WorldWideScience

Sample records for ash fossil energy

  1. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  2. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  3. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  4. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  5. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  6. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  7. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sou...

  8. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  11. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  12. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil, Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics include: alloys, ceramics and composite research and development; corrosion and erosion research; environmental analysis and information systems; coal conversion development; mild gasification product characterization; coal combustion research; strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling; and coal structure and chemistry.

  13. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  14. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  16. Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change; Trop de petrole. Energie fossile et rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  17. Controversies on Energy: Fossil, hydroelectric, nuclear, renewable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, energy policy was the subject of several referendums and decision takings in the past few decades. This book explains the numerous aspects to be considered when choosing a strategy which should warrant in the future a sufficient and safe access to energy, with a special emphasis on electric power. There is a tight, but not linear, coupling between the price of energy and the economic development. The pollution of environment induced by the use of fossil energy jeopardizes the survival of our Earth planet. Modeling the effects of the pollution is difficult and inaccurate because of complex feedbacks. In order to conciliate development progress, energy and environment, technology is needed but at the same time involves risks. In order to warrant the life quality in the long run, it is necessary to move to a sustainable development, which implies technological progress and changing the individual behaviours. The safety of the energy supply is warranted by diversifying the energy sources. But accurately define the mid and long term goals and also adapt the instruments which should enable their achievement, is a very demanding task. Privatising the electricity production and distribution networks leads in principle to increasing competition, but the electricity price becomes very variable with huge daily and seasonal fluctuations. To date, Switzerland counts 900 electric utilities. Opening the electricity market induces concentration and company merges. To promote an energy strategy, it is necessary to face in a lump the technological, economical and social realities. In the long run, renewable energies: small-scale hydroelectric power plants, biomass, wind, photovoltaics, geothermal energy, should have an important share in electricity production. In the mid term, natural gas and nuclear reactors will be used as transition energy sources. But all electric power plants, whenever nuclear or gas, or even renewable (as for instance wind power plants) must

  18. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  19. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  20. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management

  1. Instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The 1982 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes was held June 7 through 9, 1982, at Adam's Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Fifty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; eleven papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Decarbonized fossil energy carriers and their energy technology competitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilizing atmospheric CO2 in the range 450-550 ppmv requires deep reductions in CO2 emissions for both electricity generation and markets that use fuels directly. Fossil fuel decarbonization/ CO2 storage is an important option for reducing emissions from the power sector, but there are alternative non-carbon-based electricity options that will be strong competitors in terms of cost. Because of land-use constraints, use of carbon-neutral biofuels alone will be inadequate to solve the climate problem in markets that use fuels directly, so that it will probably also be necessary to introduce H2 as an energy carrier. Costs for H2 from fossil fuels with storage of the separated CO2 are likely to be far less than costs of making H2 from water using carbon-free (renewable or nuclear) electricity or heat sources. Although CO2 capture and storage associated with making H2 via gasification of coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks offers one of the least-costly approaches to a climate-friendly energy future, H2 will not be widely used as an energy carrier for at least two decades. Nevertheless, thus making H2 to serve industrial markets can provide low-cost CO2 for CO2 storage demonstration projects, thereby playing an important near-term role in understanding better the prospects for coping with climate change via decarbonizing fossil fuels and CO2 storage

  3. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W.R. [Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a ``new`` approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  4. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Instrumentation and Control for Fossil-Energy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation and control requirements for fossil-energy processes discussed in working document. Published to foster advancement of instrumentation and control technology by making equipment suppliers and others aware of specifications, needs, and potential markets.

  6. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: generic structures of the FOSSIL2 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. In Volume I, an overview of the basic structures, assumptions, and behavior of the FOSSIL2 model is presented so that the reader can understand the results of various policy tests. The discussion covers the three major building blocks, or generic structures, used to construct the model: supply/demand balance; finance and capital formation; and energy production. These structures reflect the components and interactions of the major processes within each energy industry that directly affect the dynamics of fuel supply, demand, and price within the energy system as a whole.

  7. The self-criticality of non-fossil energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under which conditions does a non-fossil fuelled energy system produce enough energy to regenerate itself after its useful lifetime? This basic question, controlling all energy accounting studies of energy systems, is clarified by virtue of an economic model based on self-organisation. Hereby, useful energy is generated in a delayed manner as the response of a capital flow fed-back for this purpose. For this, a novel theory for the static and dynamic ''harvest ratio'' of a power plant on a non-fossil basis is introduced. Two examples - nuclear and solar photovoltaic energy - visualize the consequences of this model. (orig.)

  8. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20%by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7e8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8%within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hy-dropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  9. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC, China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20% by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7–8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8% within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hydropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  10. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for April 1, 2002, Through March 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2003-06-19

    The mission of the Fossil Energy Program is to conduct research and development that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The ORNL Fossil Energy Program shares with DOE Oak Ridge Operations technical management responsibility for all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program. The Advanced Research Materials Program includes research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  12. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  13. Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1994-08-01

    Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  14. Sintering of MSWI fly ash by microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sun-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Chen, Ching-Lung

    2009-04-15

    This study presents the sintering of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash assisted by microwave energy. The composition of fly ash was investigated by chemical sequential extraction and modified microwave digestion method. Effects of process time, container materials, aging time and salt contents were also discussed. The major elements of fly ash are Ca, Cl, Na, Si, K, Al, Mg, and Zn, and the metal species, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ca, and Cu, are mainly in the oxide phase. Under microwave processing, the fly ash was sintered into a glass-ceramics and the leaching concentrations of heavy metals were restrained. The stabilization efficiency increased with an increase in processing time in most of the cases. Better stabilization efficiency of fly ash was discovered by using the SiO(2) or Al(2)O(3) container than by using the graphite plate/SiC plate. The presence of salt in the fly ash could enhance the sintering and stabilization of fly ash. During the aging time of 0-30 days, negligible Pb in the sintered fly ash was leached out, and the leaching concentration was lower than the criterion. PMID:18692957

  15. Proceedings of the eleventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. These proceedings contain 34 papers organized under the following topical sections: Ceramic composites and functional materials; Ceramics, new alloys, and functional materials; and New alloys. Also included is a summary of a workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and in high efficiency coal-fired cycles. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Brief presentation of the wordl fossil energy market

    OpenAIRE

    Preda Andreescu Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The beginning of the third millennium brought the globalization of the worldwide energy market. The fossil fuels, especially petroleum resources are, generally, limited and concentrated in few regions and the world energy market becomes more and more dependent of some “key regions”: the Middle East, the Caspian Sea Region, Russian Federation-Siberia. The great consumers try to consolidate their position in the regions reach in energy resources. And this is happening while growing economies, s...

  17. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-01-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230

  18. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-07-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes.

  19. Proceedings of the fifth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 14--16, 1991. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. This conference is held every year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B.

  20. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  1. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  2. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  3. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Mateials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  4. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  5. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Hanne Østergård; Mads V. Markussen

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing a...

  6. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2001-06-14

    This report covers progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The ORNL Fossil Energy Program research and development activities cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the SPR. An important part of the Fossil Energy Program is technical management of all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research (AR) Materials Program. The AR Materials Program involves research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  7. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  8. Fossil Energy Program quarterly progress report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1986, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by DOE Office of Fossil Energy, DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the Appendix.

  9. Fossil energy program. Progress report for May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1980-08-01

    This report - the seventieth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component and process evaluation studies, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, performance assurance system support and international energy technology assessment.

  10. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  11. Fossil energy economy before. From surplus to shortage; Die fossile Energiewirtschaft vor dem Scheitelpunkt. Vom Ueberfluss zur Knappheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas [' Energy Watch Group' , Berlin (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Energy policy has neglected so far the real availability of energy resources. From the global point of view a dramatic shortage of fossil fuels shall be expected; Uranium is now in short supply. Simultanoulsy renewable energy sources amount faster than even optimists will forecast. For realistic strategies energy policy, energy economy and publicity need more objective information and transparency. (orig./GL)

  12. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  13. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1992 through March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. In particular, projects related to materials and coal combustion, environmental analysis, and bioconversion are described.

  14. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  15. Examination of Turkey's Renewable Energy and Fossil energy Consumption with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, Yalçın; SARAY, Umut

    2014-01-01

    – In this study, examined renewable energy sources and between fossil energy sources in the Turkey. In addition, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to analyze values method was used. SUPER DECİSİONS program was used in this study. As an alternative, renewable energy sources and fossil energy sources was discussed. Criteria; performance, cost, price, and is causing harm to the environment. Super decisions program was used for AHP. To results of the study, compared value 69.15%, the ideal e...

  16. Brief presentation of the wordl fossil energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preda Andreescu Mihaela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the third millennium brought the globalization of the worldwide energy market. The fossil fuels, especially petroleum resources are, generally, limited and concentrated in few regions and the world energy market becomes more and more dependent of some “key regions”: the Middle East, the Caspian Sea Region, Russian Federation-Siberia. The great consumers try to consolidate their position in the regions reach in energy resources. And this is happening while growing economies, such as China and India begin to dominate the global demand for energy and push higher the oil prices worldwide. World market energy consumption is projected to increase by 57 percent from 2004 to 2030. China and India together account for 45 percent of the increase of the energy demand.

  17. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum...

  18. How do the stock prices of new energy and fossil fuel companies correlate? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study documents the return and volatility spillover effect between the stock prices of Chinese new energy and fossil fuel companies using the asymmetric BEKK model. Based on daily samples taken from August 30, 2006 to September 11, 2012, the dynamics of new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are found to be significant and asymmetric. Compared with positive news, negative news about new energy and fossil fuel stock returns leads to larger return changes in their counter assets. News about both new energy and fossil fuel stock returns spills over into variances of their counter assets, and the volatility spillovers depend complexly on the respective signs of the return shocks of each asset. The empirical results demonstrate that new energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets, that positive news about new energy stocks could affect the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks and that new energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment. These results have potential implications for asset allocation, financial risk management and energy policymaking. - Highlights: • The dynamics of Chinese new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are significant and asymmetric. • New energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets. • Positive news about new energy stocks affects the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks. • New energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment

  19. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  20. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991. Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. [comps.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  1. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  2. Sustainable energy development material management team report. Fossil business unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of the Material Management Sustainable Energy Development (SED) Team was presented, outlining strategic directions and initiative for embedding SED principles in the materials management function. Six principles underlying SED were prescribed, accompanied by a framework for analysis. Excerpts from position papers used in the formulation of SED recommendations and initiatives were provided. The general theme of the recommendations was: (1) materials management activities should be review to ensure consistency with SED, (2) strategic alliances should be developed where appropriate and (3) staff in the Fossil Business Unit should promote SED among industry suppliers

  3. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

  4. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  5. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  6. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. [comp.

    1993-06-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program, organized in FY 1974 as the Coal Technology Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory`s fossil energy activities relates to coal, with current emphasis on materials research and development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1993.

  8. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program, organized in FY 1974 as the Coal Technology Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory's fossil energy activities relates to coal, with current emphasis on materials research and development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1993

  9. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2010-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO{sub 2} emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  10. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO2 emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  11. High temperature material developments in fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B. (Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Nuclear Research Center)

    1992-04-01

    Two major application areas of fossil energy are: - petrochemical processing, - electrical power production. In both of them, there are important common features in the field high temperature, though there are different controlling factors. Furthermore, since they are both concerned with the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, questions of emissions are relevant to both. However, the trend in petrochemical plants has been to use a refined fuel to heat the chemical reactors and this reduces both gaseous and particulate emissions. A major driving force in both areas has always been the attainment of higher efficiencies which implies the use of higher process temperatures. This normally involves higher temperatures for the constructional material. Ideally, the increased temperature capability should be achieved without loss of strength, corrosion resistance, feasibility or reliability. Furthermore, the relative cost of the finished component should not be increased. Clearly, this ideal is seldom attained and an optimization between the competing factors has to be made. 16 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-12-01

    This report, the sixty-third of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  13. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-11-01

    This report - the sixty-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  14. Proceedings of the 1980 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, R.W. (comp.)

    1980-01-01

    The 1980 symposium on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Energy Processes was held June 9-11, 1980, New Cavalier, Virginia Beach, Virginia. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Forty-five papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; nine papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  16. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    OpenAIRE

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A. Jan; van de Meent, Dik; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories "energy production", "material production", "transport", and "waste treatment". Our results show that, for all product groups but waste treatment, the fossil CED correlates well with most impact categor...

  17. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    OpenAIRE

    McCollum, David; BAUER, NICO; Calvin, Katherine; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-01-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (c...

  18. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  19. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace. Part 2, The role of advanced research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R&D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R&D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based.

  20. Research and development entitled smart structures for fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, R.O.

    1990-12-01

    Two different fiber optic sensors were considered for use in ceramic cross flow filters. The intensity-based sensor was tested with a great degree of success. Even with a computerized data acquisition system, the intensity-based sensor was unable to achieve the resolution of the Fabry-Perot sensor. Another drawback of the intensity sensor is the hysteresis behavior observed over cyclic variation of temperature. We have determined that extrinsic Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensors can be used to measure thermal strains in ceramic cross-flow filters with accuracies of 0.1 {mu}m/m. The single ended approach of the reflective Fabry-Perot sensors is well suited for high thermal strain measurements; the results obtained show that the output of the fiber sensor tracks the temperature changes exactly as expected and shows no noticeable time lag between the measurand and the output signal. Sapphire fibers were manufactured with silica claddings and their spectral attenuation was measured. An intensity based sensor using sapphire fibers was fabricated and its performance calibrated. The success of the Fabry-Perot sensor has proved that such fiber optic sensors are ideally suited for smart structures'' in fossil energy applications. 11 refs., 43 figs.

  1. A model for fossil energy use in Danish agriculture used to compare organic and conventional farming

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, T.; Halberg, N.; Porter, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about fossil energy use in agricultural systems is needed, because it can improve the understanding of how to reduce the unsustainable use of limited energy resources and the following greenhouse gas emissions. This study describes and validates a model to assess fossil energy use in Danish agriculture; gives an example of how the model can be used to compare organic and conventional farming; and discusses the implications and potentials of using the model to simulate energy use in ...

  2. Proceedings of the 1981 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes was held June 8-10, 1981, at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel, San Francisco, California. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy; Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Sixty-seven articles from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; thirteen articles had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  3. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  4. Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, B; M.J. Lemos de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

  5. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A Jan; Meent, Dik van de; Ragas, Ad M J; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories "ener

  6. Global fossil energy markets and climate change mitigation - an analysis with REMIND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Nico; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Luderer, Gunnar; Baumstark, Lavinia; Brecha, Robert J.; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kriegler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs o

  7. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  8. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Østergård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

  9. Fossil energy in the German energy concept; Die fossilen Energien im deutschen Energiekonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    A politically desired drastic reduction of fossil energy sources in Germany contrasts with a clear increase in world consumption. Perception and reality diverge from each other. The 2 degree climate target is questionable: the focus on CO{sub 2} reduction and decarbonisation produces a conceptual skewing. In a balanced reality-orientated energy concept by contrast security of supply, profitability and cost-benefit orientation must be adopted to an increasing extent. Science has an important task in this respect. (orig.)

  10. Using energy efficiency and alternative energy to extend fossil resources or what if tomorrow actually comes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the role of energy in maintaining and advancing society, and what happens if we run out of energy. The author provided a glimpse into the energy world through the display of a series of graphs depicting world energy consumption, world energy production, world population distribution, growth rates in Asia, coal use per capita, the United States energy consumption by source, percent of air emissions in the United States from fossil fuel use, and others. It was argued that alternative energy and energy efficiency diminish growth in demand and peak load, supports portfolio diversity, lowers cost, and diminishes environmental impacts. The advances in wind power and solar power were reviewed, as well as advances in bioenergy and hydrogen. The author also argued the case for energy efficiency and conservation. A discussion of various pricing schemes was offered. The first option examined was time of use price, defined as 3 time blocks published in advance for entire seasons. The second option was critical peak pricing, involving a high price imposed for a few days per year when system conditions are critical or near critical. The third option discussed was real-time prices, implying an hourly real-time marginal cost of a kilowatt hour. It was suggested that the system should be changed, since subsidizing energy consumption distorts demand. Energy efficiency and renewables extend fossil energy availability, helping in the transition to a more sustainable world. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caineng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to predict the future situation of global energy development. In view of this, we reviewed the history of energy use and understood that new energy sources will usher in a new era following oil & gas, coal and wood one after another in the past time. Although the fossil energy sources are still plenty in the world, great breakthroughs made in some key technologies and the increasing demand for ecological environmental protection both impel the third time of transformation from oil & gas to new energy sources. Sooner or later, oil, gas, coal and new energy sources will each account for a quarter of global energy consumption in the new era, specifically speaking, accounting for 32.6%, 23.7%, 30.0% and 13.7% respectively. As one of the largest coal consumer, China will inevitably face up to the situation of tripartite confrontation of the coal, oil & gas and new energy. The following forecasting results were achieved. First, the oil will be in a stable period and its annual production peak will be around 2040, reaching up to 45 × 108 t. Second, the natural gas will enter the heyday period and its annual production peak will be around 2060, reaching up to 4.5 × 1012 m3, which will play a pivotal role in the future energy sustainable development. Third, the coal has entered a high-to-low-carbon transition period, and its direct use and the discharged pollutants will be significantly reduced. In 2050, the coal will be dropped to 25% of the primary energy mix. Last, the development and utilization of new energy sources has been getting into the golden age and its proportion in the primary energy mix will be substantially enhanced. On this basis, we presented some proposals for the future energy development in China. At first, we should understand well that China's energy production and consumption has its own characteristics. Under the present situation, we should strengthen the clean and efficient use of coal resources, which

  12. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  13. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. [Report recommends biocatalyst approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W.R. (Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation's fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a new'' approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  14. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-04-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (coal, oil, and natural gas) consumption, trade, and prices over the course of the twenty-first century and under different climate policy frameworks. We explore and explain some of the differences across scenarios and models and compare the scenario results with fossil resource estimates from the literature. A robust finding across the suite of IAMs is that the cumulative fossil fuel consumption foreseen by the models is well within the bounds of estimated recoverable reserves and resources. Hence, fossil resource constraints are, in and of themselves, unlikely to limit future GHG emissions. Our analysis also shows that climate mitigation policies could lead to a major reallocation of financial flows between regions, in terms of expenditures on fossil fuels and carbon, and can help to alleviate near-term energy security concerns via the reductions in oil imports and increases in energy system diversity they will help to motivate.

