温线结果显示,其氨氮的最大吸附量为34.9mg·g^-1,吸附性能良好.从而本研究也为实现污泥焚烧残渣的再生资源化提供了一条有效途径.

  8. HIS 103 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 1 (Transition to Agriculture) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 2 (Early Complex Societies) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Assignment (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Assignment Greco Roman Influence Paper (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 1 Chinese Social and Political Order Systems (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 2 Caste System (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 3 Assignment Black Death Dra...

  9. Feasibility evaluation of biomass fly ashes from power station using as fertilizer%生物质电厂飞灰用作肥料的可行性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 韩宗娜; 盛昌栋

    2016-01-01

    toxicity. The results showed that both the fly ashes were strongly alkaline with the pH values greater than 12. They were high in total organic carbon content (18.39% and 7.79% for ash A and B, respectively) and rich in nutrient elements including K, Ca, Mg and P. Both ashes were lower in heavy metal elements and their contents of the main heavy metal elements were below the limits set by the standards of some European countries for utilizing biomass ashes on agricultural and forestry soils and by China national standard for using coal fly ashes. The high pH value and Ca content implied that the two ashes could be used as soil conditioner. The high content carbons of the two ashes were beneficial to improve soil quality. Nevertheless, the contents of K2O plusP2O5 were 9.62% and 6.04% for fly ash A and B, respectively, much lower than those required for compound fertilizer. However, it did not exclude their use as soil conditioner materials of compound fertilizer on soils. In all, the two fly ashes can be used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner in agriculture and forest. The characterization on the size cuts of the two ashes suggested that the application may even be improved by pre-treating the ashes with size fractionation. Moreover, the leaching of the main heavy metals in the fly ashes were, much lower than 1% except 1.274% for Cr in fly ash A. Thus the utilization was not likely to pollute the agricultural or forest soil.%为了研究炉排燃烧生物质电厂飞灰在农林方面的应用价值和可能产生的环境影响,根据欧盟相关标准分析了2种飞灰(A、B)的基础特性(水分、灰分、总有机碳含量、pH值和电导率),并利用电感耦合等离子体光谱仪、质谱仪分析了飞灰中营养元素和有害元素的含量;参考中国固体废物浸出毒性浸出方法标准研究了营养元素和有害元素的浸出特性。结果表明,2种飞灰pH值均大于12,呈较强的碱性;并且二者不仅含有

  10. Characterization of Nonparaxial Truncated Cosine-Gaussian Beams and the Beam Quality in the Far Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiao-Ping; L(U) Bai-Da

    2006-01-01

    @@ The analytical expression characterizing the propagation of nonparaxial truncated cosine-Gaussian (CoG) beams in free space is derived, and some special cases are discussed. The extended power in the bucket (PIB) is proposed to characterize the beam quality of nonparaxial truncated beams in the far field. It is shown that the extended PIB is applicable to nonparaxial truncated beams, and the PIB of nonparaxial truncated CoG beams depends on the decentred parameter, waist-width-to-wavelength ratio, truncation parameter, and bucket size chosen.

  11. Co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge: chemical and ecotoxicological properties of ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Boavida, Dulce; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

    2009-10-30

    The co-combustion of sewage sludge (SS) and coal is widely used for the treatment and thermal valorization of SS produced in wastewater treatment plants. The chemical and ecotoxicological properties of the ashes produced in this thermal treatment have not been fully studied. Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor. Colombian coal was used as fuel in test A. A blend (1+1) of this coal and a stabilized SS (Biogran) was used in a second test B. Samples of the bottom and fly ashes trapped in two sequential cyclones were collected. The characterization of the ashes was focused on two main aspects: (1) the bulk content of a set of metals and (2) the characterization of eluates produced according to the European Standard leaching test EN 12457-2. The eluates were submitted to an ecotoxicological characterization for two bio-indicators. In what concerns the bulk content of ashes, both combustion tests have produced ashes with different compositions. The ashes formed during the co-combustion test have shown higher concentrations of metals, namely Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe for all ashes. The leaching test has shown low mobility of these elements from the by-products produced during the combustion and co-combustion tests. Cr and Cr(VI) were mainly detected in the eluates of the 1st cyclone ashes produced in both combustion tests and in the 2nd cyclone ashes produced in the co-combustion test. Considering the ecotoxicity assays, the eluates of bottom and fly ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests have shown low ecotoxic levels. The micro-crustacean Daphnia magna was generally more sensitive than the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. CEMWE criterion has allowed to classify the bottom ashes for both combustion and co-combustion tests as non-toxic residues and the fly ashes collected in both cyclones as toxic.

  12. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  13. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  14. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  15. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  16. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Fly Ash and Reactivity under Autoclave Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The reactivity of autoclaved materials is conventionally estimated by their chemical composition. In this paper, after determining the chemical composition of various types of fly ash, a series of new tests which included X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectral analysis (IR) and bound water testing, were applied to investigate the performance of autoclaved fly ash products. The relationship between the infrared spectral analysis of Si-O wavenumber (about 1 100 cm-1) and its autoclaved chemical reactivity, and compressive strength of its autoclaved samples, is analyzed. The results show that fly ash with a lower wavenumber will have stronger autoclaved chemical reactivity and higher compressive strength for its autoclaved sample. Thus, the Si-O stretching vibration wavelength can be used to estimate autoclaved chemical reactivity of fly ash, so as to control the quality of fly ash to be autoclaved, and to predict the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash products.

  17. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  18. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  19. Genome-wide chromatin occupancy analysis reveals a role for ASH2 in transcriptional pausing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lluch, Sílvia; Blanco, Enrique; Carbonell, Albert; Raha, Debasish; Snyder, Michael; Serras, Florenci; Corominas, Montserrat

    2011-06-01

    An important mechanism for gene regulation involves chromatin changes via histone modification. One such modification is histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), which requires histone methyltranferase complexes (HMT) containing the trithorax-group (trxG) protein ASH2. Mutations in ash2 cause a variety of pattern formation defects in the Drosophila wing. We have identified genome-wide binding of ASH2 in wing imaginal discs using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-Seq). Our results show that genes with functions in development and transcriptional regulation are activated by ASH2 via H3K4 trimethylation in nearby nucleosomes. We have characterized the occupancy of phosphorylated forms of RNA Polymerase II and histone marks associated with activation and repression of transcription. ASH2 occupancy correlates with phosphorylated forms of RNA Polymerase II and histone activating marks in expressed genes. Additionally, RNA Polymerase II phosphorylation on serine 5 and H3K4me3 are reduced in ash2 mutants in comparison to wild-type flies. Finally, we have identified specific motifs associated with ASH2 binding in genes that are differentially expressed in ash2 mutants. Our data suggest that recruitment of the ASH2-containing HMT complexes is context specific and points to a function of ASH2 and H3K4me3 in transcriptional pausing control.

  20. Damping properties of fly ash/epoxy composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gu; Gaohui Wu; Xiao Zhao

    2008-01-01

    An inexpensive fly ash (FA), which is from a waste product, was employed to prepare fly ash/epoxy composites. The purpose of this study is to characterize the contributions of matrix viscoelasticity, hollow structure characteristic (porosity), and filler/matrix interface friction to the high vibration damping capacity of such composites. The damping properties of the composites were investigated in the temperature range of-40 to 150℃C and in the frequency range of 10 to 800 Hz by using a tension-compression mode. The results indicate that the peak value of damping loss factor (tanδ) for the fly ash/epoxy composites can reach 0.70-0.90 in test specification, and the attenuation of damping loss factor is inconspicuous with increasing frequency. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the fly ash as well as its distribution in the matrix, which will help to analyze the effect of fly ash on the damping properties of the fly ash/epoxy composites.

  1. Knowledge Transfer from the Forestry Sector to the Agricultural Sector concerning Ash Recycling; Kunskapsoeverfoering fraan skogssektorn till jordbrukssektorn angaaende askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johanna; Salomon, Eva

    2009-02-15

    Cultivation of energy crops on arable land is increasing in Sweden. More than half these crops can be used for combustion, increasing the amount of ash that can be recycled to arable land. Ash is an interesting agricultural fertiliser, but more knowledge is needed before it can be applied and handled in a controlled way. Knowledge and experience concerning recycling of ash within the forest sector can be transferred to the agricultural sector. This project examined ways for ash producers to ensure safe long-term disposal of ash and to improve plant nutrient recycling. The overall aims were to identify experiences and knowledge within forestry that could be applied in agriculture; to identify gaps in knowledge and research requirements regarding ash recycling to arable land; and to produce recommendations on how to increase ash recycling. Literature describing the conditions for ash application to arable land and existing knowledge about ash recycling to forestry were reviewed. Nutrient balances were drawn up for phosphorus, cadmium, zinc and copper, which are relevant in biofuel ash recycling to agriculture. Data on ash application, mainly on forest land, were collected through telephone interviews. For ash to be more attractive for farmers, the ash product must be a realistic alternative to artificial fertilisers. Research and demonstration projects are needed to study the effects of ash on yield and quality in different crops. Different biofuel ash products have differing qualities and can thus have different fields of application within agriculture and can be applied in varying amounts. For example, clean straw ash has a low P and Cd content and mainly supplies potassium and lime. The balance calculations showed that the highest quality ash for arable land is bottom ash from grate combustion of forest trash with 2-5 % of willow. There are both differences and similarities between ash application in agriculture and forestry. An important feature is the

  2. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  3. Characteristics of the ultrafine component of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.R. Jones; A. McCarthy; A.P.P.G. Booth [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Concrete Technology Unit, Division of Civil Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Post-production processing of fly ash (FA) is an important issue for its use in concrete. Given (i) the need for environmental protection, (ii) the measures being applied on coal-fired power stations to reduce acidic gas emissions and (iii) the effect these have had on fly ash quality, there is a need to consider efficient post-production processing to enhance fly ash characteristics. This is particularly important for fly ash used as a cement in concrete production, since the additional residual carbon content and decreased fineness significantly affect its quality. This paper details the material characteristics of an ultrafine, low-lime fly ash (UF-FA), produced, in this case, by processing a coarse FA (referred to as parent FA) from a bituminous coal-fired power station via air-cyclonic separation. The UF-FA is shown to have much improved material characteristics compared to the parent FA in terms of morphology, mineralogy and chemical composition. Further results are presented on the effect of UF-FA on the properties of cementitious systems. Improved consistence and compressive strengths of combined Portland cement (PC) and UF-FA mortars were observed, whilst enhanced PC hydration and a high degree of FA reactivity were concluded from heat of hydration measurements and calcium hydroxide contents of pastes. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  5. Evaluation of robustness of fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) as liner - Durability, percolation and drainage water quality; Bedoemning av laangtidsegenskaper hos taetskikt bestaaende av flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam, FSA - Bestaendighet, taethet och ytutlakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Laendell, Maerta; Haakansson, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    This project shows that fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) is watertight and resistant as liner in landfills. The presented results can lead to that more landfills will use FSS as liner, and landfills already using FSS together with geomembrane, can leave out the latter without risking contamination of the drainage water collected by the closure construction

  6. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  7. Characterization data needs for development, design, and operation of retrieval equipment developed through the data quality objective process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    This Data Quality Objective identifies the specific characterization data required to support the development,design, and operation of systems to retrieve and transfer to storage waste from both single- shell tanks and double-shell tanks.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  9. Controlled release from bio ash spread on forest soils; Styrd utlakning ur bioaska som sprids i skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellberg, Leif; Lagerblad, Bjoern; Moosberg Bustnes, Helena [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to minimize the costs for forestry, recycling ashes from biofuels should be done on freshly logged locations. A condition is that the ash that is spread on forest soils is well stabilized, with a negligible leakage of nutrients during a few years. However, these nutrients should be released when vegetation can take them up, about 15 years after replanting. In this report are presented the results of a prestudy on the possibilities to stabilize ash and to coat ash pellets with a protective layer that provides the desired delay in leaching. The chemistry of ashes is complex and similar to that of cement. In this prestudy, we tried to utilize the ash chemistry and investigated the balance between calcium oxide and silicon dioxide as well as its effect on cementing properties. The hypothesis is that by combining different ashes and/or by adding components a more stable product that is less prone to leaching may be obtained. Alkali such as potassium salts could be immobilized in silicates. Samples of ca 10 ashes were collected from plants in order to create a variety of compositions. The ashes have been characterized with regard to chemical and mineralogical composition, particle size distribution. Their binding properties have been investigated. Ashes from fluidized bed combusters bonded best and fastest. The results would have been clearer if most ashes had not been slaked when they reached the laboratory, although they were taken out dry from the plants. Some weakly bonding ashes were mixed with strongly bonding ashes, and with silica fume in one experiment. The weak ashes could be stabilized to a product with a satisfactory compressive strength. The mineralogy of the hydrated ashes was studied. Several leaching tests were performed: by mixing an ash yielding high concentration of salts in the leachate with an ash yielding low concentrations a halving of the concentration could be obtained. Silica fume yielded similar results. Attempts to coat ash pellets

  10. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O' Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  11. Geotechnical approaches to coal ash content control in mining of complex structure deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, SA; Gavrilov, VL; Khoyutanov, EA

    2017-02-01

    Coal deposits having complex structure and nonuniform quality coal reserves require improved processes of production quality control. The paper proposes a method to present coal ash content as components of natural and technological dilution. It is chosen to carry out studies on the western site of Elginsk coal deposit, composed of four coal beds of complex structure. The reported estimates of coal ash content in the beds with respect to five components point at the need to account for such data in confirmation exploration, mine planning and actual mining. Basic means of analysis and control of overall ash content and its components are discussed.

  12. Dynamic formation of zeolite synthesized from fly ash by alkaline hydrothermal conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Li, Jiangli; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; He, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to characterize the dynamic formation of zeolite synthesized from fly ash (ZFA) and to identify the zeolitization mechanisms during a 160-h-long hydrothermal alkaline conversion at 95°C by using fly ash (FA) samples collected from four typical thermoelectric power plants in China, with the purpose of improving ZFA quality. The process of synthesizing ZFA can be fundamentally divided into five stages: induction stage (0-0.5 h), accelerating dissolution stage (0.5-12 h), nucleation and/or crystallization stage (12-24 h), crystal growth stage (24-72 h) and crystal transformation stage (72-160 h). The crystal growth stage determined the quality of zeolite crystallization, coupled with functions of re-assembling the silicon-aluminium tetrahedral network and developing submicro- and/or nanometer microstructure. A 48-h-long hydrothermal conversion generated ZFAs that had a greater specific surface area (26.0-89.4 times) and cation exchange capacity (29.6-71.0 times) than FA, which successfully sequestrated 41-95% of ammonium and 75-98% of phosphate from swine manure. However, over-reaction resulted in more stable hydroxysodalite and/or sodalite, surface agglomeration and cracking, and energy wasting. This work suggests that the reuse of recycled synthesis materials should occur during the fourth step (24-72 h).