  15. Fossil energy selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Ripudaman

    2012-01-01

    Fossil Energy provides an authoritative reference on all aspects of this key resource.  It offers comprehensive coverage of fundamentals, current areas of research, and goals for the future to support real progress in sustainability science and technology.

  16. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  17. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  18. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. [comp.

    1991-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory`s fossil energy activities relate to coal, with current emphasis on materials research development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1991, and is a supplement to the earlier bibliography in this series. It is the intent to list only those publications that can be conveniently obtained by a researcher through relatively normal channels. The publications listed in this document have been limited to topical reports, open literature publications, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, and books and book articles. A major part of the Fossil Energy Program is the Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. The objective of this Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with a focus on the longer-term needs for materials with general applicability to the various fossil fuel technologies.

  19. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. (comp.)

    1991-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory's fossil energy activities relate to coal, with current emphasis on materials research development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1991, and is a supplement to the earlier bibliography in this series. It is the intent to list only those publications that can be conveniently obtained by a researcher through relatively normal channels. The publications listed in this document have been limited to topical reports, open literature publications, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, and books and book articles. A major part of the Fossil Energy Program is the Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. The objective of this Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with a focus on the longer-term needs for materials with general applicability to the various fossil fuel technologies.

  20. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

      According to the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) the actual international political measures within the Kyoto-group towards the Greenhouse-effect are quite insufficient to prevent serious climatic disturbances at the end of this Century. The study aims to evaluate the potential......, this green expansion takes place from a level of a few percent of the total world consumption of energy and comes to slowly to represent a credible turning point for the raising CO2-emission. However, to individual countries within the Kyoto Group - running a system of transferable CO2-emission...

  2. Germany’s Wind Energy: The Potential for Fossil Capacity Replacement and Cost Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Hannes

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy has become the major renewable energy source in Germany with an installed capacity of more than 20 GW and an annual output of about 40 TWh in 2007. In this paper we analyze the extent to which wind energy can replace fossil capacities based on wind injection and demand data for 2006 through June 2008. The results indicate that the wind potential in Germany will not allow a significant reduction of fossil capacities. We also assess the potential savings due to wind energy. The Germ...

  3. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  4. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  5. Investments in fossil energy technology: How the government's fossil energy R&D program has made a difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  6. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  7. Fossil Energy Research and Development Program of the U. S. Department of Energy, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) focuses energy Research and Development efforts on new and promising ways to provide for our future energy needs. This document focuses on DOE's programs and projects related to the nation's Fossil Energy resources: coal, oil, natural gas and oil shale. Fossil Energy programs have grown rapidly from about $58 million in FY 1973 to the $802 million requested for FY 1979. As those programs have matured, there have been significant shifts in emphasis. For example, by FY 1979, gasification technologies will have matured sufficiently to enter the demonstration phase. Then we will have to make critical decisions as to which candidate processes to pursue and to encourage industry's active participation as early as possible. We will present the rationale for those changes and others at the beginning of each section describing a particular grouping of similar projects, e.g., coal liquefaction. We will then discuss each project and present its current status along with past and future milestones. Emphasis is on projects with early payoff potential, particularly the direct utilization of coal. However, this near-term emphasis will not overshadow the need for a stong technological base for development of longer-term promising technologies and the need for a strong environmental concern.

  8. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  9. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  10. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service

  11. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W. G.; Wilson, J. V.; Klepper, O. H.

    1977-06-29

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service.

  12. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. Howev...

  13. Fossil-energy program. Quarterly progress report for June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1983-08-01

    This quarterly report covers the progress made during the period March 31 through June 30 for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research and development projects that are carried out in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuels as sources of clean energy. These projects are supported by various parts of DOE including Fossil Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, the Electric Power Research Institute, and by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the EPA Office of Research and Development through inter-agency agreement with DOE.

  14. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  15. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  16. Past, present and future of the fossil energies; Pasado, presente y futuro de las energias fosiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2004-07-01

    This article discusses on the energy that is the motor of the world, without which it would not be possible to enjoy the quality of life that we have. It will be centred fundamentally in the fossil energies, so insulted today but that are the ones that have allowed the extraordinary economic developing of the Humanity. (Author) 29 refs.

  17. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  18. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The coal activities include materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels; and coal combustion research. The work in support of gas technologies includes activities on the Advanced Turbine Systems Program, primarily in the materials and manufacturing aspects. Several activities are contributing to petroleum technologies in the areas of computational tools for seismic analysis and the use of bioconversion for the removal of impurities from heavy oils. This report contains 32 papers describing the various research activities, arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supply modeling and research; and advanced turbine systems.

  19. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Jian; Yang Jing; Zhang Peidong

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeoda...

  20. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  1. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01

    In this final progress report, we describe research results from Phase I of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO2 sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the period September 2002 through August 2004. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H2 and electricity with CO2 sequestration. This is accomplishe...

  2. Interaction of Carbon Reduction and Green Energy Promotion in a Small Fossil-Fuel Importing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pethig, Rüdiger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in a general equilibrium small open economy that depends on imports of fossil fuels. The focus is on mixed policies that are either price based (emissions taxes and producer price subsidies for green energy) or quantity based (schemes of trading emissions and green certificates). Policy instruments directed head-on toward promoting green energy are shown to also reduce carbon emissions and vice versa but the direct...

  3. Efficient Management of Insecure Fossil Fuel Imports through Taxing (!) Domestic Green Energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

  4. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2005-11-29

    In this final progress report, we describe research results from Phase I of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the period September 2002 through August 2005 The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We carried out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  5. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2003-12-01

    In this second semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period March 2003 through September 2003. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  7. Ash deposit characterisation in a large-scale municipal waste-to-energy incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of ash - combustion residues - on superheaters and heat exchanger surfaces reduce their efficiency; this phenomenon was investigated for a large-scale waste-to-energy incineration facility. Over a period of six months, ash samples were collected from the plant, which included the bottom ash and deposits from the superheater, as well as flyash from the convective heat exchanger, the economiser and fabric filters. These were analysed for particle size, unburned carbon, elemental composition and surface morphology. Element partitioning was evident in the different combustion residues, as volatile metals, such as cadmium, antimony and arsenic, were found to be depleted in the bottom ash by the high combustion temperatures (1000+oC) and concentrated/enriched in the fabric filter ash (transferred by evaporation). Non-volatile elements by contrast were distributed equally in all locations (transported by particle entrainment). The heat exchanger deposits and fabric filter ash had elevated levels of alkali metals. 82% of flyash particles from the fabric filter were in the submicron range.

  8. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

  9. Ash Content and Calorific Energy of Corn Stover Components in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Luc Lizotte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover is an abundant agricultural residue that could be used on the farm for heating and crop drying. Ash content and calorific energy of corn grain and six stover components were measured from standing plants during the grain maturing period, between mid-September and mid-November. Ash of stover in standing corn averaged 4.8% in a cool crop heat unit zone (2300–2500 crop heat units (CHU and 7.3% in a warmer zone (2900–3100 CHU. The corn cob had the lowest ash content (average of 2.2% while leaves had the highest content (from 7.7% to 12.6%. In the fall, ash content of mowed and raked stover varied between 5.5% and 11.7%. In the following spring, ash content of stover mowed, raked and baled in May averaged 3.6%. The cob and stalk located below the first ear contained the highest calorific energy with 17.72 MJ·kg−1. Leaves and grain had the lowest energy with an average of 16.99 MJ·kg−1. The stover heat of combustion was estimated at 17.47 MJ·kg−1 in the cool zone and 17.26 MJ·kg−1 in the warm zone. Based on presented results, a partial “cob and husk” harvest system would collect less energy per unit area than total stover harvest (44 vs. 156 GJ·ha−1 and less biomass (2.51 vs. 9.13 t·dry matter (DM·ha−1 but the fuel quality would be considerably higher with a low ash-to-energy ratio (1.45 vs. 4.27 g·MJ−1.

  10. Elemental characterization of coal, fly ash, and bottom ash using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 18 elements viz. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Sr, V, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, As and Cd were analyzed in coal, fly ash and bottom ash samples collected across India using an EDXRF technique. Various indices such as element enrichment ratio, enrichment factor (with respect to crustal average) and mineral composition were calculated. Around 95% of mass was reconstructed using the concentration of elements in this study for fly and bottom ash. - Highlights: • Concentrations of 18 elements were determined in coal and ash samples using EDXRF. • Mineral quantification up to 95% was carried out for fly and bottom ash samples. • Enrichment ratios of elements were calculated in combustion residue with respect to coal. • Enrichment factor with respect to crustal average was estimated for ash samples

  11. Energy networks for fossil fuel; Reti energetiche per combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bologna, S.; Vignolini, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-12-01

    The document, after an overview of the present national energy situation, covers in detail the actual situation of the national networks of pipelines for oil and gas transportations, with emphasis to the aspects most relevant from the technology innovation point of view. Design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas networks of pipelines is quite challenging and requires very advanced engineering solutions and technologies, above all for remote control, operation, diagnostic and safety systems.

  12. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  13. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  14. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.A. (comp.)

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  15. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

  16. The Influence of Economic Growth, Population, and Fossil Fuel Scarcity on Energy Investments

    OpenAIRE

    De Cian, Enrica; Sferra, Fabio; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of energy investments and clean energy Research and Development (R&D) using a scenario-based modeling approach. Starting from the global scenarios proposed in the RoSE model ensemble experiment, we analyze the dynamics of investments under different assumptions regarding economic and population growth as well as availability of fossil fuel resources, in the absence of a climate policy. Our analysis indicates that economic growth and the speed of income converg...

  17. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Yujun He; Hong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based L...

  18. Trees and biomass energy: carbon storage and/or fossil fuel substitution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some key issues which arise. This paper assesses various forestry strategies and examines land availability, forest management, environmental sustainability, social and political factors, infrastructure and organisation, economic feasibility, and ancillary benefits associated with biomass for energy. (author)

  19. Stiff clay masses: big storages of fossil and renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Qeraxhiu, Lydra; Argentiero, Ilenia; Pellicani, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The crystalline structure of the clay and its behaviour at the micro and macro scale have been and are still the object of studies in different fields of earth science: mineralogy, geotechnics, etc. It has been known for several decades that the volumetric equilibrium of a well-defined clay (mono mineralogical or mineralogical melange, with or without the mixing with other fines), depends on the salinity of the interstitial fluid (in terms of concentration of one or more kind of salts) under a stress field. The mechanism is very complex involving many chemical and physical topics, but may be easy to understand: the elementary structures of a two faced crystals are electrically negative charged with the interstitial fluid as the dielectric of a capacitor. Consequently, an electrical field is generated whose intensity depends on the electric charge and the properties of the dielectric. Such electric field can produce mechanical work, enlarging the faces of the capacitor, unless external forces prevent it. If external forces exceed the internal ones, the system behaves as a loaded spring, which stores energy of deformation to give back as soon as the external force weakens. The clay of marine sedimentation incorporates interstitial salt water of composition derived and similar to those of sea water. Such type of interstitial water chemically has high concentration of dissolved ions, mainly Na, which generates in the dielectric spaces a low electrical field, compared with that given in identical situation by low salt concentration in interstitial water. In nature, as well described in geoscience, the turning between the two interstitial water types is very common and driven by ion diffusion processes like, surface fresh water interacting with salt interstitial water of old marine clays. The latter, either by the overburden of younger sedimentary layers, but mainly by very strong capillary forces activated by surface drainage and EVT from sun and dry wind, undergo

  20. Advanced Researech and Technology Development fossil energy materials program: Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the ARandTD Fossil Energy Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined semiannual progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure in which projects are organized according to materials research thrust areas. These areas are (1) Structural Ceramics, (2) Alloy Development and Mechanical Properties, (3) Corrosion and Erosion of Alloys, and (4) Assessments and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  1. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  2. Fossil energy. Program report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The Fossil Energy program is now in its second year under the Department of Energy. This document describes the Fossil Energy-supported contract and project activity for FY 1978. The primary thrust of the Program is on coal - especially direct coal combustion and what can be done to increase the environmental acceptability of coal. We are concerned with developing cleaner technologies, and we are working on precombustion cleanup, fluidized-bed combustion, and post-combustion cleanup. Longer range technologies are being developed to use coal more efficiently; for example, magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and high-temperature turbine utilization. Another Fossil Energy priority is the development of a capability to produce synthetic fuels from coal. We are also engaged in a coal mining research and development program that focuses on increased mine productivity and workers' safety through the development of improved technologies. Our activity in the petroleum and gas research areas is intended to complement efforts in the private sector, which are to be further stimulated by new pricing or Federal incentives. Our present enhanced oil recovery efforts represent a shift in emphasis toward longer range, high-technology development projects instead of numerous field demonstrations and tests. The enhanced gas program emphasis activities to increase our knowledge of the size and economic productivity of the unconventional gas resources. We are also involved in oil shale development. We are continually assessing our program. Total annual funding has increased from $58 million in FY 1973 to $881 million in FY 1979.Fossil Energy is working closely with all parts of the Department of Energy, other appropriate Federal agencies, industry, and universities to insure that we maintain a balanced, aggressive, and responsive program suited to our national needs.

  3. Feasibility studies of low energy #betta#-ray techniques for on-line determination of ash content of coal on conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy #betta#-ray transmission measurements on suites of 100 kg samples from each of four different coal areas of Australia gave errors in ash determination of 0.99, 1.20, 1.59 and 2.24 wt% (1σ), respectively, for mean ash contents of 20.0, 27.1, 24.5 and 17.1 wt% ash. Calculations show that the main errors in ash determination are caused by variations of Fe2O3 in the ash, and the wt% ash error is proportional to the ash concentration. An error of about 0.5 wt% is predicted for washery product with ash content of 8 wt%. The most promising applications of low energy #betta#-ray techniques are for direct on-line determination of ash in washed coal, and for raw coal where accuracy required is not high or iron variations in the ash are small. (author)

  4. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

  5. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  6. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Magnetic Resonance : Introduction, Advanced Topics and Applications to Fossil Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...

  8. Life cycle assessment of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Chinese pear production

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Langer, V; Høgh-Jensen, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2010-01-01

    An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in China to investigate environmental consequences of the life cycle of pears in terms of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The assessment identified activities that contributed significantly to pears’ environmental impacts from the cradle to the point of sale. Cultivation was identified as having the greatest greenhouse gas emissions in pear production chains, followed by the process of storage and transportation. The ...

  9. The fossil trace of CO2 emissions in multi-fuel energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for sustainability in energy systems has increased the concern to reduce pollutant emissions and waste. Among the several strategies that help in this task are increased energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, hybrid renewable-fossil systems, and system integration. All of them often result in complex multi-fuel multi-product systems. Conventional thermoeconomic analysis of such systems does not give information related to the type of energy source used, nor to the emissions generated. The aim of this work is to provide a method to reveal the fate of energy resources inside a system. We present a methodology to decompose exergy flows into as many parts as different types of external resources a system has. The proposed method was applied to a cogeneration system, showing to be a powerful tool to analyze multi-fuel systems, especially hybrid fossil-renewable plants, since the evolution of fossil resources can be tracked through the entire system. It also presents an answer to the unsolved problem of discriminated conversion efficiency, fuel impact and CO2 emissions impact when different fuels are used, which allows an extended analysis of energy systems, by taking into account the existence of a carbon tax. - Highlights: • Every exergy stream of a system is decomposed according to the different origins of external resources. • The conversion efficiency of each type of resource into every product of the system is determined. • Discriminated fuel impact of every type of fuel is determined. • The impact on CO2 emissions for multi-fuel energy systems is defined. • A carbon tax is taken into account to define de operation cost impact of the system

  10. Fossil Energy Program report, 1 October 1976--30 September 1977. [Objectives, progress and plans for each contract or project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, H. Neal; Batchelor, James; Crim, Winfred; Furlong, Leroy; Harvie, Robert; Hunter, Juanita; Jones, William; Karnes, Anita; Ludwig, Linda; Miller, C. Lowell; Mills, G. Alex; Sacks, Stephen; Watkins, J. Wade; Watson, Coni; Weaver, Val

    1978-08-01

    This report is an integral part of the documentation system of the Fossil Energy Program of the Department of Energy. It contains descriptions of each contract and project, arranged in conformance with planning and budgetary documents. The results of contracts are reported at various intervals, depending on the type of contract, but at least annually. These reports are not listed individually in the ''Publications'' sections but are available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The Department of Energy also publishes several abstract journals: Fossil Energy Update, Energy Research Abstracts, and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis.

  11. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  12. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  13. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  14. SET-Plan - Scientific Assessment in Support of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies - Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, Including Carbon Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ-BRICEÑO Dolores; Jong, Martin; DRAGE Trevor; Falzetti, Marco; Hedin, Niklas; Snijkers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    This document is part of a series of Scientific Assessment reports that underpin the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies. This report deals with the Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, including Carbon Capture and Storage.

  15. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil... Energy Group, LLC (Morris Energy) (Complainant) filed a complaint against PSEG Energy Resources &...

  16. Participation of the fossil energy in cotton agro-ecosystem in family agricultural explorations; Participacao da energia fossil no agroecossistema algodao em exploracoes agricolas familiares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Cabrera Romero, Maria Gloria [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2006-07-01

    With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy sources employees in the cotton agro-ecosystem, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow.As the focal point of this research, family exploitation is analyzed, with the use of the categorization done by the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture - ('Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar - PRONAF). Use was made of primary and secondary data from three family exploitations in the municipality of Leme/SP, Brazil. To construct the energy expenditure structure of the cotton agro-ecosystem, the mean values obtained were considered, since these agriculturalists present the same technical itinerary and are within the typification proposed in this study. The results were presented by the energy expenditure structure by type, source, form of energy. Considering the cotton agro-ecosystem from the technical itinerary presented, the input energy equal to 51.961,63 MJ . ha{sup -1} was observed, with a participation of 34,21% and 65,79% of the direct and indirect energy respectively. The studied agro ecosystem fundamentally depended on the industrial source of energy, particularly insecticides (39,71%) and chemical fertilizers (19,88%) and fossil sources (33,80%). It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the cotton agro ecosystem. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems in family agricultural systems. (author)

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Particulate Reinforced in LM6 for Energy Enhancement in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina Efzan, M. N.; Siti Syazwani, N.; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash has gathered widespread attention as a potential reinforcement for aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of production. Aluminium alloy LM6 reinforced with three different amounts (0, 4, 5 and 6 wt. %) of fly ash particle that were prepared by compo-casting method. The fly ash particles were incorporated into semi-solid state of LM6 melt. In this study, the microstructure of prepared AMCs with the homogenous distribution of fly ash was analysed using optical microscope. The microstructure having refinement of structure with the decreasing of Si-needle structure and increasing the area of eutectic a-Al matrix as shown in figure. Besides, as the increasing amount of fly ash incorporated, there are more petal-like dark structure existed in the microstructure. The density of the AMCs decreased as the incorporation of fly ash increased. While the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the AMCs increased with the incorporation of fly ash. The addition of fly ash particles improved the physical and mechanical properties of the AMCs. Thus lead to improve the energy consumption in automotive parts.

  18. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  19. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  20. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-01-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a n...

  1. US-UK Collaboration on Fossil Energy Advanced Materials: Task 1—Steam Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This presentation goes over the following from the US-UK collaboration on Fossil Energy Advanced Materials: Task 1, Steam Oxidation: US-led or co-led deliverables, Phase II products (US), 2011-present, Phase III products, Phase III Plan, an explanation of sCO2 compared with sH2O, an explanation of Ni-base Alloys, an explanation of 300 Series (18Cr-8Ni)/E-Brite, an explanation of the typical Microchannel HX Fabrication process, and an explanation of diffusion bonded Ni-base superalloys.

  2. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)]. E-mail: shabbir_g@jgsee.kmutt.ac.th; Garivait, Savitri [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-10-15

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy.

  3. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  4. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  5. Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low...... energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating of low energy building with low temperature district heating based on renewable heat. Integrated design...... without use of fossil fuels can be accomplished by the building sector by 2020. The building sector may in the process be transformed from an experience based sector to knowledge and research based sector with high quality sustainable products and very good business....

  6. Mass Deposition, Etching and Sputtering Effects of Low-Energy N+ Ion Irradiation on Solid Fly Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash is an industrial waste created when coal is burned to generate electrical power. In the present study, we used low-energy nitrogen ion implantation on fly ash to improve its surface properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used to study the changes of physical and chemical properties of fly ash after N+ ion implantation, and the mechanism of fly ash modified by ion implantation. In the optimal implantation with energy of 5 keV and dose of 15D0, the ion beam could effectively increase the specific surface area (approximately 150% increase) of the fly ash. Lots of scratches were generated in the surface of the fly ash after N+ ion implantation, therefore it is good for enhancing the specific surface area. Experimental results show that the ion implantation could open the chemical bonds of Si-O, Si-Al and Al-O, and deposit nitrogen ions on the surface of fly ash. (plasma technology)

  7. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the

  8. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  9. Effect of ultrasound energy on the zeolitization of chemical extracts from fused coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Salman; Rohani, Sohrab; Kazemian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of ultrasound (UTS) energy at different temperatures on the zeolitization of aluminosilicate constituents of coal fly ash. UTS energy irradiated directly into the reaction mixture utilizing a probe immersed into the reaction mixture, unlike previously reported works that have used UTS baths. Controlled synthesis was also conducted at constant stirring and at the same temperatures using conventional heating. The precursor reaction solution was obtained by first fusing the coal fly ash with sodium hydroxide at 550°C followed by dissolution in water and filtration. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRF, XRD, SEM and TGA. The crystallinity of crystals produced with UTS assisted conversion compared to conventional conversion at 85°C was twice as high. UTS energy also reduced the induction time from 60 min to 40 min and from 80 min to 60 min for reaction temperatures of 95°C and 85°C, respectively. Prolonging the UTS irradiation at 95°C resulted in the conversion of zeolite-A crystals to hydroxysodalite, which is a more stable zeolitic phase. It was found that at 85°C coupled with ultrasound energy produced the best crystalline structure with a pure single phase of zeolite-A. It has been shown that crystallization using UTS energy can produce zeolitic crystals at lower temperatures and within 1h, dramatically cutting the synthesis time of zeolite. PMID:26384882

  10. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  11. Fossil energy versus nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass: Insights from an Italian national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy there has been considerable political debate around the new energy policy, which is specifically designed to contribute to climate change mitigation. While there is renewed interest in nuclear energy generation, there has been heated debate concerning wind farms that have rapidly expanded and are dramatically changing the landscape in many rural areas. Finally, interest has also increased in biomass as an energy source. However, in this case, a significant part of the population is worried about landscape change and primary crop reduction. In this study we report the results from a nation-wide survey (=504 households) in Italy undertaken during summer 2009. A Latent Class Choice Experiment was used to quantify household preferences over different energy sources. Our results show that Italian households can be split into three segments with homogeneous preferences. The first segment (35% of the population) shows strong preference for wind and solar energy and dislikes both biomass and nuclear. The second (33% of the population) shows moderate preference for solar and wind energy and, as with the first segment, dislikes both nuclear and biomass. The third (32% of the population) shows a strong preference for green energy (solar, wind and biomass) and is very much against nuclear energy. The three segments were also characterized in terms of household socio-economic characteristics. - Highlights: ► We quantify Italian household preferences over different energy sources. ► Results come from a nation-wide survey undertaken during summer 2009. ► Energy sources tested: fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass. ► A latent class choice experiment was used. ► Italians can be split into three segments with different energy source preferences.

  12. Life-cycle fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of bioderived chemicals and their conventional counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Felix; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Sather, Norm

    2014-12-16

    Biomass-derived chemical products may offer reduced environmental impacts compared to their fossil-derived counterparts and could improve profit margins at biorefineries when coproduced with higher-volume, lower-profit margin biofuels. It is important to assess on a life-cycle basis the energy and environmental impacts of these bioproducts as compared to conventional, fossil-derived products. We undertook a life-cycle analysis of eight bioproducts produced from either algal-derived glycerol or corn stover-derived sugars. Selected on the basis of technology readiness and market potential, the bioproducts are propylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, polyethylene, succinic acid, isobutanol, and 1,4-butanediol. We developed process simulations to obtain energy and material flows in the production of each bioproduct and examined sensitivity of these flows to process design assumptions. Conversion process data for fossil-derived products were based on the literature. Conversion process data were combined with upstream parameters in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to generate life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption (FEC) for each bioproduct and its corresponding petroleum-derived product. The bioproducts uniformly offer GHG emissions reductions compared to their fossil counterparts ranging from 39 to 86% on a cradle-to-grave basis. Similarly, FEC was lower for bioproducts than for conventional products. PMID:25380298

  13. Reducing use of fossil energy by biological N fixation; Biologinen typensidonta fossiilisen energian saeaestaejaenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankanen, H.; Suokannas, A.; Tiilikkala, K.; Nykanen, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation can be increased greatly in Finnish agriculture. Intensive use of legumes in grasslands, utilization of green manure and undersown crops, and maximal growing of pulse crops can reduce use of fertilizer N by 60% compared to current situation. It would save fossil energy, taking account energy use of machines, more than 3000 TJ per year. This corresponds an energy amount, which was used as fuel oil in grain dryers and for heating of farm buildings at Finnish farms in 2010. The potential of biological N fixation for saving fossil energy was examined through current field area of different crops and farm types. The available manure N was taken account, but not the possibly increasing efficiency in using it in the future. Field use was supposed to change only in the context of increasing biological N fixation, not e.g. because of increased use of fields for energy crops. The possibilities of legumes were considered optimistically, but such restrictions like adequate crop rotation and soil type were taken account. The amount of energy in fertilizer N fabrication was calculated according to the most effective techniques in current factories. The calculated change in energy demand of machines at farms was based on energy consumption measures on field. Knowledge concerning crops which are able to fix atmospheric N, and their ability to replace fertilizer N in different cropping situations, was compiled. The N benefit for the subsequent crop after green manure crop was computed in a new, more realistic way. N fertilization replacement value of the legume crop takes account the after effect in case that fertilizer N is used for optimizing the growth of the subsequent non-legume crop. On the other hand, sometimes the biological and even economical optimum must be turned down, if N in green manure is wanted to be used maximally by the subsequent crop. The appraisals are a part of MTT's HiiliN project, which develops technologies which can

  14. Win-Win strategies to promote air pollutant control policies and non-fossil energy target regulation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lining; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Liu, Bo; Mcleod, Jeffrey D.; Clarke, Leon E.; Chen, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    The rapid growth of energy consumption in China has led to increased emissions of air pollutants. As a response, in its 12th Five Year Plan the Chinese government proposed mitigation targets for SO2 and NOx emissions. Herein we have investigated mitigation measures taken in different sectors and their corresponding impacts on the energy system. Additionally, as non-fossil energy development has gained traction in addressing energy and environmental challenges in China, we further investigated the impact of non-fossil energy development on air pollutant emissions, and then explored interactions and co-benefits between these two types of policies. An extended Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) was used in this study, which includes an additional air pollutant emissions control module coupling multiple end-of-pipe (EOP) control technologies with energy technologies, as well as more detailed end-use sectors in China. We find that implementing EOP control technologies would reduce air pollution in the near future, but with little room left to implement these EOP technologies, other cleaner and more efficient technologies are also effective. These technologies would reduce final energy consumption, increase electricity’s share in final energy, and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and electricity consumption. Increasing non-fossil energy usage at China’s proposed adoption rate would in turn also reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, however, the reductions from this policy alone still lag behind the targeted requirements of air pollutant reduction. Fortunately, a combination of air pollutant controls and non-fossil energy development could synergistically help realize the respective individual targets, and would result in lower costs than would addressing these issues separately.

  15. Fossil Energy Program report. University activities, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This document describes the Fossil Energy-supported contract and project activity for FY 1978. The primary thrust of the Program is on coal - especially direct coal combustion and what can be done to increase the environmental acceptability of coal. We are concerned with developing cleaner technologies, and we are working on precombustion cleanup, fluidized-bed combustion, and post-combustion cleanup. Longer range technologies are being developed that will use coal more efficiently; for example, magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and high-temperature turbine utilization. Another priority is the development of a capability to produce synthetic fuels from coal. We are also engaged in a coal mining research and development program that focuses on increased mine productivity and workers' safety through the development of improved technologies. Our activity in the petroleum and gas research areas is intended to complement efforts in the private sector, which are to be further stimulated by new pricing or Federal incentives. Our present enhanced oil recovery efforts represent a shift in emphasis toward longer range, high-technology development projects instead of numerous field demonstrations and tests. The enhanced gas program emphasizes activities to increase our knowledge of the size and economic productivity of the unconventional gas resources. We are also involved in oil shale development, with the major research concentration on in situ retorting. We are continually assessing our program. Total annual funding has increased from $58 million in FY 1973 to $881 million in FY 1979. Fossil Energy is working closely with all parts of the Department of Energy, other appropriate Federal agencies, industry, and universities to insure that we maintain a balanced, aggressive, and responsive program suited to our national needs.

  16. Effect TiO2 of Made of Ash Fly on Crystallization Activation Energy and Index

    OpenAIRE

    Li Feng; Liu Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, CAS system glass-ceramics with different components were prepared by a high temperature melting method. The high alumina fly ash and quartz sand were used as the main raw materials in Inner Mongolia where they were very rich and cheap. The nucleation agent was TiO2. According to the thermodynamics calculation, the reaction trend of the new phase transformation was compared. The nucleation and crystal growth rate were analyzed based on the point of dynamics. The activation energy...

  17. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  18. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  19. Climate Change and the Exhaustion of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chiari, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing exhaustion of fossil fuels places a limit to the total amount of anthropogenic CO2 that will be emitted into the atmosphere and therefore constraints future global warming. Here we assess the implications of fossil fuels depletion on future changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature. We find that, despite the exhaustion of fossil fuels, future global warming will likely reach a dangerous level. Deliberate actions aiming at emissions reduction are needed t...

  20. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. (comps.)

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  1. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  2. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  3. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  4. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. (comp.)

    1993-01-01

    Objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with focus on longer-term needs. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. Scope of the program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. Research conducted on the Program is divided among the following areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys, (3) corrosion research, and (4) program development and technology transfer. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. The publications listed are limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles.

  5. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. [comp.

    1993-05-01

    Objective of DOE`s Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with focus on longer-term needs. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. Scope of the program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. Research conducted on the Program is divided among the following areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys, (3) corrosion research, and (4) program development and technology transfer. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. The publications listed are limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles.

  6. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  7. Effects of Recent Fossil Energy Market Developments on U.S. Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Henry L.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Richardson, James W.; Higgins, Lindsey M.; Campiche, Jody L.

    2006-01-01

    After several months of increases, fossil fuel prices decreased substantially in August and September of 2006. • Crude oil prices directly affect gasoline prices, which are an important determinant of ethanol demand. Natural gas prices are an important cost of ethanol production. • This briefing paper provides projections of ethanol and corn prices, production, and use, given recent developments in fossil fuel markets.

  8. Market-based power generation and energy transition. An integrated option market model for renewable and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany's abandonment of nuclear energy in favour of renewables is confronting the country's power supply with new challenges. First and foremost, the current subsidies for renewable energy must be radically reformed so that low-emission technologies can be integrated into the market as rapidly as possible. In the absence of such a reform there is a real danger that competition in the electricity market will increasingly be stifled. Without competition, however, the innovation and efficiency increases which are crucial to the success of Germany's new energy policy will not be possible. Essential as it is to promote renewable energy, there must also be ongoing development of the electricity market. This could be achieved by putting a price on security of supply, with the resulting revenues contributing to financing the necessary reserve capacity. An integrated option market model builds on the existing structures of an energy-only market and offers a framework for gradual development. The market design proposed contains both renewable energies and fossil fuel power stations. Technologies for electricity generation from replenishable resources should in future be temporarily subsidised by a premium over the market price to be awarded by auction.

  9. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  10. Species-energy relationship in the deep sea: A test using the Quaternary fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Roy, K.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the processes regulating species richness in deep-sea communities. Here we take advantage of natural experiments involving climate change to test whether predictions of the species-energy hypothesis hold in the deep sea. In addition, we test for the relationship between temperature and species richness predicted by a recent model based on biochemical kinetics of metabolism. Using the deep-sea fossil record of benthic foraminifera and statistical meta-analyses of temperature-richness and productivity-richness relationships in 10 deep-sea cores, we show that temperature but not productivity is a significant predictor of species richness over the past c. 130 000 years. Our results not only show that the temperature-richness relationship in the deep-sea is remarkably similar to that found in terrestrial and shallow marine habitats, but also that species richness tracks temperature change over geological time, at least on scales of c. 100 000 years. Thus, predicting biotic response to global climate change in the deep sea would require better understanding of how temperature regulates the occurrences and geographical ranges of species. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of fossil plant and heat pump building heating system at two different dead-state temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, S.P. [Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we deal with the energy and exergy analysis of a fossil plant and ground and air source heat pump building heating system at two different dead-state temperatures. A zone model of a building with natural ventilation is considered and heat is being supplied by condensing boiler. The same zone model is applied for heat pump building heating system. Since energy and exergy demand are key parameters to see which system is efficient at what reference temperature, we did a study on the influence of energy and exergy efficiencies. In this regard, a commercial software package IDA-ICE program is used for calculation of fossil plant heating system, however, there is no inbuilt simulation model for heat pumps in IDA-ICE, different COP (coefficient of performance) curves of the earlier studies of heat pumps are taken into account for the evaluation of the heat pump input and output energy. The outcome of the energy and exergy flow analysis at two different dead-state temperatures revealed that the ground source heat pumps with ambient reference have better performance against all ground reference systems as well as fossil plant (conventional system) and air source heat pumps with ambient reference. (author)

  13. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  14. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  15. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  16. Combination of Raman, infrared, and X-ray energy-dispersion spectroscopies and X-ray d diffraction to study a fossilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction was combined with X-ray energy-dispersion, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopies to study the fossilization of a Cretaceous specimen of the plant Brachyphyllum castilhoi, a fossil from the Ipubi Formation, in the Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Among the possible fossilization processes, which could involve pyrite, silicon oxide, calcium oxide, or other minerals, we were able to single out pyritization as the central mechanism producing the fossil, more than 100 million years ago. In addition to expanding the knowledge of the Ipubi Formation, this study shows that, when combined with other experimental techniques, Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool at the paleontologist's disposal. (author)

  17. Effect of Compaction Energy on Engineering Properties of Fly Ash –Granite Dust Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of compaction energy on engineering properties of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust have been discussed in this paper. Expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust was compacted with five compaction energy levels. Maximum dry density and optimum moisture content corresponding to each energy level were determined. Based on these maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, samples were prepared for unconfined compressive strength, soaked California bearing ratio, hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure tests. From the test results it is found that increase in compaction energy increased the maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength, soaked California bearing ratio and swelling pressure, and decreased the optimum moisture content and hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Effect TiO2 of Made of Ash Fly on Crystallization Activation Energy and Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, CAS system glass-ceramics with different components were prepared by a high temperature melting method. The high alumina fly ash and quartz sand were used as the main raw materials in Inner Mongolia where they were very rich and cheap. The nucleation agent was TiO2. According to the thermodynamics calculation, the reaction trend of the new phase transformation was compared. The nucleation and crystal growth rate were analyzed based on the point of dynamics. The activation energy and crystallization index were calculated by making use of an equation. With increasing the content of TiO2, the activation energy and index of crystallization of glass ceramics firstly increased to the maximum 1.95, then deceased. The content of TiO2 had an optimal value of about 8%. Under this condition, the activation energy of crystallization reached to the minimum 225.87 KJ/mol. and the crystals precipitated more easily.