  13. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  14. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed.

  15. Growth and characterization of large, high quality MoSe2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouma, Moussa; Batan, Abdelkrim; Guel, Boubié; Segato, Tiriana; Legma, Jean B.; Reniers, Francois; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Buess-Herman, Claudine; Doneux, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MoSe2 single crystals were grown by chemical vapor transport using TeCl4 as transport agents in the temperature gradient 1020-980 °C. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, image analysis coupled with SEM, microanalysis by SEM-EDX, X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical conductivity. The characterizations showed that single crystals are perfectly homogeneous, stoichiometric and have very few defects and clean surfaces with areas in the range of 35-100 mm2. Single crystals grown by TeCl4 showed a high electrical conductivity. Their properties were highly dependent on the quality of the polycrystalline powders used for the growth.

  16. ITER helium ash accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  17. Characterizing the air quality in the vicinity of a fast-growing Asian airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Juang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that air quality in the vicinity of major airports could be directly influenced by aircraft emissions, airport activities, and other forms of intense transportation in proximity to airports. There are two types of pollutants emitted within the confines of airports: one is directly emitted from aircraft engines, and the other is from ground support equipment (GSE). Such pollutants include aromatic hydrocarbon, ultrafine particles (UFP) , black carbon (BC) , nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and sulfides and could immiately impact the air quality in areas downwind. Although the impact of airport emissions on surrounding communities has been studied in some major airports in North America and Europe, scant attention has been paid to airport pollution issues in Asia despite the surging growth of air travel and of airports. Commercial air traffic in Taiwan has been dramatically growing in the last two decades because of rapid economic growth and is expected to continue surging into the next decades due to increasing trade and travel with China and other countries. In this study, the air quality in the vicinity of Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport (TPE Airport) is analyzed to further characterize air quality in the region of a fast-growing Asian airport. Monitoring data from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is used in the study to investigate long-term trends in air quality. The first step of this research is to analyze the data from six stations close to TPE Airport during the last ten years and to filter the attributes (wind field, geography, and so on) which could impact that air quality. Second, we characterize the relationship between data from different monitoring stations by using cluster analysis and then use the air pollution model (Industrial Source Complex-ISC3 and Cal-Puff) to identify why serious pollution events occur. Finally, we use model binds with a GIS system containing population-activity and

  18. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  19. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2013-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furtherm...

  20. Use of fly ash for the production of mineral wool; Utilisation de cendres volantes pour la production de laine minerale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovic, I. [Institut des Mines (Yugoslavia); Micevic, Z. [Energoprojekt, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Djekic, S. [EPS, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2001-03-01

    Yugoslavian power plants generate about 7.5 Mt of fly ash per year. Today, only 15% of this ash is used by different industries. A technology has been developed which allows to produce mineral wool from fly ash and quartz sand. Physical, chemical and mineralogical studies have confirmed the good quality of the fibers in terms of homogeneity and structure. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

    2001-08-01

    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

  2. Quick monitoring of pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthaworn, Suppachai; Nimityongskul, Pichai

    2009-05-01

    This article proposes a quick method of monitoring for pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes by investigating the electrical conductivity of the suspension at an elevated temperature. This suspension is obtained by mixing tested pozzolan with an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) solution produced by mixing ordinary Portland cement with water. For comparison, silica fume, metakaolin, rice husk ash and river sand - whose pozzolanic reactivities range from reactive to inert - were used in the experimental investigation. The electrical conductivity of the suspension was continually recorded by using an electrical conductivity meter and stored by using a personal computer for a period of slightly over 1day. The indicative parameters that can be related to pozzolanic reactivity were discussed and analyzed in detail. It was found that it is possible to determine the pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash within 28h by using the proposed technique, as compared to 7 or 28 days for the determination of strength activity index according to ASTM. This technique would help concrete technologists to speedily investigate the quality of fly ash for use as a cement replacement in order to alleviate pollution caused by cement production and solve disposal problems of waste ashes.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1992 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Burningham, A.; Chavez, P. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s quality assurance program for calendar year 1992. The report includes major sections on Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Program Activities are discussed periodically at quality meetings. The most significant issue addressed in 1992 has been the timely revision of quality administrative procedures. The procedure revision process was streamlined from 55 steps to 7. The number of forms in procedures was reduced by 38%, and the text reduced by 29%. This allowed revision in 1992 of almost half of all implementing procedures. The time necessary to complete the revision process (for a procedure) was reduced from 11 months to 3 months. Other accomplishments include the relaxation of unnecessarily strict training requirements, requiring quality assurance reviews only from affected organizations, and in general simplifying work processes. All members of the YMP received training to the new Orientation class Eleven other training classed were held. Investigators submitted 971 records to the Project and only 37 were rejected. The software program has 115 programs approved for quality-affecting work. The Project Office conducted 3 audits and 1 survey of Los Alamos activities. We conducted 14 audits and 4 surveys. Eight corrective action reports were closed, leaving only one open. Internally, 22 deficiencies were recognized. This is a decrease from 65 in 1991. Since each deficiency requires about 2 man weeks to resolve, the savings are significant. Problems with writing acceptable deficiency reports have essentially disappeared. Trend reports for 1992 were examined and are summarized herein. Three adverse trends have been closed; one remaining adverse trend will be closed when the affected procedures are revised. The number of deficiencies issued to Los Alamos compared to other participants is minimal.

  4. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology

    1998-11-01

    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  5. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody cell culture production process using a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Brian; Mun, Melissa; Laird, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    The goal of quality by design (QbD) in cell culture manufacturing is to develop manufacturing processes which deliver products with consistent critical quality attributes (CQAs). QbD approaches can lead to better process understanding through the use of process parameter risk ranking and statistical design of experiments (DOE). The QbD process starts with an analysis of process parameter risk with respect to CQAs and key performance indicators (KPIs). Initial DOE study designs and their factor test ranges are based on the outcomes of the process parameter risk ranking exercises. Initial DOE studies screen factors for significant influences on CQAs as well as characterize responses for process KPIs. In the case study provided here, multifactor process characterization studies using a scale-down model resulted in significant variation in charge heterogeneity of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) as measured by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). Iterative DOE studies, using both screening and response surface designs, were used to narrow the operating parameter ranges so that charge heterogeneity could be controlled to an acceptable level. The data from the DOE studies were used to predict worst-case conditions, which were then verified by testing at those conditions. Using the approach described here, multivariate process parameter ranges were identified that yield acceptable CQA levels and that still provide operational flexibility for manufacturing.

  6. Radiocesium Adsorption By Zeolitic Materials Synthesized From Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remenárová Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown coal fly ash derived from the combustion of brown-coal in power plant ENO Nováky (Slovak Republic was used as raw material for synthesis of zeolitic materials ZM1 and ZM3 by hydrothermal alternation with 1M NaOH and 3M NaOH, respectively. Fly ash and synthesized products were characterized using XRF and SEM-EDX analysis. Subsequently, zeolitic materials were tested as sorbents to remove Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions using radiotracer technique. Sorption of cesium by both types of zeolitic materials obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacities Qmax at pH 6.0 calculated from Langmuir isotherm were 1203 ± 65 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM1 and 1341 ± 66 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM3. The results showed that alkali treated fly ash can be used as effective sorbent for radiocesium removal from contaminated solutions

  7. Use of sugarcane straw ash for zeolite synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro, Thais Vitória da Silva Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biomass combustion residue is growing nowadays due to constant increasing demands of biomass utilization. The biomass ash produced currently is disposed on agricultural fields. The presence of metals, chlorine, sulphur and other species may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. The main challenge is related to the increase of possible applications of this byproduct. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA was used in a study on synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline conventional hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, alkali hydroxide concentration and liquid/solid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy powder, X-ray diffraction, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopic. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. Sugarcane straw ash utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further appears as an alternative for the future sustainable large-scale management of biomass ash.

  8. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R; Mastin, Larry G; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F; Schneider, David J; Wallace, Kristi L; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-08-03

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized 'wet' eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits and numerical modelling demonstrate that hail-forming processes in the eruption plume triggered aggregation of ∼95% of the fine ash and stripped much of the erupted mass out of the atmosphere within 30 min. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like ash aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and occurrence of concentrically layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  9. Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image

  10. Cooking quality of upland and lowland rice characterized by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice cooking quality is usually evaluated by texture and stickiness characteristics using many different methods. Gelatinization temperature, amylose content, viscosity (Brookfield viscometer and Rapid Visco Analyzer, and sensory analysis were performed to characterize culinary quality of rice grains produced under two cropping systems and submitted to different technologies. All samples from the upland cropping system and two from the irrigated cropping system presented intermediate amylose content. Regarding stickiness, BRS Primavera, BRS Sertaneja, and BRS Tropical showed loose cooked grains. Irrigated cultivars presented less viscosity and were softer than upland cultivars. Upland grain samples had similar profile on the viscoamylografic curve, but the highest viscosity peaks were observed for BRS Alvorada, IRGA 417, and SCS BRS Piracema among the irrigated cropping system samples. In general, distinct grain characteristics were observed between upland and irrigated samples by cluster analysis. The majority of the upland cultivars showed soft and loose grains with adequate cooking quality confirmed by sensory tests. Most of the irrigated cultivars, however, presented soft and sticky grains. Different methodologies allowed to improve the construction of the culinary profile of the varieties studied.

  11. Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52% was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO, punicic acid (55% was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO. Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively. Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils.

  12. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  13. Síntese e caracterização de zeólita de cinzas de carvão modificada por surfactante catiônico Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal ashes modified by cationic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fungaro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeólita sintetizada a partir de cinzas leve de carvão foi modificada com diferentes concentrações (2 e 20 mmol.L-1 de brometo de hexadeciltrimetilamônio (HDTMA-Br. A zeólita não modificada (ZNM e as zeólitas modificadas por surfactante (ZMS foram caracterizadas por fluorescência de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIV, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, análise termogravimétrica, entre outros. As ZMS apresentaram carga negativa provavelmente devido à formação de bicamada parcial de HDTMA sobre os sítios ativos trocáveis na superfície externa da ZNM. Um decréscimo da área superficial foi observado para ZMS quando comparada com ZNM, indicando cobertura da superfície da zeólita com moléculas do HDTMA-Br. A natureza cristalina da zeólita permaneceu intacta após a adsorção do surfactante e o aquecimento para secagem. A análise de FTIV indicou que não houve mudanças significativas na estrutura da zeólita após a adsorção do surfactante.Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash was modified with different concentrations (2 and 20 mmol.L-1 of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br. The Non-Modified Zeolite (NMZ and Surfactant-Modified Zeolites (SMZ were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, among others. The SMS presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of NMZ. A decrease in surface area was observed for SMZ as compared to NMZ indicating zeolite surface coverage with HDTMA-Br molecules. The crystalline nature of the zeolite remained intact after adsorption of surfactant and heating for drying. FTIR analysis indicated that there were no significant changes in the structure of the zeolite after adsorption of surfactant.

  14. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  15. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E.P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  16. MANUFACTURING OF ALUMINUM/FLY ASH COMPOSITE WITH LIQUID REACTIVE SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F. Zhang; D.J. Wang; G. Xie

    2002-01-01

    The Al/fly ash composites are fabricated by liquid reactive sintering P/M process withfly ash particles as intensifying phases. The reactivity and newly formed phases dur-ing liquid sintering process have been analyzed by combing Thermochemical data basecalculation and XRD characterization. The results show that some of constituents infly ash have reacted with liquid aluminum so that the elemental Si, Fe, Ti as well assome amount of intermetallic compounds occur. The properties of aluminum/fly ashcomposites have been improved. With the fraction of fly ash increase, the compositedensity decreases; the hardness and the modulus of the composite increases, and thecomposite wear resistance are significantly increased. The fly ash reinforced compos-ires represent a sort of low cost product with possible widespread applications in theautomotive, small engine, and electromechanical machinery sectors.

  17. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  18. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  19. Synthesis and Heavy Metal Immobilization Behaviors of Fly Ash based Gepolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunsheng; SUN Wei; SHE Wei; SUN Guowei

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects of studies were carried out:1)synthesis of geopolymer by using fly ash and metakaolin;2)Immobilization behaviors of fly ash based geopolymer in a presence of Pb and Cu ions.As for the synthesis of fly ash based geopolymer,4 different fly ash content(10%,30%, 50%,70%)and 3 types of curing regimes(standard curing,steam curing and autoclave curing)were investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the compressive and flexural strength.The experimental results show that geopolymer,containing 30%fly ash and synthesized at steam curing(80℃ for 8 h),exhibits higher mechanical strengths.The compressive and flexural strengths of fly ash based geopolymer reach 32.2 Mpa and 7.15 Mpa,respectively.Additionally,In-frared (IR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD)techniques were used to characterize the microstructure of the fly ash geopolymer.IR spectra shows that the absorptive band at 1086 cm ~(-1) shifts to lower wave number around 1033 cm ~(-1) ,and the 6-coordinated Al transforms into 4-coordination during the syn-thesis of fly ash based geopolymer.The resulting geopolymeric products were X-ray amorphous ma-terials.As for immobilization of heavy metals,the leaching tests were employed to investigate the immobilization behaviors of the fly ash based geopolymer synthesized under the above optimum condition.The leaching tests showed that fly ash based geopolymer can effectively immobilize Cu and Pb heavy metal ions,and the immobilization efficiency reached 90% greater when heavy metals were incorporated in the fly ash geopolymer in the range of 0.1% to 0.3%.The Pb exhibits better immobilization efficiency than the Cu,especially in the case of large dosages of heavy metals.

  20. Ash analysis of flour sample by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Koksel, Hamit; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-10-01

    Ash content is a measure of total mineral content in flour. It is also an important quality parameter in terms of nutritional labeling as well as processing properties of various cereal products. However, laboratory analysis takes a long time (5-6 h) and results in considerable waste of energy. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a new method for ash analysis in wheat flour by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a multi-elemental, quick and simple spectroscopic method. Unlike basic ash analysis method, it has the potential to analyze a sample in a considerably short time. In the study, wheat flours with different ash contents were analyzed using LIBS and the spectra were evaluated with partial least squares (PLS) method. The results were correlated with the ones taken from standard ash analysis method. Calibration graph showed good linearity with the ash content between 0.48 and 1.39%, and 0.992 coefficient of determination (R2). Limit of detection for ash analysis was calculated as 0.026%. The results indicated that LIBS is a promising and reliable method with high sensitivity for routine ash analysis in flour samples.

  1. Ice nucleating properties of volcanic ash particles from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, G.; Zelenyuk, A.; Beranek, J.

    2011-12-01

    The volcanic ash from the volcanic emissions can significantly contribute to the natural source of aerosols in the atmosphere. In the vicinity and downwind of eruption site, the transported ash might have a stronger impact on the aviation industry, regional air quality, and climate. Despite the environmental significance of ash, our understanding of ash particles reacting with other volcanic plume constituents is rudimentary. In particular, the complex interactions between the water vapor and ash particles under different meteorological conditions that lead to cloud hydrometeors are poorly understood. To improve our understanding, we focus on investigating the ice formation properties of ash particles collected from the recent volcanic eruption. It was observed that the ash particles are less efficient ice nuclei compared to the natural dust particles in the deposition nucleation regime, but have similar efficiencies in the condensation freezing mode. The ice nucleated ash particles are separated from the interstitial particles, and further evaporated to understand the elemental composition, size, shape and morphology of the ice residue using the single particle mass spectrometer. The elemental composition reveals that majority of the elements are also present in the natural dust particles, but subtle differences are observed. This suggests that particle properties play an important role in the ice nucleation process.

  2. New challenges during fly ash marketing. Coupled product as a sustainable building material; Neue Herausforderungen bei der Flugaschevermarktung. Koppelprodukt als nachhaltiger Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugot, Andreas [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig./GL)

  3. Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventress, Lucy J.; McGarragh, Gregory; Carboni, Elisa; Smith, Andrew J.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2016-11-01

    A new optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of volcanic ash properties has been developed for use with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The retrieval method uses the wave number range 680-1200 cm-1, which contains window channels, the CO2 ν2 band (used for the height retrieval), and the O3 ν3 band.Assuming a single infinitely (geometrically) thin ash plume and combining this with the output from the radiative transfer model RTTOV, the retrieval algorithm produces the most probable values for the ash optical depth (AOD), particle effective radius, plume top height, and effective radiating temperature. A comprehensive uncertainty budget is obtained for each pixel. Improvements to the algorithm through the use of different measurement error covariance matrices are explored, comparing the results from a sensitivity study of the retrieval process using covariance matrices trained on either clear-sky or cloudy scenes. The result showed that, due to the smaller variance contained within it, the clear-sky covariance matrix is preferable. However, if the retrieval fails to pass the quality control tests, the cloudy covariance matrix is implemented.The retrieval algorithm is applied to scenes from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010, and the retrieved parameters are compared to ancillary data sources. The ash optical depth gives a root mean square error (RMSE) difference of 0.46 when compared to retrievals from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument for all pixels and an improved RMSE of 0.2 for low optical depths (AOD < 0.1). Measurements from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) flight campaigns are used to verify the retrieved particle effective radius, with the retrieved distribution of sizes for the scene showing excellent consistency. Further, the plume top altitudes are compared to derived cloud-top altitudes from the Cloud

  4. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  6. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weiling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm{sup -1} is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  7. Water Diffusion Modelling of CFB Fly Ash Thermoset Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Ralph P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shift in coal-fired power plants from pulverized coal (PC boiler technology into the greener circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler technology resulted into a major deviation in the properties of the waste fly ash generated making it less suitable for its previous application as additives for construction materials. A new market for CFB fly ash had to be found for it not to end up as a zero value by-product. Using CFB fly ash as filler for thermoset composites is a new and remarkable application. Only a few studies, however, have been done to characterize the properties of this new material. Further experimentation and analysis may be costly and time-consuming since common procedures are material destructive. A computer-aided modeling of the composite’s water sorption behavior was done. The effect of particle loading, size and shape were considered. These properties were varied and the resulting overall diffusivities were compared to previous experimental studies. The comparison of the model and experimental diffusivity values showed satisfactory results. This model may then provide a cheaper and more time-efficient method for the characterization of the water sorption properties of CFB fly ash thermoset composites. In the future, this may lead to further studies on its application as a green material.

  8. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  9. Critical aspects of biomass ashes utilization in soils: Composition, leachability, PAH and PCDD/F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Márcia; Lopes, Helena; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2015-12-01

    Bottom and fly ashes streams collected along a year in several biomass thermal plants were studied. The bulk composition of ashes and other chemical characteristics that may impact soil application showed a high variability depending on the ash stream, combustion technology and ash management practice at the power plants. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) and metal's availability for leaching at fixed pH 7 and 4 was performed according with EA NEN 7371, as a quick evaluation method to provide information on the long-term behavior of ashes, regarding heavy metals and also plant nutrients release. Also the pH dependence leachability study was performed according to CEN/TS 14429 for predicting the leaching behavior under different scenarios. Leachability profiles were established between pH 3 and 12, allowing to distinguish different solubility control phenomena of toxic heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb) as well as other salts (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cl). The ANC of fly ashes at pH 4 (3.6-9.6 molH(+)/kg) were higher than that observed for the bottom ashes (1.2-2.1 molH(+)/kg). Ashes were also characterized for persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paradibenzodioxines and furanes (PCDD/F). Contents were found to be much higher in fly ash than in bottom ash streams. None of the PAH levels did reach the current national limit value of sewage sludge application in soils or the guide value for ash in north European countries. However, PCDD/F contents, which are not regulated, varied from non-detectable levels to high amounts, regardless the level of loss on ignition (LOI) or unburned carbon content in fly ashes. Given the current ash management practices and possible use of blends of bottom and fly ash streams as soil conditioners resembles clear the urgent need to regulate ash utilization in soils, incorporating limit values both for heavy metals, PAH and PCDD/F.

  10. Incorporating Detailed Chemical Characterization of Biomass Burning Emissions into Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, K.; Hatch, L. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Knote, C. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 500 Tg/yr of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) are emitted by biomass burning (BB) to the global atmosphere, leading to the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary particulate matter (PM). Until recently, in studies of BB emissions, a significant mass fraction of NMOCs (up to 80%) remained uncharacterized or unidentified. Models used to simulate the air quality impacts of BB thus have relied on very limited chemical characterization of the emitted compounds. During the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV), an unprecedented fraction of emitted NMOCs were identified and quantified through the application of advanced analytical techniques. Here we use FLAME-IV data to improve BB emissions speciation profiles for individual fuel types. From box model simulations we evaluate the sensitivity of predicted precursor and pollutant concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and terpene oxidation products) to differences in the emission speciation profiles, for a range of ambient conditions (e.g., high vs. low NOx). Appropriate representation of emitted NMOCs in models is critical for the accurate prediction of downwind air quality. Explicit simulation of hundreds of NMOCs is not feasible; therefore we also investigate the consequences of using existing assumptions and lumping schemes to map individual NMOCs to model surrogates and we consider alternative strategies. The updated BB emissions speciation profiles lead to markedly different surrogate compound distributions than the default speciation profiles, and box model results suggest that these differences are likely to affect predictions of PM and important gas-phase species in chemical transport models. This study highlights the potential for further BB emissions characterization studies, with concerted model development efforts, to improve the accuracy of BB predictions using necessarily simplified mechanisms.

  11. Rice Husk Ash Sandcrete Block as Low Cost Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Sangeetha,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a widely used construction material for various types of structures due to its structural stability and strength. The construction industry is today consuming more than 400 million tonnes of concrete every year .Most of the increase in cement demand will be met by the use of supplementary cementing materials, as each ton of Portland cement clinker production is associated with similar amount of CO2 emission, which is a major source of global warming. Partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement with mineral admixtures like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin, Rice husk Ash (RHA,etc with plasticizers eliminates these drawbacks. The use of rice husk modifies the physical qualities of fresh cement paste as well as microstructure of paste after hardening. By burning the rice husk under a uncontrolled temperature in the atmosphere, a highly reactive RHA was obtained and the ash was utilized as a supplementary cementing material. This paper presents the effects of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA as a partial cement replacement material in mortar mixes. This work is based on an experimental study of mortar made with replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC with 10%, 20% 30% & 40% RHA. The properties investigated were the compressive strength, setting time, consistency, workability and specific gravity. Finally, a cost analysis was also done to compare the efficiency of rice husk ash sandcrete blocks. From the test results it can be concluded that rice husk ash can be utilized in day today life of manufacturing building blocks which are more economical and more eco-friendly than the cement concrete blocks which are produced now-a-days.

  12. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  13. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  14. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  15. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  16. Characterization of Soil Quality Under Vegetable Production Along an Urban-Rural Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MINGKUI; WANG MEIQING; LIU XINGMEI; JIANG HONG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Human activity and urbanization result in urban-rural environmental gradients. Understanding effect of the gradients on soil properties is necessary for management of the soils around urban areas. In this study, soil quality of some vegetable fields was characterized along an urban-rural gradient in Shaoxing County, Zhejiang Province. Fifteen soil physical and chemical properties were evaluated by using principal component analysis.Results showed that there was a great variation in the soil quality along the gradient. From rural to urban zones, soil organic matter, water-stable aggregates, cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), total N and P, and available K increased, whereas soil pH value decreased. In addition, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and Cr in the soils tended to be accumulated toward the urban zone. Sequential chemical extraction showed that mobility of all the heavy metals in the soils tended to increase from the rural to the urban zones. The variation of soil properties accounted for by the first principal component was significantly explained by the difference in application rates of municipal wastes.

  17. ASH position paper: hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Hypertension is publishing a series of Position Papers in their official journals throughout the 2008-2009 years. The following Position Paper originally appeared: JASH. 2008;2(6):484-494. Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension, Inc (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous magnesium sulfate is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  18. Airborne laser scanning of forested landslides characterization: Terrain model quality and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, K. A.; Straatsma, M. W.; van Westen, C. J.; Malet, J.-P.; de Jong, S. M.

    2011-03-01

    Mapping complex landslides under forested terrain requires an appropriate quality of digital terrain models (DTMs), which preserve small diagnostic features for landslide classification such as primary and secondary scarps, cracks, and displacement structures (flow-type and rigid-type). Optical satellite imagery, aerial photographs and synthetic aperture radar images are less effective to create reliable DTMs under tree coverage. Here, we utilized a very high density airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, with a point density of 140 points m - 2 for generating a high quality DTM for mapping landslides in forested terrain in the Barcelonnette region, the Southern French Alps. We quantitatively evaluated the preservation of morphological features and qualitatively assessed the visualization of ALS-derived DTMs. We presented a filter parameterization method suitable for landslide mapping and compared it with two default filters from the hierarchical robust interpolation (HRI) and one default filter from the progressive TIN densification (PTD) method. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of the DTM derived from the landslide filter is about 0.04 m less accurate than that from the PTD filter. However, the landslide filter yields a better quality of the image for the recognition of small diagnostic features as depicted by expert image interpreters. Several DTM visualization techniques were compared for visual interpretation. The openness map visualized in a stereoscopic model reveals more morphologically relevant features for landslide mapping than the other filter products. We also analyzed the minimal point density in ALS data for landslide mapping and found that a point density of more than 6 points m - 2 is considered suitable for a detailed analysis of morphological features. This study illustrates the suitability of high density ALS data with an appropriate parameterization for the bare-earth extraction used for landslide identification and characterization

  19. An aggregation model for ash particles in volcanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Durant, A.

    2009-12-01

    A large fraction of fine ash particles injected into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate through complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in particle settling velocities. The aggregates formed have a different size and density compared to primary particles formed during eruption which dramatically changes the dynamics of sedimentation from the volcanic cloud. Consequently, the lifetime of ash particles in the atmosphere is reduced and a distal mass deposition maximum is often generated in resulting tephra deposits. A complete and rigorous description of volcanic ash fallout requires the full coupling of models of volcanic cloud dynamics and dispersion, and ash particle transport, aggregation and sedimentation. Furthermore, volcanic ash transport models should include an aggregation model that accounts for the interaction of all particle size classes. The problem with this approach is that simulations would require excessively long computational times thereby prohibiting its application in an operational setting during an explosive volcanic eruption. Here we present a simplified model for ash particle transport and aggregation that includes the effects of water in the volcanic cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average sticking efficiency factors, and collision frequency functions that account for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. A parametric study on the key parameters of the model was performed. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, including the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. In these cases, mass deposited as a function of deposit area and the particle

  20. Progress in characterizing the multidimensional color quality properties of white LED light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Kees; Hoelen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of solid state light sources, the variety in emission spectra is almost unlimited. However, the set of standardized parameters to characterize a white LED light source, such as correlated color temperature (CCT) and CIE general color rendering index (Ra), is known to be limited and insufficient for describing perceived differences between light sources. Several characterization methods have been proposed over the past decades, but their contribution to perceived color quality has not always been validated. To gain more insight in the relevant characteristics of the emission spectra for specific applications, we have conducted a perception experiment to rate the attractiveness of three sets of objects, including fresh food, packaging materials and skin tones. The objects were illuminated with seven different combinations of Red, Green, Blue, Amber and White LEDs, all with the same CCT and illumination level, but with differences in Ra and color saturation. The results show that, in general, object attractiveness does not correlate well with Ra, but shows a positive correlation with saturation increase for two out of three applications. There is no clear relation between saturation and skin tone attractiveness, partly due to differences in preference between males and females. A relative gamut area index (Ga) represents the average change in saturation and a complementary color vector graphic shows the direction and magnitude of chromatic differences for the eight CIE-1974 test-color samples. Together with the CIE general color rendering index (Ra) they provide useful information for designing and optimizing application specific emission spectra.