  19. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  20. Biogas - a new energy source saves fossil resources; Biogas - mit neuer Energie Ressourcen schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoss, C. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 made conditions for biogas more favourable - small wonder, as the German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas e.V.) co-operated with written expert opinions and many discussions with decision-makers. The subjects discussed at the 10th Biogas Conference reflect the current situation and will provide a basis for committee work in 2001. [German] Im Jahr 2000 haben sich die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Biogasbereich mit dem Inkrafttreten des erneuerbaren Energiegesetz (EEG) sehr positiv entwickelt. Der Fachverband Biogas e.V. hat mit schriftlichen Stellungnahmen und in vielen Gespraechen mit Entscheidungstraegern diese Bedingungen mitgestaltet. In Zukunft gibt es noch viele Aufgaben fuer eine effektive Interessenvertretung der Biogasbranche auf Laender- und Bundesebene. Die Themen, die auf der 10. Biogastagung diskutiert werden, spiegeln die Fragen wieder, die unter Experten derzeit intensiv diskutiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Erfahrungsaustausches auf dieser Tagung werden die Grundlage fuer die Arbeit der Gremien im Fachverband Biogas im Jahr 2001 sein. Mit dem vorliegenden Tagungsband ist es gelungen, die Basis fuer die fachlichen Gespraeche waehrend und nach der Tagung schaffen. (orig.)

  1. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. PMID:26340550

  2. Environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection: methodology and user's guide. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report is designed to facilitate assessments of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of fossil energy conversion facilities which might be implemented at potential sites. The discussion of methodology and the User's Guide contained herein are presented in a format that assumes the reader is not an energy technologist. Indeed, this methodology is meant for application by almost anyone with an interest in a potential fossil energy development - planners, citizen groups, government officials, and members of industry. It may also be of instructional value. The methodology is called: Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems (SELECS) and is organized in three levels of increasing sophistication. Only the least complicated version - the Level 1 SELECS - is presented in this document. As stated above, it has been expressly designed to enable just about anyone to participate in evaluating the potential impacts of a proposed energy conversion facility. To accomplish this objective, the Level 1 calculations have been restricted to ones which can be performed by hand in about one working day. Data collection and report preparation may bring the total effort required for a first or one-time application to two to three weeks. If repeated applications are made in the same general region, the assembling of data for a different site or energy conversion technology will probably take much less time.

  3. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Fournel; Joahnn H. Palacios; Stéphane Godbout; Michèle Heitz

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), potassium (K) and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM) and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting) during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt%) and fuel addit...

  4. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  5. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  6. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Elyakime

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value estimated at 11.2 to 22.3 € per stere (1 cubic metre, or an average value of 16.8 € per stere after deduction of all costs. An economy based on wood energy, using wood from spontaneously generated forest growth on private land, is therefore possible. A development policy for such an activity could be envisaged with appropriate initiatives to stimulate the owners of land where spontaneous ash reforestation has occurred to harvest this potential resource.

  7. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. To break away from fossil fuels : a contribution to solve climatic change and energy security for Quebec; S'affranchir des carburants fossiles : une contribution a la lutte aux changements climatiques et a la securite energetique du Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, P.; Seguin, H.; Waridel, L.

    2006-06-15

    In response to growing energy demands, Quebec has proposed the construction of 3 deep water terminals to accommodate methane tankers which transport liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper focused on the proposed Gros Cacouna Port project in the St. Lawrence Seaway which is currently under study and subject to approval. Equiterre, questioned the energy security aspect of the proposal and argued that increasing Quebec's reliance on increasingly expensive energy would decrease energy security. In addition, importation of LNG would bring a clear exit of capital outside the province. Equiterre also argued that reliance on fossil fuels should be decreased in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to climate change. The organization questioned whether the economic and social need for the proposed project justifies a greater dependency on fossil fuels and the associated impact on the environment and fragile ecosystems of the St. Lawrence. It was suggested that alternative solutions such as renewable energy sources and energy efficiency should be explored in order to promote sustainable development, increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gases. Equiterre argued that Quebec can and must decrease, and even eliminate, its dependence on fossil fuels, including natural gas, for Quebec's economic, social and environmental well-being. For these reasons, Equiterre recommended that the proposed project be rejected, particularly since the project proponents failed to show the real impact that the project would have on Quebec markets. 72 refs., 10 tabs., 21 figs.

  9. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  10. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5-3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. PMID:23534998

  11. Public support for reducing US reliance on fossil fuels. Investigating household willingness-to-pay for energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Department of Economics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (United States); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Herron, Kerry G. [Center for Applied Social Research and Department of Political Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Berrens, Robert P. [Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In order to reduce future dependence on foreign oil and emissions of CO{sub 2}, how much would US households be willing to pay annually to support increased energy research and development (R and D) activities designed to replace fossil fuels? Does it matter whether the R and D includes nuclear energy options? We explore these questions using data from a unique set of national telephone and Internet surveys. Using a national advisory referendum format, the contingent valuation method is applied to estimate annual household willingness-to-pay (WTP) for US household support of a national Energy Research and Development Fund (ERDF) for investments in energy sources not reliant on fossil fuels. While accounting for the level of (un)certainty in voting responses, the WTP modeling includes a comparison of both classic maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and Bayesian analysis. Evidence indicates that MLE and Bayesian analysis achieve similar statistical inference, while the Bayesian analysis provides a narrower confidence interval around estimated WTP. (author)

  12. Understanding the Causality between Carbon Dioxide Emission, Fossil Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Developed Countries: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Issues on climate change have been recognized as serious challenges for regional sustainable development both at a global and local level. Given the background that most of the artificial carbon emissions are resulted from the energy consumption sector and the energy is also the key element resource for economic development, this paper investigated the relationship between CO2 emission, fossil energy consumption, and economic growth in the period 1970–2008 of nine European countries, based on the approach of Granger Causality Test, followed by the risk analysis on impacts of CO2 reduction to local economic growth classified by the indicator of causality degree. The results show that there are various feedback causal relationships between carbon emission, energy consumption and economic growth, with both unidirectional and dual-directional Granger causality. The impact of reducing CO2 emission to economic growth varies between countries as well.

  13. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  14. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  15. Market-based power generation and energy transition. An integrated option market model for renewable and fossil energy sources; Marktwirtschaftliche Stromerzeugung und Energiewende. Ein integriertes Optionsmarktmodell fuer erneuerbare und fossile Energiequellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardt, Hubertus; Chrischilles, Esther

    2014-07-01

    Germany's abandonment of nuclear energy in favour of renewables is confronting the country's power supply with new challenges. First and foremost, the current subsidies for renewable energy must be radically reformed so that low-emission technologies can be integrated into the market as rapidly as possible. In the absence of such a reform there is a real danger that competition in the electricity market will increasingly be stifled. Without competition, however, the innovation and efficiency increases which are crucial to the success of Germany's new energy policy will not be possible. Essential as it is to promote renewable energy, there must also be ongoing development of the electricity market. This could be achieved by putting a price on security of supply, with the resulting revenues contributing to financing the necessary reserve capacity. An integrated option market model builds on the existing structures of an energy-only market and offers a framework for gradual development. The market design proposed contains both renewable energies and fossil fuel power stations. Technologies for electricity generation from replenishable resources should in future be temporarily subsidised by a premium over the market price to be awarded by auction.

  16. Analysis of Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugumanova, Lyazzat

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades the topic of fossil fuel subsidies has been gaining importance in the policy discussion. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) estimates that the total global fossil fuel subsidies in 2010 amounted to $409 billion. Kazakhstan is energy-rich country with significantly high subsidies on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel subsidies are a distortion which causes inefficient use of energy and natural resources, high CO2 emissions, distort the energy markets, put pressure on the s...

  17. Global Energy Security under Different Climate Policies, GDP Growth Rates and Fossil Resource Availabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica; Vinichenko, Vadim; BAUER, NICO; De Cian, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Energy security is one of the main drivers of energy policies. Understanding energy security implications of long-term scenarios is crucial for informed policy making, especially with respect to transformations of energy systems required to stabilize climate change. This paper evaluates the global energy security under several global energy scenarios, modeled in the REMIND and WITCH integrated assessment models. The paper examines the effects of long-term climate policies on energy security u...

  18. Combination of Raman, infrared, and X-ray energy-dispersion spectroscopies and X-ray d diffraction to study a fossilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa Filho, Francisco Eduardo de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil); Joao Herminio da Silva [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Cariri, Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Saraiva, Antonio Alamo Feitosa; Brito, Deyvid Dennys S. [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil); Viana, Bartolomeu Cruz [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI, (Brazil); Abagaro, Bruno Tavares de Oliveira; Freire, Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante, E-mail: tarso@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    X-ray diffraction was combined with X-ray energy-dispersion, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopies to study the fossilization of a Cretaceous specimen of the plant Brachyphyllum castilhoi, a fossil from the Ipubi Formation, in the Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Among the possible fossilization processes, which could involve pyrite, silicon oxide, calcium oxide, or other minerals, we were able to single out pyritization as the central mechanism producing the fossil, more than 100 million years ago. In addition to expanding the knowledge of the Ipubi Formation, this study shows that, when combined with other experimental techniques, Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool at the paleontologist's disposal. (author)

  19. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  20. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  1. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  2. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Fossil Energy Land%化石能源地生态承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方恺; 沈万斌; 郑沁敏; 高凯; 刘景帅

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the defect of current studies of ignoring ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land, a model was established by combining ecological footprint analysis and net primary productivity from standpoint of land function of carbon sequestration. Taking northeast China as an empirical study, results showed that during 2004 and 2008, ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land of Liaoning Province, Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province were low, medium and high respectively, showing significant regional difference, and the decreasing proportions of Province Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang were 3.52%, 1.75% and 0.10% respectively. In the composition of total ecological carrying capacity of fossil energy land per capita, component percentages of arable land and built-up land increased, while those of forest, grazing land, water area, less productive land and open ocean decreased. Forest was main part of ecological carrying capacity of ' fossil energy land, accounting for 58.25%~58.40%. It was concluded that the new model able to accord with real situation of regional resource endowment with high precision can evaluate the sustainability of energy consumption more roundly and improve ecological footprint theory to a certain extent.%针对当前研究中忽略化石能源地生态承载力的不足,从土地碳吸收功能的角度将生态足迹法与净初级生产力相结合,根据构建的化石能源地生态承载力模型,对东北地区进行了实证研究.结果表明,2004-2008年,东北地区化石能源地生态承载力的区域性差异显著,辽宁最低、吉林居中、黑龙江最高;三省人均化石能源地生态承载力均呈缓慢下降趋势,降幅由大到小依次为吉林(3.52%)、辽宁(1.75%)、黑龙江(0.10%);三省人均化石能源地生态承载力的总构成中,耕地、建设用地比例有所上升,林地、草地、水域、低生产力地、远海比例有所下降,其中

  3. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  4. Photovoltaic panels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy sources in rural areas of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. Presently, India is the world’s sixth greatest consumer of energy. The Indian energy consumption accounts for slightly more than 3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The need for ener

  5. Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra of AsH3 + (" separators=" X ˜ 2 A2 ″) : Tunneling splittings studied by zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dai, Zuyang; Wang, Jia; Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-06-01

    The rotationally resolved vibrational spectra of AsH3 + (" separators=" X ˜ 2 A2 ″) have been measured for the first time with vibrational energies up to 6000 cm-1 above the ground state using the zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron method. The symmetric inversion vibrational energy levels ( v2 +) and the corresponding rotational constants for v2 + = 0 -15 have been determined. The tunneling splittings of the inversion vibration energy levels have been observed and are 0.8 and 37.7 (±0.5) cm-1 for the ground and the first excited vibrational states, respectively. The first adiabatic ionization energy for AsH3 was determined as 79 243.3 ± 1 cm-1. The geometric parameters of AsH3 + (" separators=" X ˜ 2 A2 ″) as a function of inversion vibrational numbers have been determined, indicating that the geometric structure of the cation changes from near-planar to pyramidal with increasing inversion vibrational excitation. In addition to the experimental measurements, a two-dimensional theoretical calculation considering the two symmetric vibrational modes was performed to determine the energy levels of the symmetric inversion, which are in good agreement with the experimental results. The inversion vibrational energy levels of SbH3 + (" separators=" X ˜ 2 A2 ″) have also been calculated and are found to have much smaller energy splittings than those of AsH3 + (" separators=" X ˜ 2 A2 ″) .

  6. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Jin Pin; Nora Muda

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel w...

  7. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  8. Accelerating progress toward operational excellence of fossil energy plants with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Turton, R. Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  9. 75 FR 63404 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... regulations that revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards to require that `` or new... The proposed rule would establish revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for..., 2010 (75 FR 29933), which also proposes to amend certain portions of 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. DOE...

  10. Enhanced High Temperature Corrosion Resistance in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems by Nano-Passive Layer Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold R. Marder

    2007-06-14

    Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, iron aluminum alloys are currently being considered for use as weld claddings in fossil fuel fired power plants. The susceptibility to hydrogen cracking of these alloys at higher aluminum concentrations has highlighted the need for research into the effect of chromium additions on the corrosion resistance of lower aluminum alloys. In the present work, three iron aluminum alloys were exposed to simulated coal combustion environments at 500 C and 700 C for both short (100 hours) and long (5,000 hours) isothermal durations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the corrosion products. All alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the short term tests. For longer exposures, increasing the aluminum concentration was beneficial to the corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the binary iron aluminum alloy prevented the formation iron sulfide and resulted in lower corrosion kinetics. A classification of the corrosion products that developed on these alloys is presented. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the as-corroded coupons revealed that chromium was able to form chromium sulfides only on the higher aluminum alloy, thereby preventing the formation of deleterious iron sulfides. When the aluminum concentration was too low to permit selective oxidation of only aluminum (upon initial exposure to the corrosion environment), the formation of chromium oxide alongside the aluminum oxide led to depletion of chromium beneath the oxide layer. Upon penetration of sulfur through the oxide into this depletion layer, iron sulfides (rather than chromium sulfides) were found to form on the low aluminum alloy. Thus, it was found in this work that the role of chromium on alloy corrosion resistance was strongly effected by the aluminum concentration of the alloy. STEM analysis also revealed the encapsulation of external iron sulfide products with a thin layer of aluminum oxide, which may provide a

  11. Integrating biorefinery and farm biogeochemical cycles offsets fossil energy and mitigates soil carbon losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul R; Mitchell, James G; Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Spatari, Sabrina; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2015-06-01

    Crop residues are potentially significant sources of feedstock for biofuel production in the United States. However, there are concerns with maintaining the environmental functions of these residues while also serving as a feedstock for biofuel production. Maintaining soil organic carbon (SOC) along with its functional benefits is considered a greater constraint than maintaining soil erosion losses to an acceptable level. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to evaluate the effect of residue removal, corn stover, and wheat and barley straw in three diverse locations in the USA. We evaluated residue removal with and without N replacement, along with application of a high-lignin fermentation byproduct (HLFB), the residue by-product comprised of lignin and small quantities of nutrients from cellulosic ethanol production. SOC always decreased with residue harvest, but the decrease was greater in colder climates when expressed on a life cycle basis. The effect of residue harvest on soil N2O emissions varied with N addition and climate. With N addition, N2O emissions always increased, but the increase was greater in colder climates. Without N addition, N2O emissions increased in Iowa, but decreased in Maryland and North Carolina with crop residue harvest. Although SOC was lower with residue harvest when HLFB was used for power production instead of being applied to land, the avoidance of fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere by utilizing the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of crop residue to produce ethanol (offsets) reduced the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because most of this residue carbon would normally be lost during microbial respiration. Losses of SOC and reduced N mineralization could both be mitigated with the application of HLFB to the land. Therefore, by returning the high-lignin fraction of crop residue to the land after production of ethanol at the biorefinery, soil carbon levels could be maintained along with the functional benefit of

  12. Energy survey - What can R&D do by 1985. [fossil fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copps, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy is generally recognized as requiring long lead times before the results are felt. Near term relief from foreign oil dependence will be achieved by reducing energy consumption through conservation and by increasing domestic energy supply through expanded exploration and drilling for oil and natural gas, and by increased coal production. This paper describes the results of an informal survey performed by NASA within its own agency to determine if any research and development activities might be an exception to the general rule of long lead times and thus have significant impact by 1985 on oil and natural gas consumption.

  13. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  14. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Reupke, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    The role of nuclear fission reactors in becoming an important power source in the world is discussed. The supply of fissile nuclear fuel will be severely depleted by the year 2000. With breeder reactors the world supply of uranium could last thousands of years. However, breeder reactors have problems of a large radioactive inventory and an accident potential which could present an unacceptable hazard. Although breeder reactors afford a possible solution to the energy shortage, their ultimate role will depend on demonstrated safety and acceptable risks and environmental effects. Fusion power would also be a long range, essentially permanent, solution to the world's energy problem. Fusion appears to compare favorably with breeders in safety and environmental effects. Research comparing a controlled fusion reactor with the breeder reactor in solving our long range energy needs is discussed.

  15. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  16. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Summary of the work, results and recommendations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This summary report describes the main outcomes of the deliberations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy. It includes a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, which is only available in Danish, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. Finally, the background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, www.klimakommissionen.dk. We can both reduce Danish emissions of greenhouse gasses significantly, and make Denmark independent of fossil fuels. This will require a total conversion of the Danish energy system; conversion away from oil, coal and gas, which today account for more than 80% of our energy consumption, and to green energy with wind turbines and bioenergy as the most important elements. The cost of conversion may seem surprisingly low. The low cost means that not only can we maintain our present living standards, we can also have considerable economic growth, so that energy expenditures will constitute less of our budgets in the future than today. The reason the cost is not higher is primarily because we will not have to pay for overpriced fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} reductions, and we will be able to limit our energy consumption through efficiency improvements in all areas in the future. It is difficult to make predictions about the exact design of the green energy system of the future. However, in overall terms it could look like this: 1) Energy will be used far more efficiently, so that we can, for example, heat our houses

  17. A model for detailed evaluation of fossil-energy saving by utilizing unused but possible energy-sources on a city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing interest in the utilization of unused, but possible, energy sources to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and fossil-energy consumption, and especially to comply with the Kyoto Protocol which came into effect in 2005. Detailed considerations of plant location, land use and life cycle analysis, however, have not yet been fully estimated with a view to confirming the advantages of the new energy-source usage. A model for heat energy from river water and treated sewage water, and waste-heat energy from municipal solid-waste incineration plants was built and applied to the Tokyo urban area in Japan, considering the spatial and time-related distribution of demands and supplies, the shapes of buildings in the demand area, and life-cycle analysis. The model selected areas were those which should use these energies without prejudice, and sometimes the areas were far from the energy-source point. The reduction of carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from new energy-sources was about 8% of the reduction target for Tokyo in 1990. The model was able to precisely evaluate the new energy-usage, using data from both supply and demand sides. (author)

  18. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  19. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  20. Fly ash utilization in constructions-materials production - on the basis of Polish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatymowicz, H.