  1. Chemical, mineralogical and morphological changes in weathered coal fly ash: a case study of a brine impacted wet ash dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Chuks P; Nyale, Sammy M; Akinyeye, Richard O; Gitari, Wilson M; Akinyemi, Segun A; Fatoba, Olanrewaju O; Petrik, Leslie F

    2013-11-15

    The mobility of species in coal fly ash (FA), co-disposed with brine using a wet ash handling system, from a coal fired power generating utility has been investigated. The study was conducted in order to establish if the wet ash dump could act as a salt sink. The ash was dumped as a slurry with 5:1 brine/ash ratio and the dam was in operation for 20 years. Weathered FA samples were collected along three cores at a South African power station's wet ash dump by drilling and sampling the ash at 1.5 m depth intervals. A fresh FA sample was collected from the hoppers in the ash collection system at the power station. Characterization of both fresh FA and weathered FA obtained from the drilled cores S1, S2 and S3 was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for chemical composition and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology. Analysis of extracted pore water and moisture content determination of the fresh FA and the weathered FA obtained from the drilled cores S1, S2 and S3 was done in order to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of the FA. The XRD analysis revealed changes in mineralogy along cores S1, S2 and S3 in comparison with the fresh FA. The SEM analysis revealed spherical particles with smooth outer surfaces for the fresh FA while the weathered ash samples obtained from cores S1, S2 and S3 consisted of agglomerated, irregular particles appearing to be encrusted, etched and corroded showing that weathering and leaching had occurred in the ash dump. The moisture content (MC) analysis carried out on the fresh FA (1.8%) and the weathered FA obtained from the drilled cores S1 (41.4-73.2%), S2 (30.3-94%) and S3 (21.7-76.2%)indicated that the ash dump was water logged hence creating favourable conditions for leaching of species. The fresh fly ash (n = 3) had a pH of 12.38 ± 0.15, EC value of 4.98 ± 0.03 mS/cm and TDS value of 2.68 ± 0.03 g/L, the pH of the drilled core S1 (n = 45) was 10.04 ± 0

  2. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.;

    2001-01-01

    the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  3. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the

  4. Temporal evolution of wildfire ash and its implications for water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Otero, Xose L.; Chafer, Chris J.

    2015-04-01

    soluble major and trace elements. 'Aged ash' was richer in soil-derived elements (Al, Si and Fe) and exhibited higher bulk density and a lower rainfall storage capacity. We will discuss the similarities and differences between 'fresh' and 'aged' ash properties and identify the potential main threats to water quality derived from each of them. The water contamination potential from wildfire ash varies depending, among other factors, on the time between the production and transport of the ash into the hydrological system. Therefore, to evaluate the threat of wildfire ash to water quality, not only its intrinsic characteristics, but also its temporal evolution in conjunction with the probability of ash erosion to occur at a given time, need to be evaluated. These additional parameters highlight the complexity of the interaction of many different factors in the post-fire landscape.

  5. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  6. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  7. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2007-11-15

    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  8. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  9. Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. K. Lam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and zeolite production. The practical use of MSWI ash shows a great contribution to waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  10. Long-term Performance of MSWI Bottom Ash in a Test Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Christian Frogner-Kockum; Jan Erik Lindqvist

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, whic...

  11. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  12. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  13. Surface area and volume measurements of volcanic ash particles by SEM stereoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Orkun

    2010-05-01

    Surface area of volcanic ash particles is of great importance to research including plume dynamics, particle chemical and water reactions in the plume, modelling (i.e. plume shape, particle interactions , dispersion etc.), remote sensing of transport and SO2, HCl, H2O, CO2 levels, forecasting plume location, and transportation and deposition of ash particles. The implemented method presented in this study offer new insights for surface characterization of volcanic ash particles on macro-pore regions. Surface area and volumes of volcanic ash particles were measured using digital elevation models (DEM) reconstructed from stereoscopic images acquired from different angles by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method was tested using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) micro-spheres which exhibit low spherical imperfections. The differences between measured and geometrically calculated surface areas were introduced for both micro-spheres and volcanic ash particles in order to highlight the probable errors in modelling on volcanic ash behaviour. The specific surface areas of volcanic ash particles using this method are reduced by half (from mean values of 0.045 m2/g to 0.021 m2/g) for the size increment 63 μm to 125 μm. Ash particles mostly have higher specific surface area values than the geometric forms irrespective of particle size. The specific surface area trends of spheres and ash particles resemble for finer particles (63 μm). Approximation to sphere and ellipsoid have similar margin of error for coarser particles (125 μm) but both seem to be inadequate for representation of real ash surfaces.

  14. Copper speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates; Kopparformer i lakvatten fraan energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Schaik, Joris van; Berggren Kleja, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Hees, Patrick van [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The formation of copper (Cu) complexes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may increase the total amount of Cu released but at the same time reduce its toxicity. In this study, DOC in a MSWI bottom ash leachate was characterized and the Cu-binding properties of different DOC fractions in the ash leachate and in a soil solution were studied. This knowledge may be used for improved environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash in engineering applications. The Cu{sup 2+} activity at different pH values was measured potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE). Experimental copper complexation results were compared to speciation calculations made in Visual MINTEQ with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The MSWI bottom ash leachate contained a larger proportion of hydrophilic organic carbon than the investigated soil solution and other natural waters. The hydrophilic fraction of both samples showed Cu{sup 2+} binding properties similar to that of the bulk, cation-exchanged, leachate. For the ash leachate, the pH dependence of the Cu activity was not correctly captured by neither the SHM nor the NICA-Donnan model, but for the soil solution the model predictions of Cu speciation were in good agreement with the obtained results. The complex formation properties of the ash DOC appears to be less pH-dependent than what is assumed for DOC in natural waters. Hence, models calibrated for natural DOC may give inconsistent simulations of Cu-DOC complexation in MSWI bottom ash leachate. A Biotic Ligand Model for Daphnia Magna was used to provide an estimate of the copper concentrations at LC50 for a simulated bottom ash leachate. It was concluded that the Cu concentrations in certain bottom ash leachates are high enough to pose an ecotoxicological risk; however, after dilution and soil sorption, the risks for neighboring water bodies are most likely negligible. Three processes were

  15. Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Chu, J P; Tzeng, C C; Chen, Y S

    2002-01-01

    To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma environment, incinerated ashes are vitrified into benign slag with large volume reduction and extreme detoxification. Several one-step heat treatment processes are carried out at four temperatures (i.e. 850, 950, 1,050 and 1,150 degrees C) to obtain various "microstructure materials". The major phase to form these materials is a solid solution of gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) belonging to the melilite group. The physical and mechanical properties of the microstructure materials are improved by using one-step post-heat treatment process after plasma vitrification. These microstructure materials with good quality have great potential to serve as a viable alternative for construction applications.

  16. Properties of Cement Mortar Containing Rubber Ash as Sand Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. There has been increasing public worry about the mining of natural resources in recent years. In order to minimize the consumption of natural resources, rubber ash has been postulated as a potential material for partial replacement of sand in concrete materials especially for applications which are subjected to impact and vibration such as road and bridge construction. Thus, it contributes to the development of the construction industry in a sustainable way. This paper mainly emphasizes on the use of rubber ash from waste tyres in cement mortar. 100mm cubic specimens were produced by adding rubber ash volume ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% as sand replacement in M30 quality cement mortar. A compressive stress test and a density test were conducted at the end of 7, 14, and 28 days. The result shows that 5% is the optimum value for sand replacement in the cement mortar. Therefore, rubber ash is acceptable to be used as sand replacement.

  17. Characterization of rain and roof drainage water quality in Xanthi, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melidis, Paraschos; Akratos, Christos S; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Trikilidou, Eleni

    2007-04-01

    Thirteen field campaigns were undertaken in the period from December 2,2002 until September 1,2004 to collect water samples in order to characterize the quality of rainfall and roof drainage in the city of Xanthi, a typical provincial city in Greece. In each campaign, water samples were collected from 10 representative sites in the city (in total 130 samples), representing areas of distinct land use and human activities (i.e., traffic volume, residence density and industrial activity). The water samples were analyzed according to drinking water criteria for total coliform (not detected), temperature (range: 0.9-20 degrees C), pH (range: 3.6-11.4), alkalinity (range: 0-21.5 mg CaCO(3)/L), nitrate (range: 0-2456 microg/L), ammonium (range: 0-2628 microg/L), sulfate (range: 0-0.5 mg/L), calcium (range: 259.1-3064 microeq/L), magnesium (range: 0.8-488.8 microeq/L), potassium (range: 0.0-110.6 microeq/L) and dissolved heavy metals (Fe, range: 0.01-0.18 mg/L; Mn, range: 0.01-0.09 mg/L; Zn, range: 0.01-0.54 mg/L; Cu, Cr and Ni, not detected). Pollutant concentrations were generally higher in roof drainage than in rainwater, but both were lower than drinking water standards. Dissolved heavy metal concentrations were generally higher in the areas of intensive human activities, such as roads with high traffic volume and densely populated residential areas. The satisfactory quality of rainwater, which results from this analysis, makes its use as grey water possible.

  18. Uses of -Fe2O3 and fly ash as solid adsorbents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Shakhapure; H Vijayanand; S Basavaraja; V Hiremath; A Venkataraman

    2005-12-01

    Solid adsorbents have shown great promise for control of particulate and non-particulate matter and as gas sensing devices in recent times. In the present study, adsorption of environmental toxic pollutant such as lead ions on solid adsorbents viz. -Fe2O3 and fly ash, are reported. Considerable adsorption was observed on fly ash when compared to -Fe2O3 surface. These studies are characterized by employing solid state and solution studies.

  19. Episodic ataxia type 1: clinical characterization, quality of life and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Tracey D; Cha, Yoon-Hee; Hahn, Angelika F; Barohn, Richard; Salajegheh, Mohammed K; Griggs, Robert C; Bundy, Brian N; Jen, Joanna C; Baloh, Robert W; Hanna, Michael G

    2014-04-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 is considered a rare neuronal ion channel disorder characterized by brief attacks of unsteadiness and dizziness with persistent myokymia. To characterize the natural history, develop outcome measures for future clinical trials, and correlate genotype with phenotype, we undertook an international, prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine individuals (51% male) were enrolled: median age 37 years (range 15-65 years). We identified 10 different pathogenic point mutations in KCNA1 that accounted for the genetic basis of 85% of the cohort. Participants with KCNA1 mutations were more likely to have a positive family history. Analysis of the total cohort showed that the first episode of ataxia occurred before age 20 in all but one patient, with an average age of onset of 7.9 years. Physical exertion, emotional stress and environmental temperature were the most common triggers for attacks. Attack frequency ranged from daily to monthly, even with the same KCNA1 genotype. Average attack duration was in the order of minutes. Ten participants (26%) developed permanent cerebellar signs, which were related to disease duration. The average Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score (SARA, a standardized measure of cerebellar dysfunction on clinical examination, scores range from 0-40) was an average of 3.15 for all participants (range 0-14), but was only 2 in those with isolated episodic ataxia compared with 7.7 in those with progressive cerebellar ataxia in addition to episodic ataxia. Thirty-seven participants completed the SF-36, a quality of life survey; all eight domain norm-based average scores (mean=50) were below normal with mental health being the lowest (41.3) in those with mutation positive episodic ataxia type 1. Scores on SF-36 correlated negatively with attack frequency. Of the 39 participants in the study, 33 harboured mutations in KCNA1 whereas the remaining six had no mutation identified. Episodic ataxia type 1 phenocopies

  20. Optimization of the recycle used oil and its fuel quality characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyitayo A. AFOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of recycling of used engine oil with clay sample has been studied using Response Surface Methodology. Acid concentration, activation temperature and time were the independent variables considered in optimizing the recycling of used oil and six responses evaluated. The surface characterization of the clay samples was performed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET analyses. The relationship between independent variables and response was described by a second order polynomial equation. Statistical testing of the model was performed with F-test to obtain the correlation between the experimental data and predicted results for all responses. The adequacy of the model equations were evaluated by the Adjusted and Predicted R2 coefficients observed to be close to each other for all the six responses. Data obtained from recycling used oil using clay sample showed the optimum condition as; activation temperature of 106.80oC, acid concentration of 3M and activation time of 180 minutes. A yield of 66.28% was obtained at optimum condition and characterized fuel qualities found close to fresh oil used as standard in this work. The surface area and adsorption capacity of raw clay and activated clay samples was observed to have increase from 19.8m2/g to 437.83m2/g and 1.41 mg/g to 8.64 mg/g respectively. This difference adequately described the improvement of the adsorption phenomena of the activated clay over raw clay samples.

  1. Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Adam

    This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  2. Fly ash particles spheroidization using low temperature plasma energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Volokitin, O. G.; Kondratyuk, A. A.; Vitske, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the investigations on producing spherical particles 65-110 μm in size using the energy of low temperature plasma (LTP). These particles are based on flow ash produced by the thermal power plant in Seversk, Tomsk region, Russia. The obtained spherical particles have no defects and are characterized by a smooth exterior surface. The test bench is designed to produce these particles. With due regard for plasma temperature field distribution, it is shown that the transition of fly ash particles to a state of viscous flow occurs at 20 mm distance from the plasma jet. The X-ray phase analysis is carried out for the both original state of fly ash powders and the particles obtained. This analysis shows that fly ash contains 56.23 wt.% SiO2; 20.61 wt.% Al2O3 and 17.55 wt.% Fe2O3 phases that mostly contribute to the integral (experimental) intensity of the diffraction maximum. The LTP treatment results in a complex redistribution of the amorphous phase amount in the obtained spherical particles, including the reduction of O2Si, phase, increase of O22Al20 and Fe2O3 phases and change in Al, O density of O22Al20 chemical unit cell.

  3. Hail formation triggers rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Alexa; Mastin, Larry G.; Herzog, M.; Schwaiger, Hans F.; Schneider, David J.; Wallace, Kristi; Clarke, Amanda B

    2015-01-01

    During explosive eruptions, airborne particles collide and stick together, accelerating the fallout of volcanic ash and climate-forcing aerosols. This aggregation process remains a major source of uncertainty both in ash dispersal forecasting and interpretation of eruptions from the geological record. Here we illuminate the mechanisms and timescales of particle aggregation from a well-characterized ‘wet’ eruption. The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska incorporated water from the surface (in this case, a glacier), which is a common occurrence during explosive volcanism worldwide. Observations from C-band weather radar, fall deposits, and numerical modeling demonstrate that volcanic hail formed rapidly in the eruption plume, leading to mixed-phase aggregation of ~95% of the fine ash and stripping much of the cloud out of the atmosphere within 30 minutes. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism of hail-like aggregation that contributes to the anomalously rapid fallout of fine ash and the occurrence of concentrically-layered aggregates in volcanic deposits.