    1984-06-01

    Fossil-fueled power plants in India produce 600,000 tons of fly ash a year that takes up 6 hectares of land for storage. Poland uses its fly ash to make low-strength construction materials, with most going into the production of autoclaved cellular concrete. They further reduce the costs of storage and dumping by locating cellular concrete plants close to power stations to take advantage of direct pneumatic transport and the waste steam from the plant, which is used for processing the concrete. The author describes Poland's production techniques and the physical characteristics of the product. A note at the beginning of the article states that India's Ministry of Energy sees no present market demand for fly ash from the New Delhi plant, but suggests its use for soil improvement as an alternative. 3 tables.

  1. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) s...

  2. Energy Comes Together in Denmark: The Key to a Future Fossil-Free Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Madsen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    to provide the majority of electricity, and biomass and electricity are expected to become the major sources of heating. On the way toward the 100% renewable goal in 2050, the Danish government has proposed a 2035 midterm goal to cover the energy consumption for power and heat with renewables....

  3. Replacing fossil based PET with biobased PEF; proess analysis, energy and GHG balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerhart, A.J.J.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance study was performed on the production of the bioplastic polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF) starting from corn based fructose. The goal of the study was to analyze and to translate experimental data on the catalytic dehydration of fructose to a simulation

  4. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  5. CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIERCE,B.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  6. Transition to renewable resources - energy balance comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems and potentials for the mitigation of fossil resource use

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgaard, T.

    2013-01-01

    Today, agriculture and food production has major implications for the use of fossil energy and other resources, and a sustainable development implies transition towards new systems, based on renewable resources. The reduction of external inputs to the farm through efficient management of materials and energy is a central part of the organic principles (IFOAM 2013), and in most countries standards are implemented in the form of nationally adapted, organic farming regulations, with significa...

  7. A Study of Anti-seepage Design for Ash Area of Fossil Fuel Power Plant%燃煤电厂干式贮灰场防渗设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海容; 饶俊勇

    2011-01-01

    干式贮灰场可能引起的环保问题主要有对地下水、地表水、扬尘、噪声等,其中对地下水的影响往往更严重.对于式贮灰场进行防渗处理,是避免污染地下水环境,达到环保标准的重要方法.以此为思路,探讨了灰场可能污染方式、干灰场防渗的规定、作法,并对扩建灰场的防渗问题进行了深入探讨.%Problems caused by a dry ash disposal area include the pollution of underground water, the pollution of ground water, the pollution of fugitive dust and noise during construction, of which the pollution of underground water is the most serious hazard. To prevent underground water from being contaminated and to meet the environmental standard, anti-seepage system is the important design for dry ash disposal area. Possible pollution types, environmental standards and practice and anti-seepage system design for extensive ash disposal area are discussed in the paper.

  8. Renewables, nuclear, or fossil fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain’s power system considering costs, emissions and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We compare a large number of cost-optimal future power systems for Great Britain. • Scenarios are assessed on cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. • Up to 60% of variable renewable capacity is possible with little cost increase. • Higher shares require storage, imports or dispatchable renewables such as tidal range. - Abstract: Mitigating climate change is driving the need to decarbonize the electricity sector, for which various possible technological options exist, alongside uncertainty over which options are preferable in terms of cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. To reduce this uncertainty, we here quantify two questions for the power system of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): First, when compared within the same high-resolution modeling framework, how much do different combinations of technologies differ in these three respects? Second, how strongly does the cost and availability of grid-scale storage affect overall system cost, and would it favor some technology combinations above others? We compare three main possible generation technologies: (1) renewables, (2) nuclear, and (3) fossil fuels (with/without carbon capture and storage). Our results show that across a wide range of these combinations, the overall costs remain similar, implying that different configurations are equally feasible both technically and economically. However, the most economically favorable scenarios are not necessarily favorable in terms of emissions or energy security. The availability of grid-scale storage in scenarios with little dispatchable generation can reduce overall levelized electricity cost by up to 50%, depending on storage capacity costs. The UK can rely on its domestic wind and solar PV generation at lower renewable shares, with levelized costs only rising more than 10% above the mean of 0.084 GBP/kWh for shares of 50% and below at a 70% share, which is 35% higher. However, for more than an 80% renewable

  9. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  10. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  11. Toxic compounds emission from fossil fuels in compression with alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halek, F.; Kavousi, A. [Dept. of Energy (Iran). Materials and Energy Resesarch Center

    2008-09-30

    Transportation sources are one of the leading contributors to hazardous air pollutants. The internal combustion engine emits a large percentage of pollutants, but gasoline and diesel in the liquid form also contribute chemical pollution in the form of vaporization of the fuel as it heats and cools within the gas tank. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounts made up of two or more fused benzene rings in linear, angular or cluster arrangements. PAHs are considered highly toxic for human beings and several of these compounts are carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. A major source of PAH in Tehran is related to traffic and the number of gasoline and diesel vehicles. During nearly a 1-year period (throughout 2005) a comprehensive study was done in the Tehran area in 21 stations. Results of PAHs analysis indicated that existence of several low molecular weights, like Fluoranthene, Fluorene and Phenantherene confirm the role of diesel oil emissions in Tehran's atmosphere. Biodiesel, a renewable energy source, is the name for a variety of ester-based oxygenated fuels (11% oxygen by weight) made from vegetable oils: sunflower, safflower, soybean, palm, cottonseed, rapeseed or peanut. The lifecycle production and use of biodiesel produces approximately 80% less carbon dioxide emissions, and almost 100% less sulfur dioxide. Combustion of biodiesel alone provides over a 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons, and a 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. Biodiesel further provides significant reductions in particulates and carbon monoxide than petroleum diesel fuel. Based on mutagenicity tests, biodiesel provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks.

  12. Using fly ash for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  13. Best mix of primary energy resources by renewable energy and fossil fuel with CCS in view of security,stability and sustainability——A vision on hydrogen supply chain by organic chemical hydride method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi; SAKAGUCHI

    2010-01-01

    The best mix scenario by renewable energy and fossil fuel with or without CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) would be a solution to compromise Greenhouse Gases emission issue caused by carbon dioxide(CO2),and depletion of crude oil and natural gas reserves.As fossil fuel with pre-combustion CCS means hydrogen manufacturing and also hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis with renewable energy,it is desirable to establish transportation and storage systems of hydrogen as a clean energy.In this paper a vision on Hydrogen Supply Chain by Organic Chemical Hydride(OCH) Method as well as comparison of CCS configuration are discussed.

  14. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.

    1980-02-01

    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  15. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Pekkanen; Diana Tuomasjukka; Michael den Herder; Tommi Suominen; Marcus Lindner; Marja Kolström

    2012-01-01

    The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected base...

  16. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  17. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  18. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  19. Energy policy. Framework conditions for the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energies. Ambitions of energy policy in conflict with economic reality?; Energiepolitik. Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Entwicklung von fossilen Brennstoffen zu erneuerbaren Energien. Oekonomische Realitaet im Konflikt zu energiepolitischen Ambitionen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, Simon

    2011-07-01

    It is shown how the future development of individual renewable energy resources depends on whether statutory and other measures make it possible to achieve market penetration in conformity with competition law. Economic promotion of renewable energies is warranted for reasons of climate protection. However it is unclear to what extent renewable resources in their entirety can secure an economically sustainable energy supply. The present study looks at the possible future development of selected fossil fuels and renewable energy resources. It also examines what political framework conditions, instruments and measures might serve to steer this development and achieve envisioned goals.

  20. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  1. EDU 626 ASH

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 40 course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     Product Description EDU 626 Week 1 Research Topic (Ash) EDU 626 Week 2 Annotated Bibliography (Ash) EDU 626 Week 2 Critical Thinking Questions (Ash) EDU 626 Week 3 Procedures or Methods (Ash) EDU 626 Week 4 Critical Thinking Questions (Ash) EDU 626 Week 5 Critical Thinking Questions (Ash) EDU 626 Week 6 Final Paper (Ash)  

  2. Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

  3. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  5. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas

  6. An inherently-safe high-temperature nuclear energy producing process for the replacement of fossil and other depletive energy on a large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fully exploit the huge potential of nuclear energy for the replacement of fossil and other depletive energy as early as practical in 21”s”t century, a novel process for producing high-temperature nuclear with full-power natural circulation operation is proposed, based on the innovative thermal-hydraulic designs of the primary circuit of a liquid-salt-cooled pebble bed reactor. In a deep-pool reactor featured with an ultra-simplified integral primary circuit, the high boiling-point primary coolant flows horizontally through an annular reactor core installed at the bottom of the pool, and is heated by the fission heat generated inside the spherical nuclear fuel elements. The heated coolant then flows upward in the central up-riser to the top of the pool, and then flows down-ward through a set of ultra-low resistance heat exchanger installed at the top of the pool and immerged under the surface of said primary coolant. The coolant is cooled therein by the secondary coolant, flows downward along the down-comer, and eventually returns to the reactor core. The flow of primary coolant is driven sorely by the natural circulation caused by the density difference of the primary coolants between the coolant riser and down-comer, no forced circulation pump is required. Since the excess reactivity of the reactor core is always kept low with continuous on-line refueling of the fuel balls, and the negative temperature coefficient is large, the core fission power could follow the external load fluctuation automatically throughout the entire operation cycles without using solid control rod systems. As a result, the layout of the integral primary circuit of such a reactor is extreme simple, and the inherently safety features are straightforward. The unit capacity of such a reactor has no theoretical limitation. It may extend from an MSR level up to a mammoth station as high as the largest hydro-station. The capital and generation costs would be lower than most other kind of

  7. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  8. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard;

    2016-01-01

    /F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...... content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5. kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered...

  9. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  10. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  11. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan A Qvist

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  12. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L. H.; Qin, J.; Krogh, Paul Henning;

    In 2006, the European Council established a mandatory target of 20 % renewable energy of the total energy consumption by 2020. Part of the replacement is burning biomass for heating and electricity instead of fossil fuels. Whole-tree biomass harvesting for biofuel combustion intensifies removal...... can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible cascading effects for the soil food web structure. This is tested by applying ash of different concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest. During the course of the project soil samples will be collected...... with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web analysis includes several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids, microarthropods and arthropods. The initial results indicate that bacteria and protozoa are stimulated in the uppermost soil layer (0-3 cm) two months...

  13. Workshop consensus statement from the 1980 workshop on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes, January 28-29, 1980, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    A workshop on Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) in Fossil Energy Processes was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Fossil Energy in New Orleans, Louisiana, January 28 to 29, 1980. The 82 participants included (approximately): 20% from energy firms (industrial partners), 34% from instrument manufacturers, 12% from architect-engineer and process design firms, 25% from institutions (EPRI, ANL, JPL, etc.), universities and technical societies, and 9% from government. Three major areas of consensus emerged: (1) technical needs, (2) barriers, and (3) communications. Instruments are needed to measure mass flow (solids/gas, solids/liquid), level, high temperature, viscosity, etc. Some needed instruments are unavailable commercially; some have small market, high development cost and risk; operating conditions are generally hostile due to high pressure and temperature, erosion, corrosion, etc. Barriers to I and C technology transfer involve: corporate policy (need to retain patent rights, trade secrets); fear of prosecution by governmental regulatory agencies (Justice, FTC, EPA, etc.) for alleged collusion, restraint of trade, etc.; and fear that candid discussion of I and C problems and deficiencies in plants will lead to loss of funding or job. An ad hoc organization is needed to vigorously pursue communication on I and C between industry and government representatives; and to identify and prioritize I and C needs.

  14. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  15. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pekkanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected based on stakeholder preferences and evaluated using the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA. The analysis was based on representative values from National Forest Inventory data, scientific publications, national and regional statistics, databases, published policy targets and expert opinion. From the results it became evident that shifting from fossil to wood-based energy production implies some trade-offs. Replacing oil with woody biomass in energy production would increase the local value added remaining in the region, create employment opportunities and would reduce total GHG emissions. However, firewood, wood chips from small-diameter trees from early thinning and wood pellets have high production costs. Moreover, large greenhouse gas emission resulted from wood pellet production. The case study generated valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments and demonstrated the usefulness of ToSIA as a tool presenting existing knowledge on sustainability impacts of alternative energy supply chains to inform decision making.

  16. Fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO2 emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes

  17. The 'Bilan Carbone'. Overview of a carbon balance method allowing to evaluate company's exposure to fossil energy costs fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Sylvie; Galio, Pierre [ADEME - French Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

    2007-07-01

    90 % of the carbon dioxide emitted comes from the combustion of fossil energies (petroleum products, coal and natural gas) and is therefore directly related to energy consumption. The European Union has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 8 % by 2008-2012 in relation to levels recorded in 1990 (Kyoto Protocol). This commitment involves for the European Union an ambitious policy aiming at making industries more energy efficient with three main goals:cutting the high cost of energy; reducing fossils energies addiction; launching an emissions reduction process. ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management) developed a simple method which is an effective solution for ranking emissions by source and for launching a dynamic emissions reduction process: the Bilan Carbone Method.Bilan Carbone is both a tool and a methodology. The main component of the tool is a ready-to-use Excel spreadsheet that calculates the emissions caused by all the processes necessary for the existence of a given activity. Space heating, combustion for manufacturing processes, but also freight shipments, passengers travel, production of raw materials used, waste treatment - To take these items into account, simply fill in the spreadsheet with energy consumption figures, kilometers travelled, quantities of materials purchased, etc. For each source of CO{sub 2} or other greenhouse gases, theses data are then converted by the spreadsheet into the amount of carbon emitted, using fully documented emissions factors. The general spirit of the Bilan Carbone method is to provide the broadest possible panorama of emissions that are linked to processes used by a company or an organization. This is also the only approach that is pertinent for looking forward and anticipating the effect of possible trends, for instance a significant rise in the market price of fossil energy.In practice, the accuracy of the results will depend to a large extent on the amount of time spent

  18. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 4: Exkurse. Einzelthemen, wie fossile Energieressourcen, Einfluss der Klimaerwaermung, Flugverkehr, Ueberblick ueber andere Energieperspektiven des Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO{sub 2} emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  19. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe;

    2010-01-01

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel‐derived CO2 is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gasses, especially nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  20. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  1. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Study of the SRF-derived ashes melting behavior and the effects generated by the optimization of their composition on the furnaces energy efficiency in the incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Vittorio; Venturelli, Chiara; Paganelli, Daniele

    2014-12-01

    As regards the incineration process of the urban solid waste, the composition correct management allows not only the valorization of precise civil and industrial groups of waste as alternative fuels but also a considerable increase of the furnace work temperature leading to a remarkable improvement of the related energy efficiency. In this sense, the study of the melting behavior of ashes deriving from several kinds of fuels that have to be processed to heat treatment is really important. This approach, indeed, ensures to know in depth the features defining the melting behavior of these analyzed samples, and as a consequence, gives us the necessary data in order to identify the best mixture of components to be incinerated as a function of the specific working temperatures of the power plant. Firstly, this study aims to find a way to establish the softening and melting temperatures of the ashes because they are those parameters that strongly influence the use of fuels. For this reason, in this work, the fusibility of waste-derived ashes with different composition has been investigated by means of the heating microscope. This instrument is fundamental to prove the strict dependence of the ashes fusion temperature on the heating rate that the samples experienced during the thermal cycle. In addition, in this work, another technological feature of the instrument has been used allowing to set an instantaneous heating directly on the sample in order to accurately reproduce the industrial conditions which characterize the incineration plants. The comparison between the final results shows that, in effect, the achievement of the best performances of the furnace is due to the a priori study of the melting behavior of the single available components. PMID:24081923

  3. CH50% - A Switzerland with a consumption of fossil energy split in half; CH50% - Eine Schweiz mit halbiertem Verbrauch an fossilen Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences has investigated the possibilities and the consequences of a consumption reduction by 50 % of fossil energy agents within a time frame of 20 to 40 years. A working group of the Academy has made a study on the subject of if and when it would be possible to reduce the consumption of fossil energy in Switzerland by 50 % compared to 1990. The working group came to the conclusion that a reduction of well over 40 % would be feasible by the year 2020, principally due to an improvement in efficiency. This takes into account the substitution potential by renewable energy alternatives. A reduction by 50% will be possible in the second quarter of the 21st century under the condition that both today's known technologies are indeed exploited and that energy prices are increased. For Switzerland's economy and society no unacceptable impacts will thereby result. (author) [German] Die Schweizerische Akademie der Technischen Wissenschaften (SATW) hat Moeglichkeiten und Konsequenzen eines um 50 % verringerten Verbrauchs an fossilen Energietraegern in der Schweiz in einem Zeitrahmen von 20-40 Jahren untersucht. Eine Arbeitsgruppe ihrer Kommission Energie unter dem Vorsitz von Hans Jucker (bis 1997 VR-Praesident der Alusuisse-Lonza Holding AG) kam zum Schluss, dass bis zum Jahre 2020 eine Reduktion um gut 40 % primaer durch Effizienzverbesserungen moeglich ist. Dabei ist das Substitutionspotential durch erneuerbare Energien beruecksichtigt. Eine Halbierung ist im Verlaufe des 2. Quartals des 21. Jahrhunderts erreichbar, wobei vorausgesetzt wird, dass die heute bekannten Technologien tatsaechlich genutzt werden und die Energie verteuert wird. Dabei werden f?r Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft keine unzumutbaren Auswirkungen erwartet.

  4. Coal-ash as a surfacing material for feedlots to improve energy and nutrient value of manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauling soil/manure out and fill-soil in to maintain adequate feedlot pen surfaces is time consuming and expensive. Pond ash (PA), a by-product from coal-fired electrical generation, has very good support qualities even when wet. Four pens were excavated to a depth of 0.5 m and returned to grade wit...

  5. Economic and environmental gains of China's fossil energy subsidies reform: A rebound effect case study with EIMO model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption and efficiency emerged as the hottest topic in the context of China's sustainable development. Energy subsidies and “rebound effect” were closely related to this topic while few combinative studies on them with a focus on China. This paper employed a co-thinking approach, focusing on how the energy subsidies reform could mitigate the rebound effect in China, and how to achieve an “economic and environmental gains” that reduced pecuniary spending, improved the distorted energy market and reduced energy consumption simultaneously. Firstly, with price-gap approach we calculated the total energy subsidies scale of China in 2007, which amounted to582.0 billion CNY; then we detected and identified rebound effect of China energy consumption with the features. Furthermore, based on China 2007 monetary input–output table and energy flow analysis, we compiled a hybrid physical energy input and monetary output model (EIMO) to simulate the mitigation effect of subsidies reform. Results showed that removing energy subsidies would decrease ultimate demand of different economy sectors and reduce the accumulatively physical consumption of coal, oil, natural gas and electricity by 17.74, 13.47, 3.64 and 15.82 million tce, respectively. Finally we discussed relevant policy issues on China's energy subsidies reform in depth. - Highlights: ► Analyze the economic and environmental gains of fossil energy subsidies reform in China. ► Energy input and monetary output model was applied for analysis. ► Subsidies reform would help to reduce the rebound effect. ► The benefits of money saving, energy saving and CO2 mitigation were achieved

  6. Assessing the effects of different regulatory scenarios on air pollutant emissions generated by fossil fuels: The case of the new Italian energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a short view of the study aimed at assessing the effect of different regulations on the reduction of emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total suspended particles and carbon monoxide which will be generated in Italy by the combustion of fossil fuels, according to the projections of the energy consumptions reported in the National Energy Plan. Overall, twenty regulatory scenarios have been implemented to simulate the evolution of emissions in the years 1995 and 2000 in the main activity sectors: electricity generation, industry, transportation and domestic. On the basis of the results of this simulation a preliminary estimate has been done of the costs associated with the reduction of emissions in the electricity generating sector. (author)

  7. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements:A key element in the global transition to non-fossil energy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvementscan save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issueand analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency...

  8. Can vegetative ash be water repellent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007

  9. Temporal Analysis on Carbon Footprint of Fossil Energy Consumption in Gansu Province%甘肃省化石能源碳足迹动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彩虹

    2013-01-01

    基于生态足迹思想提出碳足迹和碳承载力概念,对甘肃省1995—2009年化石能源消费的碳排放和植被的碳承载力进行定量分析.结果表明:甘肃省化石能源消费的碳足迹由1995年的2 466.12×104 t C增长到2009年的4 464.47×104 t C;煤炭消费的碳足迹最大,其次为石油,天然气比重最小,2009年的比重分别为81.54%、15.20%和3.26%;碳承载力由1995年的1 158.89×104 t C增长到2009年的1 472.19×104 tC,其中,森林的碳承载力最大,其次为草地,农田最小;甘肃省能源消费碳足迹远高于生产性土地的碳承载力.伴随着碳足迹的高增长率,碳赤字持续增大.%The concepts of carbon footprint and carbon bearing capacity were introduced based on the idea of ecological footprint. Quantitative analysis was conducted on the carbon emission of the fossil energy and carbon bearing capacity of the vegetation in Gansu Province during 1995 to 2009. The results showed that the carbon footprint of the fossil energy consumption of the province increased from 2 466. 12 × 104 t C in 1995 to 4 464. 47×104 t C in 2009, in which coal consumption consisted the largest proportion, followed by petroleum and natural gas, which accounted for 81. 54%, 15. 20% and 3. 26%, respectively in 2009. Carbon bearing capacity of the vegetation increased from 1 158. 89 × 104 t C in 1995 to 1 472. 19 × 104 t C in 2009, of which carbon capacity of forest was the largest, followed by grassland, and farmland, indicating that the carbon footprint caused by fossil energy consumption was much higher than carbon bearing capacity of productive land. With high growth rate of carbon footprint, carbon deficit increased continuously.

  10. 氨碱法纯碱生产的几项节能降耗措施%Measures to Save Energy and Reduce Consumption in Soda Ash Production with Ammonia- Ash Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严秀英

    2012-01-01

    The advanced technology with energy saving and consumption reducint in the 1 000 kl/a soda ash project is introduced in the article. How to reduce the ammonia consumption and recycle the muddy water are also introduced. With the principle of decreasing, recycling and resourcing, and with the basic characteristics of low consumption, zero discharge and high efficiency , the recycling utilization factor of water resource is enhanced. Technological modification for water resource utilization is carried. That what had been done has had good effect.%将公司100万t纯碱项目在节能降耗方面所采用的先进技术进行介绍,并具体介绍如何降低氨耗及浊水循环再利用,公司以减量化、再利用、资源化为原则,以低消耗、零排放、高效率为基本特征,加大水资源的循环利用程度,对水资源利用进行了多项技术改造,得到了良好的效果.

  11. Using solar energy to arrest the increasing rate of fossil-fuel consumption: The southwestern states of the USA as case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first reviews some recently introduced ideas concerning the feasibility of realizing concentrator photovoltaic systems on a very large (state-wide) scale. In particular, energy and cost assumptions are re-discussed, the concepts of double and triple sustainability are recalled and used to perform a sensitivity study of the various assumed parameter values. The model is then applied to each of the southwestern states of the USA in order to assess the economic potential for each state to freeze its fossil fuel consumption at present levels and to provide all future electricity needs entirely from solar. It is found that the scheme is economically feasible for all of the states considered, varying in attractiveness from Utah (where low electricity tariffs are problematic), to California and Nevada, where the economics are by far the most attractive among all the states

  12. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las...

  13. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  14. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  15. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  16. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  17. FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF ACTIVATED FLY ASH CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNILAA GEORGE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement concrete is the most widely used construction material in many infrastructure projects. The development and use of mineral admixture for cement replacement is growing in construction industry mainly due to the consideration of cost saving, energy saving, environmental production and conservation of resources. Present study is aimed at replacing cement in concrete with activated fly ash. The paper highlights the chemical activation of low calcium fly ash using CaO and Na2SiO3 in the ratio 1:8 for improving the pozzolanic properties of fly ash .The investigation deals with the flexural behavior of beams using chemically activated fly ash at various cement replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% with water cement ratio 0.45.The results are compared with OPC and Activated Fly ash at the same replacement levels.

  18. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project 'Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland'. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people's otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  19. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  20. ASH MELTING TEMPERATURE PREDICTION FROM CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BIOMASS ASH

    OpenAIRE

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Malcho, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid fuels, including biomass, consist of combustible, ash and water. Ash in fuel is result of reaction of minerals presented in the biomass. Minerals and other different substances which form ash got into biomass during growth. Ash is solid residue resulted from the perfect laboratory combustion of fuel. It is composed of minerals that are present in the fuel. Some species of biomass ash have low ash melting temperature and can cause various problems in combustion boilers. Ash slags and sin...

  1. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Life after oil: Cuba's fossil fuel shortage had inspired innovations that combine sustainable agriculture and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zytaruk, M.

    2003-09-30

    Innovations in agricultural practices, an aggressive program of power generation from renewable resources, mainly from photovoltaics, wind power, biogas from hog manure and waste products from sugar production, are discussed as Cuba's response to the loss of much of the country's imported oil, which occurred in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. As a measure of the program's success, it is reported that in 2001 Cuba abandoned plans to complete its mostly finished nuclear power plant in favour of improving its energy production from bagasse (the waste product from sugar cane production), motivated by the persuasive evidence that bagasse could provide electricity more economically than nuclear fission, and without the risk associated with nuclear energy. More by way of good news for Cuba, it is estimated by European experts that the country could provide nearly all its energy needs if all its sugar refineries were retrofitted with more efficient cogeneration equipment. To supplement this valuable renewable energy source, efforts in diversifying the range of products from the sugar cane crop and diversification of agriculture as a whole are also discussed as illustrations of how Cubans are responding to political changes in the world by learning to utilize indigenous sources of energy, thereby reducing their dependence on foreign oil. 11 refs., 2 photos.

  3. Associative properties of 137Cs in biofuel ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash

  4. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  5. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  6. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences and workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries

  7. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-11-03

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences & workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries.

  8. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  9. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H2-based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H2 production to service H2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H2 compression for long distance transportation if H2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7) monitoring

  10. Fossil turbulence revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  11. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  12. Pozzolanic Reaction Kinetics of Coal Ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hongwei; WANG Zhijuan; QIAN Jueshi; SONG Yuanming; WANG Zhi

    2009-01-01

    The pozzolanic reactivity was determined by the hydration kinetics of pozzolanic reaction based on the fact that the hydration products of active SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 with lime were soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of active SiO_2 and Al2O3 of coal ashes follows apparent first-order kinetics.The reaction rate constant of FBC ashes is greater than that of PC ashes,while the activation energy of the former is lower than that of the latter.It is confirmed that the pozzolanic activity of fluidized bed combustion(FBC)ashes is significantly higher than that of PC ashes,and the reaction barrier of the former is lower than that of the latter,because the microstructures of FBC ashes,such as mineralogical composition,morphology and polymerization degree of [SiO_4]and[AlO_6]are more favorable to the pozzolanic activity development than those of PC ashes.

  13. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per ...

  14. Environmental considerations for inclusion in program opportunity notices, requests for proposals, and environmental reports: fossil energy demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Baird, J.N.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Berry, L.G.; Roop, R.D.; Sanders, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    This document was prepared for the Department of Energy, Division of Coal Conversion, for use in developing Program Opportunity Notices (PON), Requests for Proposals (RFP), and Environmental Reports (ER). Environmental considerations to be addressed by Offerors and Contractors are divided into three parts that correspond to the separate stages of project development: (1) the Offeror's response to the PON or RFP; (2) the Contractor's performance of baseline data collection and environmental impact assessment that results in an Environmental Report (ER) for use by DOE in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); and (3) the Contractor's continuance of environmental monitoring and assessment during construction and operation. Environmental analysis and environmental protection are an integral part of the Offeror's or Contractor's performance under contract to DOE. Consideration should be given to the health and socioeconomic status of man as well as to the physical and biological environment. The Offeror's or Contractor's consideration of and commitment to avoiding adverse environmental impacts must be demonstrated at every stage of the process from planning through construction and operation.

  15. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  16. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    solved by finite difference method. The solution of the model equations is complicated by the coupled reactions. At the inlet, if there is no hydrogen, rate expressions become singular. To overcome this problem, the first element of the reactor was treated as a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Several alternative numerical schemes were implemented in the solution algorithm to get a converged, stable solution. The model was also capable of handling steam-methane reforming reactions under non-membrane condition and equilibrium reaction conversions. Some of the numerical results were presented in the previous report. To test the membrane reactor model, we fabricated Pd-stainless steel membranes in tubular configuration using electroless plating method coupled with osmotic pressure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the fabricated Pd-film composite membranes. Gas-permeation tests were performed to measure the permeability of hydrogen, nitrogen and helium using pure gas. The membranes showed excellent perm-selectivity for hydrogen. This makes the Pd-composite membrane attractive for selective separation and recovery of H{sub 2} from mixed gases at elevated temperature.

  17. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  18. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Basu; Manish Pande; P.B.S. Bhadoria; S.C. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Though in last four decades various alternate energy sources have come into the limelight, the hyperbolic use of coal as a prime energy source cannot be counterbalanced. Disposal of high amount of fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge amount of water, energy and land area by ash ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand, various environmental, economic and social problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash management would remain a great concern of the century. Fly-ash has great potentiality in agriculture due to its efficacy in modification of soil health and crop performance. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops. But compared to other sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture is limited. An exhaustive review of numerous studies of last four decades took place in this paper, which systematically covers the importance, scope and apprehension regarding utilization of fly-ash in agriculture. The authors concluded that though studies have established some solutions to handle the problems of radioactivity and heavy metal content in flyash, long-term confirmatory research and demonstration are necessary. This paper also identified some areas, like proper handling of dry ash in plants as well as in fields, ash pond management (i.e., faster decantation, recycling of water, vertical expansion rather than horizontal), monitoring of soil health, crop quality, and fate of fly-ash in time domain, where research thrust is required. Agricultural lime application contributes to global warming as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes that all the carbon in agricultural lime is finally released as CO2to the atmosphere. It is expected that use of fly-ash instead of lime in agriculture can reduce net CO2emission, thus reduce global warming also.

  19. Decarbonised Polygeneration from Fossil and Biomass Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Kok Siew

    2011-01-01

    Utilisation of biomass resources and CO2 abatement systems in currentlyexploited fossil resource based energy systems are the key strategies in resolving energysustainability issue and combating against global climate change. These strategies areaffected by high energy penalty and high investment. Therefore, it is imperative toassess the viability of these energy systems and further identify niche problem areasassociated with energy efficiency and economic performance improvement. Th...

  20. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  1. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  2. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating foss

  3. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  4. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  5. ACC 305 ASH

    OpenAIRE

    admn

    2015-01-01

    ACC 305 ASH Check this A+ tutorial guideline at   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ACC-305-ASH/ACC-305-ASH-Complete-Class ACC 305 Week 1 Assignments E 3-18, E 3-20, J Case 3-5 ACC 305 Week 1 DQ 1 FASB and Ethics ACC 305 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash versus Accrual & Financial Disclosures ACC 305 Week 2 DQ 1 Earnings Management Case 4-3 ACC 305 Week 2 DQ 2 Revenue Recognition Case 5-2 ACC 305 Week 2 Problem E4-16 Bluebonnet Bakers ACC 305 Week 2 Problem E4-19 ...

  6. HIS 204 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HIS 204 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) HIS 204 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) HIS 204 Week 3 Assignment Women Right, Sacrifices & Independence (Ash) HIS 204 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 4 DQ 1 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 4 DQ 2 (Ash) HIS 204 Week 4 Quiz (Ash) HIS 204 Week 5 DQ 1 (Ash) ...

  7. Transformation strategies of fossil central district heating supply to grids with an enhanced portion of renewable energies; Transformationsstrategien von fossiler zentraler Fernwaermeversorgung zu Netzen mit hoeheren Anteilen erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, Angelika; Herbert, Florian; Pehnt, Martin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Ochse, Susanne; Richter, Stephan; Maier, Stefanie; Kley, Magalie [GEF Ingenieur AG, Leimen (Germany); Huther, Heiko; Kuehne, Jens; Weidlich, Ingo [AGFW - Der Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    A considerable portion of the primary energy consumption in Germany is used to provide process heat and space heating as well as for the hot water processing. The heat supply and the enhancement of the portion of renewable energy sources are particularly important for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The contribution under consideration deals with the question of how the portion of renewable energy can be increased in existing district heating systems. The potential utilization of renewable energy sources in the district heating is analyzed systematically.

  8. WTE (Waste-to-Energy) air quality and ash regulation: What's ahead in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.

    1989-02-01

    New regulations affecting waste-to-energy plants are in the works. Actions by Congress, the EPA, and possibly the courts will introduce changes with industry-wide consequences. Planners of waste-to-energy plants need to pay special attention to the potential ramifications. The paper reviews potential changes in pollution regulations. It is recommended that anyone involved in the planning or operation of a resource recovery facility needs to keep informed.

  9. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

  10. Sustainability analysis. Development of various indicators of sustainability for technical environmental analysis and evaluation of local heat supply networks on the basis of regenerative energies in comparison to fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to define indicators to evaluate local heat supply systems based on renewable energy compared to fossil energy reference scenarios. With these indicators a assessment matrix was developed as a planning instrument for the realization of sustainable and energy-efficient local heat supply systems. Further inferences from single projects on regions can be done. In these thesis a method was developed to assess the sustainability of local heat supply systems with the focus on ecology under consideration of economically and social aspects. This method uses a set of indicators composed of Input-, Output-, Efficiency- and Balance indicators. To realize advancement in comparison to present situations, an environmental quality target to advance the environmental impacts of minimum 75% was defined. For the developing and application of the indicators different examples from projects and scenarios of combined heat production from Biomass, Biogas, Solar heat combined with near-surface geothermal storage; geothermal energy and fossil peakload supply were calculated. These scenarios were related to a basis fossil energy scenario. Overall, the two district heating projects Speichersdorf and Mitterteich were compared. In this case, the project Speichersdorf with different coverage areas and decrease heat densities was investigated. The lengths of electrical grid of two areas are 10,828 m and 6,027 m. Those were opposed to the biomass district-heating project Mitterteich with a grid length of 360 m and a higher heat density decrease. Furthermore, a scenario for heat supply was designed and calculated using geothermal plant operating in duplicate to provide heat to the large coverage area for the storage project village. The calculation of the various processes and scenarios was performed with the program GEMIS 4.8 based on the total heat generated (final energy) by the respective supply type. The study examined the main system components; boilers, solar heat

  11. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  12. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  13. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes......). The experimental ash was a straw combustion fly ash suspended in water. Within 4 days of remediation, Cd concentrations below the limiting concentration of 5.0 mg Cd/kg DM for straw ash were reached. On the basis of these results, the energy costs for remediation of ash in industrial scale have been estimated...

  14. Building Agro-Energy Supply Chains in the Basilicata Region: Technical and Economic Evaluation of Interchangeability between Fossil and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a model for the implementation of agro-energy chains based on the actual availability of forest biomass and the real demand for energy (heat in the area of the Basilicata region, Italy. The demand for energy has been estimated by drawing on the database of the Ministry of Economic Development or by calculating the Annual Energy Requirement (AER index, while for the estimate of the available forest biomass, reference was made to the public forest lands managed according to forestry management plans. The collected data were cross-checked with a view to detecting the technical and economic feasibility of district heating systems. The technical evaluation has mainly focused on the energetic and plant aspects, while the economic assessment was directed to defining the cost effectiveness criteria [Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, Payback Period] that can measure the profitability of the investment. In the economic evaluation we also included the national public incentives, designed to encourage the production of energy from renewable sources in compliance with the international agreements signed by Italy for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs.