  4. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  5. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid)/rice husk ash hydrogels composites; Sintese e caracterizacao de hidrogeis compositos de cinza da casca de arroz e quitosana enxertada com poli(acido acrilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Francisco H.A. [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau - UVA, Sobral, CE (Brazil); Lopes, Gabriel V.; Pereira, Antonio G.B.; Fajardo, Andre R.; Muniz, Edvani C. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa - UEM, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    According to environmental concerns, super absorbent hydrogel composites were synthesized based on rice husk ash (RHA), an industrial waste, and Chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid). The WAXS and FTIR data confirmed the syntheses of hydrogel composites. The effect of crystalline or amorphous RHA on water uptake was investigated. It was found that the RHA in crystalline form induces higher water capacity (W{sub eq}) of composites hydrogels due to the fact that the intra-interactions among silanol groups on RHA make available new sites in the polymer matrix, which could interact to water. (author)

  7. Characteristics variation of coal combustion residues in an Indian ash pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Pappu; Saxena, Mohini; Aparna, Asokan; Asolekar, Shyam R; Asoletar, Shyam R

    2004-08-01

    Coal-fired power plants all over the world are cited as one of the major sources that generate huge quantities of coal combustion residues (CCRs) as solid wastes. Most frequently CCRs are collected through electrostatic precipitators, mixed with bottom ash by hydraulic systems and deposited in ash ponds. The quality of the CCRs at different locations in one of the ash ponds in Central India was evaluated to understand the variation in characteristics with a view to effective utilization. Results revealed that the presence of fine particles (distance from the ash slurry inlet zone in the ash pond. Wide variations in the bulk density (800-980 kg m(-3)), porosity (45-57%) and water-holding capacity (57.5-75.7%) of CCRs were recorded. With increasing distance the pH of the CCRs decreased (from 9.0 to 8.2) and electrical conductivity increased (from 0.25 to 0.65 dS m(-3)). The presence of almost all the heavy metals in CCRs exhibited an increase with distance from the ash slurry discharge zone due to the increase in surface area (from 0.1038 to 2.3076 m2 g(-1)) of CCRs particles. The present paper describes the variation of characteristics of CCRs deposited in the ash pond and their potential applications.

  8. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  9. Face-Sheet Quality Analysis and Thermo-Physical Property Characterization of OOA and Autoclave Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Lort, Richard D., III; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Pelham, Larry I.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased application of polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials in large vehicle structures requires consideration of non-autoclave manufacturing technology. The NASA Composites for Exploration project, and its predecessor, Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials project, were tasked with the development of materials and manufacturing processes for structures that will perform in a heavy-lift-launch vehicle environment. Both autoclave and out of autoclave processable materials were considered. Large PMC structures envisioned for such a vehicle included the payload shroud and the interstage connector. In this study, composite sandwich panels representing 1/16th segments of the barrel section of the Ares V rocket fairing were prepared as 1.8 m x 2.4 m sections of the 10 m diameter arc segment. IM7/977-3 was used as the face-sheet prepreg of the autoclave processed panels and T40-800B/5320-1 for the out of autoclave panels. The core was 49.7 kg/sq m (3.1 lb/cu ft (pcf)) aluminum honeycomb. Face-sheets were fabricated by automated tape laying 153 mm wide unidirectional tape. This work details analysis of the manufactured panels where face-sheet quality was characterized by optical microscopy, cured ply thickness measurements, acid digestion, and thermal analysis.

  10. Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Patil, Chetan; Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common primary tumor in men, with a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Bone metastases in prostate cancer are associated with active pathologic bone remodeling, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Detailed characterization of bone metastases is important in the management of prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate the structure and composition of metastatic bone in prostate cancer with the ultimate goal of identifying spectral features that are related to the alterations in bone quality as the bone metastases develop. Osteoblastic-, osteolytic- and tumor-absent bone specimens from prostate cancer patients were investigated using bench-top Raman microspectroscopy. Raman derived measurements of collagen mineralization, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution were calculated. The osteolytic lesions demonstrated significantly lower collagen mineralization, determined by phosphate ν1/proline, and higher carbonate substitution than normal and osteoblastic bones. Mineral crystallinity was significantly lower in both blastic and lytic specimens. In addition, a significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyproine: proline was observed in the osteoblastic specimen, indicating an increase in the content of hydroxyproline at the blastic lesions. This study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy shows promise in determining alterations in osteoblastic and osteolytic bone metastases as well as assessing the response of metastatic bone to therapies.

  11. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  12. The Ashes of Marci Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kopeć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Marci Shore’s social and historical thought, as presented in her books: Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation’s Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968 (2006, The Taste of Ashes (2013, and her essays recently published in Polish translation. The author follows the American historian, presenting her concept of modernity, but focuses on the main theme of her research: the contribution of Jewish writers, poets, artists, and intellectuals to the creation of Marxism. The author acknowledges the great value of Marci Shore’s writings, but argues that her panorama of the 20th century would be fuller if her discussion included a reflection on the religious attitude of many Jewish thinkers to Marxism and the USSR. This topic was discussed by Nikolai Berdyaev and Polish thinkers who published in pre-war social journals.

  13. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05IC50, 24hIC50, 24hashes generated in gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category.

  14. Caracterização física e mecânica de argamassas à base de cimento Portland e cinza de casca de arroz residual Physical and mechanical characterization on Portland cement mortar with rice husk ash addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A casca de arroz, utilizada como fonte de energia em indústrias de beneficiamento de arroz, converte-se, depois da queima, em uma cinza residual. Esse resíduo, ainda sem um destino adequado, é muitas vezes depositado em grandes áreas abertas e provoca elevado impacto ambiental. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de utilização da cinza de casca de arroz (CCA residual na produção de argamassas, como substituta parcial do cimento. A caracterização da CCA foi realizada por meio da análise de fluorescência de raios-X (composição química, análise do teor de carbono e difração de raios-X; também foi realizada análise granulométrica a laser. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a dois tipos de exposição: ambientes externo e interno, com duração máxima de cinco meses. Foram realizados os ensaios de resistência à compressão simples e não destrutivo (velocidade do pulso ultrassônico - VPU. Embora as argamassas tenham apresentado bom desempenho mecânico, os ensaios de pozolanicidade indicaram que a cinza de casca de arroz residual utilizada não é uma pozolana, mas pode ser utilizada em matrizes cimentícias como material inerte (filler.Rice husk, employed as an energy source at milling industries in Brazil generates, after burning, a dark ash. This residue is not yet conveniently disposed, being currently dumped on large areas, causing environmental problems. This research intended to evaluate the applications of residual rice husk ashes (RHA as a partial replacement of cement for mortar production. Rice husk ash was chemically characterized through X-ray fluorescence, determination of carbon content, X-ray diffraction, and laser granulometric analysis. Mortar specimens were submitted to two different exposure conditions: internal and external environments at a maximum period of five months. Physical-mechanical testing were compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV. Although presenting good

  15. pH-dependent leaching of constituents of potential concern from concrete materials containing coal combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Garrabrants, Andrew C; DeLapp, Rossane; van der Sloot, Hans A

    2014-05-01

    Current concerns about the environmental safety of coal combustion fly ash have motivated this evaluation of the impact of fly ash use as a cement replacement in concrete materials on the leaching of constituents of potential concern. The chemical effects of fly ash on leaching were determined through characterization of liquid-solid partitioning using EPA Method 1313 for four fly ash materials as well as concrete and microconcrete materials containing 0% (control materials), 25% and 45% replacement of portland cement with the fly ash source. All source materials, concrete formulations and replacement levels are representative of US concrete industry practices. Eluate concentrations as a function of pH were compared to a broader range of available testing results for international concretes and mortars for which the leaching characteristics of the component fly ashes were unknown. The chemistry of the hydrated cement fraction was found to dominate the liquid-solid partitioning resulting in reduced leaching concentrations of most trace metals compared to concentrations from fly ash materials alone. Compared to controls, eluate concentrations of Sb, As, B, Cr, Mo, Se, Tl and V from concrete products containing fly ash were essentially the same as the eluate concentrations from control materials produced without fly ash replacement indicating little to no significant impact on aqueous partitioning.

  16. Steam hydration-reactivation of FBC ashes for enhanced in situ desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabio Montagnaro; Marianna Nobili; Antonio Telesca; Gian Lorenz Valenti; Edward J. Anthony; Piero Salatino [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

    2009-06-15

    Bed and fly ashes originating from industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) were steam hydrated to produce sorbents suitable for further in situ desulphurization. Samples of the hydrated ash were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry. Bed ashes were hydrated in a pressure bomb for 30 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 250{sup o}C. Fly ash was hydrated in an electrically heated tubular reactor for 10 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. The results were interpreted by considering the hydration process and the related development of accessible porosity suitable for resulphation. The performance of the reactivated bed ash as sulphur sorbent improved with a decrease of both the hydration temperature and time. For reactivated fly ash, more favourable porosimetric features were observed at longer treatment times and lower hydration temperatures. Finally, it was shown that an ashing treatment (at 850{sup o}C for 20 min) promoted a speeding up of the hydration process and an increase in the accessible porosity. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Filling the Gaps: The Synergistic Application of Satellite Data for the Volcanic Ash Threat to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Pavolonis, Michael; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lindsay, Francis; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in recent years, estimating volcanic ash concentration for the full extent of the airspace affected by volcanic ash remains a challenge. No single satellite, airborne or ground observing system currently exists which can sufficiently inform dispersion models to provide the degree of accuracy required to use them with a high degree of confidence for routing aircraft in and near volcanic ash. Toward this end, the detection and characterization of volcanic ash in the atmosphere may be substantially improved by integrating a wider array of observing systems and advancements in trajectory and dispersion modeling to help solve this problem. The qualitative aspect of this effort has advanced significantly in the past decade due to the increase of highly complementary observational and model data currently available. Satellite observations, especially when coupled with trajectory and dispersion models can provide a very accurate picture of the 3-dimensional location of ash clouds. The accurate estimate of the mass loading at various locations throughout the entire plume, however improving, remains elusive. This paper examines the capabilities of various satellite observation systems and postulates that model-based volcanic ash concentration maps and forecasts might be significantly improved if the various extant satellite capabilities are used together with independent, accurate mass loading data from other observing systems available to calibrate (tune) ash concentration retrievals from the satellite systems.

  18. Concretes and mortars with waste paper industry: Biomass ash and dregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Isabel; Velay-Lizancos, Miriam; Vázquez-Burgo, Pablo; Rivas-Fernández, Marcos; Vázquez-Herrero, Cristina; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Martín-Cano, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a study on the viability of using waste from the paper industry: biomass boiler ash and green liquor dregs to fabricate mortars and concretes. Both types of ash were characterized by obtaining their chemical and mineralogical composition, their organic matter content, granulometry, adsorption and other common tests for construction materials. Seven different mortars were fabricated, one for reference made up of cement, sand, and water, three in which 10, 20, or 30% of the cement was replaced by biomass ash, and three others in which 10, 20, or 30% of the cement was replaced with dregs. Test specimens were fabricated with these mortars to conduct flexural and compression tests. Flexural strength is reduced for all the mortars studied. Compressive strength increases for the mortars fabricated with biomass ash and decreases for the mortar with dregs. Finally, 5 concretes were made, one of them as a reference (neither biomass ash nor dregs added), two of them with replacements of 10 and 20% of biomass ash instead of cement and another two with replacements of 10 and 20% of dregs instead of cement. The compressive and tensile splitting strength increase when a 10% of ash is replaced and decrease in all the other cases. The modulus of elasticity always decreases.

  19. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  20. False deformation temperatures for ash fusibility associated with the conditions for ash preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Sanders, R.H.; Creelman, R.A.; Bryant, G.W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A study was made to investigate the fusibility behaviour of coal ashes of high ash fusion temperatures. Coals and ashes formed in the boiler were sampled in several Australian power stations, with laboratory ashes being prepared from the coals. The laboratory ashes gave lower values for the deformation temperature (DT) than the combustion ashes when the ash had low levels of basic oxide components. Thermo-mechanical analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to establish the mechanisms responsible for the difference. Laboratory ash is finer than combustion ash and it includes unreacted minerals (such as quartz, kaolinite and illite) and anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}). Fusion events which appear to be characteristic of reacting illite, at temperatures from 900 to 1200{degree}C, were observed for the laboratory ashes, these being associated with the formation of melt phase and substantial shrinkage. The combustion ashes did not contain this mineral and their fusion events were observed at temperatures exceeding 1300{degree}C. The low DTs of coal ashes with low levels of basic oxides are therefore a characteristic of laboratory ash rather than that found in practical combustion systems. These low temperatures are not expected to be associated with slagging in pulverised coal fired systems. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2014-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent sp...

  2. ASH structure alignment package: Sensitivity and selectivity in domain classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hiroyuki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure alignment methods offer the possibility of measuring distant evolutionary relationships between proteins that are not visible by sequence-based analysis. However, the question of how structural differences and similarities ought to be quantified in this regard remains open. In this study we construct a training set of sequence-unique CATH and SCOP domains, from which we develop a scoring function that can reliably identify domains with the same CATH topology and SCOP fold classification. The score is implemented in the ASH structure alignment package, for which the source code and a web service are freely available from the PDBj website http://www.pdbj.org/ASH/. Results The new ASH score shows increased selectivity and sensitivity compared with values reported for several popular programs using the same test set of 4,298,905 structure pairs, yielding an area of .96 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. In addition, weak sequence homologies between similar domains are revealed that could not be detected by BLAST sequence alignment. Also, a subset of domain pairs is identified that exhibit high similarity, even though their CATH and SCOP classification differs. Finally, we show that the ranking of alignment programs based solely on geometric measures depends on the choice of the quality measure. Conclusion ASH shows high selectivity and sensitivity with regard to domain classification, an important step in defining distantly related protein sequence families. Moreover, the CPU cost per alignment is competitive with the fastest programs, making ASH a practical option for large-scale structure classification studies.

  3. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  4. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2014-04-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  5. Progress and gaps in understanding mechanisms of ash tree resistance to emerald ash borer, a model for wood-boring insects that kill angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Herms, Daniel A; Whitehill, Justin G A; Cipollini, Don; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on host resistance of ash to emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive species that causes widespread mortality of ash. Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), which coevolved with EAB, is more resistant than evolutionarily naïve North American and European congeners. Manchurian ash was less preferred for adult feeding and oviposition than susceptible hosts, more resistant to larval feeding, had higher constitutive concentrations of bark lignans, coumarins, proline, tyramine and defensive proteins, and was characterized by faster oxidation of phenolics. Consistent with EAB being a secondary colonizer of coevolved hosts, drought stress decreased the resistance of Manchurian ash, but had no effect on constitutive bark phenolics, suggesting that they do not contribute to increased susceptibility in response to drought stress. The induced resistance of North American species to EAB in response to the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate was associated with increased bark concentrations of verbascoside, lignin and/or trypsin inhibitors, which decreased larval survival and/or growth in bioassays. This finding suggests that these inherently susceptible species possess latent defenses that are not induced naturally by larval colonization, perhaps because they fail to recognize larval cues or respond quickly enough. Finally, we propose future research directions that would address some critical knowledge gaps.

  6. Stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and concrete production from bottom and circulating ashes produced in a power plant working under mono and co-combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

    2011-01-01

    Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor of a thermo-electric power plant: (1) combustion of coal; (2) co-combustion of coal (68.7% w/w), sewage sludge (9.2% w/w) and meat and bone meal (MBM) (22.1% w/w). Three samples of ashes (bottom, circulating and fly ashes) were collected in each combustion test. The ashes were submitted to the following assays: (a) evaluation of the leaching behaviour; (b) stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and evaluation of the leaching behaviour of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) materials; (c) production of concrete from bottom and circulating ashes. The eluates of all materials were submitted to chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations. The crude ashes have shown similar chemical and ecotoxicological properties. The s/s materials have presented compressive strengths between 25 and 40 MPa, low emission levels of metals through leaching and were classified as non-hazardous materials. The formulations of concrete have presented compressive strengths between 12 and 24 MPa. According to the Dutch Building Materials Decree, some concrete formulations can be used in both scenarios of limited moistening and without insulation, and with permanent moistening and with insulation.

  7. Future developments in modelling and monitoring of volcanic ash clouds: outcomes from the first IAVCEI-WMO workshop on Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Costanza; Folch, Arnau; Loughlin, Susan; Puempel, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the serious consequences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) on civil aviation, 52 volcanologists, meteorologists, atmospheric dispersion modellers and space and ground-based monitoring specialists from 12 different countries (including representatives from 6 Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres and related institutions) gathered to discuss the needs of the ash dispersal modelling community, investigate new data-acquisition strategies (i.e. quantitative measurements and observations) and discuss how to improve communication between the research community and institutions with an operational mandate. Based on a dedicated benchmark exercise and on 3 days of in-depth discussion, recommendations have been made for future model improvements, new strategies of ash cloud forecasting, multidisciplinary data acquisition and more efficient communication between different communities. Issues addressed in the workshop include ash dispersal modelling, uncertainty, ensemble forecasting, combining dispersal models and observations, sensitivity analysis, model variability, data acquisition, pre-eruption forecasting, first simulation and data assimilation, research priorities and new communication strategies to improve information flow and operational routines. As a main conclusion, model developers, meteorologists, volcanologists and stakeholders need to work closely together to develop new and improved strategies for ash dispersal forecasting and, in particular, to: (1) improve the definition of the source term, (2) design models and forecasting strategies that can better characterize uncertainties, (3) explore and identify the best ensemble strategies that can be adapted to ash dispersal forecasting, (4) identify optimized strategies for the combination of models and observations and (5) implement new critical operational strategies.

  8. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  9. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  10. Linear Regression Model of the Ash Mass Fraction and Electrical Conductivity for Slovenian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jamnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass fraction of ash is a quality criterion for determining the botanical origin of honey. At present, this parameter is generally being replaced by the measurement of electrical conductivity (κ. The value κ depends on the ash and acid content of honey; the higher their content, the higher the resulting conductivity. A linear regression model for the relationship between ash and electrical conductivity has been established for Slovenian honey by analysing 290 samples of Slovenian honey (including acacia, lime, chestnut, spruce, fir, multifloral and mixed forest honeydew honey. The obtained model differs from the one proposed by the International Honey Commission (IHC in the slope, but not in the section part of the relation formula. Therefore, the Slovenian model is recommended when calculating the ash mass fraction from the results of electrical conductivity in samples of Slovenian honey.

  11. Characterizing eye movements during temporal and global quality assessment of h.264 compressed video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Guyader, Nathalie; Ladret, Patricia; Ionescu, Gelu; Kunlin, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that the deployment of visual attention is closely link to the assessment of image or video quality, though this link is not yet fully understood. The influence of rating temporal quality of compressed videos over the way an observer deploys his attention is investigated in this paper. We set-up a subjective experiment in which the eye movements of observers are recorded during three different tasks: a free-viewing task (FT), a global quality assessment task and a temporal quality assessment task. The FT acts as a reference to which we compare the eye movements during the two other tasks. As previously shown, observers assessing global quality gaze at locations dissimilar to those fixated during the FT. For temporal quality assessment, it seems that the fixated locations are closer to FT than the global quality assessment fixated locations. Our results suggest that the locations observers look at do not depend on the displayed video quality level. Quality however influences the way participants look at videos: the lower the quality, the longer they gaze at a precise location. The area fixated seems to be much smaller during the quality assessment tasks than during the FT for either perfect or poor quality level. The evolution over time of all indicators suggests that, during the first 1 or 2 seconds, the signal properties of the videos are the main attractors for the participants' eye movements. Instructions only seem to play a role afterwards on the deployment of the participants' visual attention.

  12. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex

    2012-06-01

    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality.

  13. Strength of Ternary Blended Cement Sandcrete Containing Afikpo Rice Husk Ash and Saw Dust Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Ettu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the compressive strength of ternary blended cement sandcrete containing Afikpo rice husk ash (RHA and sawdust ash (SDA. 105 sandcrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced with OPC-RHA binary blended cement, 105 with OPC-SDA binary blended cement, and 105 with OPC-RHA-SDA ternary blended cement, each at percentage OPC replacement with pozzolan of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Three cubes for each percentage replacement of OPC with pozzolan and the control were tested for saturated surface dry bulk density and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 90-day strengths obtained from ternary blending of OPC with equal proportions of RHA and SDA were 11.80N/mm2for 5% replacement, 11.20N/mm2for 10% replacement, 10.60N/mm2for 15% replacement, 10.00N/mm2for 20% replacement, and 9.10N/mm2for 25% replacement, while that of the control was 10.90N/mm2. This suggests that very high sandcrete strength values could be obtained with OPCRHA-SDA ternary blended cement with richer mixes, high quality control, and longer days of hydration. Thus, OPC-RHA-SDA ternary blended cement sandcrete could be used for various civil engineering and building works, especially where early strength is not a major requirement.

  14. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  15. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event

  16. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  17. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  18. Combining observations and model simulations to reduce the hazard of Etna volcanic ash plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Simona; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world with a recent activity characterized by powerful lava fountains that produce several kilometres high eruption columns and disperse volcanic ash in the atmosphere. It is well known that, to improve the volcanic ash dispersal forecast of an ongoing explosive eruption, input parameters used by volcanic ash dispersal models should be measured during the eruption. In this work, in order to better quantify the volcanic ash dispersal, we use data from the video-surveillance system of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, and from the lidar system together with a volcanic ash dispersal model. In detail, the visible camera installed in Catania, 27 km from the vent is able to evaluate the evolution of column height with time. The Lidar, installed at the "M.G. Fracastoro" astrophysical observatory (14.97° E, 37.69° N) of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Catania, located at a distance of 7 km from the Etna summit craters, uses a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser source operating at a 532-nm wavelength, with a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Backscattering and depolarization values measured by the Lidar system can give, with a certain degree of uncertainty, an estimation of volcanic ash concentration in atmosphere. The 12 August 2011 activity is considered a perfect test case because volcanic plume was retrieved by both camera and Lidar. We evaluated the mass eruption rate from the column height and used best fit procedures comparing simulated volcanic ash concentrations with those extracted by the Lidar data. During this event, powerful lava fountains were well visible at about 08:30 GMT and a sustained eruption column was produced since about 08:55 GMT. Ash emission completely ceased around 11:30 GMT. The proposed approach is an attempt to produce more robust ash dispersal forecasts reducing the hazard to air traffic during Etna volcanic crisis.

  19. Wildfires and water chemistry: effect of metals associated with wood ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, José M; Blake, Johanna M; Hirani, Chris; Clark, Alexander L; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Peterson, Eric; Bixby, Rebecca J

    2016-08-10

    The reactivity of metals associated with ash from wood collected from the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, was assessed through a series of laboratory experiments. Microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and aqueous chemistry measurements were integrated to determine the chemical composition of wood ash and its effect on water chemistry. Climate change has caused dramatic impacts and stresses that have resulted in large-scale increases in wildfire activity in semi-arid areas of the world. Metals and other constituents associated with wildfire ash can be transported by storm event runoff and negatively affect the water quality in streams and rivers. Differences among ash from six tree species based on total concentrations of metals such as Ca, Al, Mg, Fe, and Mn were identified using non-metric multidimensional analysis. Metal-bearing carbonate and oxide phases were quantified by X-ray diffraction analyses and X-ray spectroscopy analyses. These metal-bearing carbonate phases were readily dissolved in the first 30 minutes of reaction with 18 MΩ water and 10 mM HCO3(-) in laboratory batch experiments which resulted in the release of metals and carbonates in the ash, causing water alkalinity to increase. However, metal concentrations decreased over the course of the experiment, suggesting that metals re-adsorb to ash. Our results suggest that the dissolution of metal-bearing carbonate and oxide phases in ash and metal re-adsorption to ash are relevant processes affecting water chemistry after wildfire events. These results have important implications to better understand the impact of wildfire events on water quality.

  20. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  1. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  2. Combustion of stoker ash in a CFBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The ash generated from petroleum coke fired stokers at Georgia Pacific in Wisconsin has an elevated carbon content and a higher fuel value. This paper presents results of a study in which the stoker ash was test fired at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The objective was to determine if firing the stoker ash in its 'as received' state (with a 40 per cent moisture content) is a viable fuel option for Georgia Pacific's FBC boiler to save fuel costs, or if it should be co-fired with petroleum coke. Mixtures of the stoker ash and petroleum coke were also test fired. Results indicate that the stoker ash alone cannot sustain combustion. However, good ignition and even bed temperature is possible with premixed coke and 10 per cent less moisture content. Emissions of sulphur dioxides, nitrogen oxides carbon monoxide were the same as for firing petroleum coke alone. In addition, the co-firing of stoker ash and petroleum coke did not negatively affect the tendency to foul, compared to firing coke alone. The amount of ash generated from the FBC boiler was high due to the high ash content. An economic evaluation showed that firing a 20/80 coke/stoker ash mixture can save approximately 22 per cent of the limestone usage compared to coke firing alone, if the Ca/S molar ratio remain the same. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Solidification on fly ash, Yugoslav experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D. [Mining Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popov, S.; Salatic, D. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    A study was performed on ashes produced in the combustion process of coal from the Kosovo coal basin, in order to determine the potential and conditions of ash self-solidification. Investigations showed that the ash properties allows for the transformation into a solid mass through a controlled mixing with water. The optimal concentration of ash is 50 percent and the hydro-mixture is behaving as a Bingham plastic fluid. Solidification is obtained in a relatively short period (within 3 to 5 days) without additives. The resulting solidified mass is very consistent and stable

  4. Hydrologic and water-quality characterization and modeling of the Chenoweth Run basin, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected in the Chenoweth Run Basin during February 1996?January 1998, in combination with the available historical sampling data, were used to characterize hydrologic conditions and to develop and calibrate a Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF) model for continuous simulation of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and total-orthophosphate (TPO4) transport relations. Study results provide an improved understanding of basin hydrology and a hydrologic-modeling framework with analytical tools for use in comprehensive waterresource planning and management. Chenoweth Run Basin, encompassing 16.5 mi2 in suburban eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky, contains expanding urban development, particularly in the upper third of the basin. Historical water-quality problems have interfered with designated aquatic-life and recreation uses in the stream main channel (approximately 9 mi in length) and have been attributed to organic enrichment, nutrients, metals, and pathogens in urban runoff and wastewater inflows. Hydrologic conditions in Jefferson County are highly varied. In the Chenoweth Run Basin, as in much of the eastern third of the county, relief is moderately sloping to steep. Also, internal drainage in pervious areas is impeded by the shallow, fine-textured subsoils that contain abundant silts and clays. Thus, much of the precipitation here tends to move rapidly as overland flow and (or) shallow subsurface flow (interflow) to the stream channels. Data were collected at two streamflowgaging stations, one rain gage, and four waterquality- sampling sites in the basin. Precipitation, streamflow, and, consequently, constituent loads were above normal during the data-collection period of this study. Nonpoint sources contributed the largest portion of the sediment loads. However, the three wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP?s) were the source of the majority of estimated total phosphorus (TP) and TPO4 transport

  5. Comparison of leachable trace element levels in coal gasifier ash with levels in power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Milosavljevic, M.; Janes, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    The levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal were compared. The study was conducted over a one year period at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant using lignite from the Dobro Solo mine. Results obtained indicate that levels of Sb, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in gasifier ash leachate were similar to those in fly ash leachate. Barium levels in gasifier ash leachate averaged 2.7 times that in fly ash and selenium levels averaged 0.33 times. The average ratio for the total set was 0.99. The set average, relative to bottom ash, was 2.1 with the nickel ratio differing significantly from the average. Metal oxides, CaO, MgO, Na/SUB/2O, K/SUB/2O and MgO; in the Kosovo gasifier ash were found at levels similar to those in Kosovo fly ash, and except for K/SUB/2O, were approximately twice those in bottom ash. Concentration levels of all components showed relatively small variations averaging 50% of their mean annual concentration over the test period. (14 refs.)

  6. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    treatment. Peroxidase, phenol oxidase, and catalase activities were not affected by these treatments. Acid phosphatase activity decreased, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity increased due to biochar and fly ash treatment. Microbial biomass carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) with biochar (+27.9%), fly ash (19.8%), and char + ash (+27.9%) applications. Maize grain yield was increased by biochar (+11.4%) and char + ash (+28.1%) treatments. The total PAH concentration decreased from 4191 μg/kg in control to 1930 μg/kg in fly ash; 1509 μg/kg in biochar and 1011 μg/kg in ash + char treatments. Among the different PAHs the concentration was higher for BkF, which decreased from 713 μg/kg in control to 139 - 315 μg/kg under different treatments. Overall, combined application of fly ash and biochar was found to be effective in amelioration of soil quality parameters and improving crop yield.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Micro-analytical studies on sugar cane bagasse ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jagadesh; A Ramachandramurthy; R Murugesan; K Sarayu

    2015-08-01

    The worldwide production of sugar generates large volumes of bagasse wastes, which are burnt in uncontrolled manner for heating boiler, which are deposited in landfills, which create negative effects in the environment. The ash obtained by burning bagasse is generally used as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM) in concrete production without proper knowledge of pozzolanic material characterization. This paper summarizes the results obtained from the various techniques to determine pozzolanic mineral profiles in sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA). Techniques employed in the present study include X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) spectrometer, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermal Analysis [Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Derivative Thermo-Gravimetric (DTG)] in order to understand the type, form, nature, morphology, concentration, etc. of pozzolanic minerals.