  15. The Review of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄露

    2011-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is a common phenomenon in second language acquisition. This paper reyiews the important achievements in the study of interlanguage fossilization, analyzing its definition, types and causes. And then find some ways to re- duce the interference of interlanguage fossilization in second language learning.

  16. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  17. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  18. July 1, 2007: electricity and gas markets open to competition. Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries. Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences? Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - July 1, 2007 - electricity and gas markets open to competition: first telecommunications, now energy. Starting July 1, 2007, every one of the European Union's 500 million consumers is free to chose a supplier for electricity and natural gas. How will this work? A road map. 2 - Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries: they criss-cross the planet over land and under sea, offering an alternative to sea lanes. How do these strategically placed pipelines work to transport fossil fuels? 3 - Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences?: Dr. Oleg Anisimov, one of the experts on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that met in April 2007, reviews the consequences of human activity on permafrost, that huge expense of ice covering almost 20% of the Earth's surface. 4 - Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels: part two of a report on the World energy outlook. This publication of the International Energy agency predicts that nuclear power will continue to be one of the main sources of energy supply for the next 25 years

  19. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  20. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  1. Management of fossil natural resources: the impossible challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles addresses various issues related to fossil energies and resources. A first set addresses the general context of fossil resources: the forced wedding between fossil energies and the environment (discussion of an annual report by the IEA on coal reserves), the availability of fossil fuels (discussion about the high share of fossil fuel in an always more renewable world). A second set addresses how to transform resources into reserves: discussion of the annual IEA report on conventional oil and gas reserves, on unconventional oil and gas reserves, and on coal reserves. The next set is a prospective one, and addresses the question of a scenario by 2040: the extremely high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical reality, and the question of the possibility of a world energy transition (discussions of the World Energy Outlook published by the IEA). Other issues are addressed by the last set of articles: the abundance of fossil energies obscures the potential of renewable energies, the evolution of the chemical industry towards alternative solutions in order to limit the use of hydrocarbons, and the territorial claims by Russia in the Arctic region

  2. Quantitative comparisons of genotoxic effects of atomic energy and fossil-fuelled energy. Rad-equivalences for ethylene, ethylene oxide and formaldehyde - consequences for decisions at Government level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latarjet, R.; Averbeck, D.; Levy, S.; Poirier, V. (Section de Biologie, Institut Curie, Paris, France)

    1982-01-01

    Rad-equivalences have been determined on the basis of data on the genotoxic effects of low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation and of three chemical pollutants - ethylene, ethylene oxide and formaldehyde - emitted from energy-producing power plants. In the case of ethylene and its metabolite, ethylene oxide, the conditions were particularly favourable because the equivalences could be based on the induction of total mutations in the mouse, which is the same genetic end-point used for the assessment of radiation risks. Once established, the rad-equivalences were used (a) to extrapolate the rules adopted for radiation to each of these two compounds and (b) to make recommendations for exposed workers at 'hot spots' and for the general population. Measurements of ethylene in power plants and in the atmosphere of Paris have indicated that in most cases the measured values fall within the recommended values. However, pollution by ethylene oxide in cold sterilization units should be reduced. Rad-equivalences obtained for lethal effects, and for the induction of chromosome aberrations by formaldehyde in human cells in vitro, suggest that the maximum admissible concentrations are far too high in most countries and must be reconsidered. In France, the Ministry of Health is taking the rad-equivalences into consideration for the preparation of a law regulating pollution by ethylene and ethylene oxide - as a first step. These results show that rad-equivalences can be used for risk assessments of genotoxic effects from power plants and that decisions can be made by extrapolating the rules adopted for radiation protection to some chemical mutagens, when certain strict conditions are fulfilled.

  3. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  4. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Mrachko, Gregory T; Squires, Charles H

    2003-06-01

    Biotechnological techniques enabling the specific removal of sulfur from fossil fuels have been developed. In the past three years there have been important advances in the elucidation of the mechanisms of biodesulfurization; some of the most significant relate to the role of a flavin reductase, DszD, in the enzymology of desulfurization, and to the use of new tools that enable enzyme enhancement via DNA manipulation to influence both the rate and the substrate range of Dsz. Also, a clearer understanding of the unique desulfinase step in the pathway has begun to emerge.

  5. MAT 126 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    stylia

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 126 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Written Assignment (Arithmetic and geometric sequence) (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Assignment Is It Fat Free (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Assignment Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126...

  6. 高压灰水泵变频改造节能效果分析%Analysis of Energy Saving Effect of High Pressure Ash Water Pump Frequency Conversion Renovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄伦武; 李灵

    2014-01-01

    针对气化工序灰水系统高压灰水泵设计裕量偏大、运行效率低、电耗高、回流管线振动大的问题,将高压灰水泵改为变频调节。改造后,在2台气化炉运行的工况下,回流减压阀全关,电机电流由改造前的140 mA左右降至95 mA左右,节能效果非常明显,回流管线振动大的问题也随之解决。%In connection with problems of high pressure ash water pump of ash water system in gasification process, such as large design margin, low operation efficiency, high electricity consumption, and excessive vibration of reflux lines, the adjustment of high pressure ash water pump is changed to frequency conversion adjustment.After renovation, in operation conditions of 2 gasifiers, pressure reducing valves are all closed, motor current is reduced from about 140 mA before renovation to about 95 mA, having significant energy saving effect, and the problem of heavy vibration of reflux lines is solved.

  7. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbu...

  8. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  10. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  11. ASH and NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, F; Ciccia, S; Marino, M; Bedogni, G; Bellentani, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) have a similar pathogenesis and histopathology but a different etiology and epidemiology. NASH and ASH are advanced stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). NAFLD is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis), without any other evident causes of chronic liver diseases (viral, autoimmune, genetic, etc.), and with an alcohol consumption ≤20-30 g/day. On the contrary, AFLD is defined as the presence of steatosis and alcohol consumption >20-30 g/day. The most common phenotypic manifestations of primary NAFLD/NASH are overweight/obesity, visceral adiposity, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. The prevalence of NAFLD in the general population in Western countries is estimated to be 25-30%. The prevalence and incidence of NASH and ASH are not known because of the impossibility of performing liver biopsy in the general population. Up to 90% of alcoholics have fatty liver, and 5-15% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of cirrhosis increases to 30-40% in those who continue to drink alcohol. About 10-35% of alcoholics exhibit changes on liver biopsy consistent with alcoholic hepatitis. Natural histories of NASH and ASH are not completely defined, even if patients with NASH have a reduced life expectancy due to liver-related death and cardiovascular diseases. The best treatment of AFLD/ASH is to stop drinking, and the most effective first-line therapeutic option for NAFLD/NASH is non-pharmacologic lifestyle interventions through a multidisciplinary approach including weight loss, dietary changes, physical exercise, and cognitive-behavior therapy. PMID:21734385

  12. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  13. Fly ash in landfill top covers - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännvall, E; Kumpiene, J

    2016-01-01

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time. PMID:26701627

  14. MGT 330 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    alfoniz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 330 Week 1 Individual Assignment Functions of Management Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 3 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Team Assignment External Internal Factors Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Individual Assignment Delegation (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 W...

  15. Causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hazuki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

  16. Effect of interfacial properties on mechanical stability of ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ontiveros-Ortega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the cohesion of volcanic ash particles using surface free energy determination and zeta potential analyses. This is a subject of great interest in physical volcanology, as many researches on volcanic particle aggregation are frequently reported. In this case, special attention is paid to the role of structural or hydration forces between hydrophilic surfaces, which are a consequence of the electron-donor/electron-acceptor character of the interface. From this point of view, the results are potentially interesting as they could give valuable insights into this process. The results are presented in terms of the total energy of interaction between dispersed particles, computed from the extended DLVO theory. Contributions to the total free energy of interaction were determined from the zeta potential and surface free energy of ash, measured under different experimental conditions. Two samples of basaltic volcanic ash (black and white with silica contents of 44% and 63% respectively are studied. The surface free energy and zeta potential were analysed for ashes immersed in different electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl3. The presence of electrolytes changes the surface properties of the solid materials. The analysis of total interaction energy between the ash particles in aqueous medium shows that soil cohesion strongly depends on ash surface properties, chemical nature, the adsorbed cation on the surface, and pH value.

  17. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the

  18. 环境约束下的化石能源跨期开采路径比较研究%Comparative Study on Optimum Extraction of Fossil Energy under Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周肖肖; 魏晓平; 王新宇

    2014-01-01

    考虑化石能源开发和使用的环境外部性与代际外部性,在动态最优开采模型基础上构建含有环境污染因子的跨期配置模型,比较考虑环境制约因素前后的开采路径,证明环境约束对化石能源消耗有复杂影响,环境作为政策工具可以调节化石能源开采强度,在一定程度上缓解了资源的稀缺性和延长了资源耗竭时间,为具有经济价值的可再生能源的出现赢得时间。应用中国相关历史数据,发现实际上环境约束没有抑制化石能源消耗,偏离了理论分析预期目标。据此提出加快矿产资源税费改革、加大环境污染治理投资、优化投资结构、建立科学环境补偿制度、促进技术进步的政策建议。%Due to the scarcity and non -renewal of fossil energy ,the key to sustainable development and utilization of it is to solve the environmental externality and inter -generational externality coming from resources exploitation . A new intertemporal allocation model with environment pollution was established to compare the path of exploitation with environmental constraints or not based on the research of dynamic optimal exploitation model .The result shows that environmental constraints have impaction on the path of exploitation .As policy instruments ,environmental constraints can adjust exploitable intensity of energy resources ,alleviate the scarcity of resources ,prolonged depletion of resources and buy time for finding the economical renewable energy .With the comparison between the theoretical study and empirical test getting from historical data of environmental constraints and fossil energy consumption in China ,we found that environmental constraints didn't impede the exhaustion of fossil energy ,which is digress from the expected goals .Accordingly ,some advices were given in the end such as accelerating reform of the mineral tax , strengthening environmental pollution control investment

  19. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the kn

  20. Fossil, but not from the day before yesterday. Heating with oil or gas; Fossil, aber nicht von vorgestern. Heizen mit Oel oder Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    In spite of all innovations and medial attention for renewable energy, the fossil energy sources and primarily natural gas are the most used energy sources in heating systems. The motto is: If not renewable yet, then highly efficient at least.

  1. MAT 221 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    mirat

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 221 Week 1 Assignment 1 Simplifying Expressions (Ash) MAT 221 Week 1 DQ 1 Evaluating Algebraic Expressions (Ash) MAT 221 Week 2 Assignment 2 Inequalities (Ash) MAT 221 Week 2 DQ 1 Formulas (Ash) MAT 221 Week 3 Assignment 3 Two-Variable Inequality (Ash) MAT 221 Week 3 DQ 1 Parallel and Perpendicular (Ash) MAT 221 Week 4 Assignment 4 Financial Polynomials (Ash) MAT 221 Week 4 DQ 1 Initial Investme...

  2. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  3. Fly ash effects. II. The active effect of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiqin Wang; Chengzhi Zhang; Wei Suna [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines the method for determining the hydration degree of cement clinker and the pozzolanic reaction degree of fly ash in the system of cement and fly ash. In the base, the active effect of fly ash is studied. The studied results show that the active effect includes two aspects: (1) Fly ash has stronger pozzolanic activity and can react with Ca(OH)2, and (2) it can promote the hydration of cement. When the content of fly ash is less, its pozzolanic activity can exert well, but its promoting role to the hydration of cement is weaker. When the content of fly ash is more, it is less than its pozzolanic activity can be used, but its promoting role to the hydration of cement is stronger.

  4. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-03-02

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  5. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  6. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  7. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dockter, B.A.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; O`Keefe, C.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Minerals Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Large-scale hot-gas testing over the past several years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that have been difficult, if not impossible to remove. At times, the cake can bridge between candle filters, leading to high filter failure rates. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature contribute to difficulty in removing the cake. It is speculated that chemical as well as physical effects are playing a role in leading the ash to bond to the filter or to itself. The Energy and Environmental research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The objectives of this overall project are threefold: first, to determine the mechanisms by which difficult-to-clean ash is formed; second, to develop a method to determine the rate of blinding/bridging based on fuel and sorbent properties and operating conditions; finally, to provide suggestions fro ways to prevent filter blinding by the troublesome ash. The projects consists of four tasks: field sampling and archive sample analyses, laboratory-scale testing, bench-scale testing, and model and database development testing. This paper present preliminary data from Task 2 on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions.

  8. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. PMID:26810030

  9. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Documentation section of the overall report from the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy; Groen energi - vejen mod et dansk energisystem uden fossile braendsler. Dokumentationsdelen til Klimakommissionens samlede rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy presents a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. The background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, www.klimakommissionen.dk. (LN)

  10. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  11. Ash chemistry and fuel design focusing on combustion of phosphorus-rich biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used as a feedstock in global energy production. This may present operational challenges in energy conversion processes which are related to the inorganic content of these biomasses. As a larger variety of biomass is used the need for a basic understanding of ash transformation reactions becomes increasingly important. This is not only to reduce operational problems but also to facilitate the use of ash as a nutrient source for new biomass production. Ash transformatio...

  12. Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2004-11-01

    Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.

  13. INF 325 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    SINDHU

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com INF 325 Week 1 DQ 1 Network Management (Ash) INF 325 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethernet Network (Ash) INF 325 Week 1 Commercial Internet Expansion (Ash) INF 325 Week 2 DQ 1 UTP Cord Problem (Ash) INF 325 Week 2 DQ 2 Managed Switches (Ash) INF 325 Week 2 Leased Lines (Ash) INF 325 Week 3 DQ 1 WPA (Ash) INF 325 Week 3 DQ 2 Remote Access Management (Ash) INF 325 Week 3 Mobile Service (Ash) INF 325 Week 4 DQ 1 Ro...

  14. INF 336 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    MADURA

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com INF 336 Week 1 DQ 1 Risk Management (Ash) INF 336 Week 1 DQ 2 Organizational Structure (Ash) INF 336 Week 2 DQ 1 Supply Process Improvements (Ash) INF 336 Week 2 DQ 2 Outsourcing (Ash) INF 336 Week 2 Assignment Article Review (Ash) INF 336 Week 3 DQ 1 Capital Goods (Ash) INF 336 Week 3 DQ 2 Quality (Ash) INF 336 Week 3 Assignment Need Definition (Ash) INF 336 Week 4 DQ 1 Procuring Services (Ash) ...

  15. MGT 401 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    kennith

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 401 Week 1 Individual Assignment Strategic Management Process Paper (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 Class Activity Week 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Learning Team Business Model Comparison Example (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Class Activity (Ash) MGT 401 Week 3 Individual Assignment Business Plan Evaluation (Ash) ...

  16. INF 410 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    MADHURA

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     INF 410 Week 1 DQ 1 Project Life Cycle (Ash) INF 410 Week 1 DQ 2 The Importance of Project Management (Ash) INF 410 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) INF 410 Week 2 DQ 1 Project Charter (Ash) INF 410 Week 2 DQ 2 Project Management Plan (Ash) INF 410 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) INF 410 Week 3 DQ 1 Risk Identification (Ash) INF 410 Week 3 DQ 2 Triple Constraint (Ash) INF 410 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) INF 410 Week 4 DQ...

  17. Fossil Dot Com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Since the start of the industrial revolution in 1800, with breakthrough innovations in iron production, textile industry and the steam engine, society has sustained incredible growth and transformation. During the 200 years, worldwide individual productivity has grown more than 32 times...... technological examples from his background as director of the innovation centre at DONG Energy, Charles Nielsen will discuss the impact of upcoming changes to the backbone of industry: the energy supply. DONG Energy has an ambitious strategy of changing the energy supply from 15% to 85% renewable energy before...

  18. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  19. Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies

  20. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  1. Enrichment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in ash samples from oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, B. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics/Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Estonia); Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu,Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Energy production in Estonia is largely dependent on the oil shale industry. Oil shale is a fossil fuel typically characterized by relatively high mineral composition, modest organic fraction (varying between 10 and 65%), high ash content (usually 45% to 50%), and average lower heating value of 8.4 MJ/kg{sup -1}. Oil shale-fired power plants account for 85% of Estonian electricity production and produce up to 6 million tons of oil shale ash annually. This ash contains elevated amounts of natural radionuclides (from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K), which were bound to oil shale during its formation. These radionuclides become enriched in ash fractions during the combustion process and are partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. Oil shale-fired electricity production is foreseen to remain a dominant trend in Estonia, suggesting that the radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere will continue in the future. The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, with half-lives of 138 days and 22.3 years respectively, originate from the radioactive decay of radionuclides of {sup 238}U series present in the earth's crust. These radionuclides are also built up artificially in the environment due to waste discharge from phosphate, oil, and gas industries, combustion of fossil fuels and other energy production as technically enhanced natural radionuclides. There are few studies on oil shale power plants influence on the levels of natural radioactivity in the surrounding areas. Realo, et al. reported that the annual doses from fly ash depositions over a 30 year period are in the range 90 - 200 μSv a{sup -1}. A study previously initiated by the University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (IPh) evaluated enrichment in the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in ash samples collected from Eesti Power Plant's circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. According

  2. Economic comparison of hydrogen and fossil fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuels most considered for the post petroleum and natural gas era, hydrogen (gaseous and liquid), and coal and coal derived synthetic fluid fossil fuels, have been compared by taking into account production costs, external costs and utilization efficiencies. The results show that hydrogen is a much more cost effective energy carrier than coal and synthetic fossil fuels, as well as being the environmentally most compatible fuel. 4 figs., 12 tabs., 21 refs

  3. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  4. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  5. Influence of Bed Ash and Fly Ash Replacement in Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Summoogum-Utchanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the influence of fly ash and bottom ash as partial cement substitutes in mortars by studying the particle size distribution, consistency, flow, fresh density, air content, compressive strength and flexural strength characteristics. The results revealed that fly ash and cement had relatively the same particle size distribution unlike bottom ash. In the fresh state, as the amount of pozzolans increased in the mixtures, the mortars showed an enhancement in workability, were susceptible to water loss by bleeding, and exhibited a decline in fresh density. The early strength gains of the fly ash samples were low but reached higher than the control after 28 days of curing. The flexural strength increased as the fly ash content rose to reach a maximum at 20 % replacement. However, the 2-day compressive strength of bottom ash samples was higher than the control but decreased after 28 days of curing while the flexural strength declined with addition of bottom ash except at 5 % substitution.