  9. MANUAL. Fly ash in civil engineering, Gravel roads; HANDBOK. Flygaska i mark- och vaegbyggnad, Grusvaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munde, Hanna; Svedberg, Bo; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Ekdahl, Peter; Neren, Jens [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Vaerme Norden

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash based on biofuels or coal has been used as construction material for a long time in roads and other civil engineering applications. Some example, where it has been used in roadbase and subbase of gravel roads, are in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland, Vaestmanland and in Finland. The use of fly ash has contributed to good function for example as bearing capacity, thaw and frost capacity and good durability. This has also reduced costs for maintenance. The objective of this project was to develop a manual to provide a base for contemporary use of fly ash in road constructions. In the manual experience from studies, field tests and regulations has been compiled. The manual handles fly ash as base for products to be used in base and subbase in gravel roads. Future user of the guidelines are mainly consultant engineers and contractors. However the aim of the manual is to also support road administrators, environmental authorities and industry. The project has been carried out parallel to another ongoing national project titled 'Guidelines, Use of alternative materials in civil engineering'. The objective of that project is to establish a base for handling of alternative materials in Sweden. Fly ash in gravel roads are mainly used in two typical applications, one without any additive in a single layer and one with fly ash mixed with gravel. The use of flyash provides functional properties such as increased stiffness, stability and enhanced frost and thaw capacity for the road construction in total. Furthermore the products based on fly ash will have low permeability and good frost and thaw durability. These properties are for example related to fly ash quality, design and construction and are in general expected to be better than for traditional constructions using, for example, sand or gravel. The properties can be enhanced further by using binders such as cement and Merit. Fly ash should always be used above the ground water table with

  10. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  11. Effect of lime and wood ash on the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla chemical and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, María Renée; de Palomo, Patricia Palacios; Bressani, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the chemical composition, functional properties, sensory quality and protein value of tortillas made from the nixtamalization of maize using either lime or wood ashes. The Ca, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn content of lime and wood ashes showed lime to be high in Ca content while wood ash contained more K and about 71% of the Ca content of lime. Both contained relatively high levels of Mg, Fe and Zn, but more so in the wood ashes. The level of reagent for nixtamalization was set at 0.8% of the maize weight. All other processing conditions were kept constant. The pH of the cooking solution was 12.0 for lime and 10.9 for wood ash. The moisture content of maize at 60 min of cooking was 45.8% for both treatments, however after 12 h of soaking, moisture level was 51.0% for the lime treatment and only 46.8% for the ash treatment. Solids (2.4%) in the lime cooking liquor were higher than in the wood ash liquor (1.0%). Chemical composition changes were similar between treatments in masa and tortilla; however, both masa and tortillas absorbed relatively high levels of all minerals including Fe and Zn from the wood ash treatment. The different treatment influenced functional properties particularly hardness and color. Tortilla characteristics were also similar. Protein quality of both alkali cooked products was lower than that of raw corn, more so the product from the wood ash treatment. Although some differences were observed in the sensory studies, human subjects did not dislike the wood ash made tortillas.

  12. Investigations of ash fouling with cattle wastes as reburn fuel in a small-scale boiler burner under transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyukjin; Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M

    2008-04-01

    Fouling behavior under reburn conditions was investigated with cattle wastes (termed as feedlot biomass [FB]) and coal as reburn fuels under a transient condition and short-time operation. A small-scale (30 kW or 100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner research facility was used for the reburn experiments. The fuels considered for these experiments were natural gas (NG) for the ashless case, pure coal, pure FB, and blends of coal and FB. Two parameters that were used to characterize the ash "fouling" were (1) the overall heat-transfer coefficient (OHTC) when burning NG and solid fuels as reburn fuels, and (2) the combustible loss through ash deposited on the surfaces of heat exchanger tubes and the bottom ash in the ash port. A new methodology is presented for determining ash-fouling behavior under transient conditions. Results on the OHTCs for solid reburn fuels are compared with the OHTCs for NG. It was found that the growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers OHTC, and the increased concentration of ash in gas phase promotes radiation in high-temperature zones during initial periods while decreasing the heat transfer in low-temperature zones. The ash analyses indicated that the bottom ash in the ash port contained a smaller percentage of combustibles with a higher FB percentage in the fuels, indicating better performance compared with coal because small particles in FB burn faster and the FB has higher volatile matter on a dry ash-free basis promoting more burn out.

  13. Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of

  14. Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part I. Technical characterization of the systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Bochud, F O; Verdun, F R

    2011-07-21

    In many European countries, image quality for digital x-ray systems used in screening mammography is currently specified using a threshold-detail detectability method. This is a two-part study that proposes an alternative method based on calculated detectability for a model observer: the first part of the work presents a characterization of the systems. Eleven digital mammography systems were included in the study; four computed radiography (CR) systems, and a group of seven digital radiography (DR) detectors, composed of three amorphous selenium-based detectors, three caesium iodide scintillator systems and a silicon wafer-based photon counting system. The technical parameters assessed included the system response curve, detector uniformity error, pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Approximate quantum noise limited exposure range was examined using a separation of noise sources based upon standard deviation. Noise separation showed that electronic noise was the dominant noise at low detector air kerma for three systems; the remaining systems showed quantum noise limited behaviour between 12.5 and 380 µGy. Greater variation in detector MTF was found for the DR group compared to the CR systems; MTF at 5 mm(-1) varied from 0.08 to 0.23 for the CR detectors against a range of 0.16-0.64 for the DR units. The needle CR detector had a higher MTF, lower NNPS and higher DQE at 5 mm(-1) than the powder CR phosphors. DQE at 5 mm(-1) ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 for the CR systems, while DQE at 5 mm(-1) for the DR group ranged from 0.04 to 0.41, indicating higher DQE for the DR detectors and needle CR system than for the powder CR phosphor systems. The technical evaluation section of the study showed that the digital mammography systems were well set up and exhibiting typical performance for the detector technology employed in the respective systems.

  15. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  16. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice...

  18. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  19. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  20. Effects of colemanite waste, coal bottom ash, and fly ash on the properties of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, I.; Olgun, A.; Erdogan, Y.; Sevinc, V. [Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties of colemanite ore waste from concentrator, coal bottom ash, fly ash, cement+ash mixtures, cement+colemanite ore waste, and their effects on the mechanical properties of concrete were investigated. These materials with different proportion were substituted with Portland cement. Physical properties such as setting time, volume expansion, and compressive strength were determined and compared to reference mixture and Turkish standards (TS). The results showed that cement replacement materials had clear effects on the mechanical properties. The use of fly ash and bottom ash even at the concentration of 25% showed either comparable or better result compared to reference mixture. Although replacement of Portland cement by 9 wt.% of colemanite ore waste causes reduction in the compressive strength, the values obtained are within the limit of TS. As a result, colemanite ore waste, fly ash, and bottom ash may be used as cementitious materials.

  1. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  2. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction.

  3. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2016-10-27

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH)2, KCl and SiO2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  4. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  5. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  6. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  7. Chemical composition of overland flow produced on soils covered with vegetative ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bodí

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ascertain the differences between the soluble elements of ash obtained under laboratory conditions and the dissolved in overland flow from soils covered with a layer of ash. The overland flow was obtained during series of rainfall simulations over soils covered with two different types of ash. This study indicates that the soluble elements released from ash can modify water quality increasing its pH, electrical conductivity and especially cation content. The nutrients solubilised are not necessarily the same as the elemental composition of ash itself. Runoff composition depends on the volume of water produced, on the solubility of the ash components and on the chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil. After the first intense rain event, most of the elements are solubilised and lixiviated or washed out, however, some of them may increase in the runoff or soil water some weeks later due to chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil nutrients.

  8. Volcanic ash modeling with the online NMMB/BSC-ASH-v1.0: A novel multiscale meteorological model for operational forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau; Jorba, Oriol; Janjic, Zavisa

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic ash forecast became a research priority and a social concern as a consequence of the severe air-traffic disruptions caused by the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland, 2010) and Cordón Caulle (Chile, 2011) volcanoes. Significant progress has taken place in the aftermath of these dramatic events to improve the accuracy of Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersal (VATD) models and lessen its associated uncertainties. Various levels of uncertainties affect both the quantification of the source term and the driving meteorological inputs. Substantial research is being performed to reduce and quantify epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties affecting the source term. However, uncertainties arising from the driving NWPMs and its coupling offline with the VATDMs have received little attention, even if the experience from other communities (e.g. air quality) highlights the importance of coupling online dispersal and meteorological modeling. Consequently, the need for integrated predictions to represent these two-way feedback effects of the volcanic pollutants on local-scale meteorology is timely. The aim of this talk is to present the NMMB/BSC-ASH, a new on-line multi-scale meteorological model to simulate the emission, transport and deposition of tephra particles released from volcanic eruptions. The model builds on the NMMB/BSC Chemical Transport Model (NMMB/BSC-CTM), which we have modified to account for the specifics of volcanic particles. The final objective in developing the NMMB/BSC-ASH model is two-fold. On one hand, at a research level, we aim at studying the differences between the online/offline approaches and quantify the two-way feedback effect of dense volcanic ash clouds on the radiative budget and regional meteorology. On the other hand, at an operational level, the low computational cost of the NMMB dynamic core suggests that NMMB/BSC-ASH could be applied in a future for more accurate online operational forecasting of volcanic ash clouds.

  9. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  10. Laboratory Studies of Ice Nucleation on Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect human respiratory health, atmospheric transport, and global climate. We have performed laboratory studies of the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (Basaltic Ash, Guatemala), Soufriere Hills (Andesetic Ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Rhyolitic Ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. We find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.1. For immersion freezing, however, only the Taupo ash exhibited efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  11. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  12. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  13. Surface modification of oil fly ash and its application in selective capturing of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaumi, Ali L.; Hussien, Ibnelwaleed A.; Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2013-02-01

    Oil fly ash from power generation plants was activated with 30% NH4OH and used for selective adsorption of carbon dioxide from CO2/N2 mixture. The treated samples were characterized for their surface area, morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and surface functional groups. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed an increase in the carbon contents from 45 to 73 wt% as a result of leaching out metal oxides. XRD proved that chemical activation of ash resulted in diminishing of major crystalline phases of zeolite, and other alumino-silicates leaving only quartz and mullite. BET analysis showed an increase in surface area from 59 to 318 m2/g after chemical activation and the pore volume increased from 0.0368 to 0.679 cm3/g. This increase in pore volume is supported by the results of SEM, where more micropores were opened with well-defined particle sizes and porous structure. The TGA of the treated fly ash showed stability at higher temperature as the weight loss decreased with increasing temperature. For treated ash, the FTIR displayed new peaks of amine functional group. The treated ash was used for the removal of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture and the maximum adsorption/capturing capacity was found to be 240 mg/g. This capacity increases with increase in initial gas concentration, inlet flow rate and temperature suggesting the endothermic nature of the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the ash.

  14. Hydration of Hybrid Alkaline Cement Containing a Very Large Proportion of Fly Ash: A Descriptive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Garcia-Lodeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid alkaline fly ash cements, a new generation of binders, hydration, is characterized by features found in both ordinary portland cement (OPC hydration and the alkali activation of fly ash (AAFA. Hybrid alkaline fly ash cements typically have a high fly ash (70 wt % to 80 wt % and low clinker (20 wt % to 30 wt % content. The clinker component favors curing at ambient temperature. A hydration mechanism is proposed based on the authors’ research on these hybrid binders over the last five years. The mechanisms for OPC hydration and FA alkaline activation are summarized by way of reference. In hybrid systems, fly ash activity is visible at very early ages, when two types of gel are formed: C–S–H from the OPC and N–A–S–H from the fly ash. In their mutual presence, these gels tend to evolve, respectively, into C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H. The use of activators with different degrees of alkalinity has a direct impact on reaction kinetics but does not modify the main final products, a mixture of C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H gels. The proportion of each gel in the mix does, however, depend on the alkalinity generated in the medium.

  15. Alkaline bioleaching of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by autochthonous extremophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Thulasya; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    The increasing demand for energy and the generation of solid waste have caused an alarming rise in fly ash production globally. Since heavy metals continue to be in demand for the production of materials, resource recovery from the recycling of these wastes has the potential to delay the depletion of natural ores. The use of microorganisms for the leaching of metals, in a process called bioleaching, is an eco-friendly and economical way to treat the metal-laden wastes. Bioleaching of fly ash is challenging due largely to the alkaline nature and toxic levels of heavy metals which are detrimental to microbial growth and bioleaching activity. The present work reports the isolation of indigenous bacteria from a local fly ash landfill site and their bioleaching performance. 38 autochthonous strains of bacteria were isolated from eight samples collected and plated on five different media. 18 of the isolates showed bioleaching potential, with significant alkaline pH or fly ash tolerance. Genetic characterization of the strains revealed a dominance of Firmicutes, with Alkalibacterium sp. TRTYP6 showing highest fly ash tolerance of up to 20% w/v fly ash, and growth over a pH range 8-12.5. The organism selectively recovered about 52% Cu from the waste. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a study on bioleaching with extreme alkaliphiles is reported.

  16. The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  17. Obtenção e caracterização de cinza de ossos bovinos visando à fabricação de porcelana de ossos - bone china Preparation and characterization of bovine bone ash for the fabrication of bone china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Miyahara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A porcelana de ossos - bone china - é uma cerâmica de corpo especial de grande dureza e translucidez exclusivamente fabricada na Inglaterra e em outras poucas partes do mundo, mas não no Brasil. Suas matérias-primas são compostas por aproximadamente metade de cinza de ossos, além de caulim e feldspato. O trabalho apresenta a obtenção e caracterização de cinza de ossos a partir de ossos bovinos com o objetivo da fabricação de porcelanas. No processo de preparação da cinza de ossos envolve o uso de autoclave, descarnagem manual, calcinação e moagem dos ossos. As condições de preparação foram estudadas em função das condições de calcinação, moagem e lavagem do osso. A calcinação foi estudada através de análises térmicas e difração de raios X de diferentes partes do animal. O pó obtido foi caracterizado por análises químicas, medida de granulometria por difração de laser, e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a matéria-prima obtida neste trabalho possui propriedades similares das originalmente utilizadas nas indústrias inglesas com baixo teor de ferro e partículas coloidais e que podem ser calcinadas a temperaturas inferiores a 1000 °C.Bone china is a special kind of porcelain, very hard and translucent, nowadays manufactured almost exclusively in England and in few other parts of the world, but not in Brazil. Its raw-materials comprise about fifty percent of bone ash, together with kaolin and a feldspar mineral. This paper presents the preparation and the characterization of bone ash obtained from bovine bones, with the objective of obtaining bone china. The preparation of the bone ash involves the use of an autoclave, manual removal of the meat, firing, and milling the bones. The preparation conditions were studied as a function of the firing conditions, milling, and washing the powder bones. The firing step was studied by thermal analyses TG-DTA and X-ray diffraction, whereas

  18. Fly and bottom ashes from biomass combustion as cement replacing components in mortars production: rheological behaviour of the pastes and materials compression strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Stefano; Tonello, Gabriele; Piani, Luciano; Furlani, Erika

    2011-10-01

    In the present research mortar pastes obtained by replacing a commercial cement with the equivalent mass of 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of fly ash or bottom ash from fir chips combustion, were prepared and rheologically characterized. It was observed that the presence of ash modifies their rheological behaviour with respect to the reference blend due to the presence, in the ashes, of KCl and K2SO4 which cause precipitation of gypsum and portlandite during the first hydration stages of the pastes. Hydrated materials containing 5 wt.% of ash display compression strength and absorption at 28 d of same magnitude as the reference composition; conversely, progressive increase of ash cause a continuous decline of materials performances. Conversely, samples tested after 180 d display a marked decline of compression strength, as a consequence of potassium elution and consequent alkali-silica reaction against materials under curing.

  19. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Soil sustainability and recovery after fire depend on physical, chemical and biological processes and fire severity (Neary et al., 1999; Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007). Fire effects on soils are divided in two types: direct effects, as a consequence of combustion and temperature reached and indirect effects (Neary et al., 1999) as consequence of changes in other ecosystem components, such as decrease in vegetal coverage or ash and partially burned litter contribution including changes in flora (Pausas and Verdú, 2005; Trabaud, 2000). Low intensity fires, during which high temperatures are not reached, affect vegetal coverage but will not cause major impacts on soil. In contrast, prolonged, recurrent, or high-intensity fires may cause important impacts on the soil system functioning (De Celis et al., 2013; DeBano, 1991; Mataix-Solera et al., 2009; Zavala et al., 2014), aggregation (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), organic matter content and quality (Sevink et al., 1989), water repellency (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al., 2000), soil nutrients (Stark, 1977), soil erosion (Larsen et al., 2009) and others. In these cases, the restoration period of the initial conditions can be very long and changes may become permanent (DeBano, 1991). During combustion, fuel (biomass, necromass and soil organic matter) is transformed in materials with new physical and chemical properties. After burn, the soil surface is covered by a layer of ash and charred organic residues. Ash has important ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects, even after being rearranged or mobilized by runoff or wind (Bodí et al., 2014). Ash properties will depend on the burned species, the amount of affected biomass, fuel flammability and structure, temperature and the residence time of thermal peaks (Pereira et al., 2009). Some studies have emphasized the role of ash on soil protection during the after fire period, in which the vegetable coverage could be drastically decreased (Cerd

  20. 3D reconstruction of volcanic ash particles using Stereo-SEM: two study cases from 200 Ky ash-rich eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, S.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often characterized by contrasting degrees of fragmentation during a single eruptive event, suggesting different decompression histories. The morphology of the ash fragments, products of many ash-rich eruptions, retains a record of bubble size at the time of fragmentation in the curvature of the convex surfaces on the ash fragments. The quantitative description of bubble distribution is a powerful tool to investigate the decompression history of the magma system. The recent development of a method to determine the Bubble Size Distributions (BSD) using a novel application of the Stereo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique [Proussevitch et al., in press] provides an opportunity to test the method on volcanic ash particles from ancient eruptions. The inferred BSDs, so obtained, can potentially provide valuable insights regarding into prehistoric eruption styles, magma dynamics and vesiculation processes that led to the ash-rich explosive eruptions in the volcanic hazard assessment areas. We studied two examples from the Quaternary Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Province, Italy), characterized by the eruption of highly fragmented magmas, the Sovana and Grotte di Castro eruptions. These units are dated respectively 0.18 My and 0.19 My. The Sovana records the emplacement of a widely dispersed ash-rich pyroclastic current, followed abruptly by "conventional", coarse pumice- and lithic-rich pyroclastic flows, both with a phonolitic bulk composition. The Grotte di Castro example includes early strombolian and subplinian phases, respectively, fed by shoshonitic and phonolitic magma batches, followed by widespread ash-rich surges with a shoshonitic composition. In both cases, the absence of hydromagmatic features rules out magma-aquifer explosive interaction. The curvature of ash surface features are measured using Stereo Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSEM), with the aid of morphology represented using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of ash particle

  1. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions.

  2. Fluidized-bed-combustion ash for the solidification and stabilization of a metal-hydroxide sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K L; Behr-Andres, C

    1998-01-01

    Fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) ash is a by-product from a developing technology for coal-fired power plants that will economically reduce air emissions to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act. FBC ash has physical and chemical properties similar to Portland cement, but only has moderate success as a pozzolan in concrete applications due to low compressive strengths. However, FBC ash has proven effective for use as a binder for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of metal-bearing sludges. Physical and chemical characterization procedures were used to analyze FBC ash and a metal-bearing sludge obtained from a hazardous waste treatment facility to develop 12 different S/S mix designs. The mix designs consist of four binder designs to evaluate sludge-to-binder ratios of approximately 0, 0.5, and 1. Portland cement is used as a control binder to compare unconfined compressive strengths and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses from different ratios of the FBC ash streams: fly ash, char, and spent bed material (SBM). Compressive strengths ranging from 84 lbs per square inch (psi) to 298 psi were obtained from various mix designs containing different sludge-to-ash ratios cured for 28 days. All the mix designs passed the TCLP. Recoveries from leaching for each metal were less than 5% for most mix designs. Results of unconfined compressive strengths, TCLP, and percent recovery calculations indicate that the mix design containing approximately a 1:1 ratio of fly ash to char-and-sludge is the best mix design for the S/S of the metal-bearing sludge.

  3. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C; Juenger, Maria C G; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ±5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling.

  4. Acoustic Surveillance of Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M. A.; Taisne, B.; Blanc, E.; Tupper, A. C.; Ngemaes, M.; Mialle, P.; Murayama, T.

    2015-12-01

    The ASHE Ecuador (2004-2012) collaboration between Ecuador, Canada, and the US demonstrated the capability to use real-time infrasound to provide low-latency volcanic eruption notifications to the Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) in Washington DC. The Atmospheric dynamics Research Infrastructure in Europe (ARISE, 2012-2018) supported by the European Commission fosters integrating innovative methods for remote detection and characterization of distant eruptive sources through collaborations with the VAAC Toulouse and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ASHE Asia project proposes an international collaboration between the Earth Observatory of Singapore, the VAAC Darwin, the Palau National Weather Service, and US and Asian partners, and will receive the support of ARISE, to provide improved early notification of potentially hazardous eruptions in Asia and the Western Pacific using a combination of established technologies and next-generation mobile sensing systems. The increased availability of open seismo-acoustic data in the ASEAN region as well as recent advances in mobile distributed sensors networks will facilitate unprecedented rapid progress in monitoring remote regions for early detection of hazardous volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters.

  5. Pre-treatment and recirculation of wood ashes; Forbehandling og recirkulering af flisaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.; Ingerslev, M.

    2011-07-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. A study was carried out to examine the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilize the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertilizer quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four-day period in spring 2005. Substantial amounts of nutrients were retained in the fly ash (P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu have a recovery higher than 60 % and K, S and Fe have a recovery higher than 30 %). The recovery of elements in the bottom ash was smaller. The added recovery of the usable fractions of ashes (both fly ash and bottom ash) exceeded 75 % for the nutrients P, Ca, Mn and Mg. Both these ash fractions should be considered for fertilization. To examine how ash application affects the forest and Christmas tree stand ecosystem and especially the element budget field experiments were established and monitored intensively. Wood ash is alkaline and by spreading ash in the forest ecosystem, the chemistry of soil water and soil is affected. This introduces a risk of scorching the organisms, eg. mosses but also of root damaging and thereby an impaired water and nutrient uptake as a result. The ash contains salts. Some of these salts, especially metal chlorides and metal sulfates can be dissolved quickly and causes a pH decrease in soil water. There may be a risk that the geochemical conditions in the soil changed dramatically within a relatively short period. These changes can affect nutrient concentrations in soil water and mineralization of organic matter in soil. This increases the risk of leaching and permanent loss of nutrients. These adverse effects of wood ash application

  6. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  7. Selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia over oil shale ash and fly ash catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changtao Yue; Shuyuan Li [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab of Heavy Oil Processing

    2003-07-01

    Acid rain and urban air pollution, produced mainly by pollutants such as SOX and NOX and other volatile organic compounds, has become the most serious environmental problem. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} in the presence of oxygen is a wellproven method to limit the NOX emissions. The work in this field has been the subject of much research in recent years. In this paper, NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over oil shale ash or fly ash catalysts was studied. Fe, Cu, V or Ni as active elements was loaded by adding aqueous solutions of the metal nitrate over the oil shale ash or fly ash support. The activities of the catalysts for NO removal were measured in a fixed-bed reactor. According to the results, oil shale ash or fly ash, after pre-treatment, can be reasonably used as the SCR catalyst support to remove NO from flue gas. Cu gave the highest catalytic activity and NO conversion for fly ash while V for oil shale ash. As the support, fly ash is more feasible than oil shale ash. Because of their low cost and high efficiency, the catalysts should be used in the SCR process. Further research on this subject is necessary in the future to understand more details of the SCR system and issue of pollution control. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R.S.J. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Valdes, Paul J. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to investigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change. (orig.)

  9. Pozzolanic Reaction Kinetics of Coal Ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hongwei; WANG Zhijuan; QIAN Jueshi; SONG Yuanming; WANG Zhi

    2009-01-01

    The pozzolanic reactivity was determined by the hydration kinetics of pozzolanic reaction based on the fact that the hydration products of active SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 with lime were soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of active SiO_2 and Al2O3 of coal ashes follows apparent first-order kinetics.The reaction rate constant of FBC ashes is greater than that of PC ashes,while the activation energy of the former is lower than that of the latter.It is confirmed that the pozzolanic activity of fluidized bed combustion(FBC)ashes is significantly higher than that of PC ashes,and the reaction barrier of the former is lower than that of the latter,because the microstructures of FBC ashes,such as mineralogical composition,morphology and polymerization degree of [SiO_4]and[AlO_6]are more favorable to the pozzolanic activity development than those of PC ashes.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable.

  11. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial

  12. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Aribisala

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater (Wells is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells and five hand dug wells (shallow wells. The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations,thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

  13. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance and Microstructure of Ecofriendly Construction Bricks Made with Fly Ash and Residual Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lung Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the engineering performance and the microstructural characterization of ecofriendly construction bricks that were produced using a binder material made from a mixture of class-F fly ash (FA and residual rice husk ash (RHA. Unground rice husk ash (URHA was used as a partial fine aggregate substitute (0–40%. The solid bricks of 220 × 105 × 60 mm in size were prepared by mixing FA and RHA with an alkaline solution and fine aggregates, formed by compressing the mixture in a steel mold under 35 MPa of forming pressure, and then cured at 35°C and 50% relative humidity until the required testing ages. The tests of compressive strength, water absorption, and bulk density were conducted in accordance with relevant Vietnamese standards in order to estimate the effect of the URHA content on the engineering performance of the hardened bricks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to determine the microstructure and the phase composition of the brick samples. The results show that properties of these bricks conformed to relevant Vietnamese standards. Therefore, FA and RHA are potential candidate materials for producing ecofriendly construction bricks using geopolymerization technology.

  15. Nanoscale surface modification of Mt. Etna volcanic ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Corsaro, R. A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Ciliberto, E.; Gimeno, D.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2016-02-01

    Ashes emitted during volcanic explosive activity present peculiar surface chemical and mineralogical features related in literature to the interaction in the plume of solid particles with gases and aerosols. The compositional differences of magmas and gases, the magnitude, intensity and duration of the emission and the physical condition during the eruption, strongly influence the results of the modification processes. Here we report the characterization of the products emitted during the 2013 paroxysmal activity of Mt. Etna. The surface features of the ash particles were investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowing the analysis at nanometer scale. TEM images showed on the surface the presence of composite structures formed by Ca, Mg and Na sulphates and halides and of droplets and crystals of chlorides; nanometric magnesioferrite and metallic iron dendrites are observable directly below the surface. From the chemical point of view, the most external layer of the volcanic glassy particles (XPS, presents depletion in Si, Mg, Ca, Na and K and strong enrichment in volatile elements especially F and S, with respect to the inner zone, which represents the unaltered counterpart. Below this external layer, a transition glassy shell (thick 50-100 nm) is characterized by Fe, Mg and Ca enrichments with respect to the inner zone. We propose that the ash particle surface composition is the result of a sequence of events which start at shallow depth, above the exsolution surface, where gas bubbles nucleate and the interfaces between bubbles and melt represent proto-surfaces of future ash particles. Enrichment of Ca, Mg and Fe and halides may be due to the early partition of F and Cl in the gas phase and their interaction with the melt layer located close to the bubbles. Furthermore the formation of volatile SiF4 and KF explain the observed depletion of Si and K. The F enrichment in the external ∼50 nm thick

  16. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  17. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2016-12-19

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu(0)-alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl2). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs.

  18. Treatment Technologies for Hazardous Ashes Generated from Possible Incineration of Navy Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Resources Projected for Phase 1 of the RTD&E Program: Waste Characterization/ Source Study A-9 A-4 Analytical Tests on Bottom and Fly Ash Generated from...Overall Project Schedule A-4 A-2 Phase I- Waste Characterization/ Source Study Detailed Schedule A-10 A-3 Phase 2: Pilot Rotary Kiln Incineration...fol- lowing RDT&E program is recommended: * Phase 1--Waste Characterization/ Source Study Project future, post-RCRA conformity, Navy waste data needed to

  19. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  20. Pre-treatment and recirculation of wood ashes; Forbehandling og recirkulering af flisaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.; Ingerslev, M.

    2011-07-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. A study was carried out to examine the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilize the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertilizer quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four-day period in spring