  6. Research on Lightweight Energy-saving Unburned Brick with Large Mixed Fly Ash%高掺量粉煤灰轻质节能免烧砖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡普华; 张高展

    2012-01-01

    高掺量粉煤灰轻质节能免烧砖以粉煤灰为主要原料,加入部分陶粒、膨胀珍珠岩、砂、石粉等做骨料,并配以少量的钙质材料和微量的激发剂混合而成.通过优选原材料、配合比,设定合理的生产工艺等控制产品质量,其表观密度在1700~ 1900 kg/m3,强度等级不小于MU10,其他主要技术指标达到JC 2392-2001粉煤灰砖的标准.最后简单探讨了其增强机理.%The mixture ratio of lightweight energy-saving unburned brick with large mixed fly ash was studied that fly ash as raw materials, adding the partial ceramisite agitator, expanded perlite, sand, rock powder to make the aggregate, and being mixed with few calcareous materials and the micro excitant. We have controlled the product quality by selecting raw materials and mixture ratio, setting technique of production. Its apparent density in 1700-1900 kg/m3 , strength grade of not less than MU10, and other qualification have reached JC 2392-2001. Finally we have discussed its enhancement mechanism simply.

  7. Can ash clog soil pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  8. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  9. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  11. BUS 611 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 611 Week 1 Assignment Article Review (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 2 Assignment Project Risk (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 3 Assignment WBS (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 4 Assignment Integrated Project Management Tools (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 5 Assignment Monthly Status Reports (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 6 Final Research Paper (Ash Course)  

  12. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  13. OVERVIEW OF THE ROMANIAN FOSSIL FUEL MARKET BETWEEN 2002 AND 2012

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA ZAHARIA

    2015-01-01

    In a context in which the energy needs seems to increase fast and the limited stocks of fossil fuels can generate negative impacts on human society, biodiversity and environment, the policy makers proposed several economic models for achieving sustainable development, like green economy, which appears to promote the necessity of decreasing fossil fuel consumption and of increasing energy savings. This paper aims to emphasize the evolution of fossil fuel market, and the electricity...

  14. CO2 Rebinding by Oil Shale CFBC Ashes: Effect of Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikkel, Andres; Keelmann, Merli; Aranson, Aljona; Kuusik, Rein

    Power production in Estonia is predominantly based on combustion of a local low-grade fossil fuel Estonian oil shale. Due to the high content of carbonaceous mineral matter in oil shale, its combustion is related to formation of lime-containing ashes (content of free CaO 10-30%) which could be utilized as sorbents for CO2. In the present research CO2 uptake by circulating fluidized bed and pulverized firing ashes from different technological devices (furnace, cyclones etc) of an operating power plant was studied and the effect of pre-treatment (grinding, calcination at different temperatures) of these ashes on their capture capacity was estimated using thermogravimetric, SEM, X-Ray and EDX analysis methods. It was found that capture capacities were determined mainly by free CaO content in the ashes, thereby, fluidized bed ashes showed higher CaO conversion levels (19.2-74.2%) as compared to pulverized firing ones (8.7-51.8%). Pre-treatment conditions influenced noticeably CO2 uptake. Grinding decreased CO2 capture capacity of fluidized bed ashes, calcination at higher temperatures decreased capture capacity of both types of ashes. Clarification of this phenomenon was given. Kinetic analysis of the process has been carried out, mechanism of the reactions and respective kinetic constants have been estimated.

  15. ECO 316(ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    naresh 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   ECO 316 Week 1 DQ 1 Should You Invest Short Term (Ash) ECO 316 Week 1 DQ 2 Treasury Inflation Protection Bonds (Ash) ECO 316 Week 1 Quiz (Chapter 1-6) (Ash) ECO 316 Week 2 DQ 1 New Product, Will I Be Rich (Ash) ECO 316 Week 2 DQ 2 Mutual Fund Regulation (Ash) ECO 316 Week 2 Quiz (Chapter 7-12) (Ash) ECO 316 Week 3 DQ 1 Exchange Rate Risk (Ash) ECO 316 Week 3 DQ 2 Should I Expect a Bail Out (Ash) ...

  16. CRJ 303 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    naresh 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   Product Description CRJ 303 Week 1 DQ 1 Goals of Sentencing (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 1 DQ 2 Sentencing Techniques (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 2 DQ 1 Punishment (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 2 DQ 2 Privatizing Prisons (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 2 Assignment Jails vs. Prisons (Ash) CRJ 303 Wee 3 DQ 1 Probation and Parole (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 3 DQ 2 Civil Commitments (Ash) CRJ 303 Week 3 Assignment Juvenile Detainees (Ash) CRJ 303...

  17. PSY 496 ASH Tutorial Course / Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    John Allen

    2015-01-01

    PSY 496 Week 1 Assignment Foundations for the Final Paper (Ash) PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Finalized Resources and Revisions for the Final Paper (Ash) PSY 496 Week 1 DQ 1 Approaches to Research (Ash) PSY 496 Week 1 DQ 2 Measuring Change (Ash) PSY 496 Week 2 DQ 1 Protecting Participants from Harm (Ash) PSY 496 Week 2 DQ 2 Areas of Competence (Ash) PSY 496 Week 2 Journal Ethics in Research and Practice (Ash) PSY 496 Week 3 Assignment Final Paper Draft (Ash) PSY 49...

  18. MGT 415 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    kennith archi

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 415 Week 1 DQ 1 Organizational Design (Ash) MGT 415 Week 1 DQ 2 The Research Project (Ash) MGT 415 Week 2 DQ 1 Group Development Process (Ash) MGT 415 Week 2 DQ 2 Influence of Informal Groups (Ash)  MGT 415 Week 3 DQ 1 Group Cohesion and Productivity (Ash) MGT 415 Week 3 DQ 2 Norms and Conformity (Ash) MGT 415 Week 3 Assignment Best Workplace (Ash) MGT 415 Week 4 DQ 1 Group Decisions (Ash) ...

  19. HIS 103 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 1 (Transition to Agriculture) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 2 (Early Complex Societies) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Assignment (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Assignment Greco Roman Influence Paper (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 1 Chinese Social and Political Order Systems (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 2 Caste System (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 3 Assignment Black Death Dra...

  20. MAT 222 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    mirat

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 222 Week 1 Solving Proportions (Ash) MAT 222 Week 1 DQ 1 Can't Cancel Terms (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 DQ 1 One-Variable Compound Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 2 Two-Variable Inequalities (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 DQ 1 Simplifying Radicals (Ash) MAT 222 Week 3 Real World Radical Formulas (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 DQ 1 Solving Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 222 Week 4 Real World Quadratic Functions (Ash) ...

  1. BUS 642 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 1 Scientific Thinking (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 2 Making Research Decisions (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethics in Business Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 2 Design of Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 1 Measurement Scales (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 2 Clarifying the Research Questions (Ash Course) BUS...

  2. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  3. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    in water. The content of the selected heavy metals (i.e. Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) complied with the Danish Statutory Order on the use of bio-ash for agricultural purposes; however, critical releases of Cr were detected in the leachate extracts, especially in the fly ash. High alkaline pHs were measured in all...

  4. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    in the ashes lead to increased melt fractions in the temperature range 600-750°C.b) Bottom ashes from straw combustion consist purely of silicates, with varying ratios of the quite refractory Al-silicates and quartz to the less refractory K- and Ca-silicates. Bottom ashes melt in the temperature range 800......-1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...

  5. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...

  6. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Qin, Jiayi; Cruz-Paredes, Carla;

    In 2006, the European Council established a mandatory target of 20 % renewable energy of consumption by 2020. Part of the replacement is burning biomass for heating and electricity. ~ Whole tree biomass harvesting for biofuel combustion intensifies removal of nutrients from the by applying ash from...... the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to forest floor can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible effects for the soil food by applying ash of different...... concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest the soil will be collected with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web included several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids and microarthropods and arthropods. Results from 2014 indicated that bacteria...

  7. PURIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF BIOGAS IN ASH-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brudniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, produced in an aerobic digestion process, is a mixture of gases, and that is why its inexpensive and effective valorisation is essential. Research on this process is necessary in order to use biogas as a renewable energy source. The aim of this thesis is to present methods of biogas purification and enrichment in the fly ash - water mixture, that is generated on the base of fly ash produced during burning coal in power industry. Experience presented that the fly ash absorbs CO2 and H2S, even in conventional conditions. The absorption efficiency depends not only on the chemical composition of the ash but also on its physical properties. There was also a strong neutralization of alkaline waste combustion.

  8. Electroremediation of straw and co-combustion ash under acidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, such as wood and straw, is currently used in EU as a renewable energy source for energy production and this application is expected to rise in coming years. Combined heat and power installations produce fly ash, which is considered hazardous waste. The fly ash management issue should...... be addressed before biomass combustion is considered a truly sustainable technology. The electrodialytic process is a remediation technique able to assist the management of fly ash. For this work, straw and co-combustion of wood ash are briefly characterized and their electrodialytic treatment is carried out...... similarities with wood ash alone. However, further characterization should be carried out before any comparison regarding applicable legislation. Under acidic conditions, the electrodialytic treatment was not effective for the co-combustion wood ash. The heavy metals appeared in the least soluble fraction...

  9. International fossil fuel strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international community is experiencing mounting anxiety on the energy market. Gas and oil are becoming scarcer, while demand is escalating. The supply question is now an enduring and dominant feature on the geopolitical scene, and stabilizing the oil price has become an economic necessity. These conflicts of interest have a tendency to intensify divisions between national economies that are already engaged in an acrimonious commercial power struggle. The resultant challenges that face the major industrial powers, whether established or emergent, have encouraged the adoption of competing strategies in Russia, China, India and the United States, while new opportunities are emerging for nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum–fly ash nano composites made by ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nano structured fly ash has been produced by 30 h milling time. ► Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route. ► A homogeneous distribution of nano fly ash particles was observed in the matrix. ► No additional contamination in the nano composites from the atmosphere. ► Presence of nano fly ash leads to improvement in the strength of the composites. -- Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using high energy ball mill. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 h. The sample was taken out after every 5 h of milling for characterizing. The nano structured fly ash was characterized for its crystallite size and lattice strain by using X-ray diffractometer. It was found that a steady decrease in the crystallite size and increased lattice strain was observed with milling time; the crystallite size at 30 h milling time was found to be 23 nm. The fresh fly ash particles are mostly spherical in shape; whereas the shape of the 30 h milled fly ash particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough. Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route successfully. Scanning electron microscopy images of nano composites reveal a homogeneous distribution of the nano fly ash particles in the AA 2024 matrix. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of nano composites reveals that the fabricated nano composite did not contain any additional contamination from the atmosphere. As the amount of nano fly ash is increasing the hardness of the composite also increasing. The nano fly ash addition leads to improvement in the compression strength of the composites.

  12. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  13. Proceedings of the 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants was held at Newport Beach, California, June 19--21, 1978. It was sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy - Fossil Energy, and the Instrument Society of America - Orange County Section. Thirty-nine papers have been entered individually into the data base. (LTN)

  14. A Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    How old are the oldest stars? Using ESO's VLT, astronomers recently measured the age of a star located in our Galaxy. The star, a real fossil, is found to be 13.2 billion years old, not very far from the 13.7 billion years age of the Universe. The star, HE 1523-0901, was clearly born at the dawn of time. "Surprisingly, it is very hard to pin down the age of a star", the lead author of the paper reporting the results, Anna Frebel, explains. "This requires measuring very precisely the abundance of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium, a feat only the largest telescopes such as ESO's VLT can achieve." ESO PR Photo 23a/07 ESO PR Photo 23a/07 The 'Cosmic Clock' This technique is analogous to the carbon-14 dating method that has been so successful in archaeology over time spans of up to a few tens of thousands of years. In astronomy, however, this technique must obviously be applied to vastly longer timescales. For the method to work well, the right choice of radioactive isotope is critical. Unlike other, stable elements that formed at the same time, the abundance of a radioactive (unstable) isotope decreases all the time. The faster the decay, the less there will be left of the radioactive isotope after a certain time, so the greater will be the abundance difference when compared to a stable isotope, and the more accurate is the resulting age. Yet, for the clock to remain useful, the radioactive element must not decay too fast - there must still be enough left of it to allow an accurate measurement, even after several billion years. "Actual age measurements are restricted to the very rare objects that display huge amounts of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium," says Norbert Christlieb, co-author of the report. ESO PR Photo 23b/07 ESO PR Photo 23b/07 Uranium Line in the Spectrum of an Old Star Large amounts of these elements have been found in the star HE 1523-0901, an old, relatively bright star that was discovered within the Hamburg/ESO survey [1]. The

  15. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  16. Fossil Group Origins VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Aguerri, J A L; Boschin, W; Barrena, R; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Kundert, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R

    2016-01-01

    Fossil groups are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost $M^\\ast$ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift $z \\le 0.25$. We apply a number of tests in order to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to $R_{200}$. Moreover, for a subsam...

  17. Can pore-clogging by ash explain post-fire runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gevaert, Anouk I.; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica L.; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Giri, Shree K.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Ash plays an important role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire and has frequently been hypothesised to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Yet evidence for clogging is incomplete, as research has focussed on identifying the presence of ash in soil; the actual flow processes remain unknown. We conducted laboratory infiltration experiments coupled with microscope observations in pure sands, saturated hydraulic conductivity analysis, and interaction energy calculations, to test whether ash can clog pores (i.e. block pores such that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs). Although results confirmed previous observations of ash washing into pores, clogging was not observed in the pure sands tested, nor were conditions found for which this does occur. Clogging by means of strong attachment of ash to sand was deemed unlikely given the negative surface charge of the two materials. Ponding due to washing in of ash was also considered improbable given the high saturated conductivity of pure ash and ash–sand mixtures. This first mechanistic step towards analysing ash transport and attachment processes in field soils therefore suggests that pore clogging by ash is unlikely to occur in sands. Discussion is provided on other mechanisms by which ash can affect post-fire hydrology.

  18. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  19. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated. PMID:18838261

  20. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  1. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  2. Planning of the district heating system in copenhagen from an economic perspective comparing energy-savings versus fossil-free supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    geothermal heating plants, may lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build compared to implementing energy savings. Therefore reducing heat demand of existing buildings before investing in supply capacity will save society half the investment, indicating the importance of carrying out...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present project has been to establish an LCA methodology for assessing different biomass energy systems in Denmark and Ghana in relation to their emission of greenhouse gases. The biomass systems which have been studied are willow chips, surplus straw and biogas from manure...

  4. Are Cluster Radio Relics Revived Fossil Radio Cocoons?

    OpenAIRE

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Gopal-Krishna

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the, so called, `cluster radio relics' is presented (Ensslin & Gopal-Krishna 2000). Fossil radio cocoons, resulting from the former activity of radio galaxies, should contain a low energy relativistic electron population and magnetic fields. Electrons with an age of even up to 2 Gyr can be re-accelerated adiabatically to radio emitting energies, if the fossil radio plasma gets compressed in an environmental shock wave. Such a wave can be caused by a merging event of galaxy clu...

  5. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: → CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. → Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. → Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. → Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  6. BUS 620 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 The Future of the New York Times (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 1 Braining Nordstrom (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 2 Marketing Segmentat...

  7. GEN 499 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com       GEN 499 Week 1 DQ 1 Final Research Paper Topic and Plan (Ash) GEN 499 Week 1 DQ 2 Social Media (Ash) GEN 499 Week 2 DQ 1 Professional Resume and Cover Letter (Ash) GEN 499 Week 2 Assignment Critiquing Internet Sources (Ash) GEN 499 Week 3 DQ 1 Social Capital (Ash) GEN 499 Week 3 DQ 2 Federal Policy (Ash) GEN 499 Week 3 Assignment Annotated Bibliography (Ash) GEN 499 Week 4 DQ 1...

  8. BUS 372 ASH Material - bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  9. EDU 623 ASH COURSE Tutorial/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    dgfvbhn

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   EDU 623 Week 1 No Child Left Behind (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 1 Skills Needed for Master of Education (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 2 Effective Teachers (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 Writing and Researching Skills Self-Assessment (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 1 Evaluating Research (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 2 Diversity in Schools (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 3 Lesson Plan Critique (Ash Course) ...

  10. HCA 375 (ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     HCA 375 Week 1 DQ 1 Management versus Leadership (Ash) HCA 375 Week 1 DQ 2 Implementation and Barriers (Ash) HCA 375 Week 2 DQ 1 Measurement (Ash) HCA 375 Week 2 DQ 2 Quality and Outcomes (Ash) HCA 375 Week 2 Assignment Customer Satisfaction and Quality Care (Ash) HCA 375 Week 3 DQ 1 Teamwork in Health Care (Ash) HCA 375 Week 3 DQ 2 The Impact of Nursing (Ash) HCA 375 Week 3 Ass...

  11. HCA 430(ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HCA 430 Week 1 DQ 1 Perspective (Ash) HCA 430 Week 1 DQ 2 Trends in Vulnerable Populations (Ash) HCA 430 Week 2 DQ 1 Vulnerable Populations (Ash) HCA 430 Week 2 DQ 2 Resource Availability (Ash) HCA 430 Week 2 DQ 3 Race, Ethnicity, and Healthcare (Ash) HCA 430 Week 2 Assignment Critical Thinking Paper (Ash) HCA 430 Week 3 DQ 1 Continuum of Care (Ash) HCA 430 Week 3 DQ 2 Paying for Healthcar...

  12. ENG 328 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     ENG 328 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Technical Writing (Ash) ENG 328 Week 1 DQ 2 Target Audience (Ash) ENG 328 Week 2 DQ 1 Collaborative Writing Process (Ash) ENG 328 Week 2 DQ 2 Design and Graphics (Ash) ENG 328 Week 3 DQ 1 Web Design and Readability (Ash) ENG 328 Week 3 DQ 2 Online Technical Documents (Ash) ENG 328 Week 4 DQ 1 Writing Instructions (Ash) ENG 328 Week 4 DQ 2 Writing Proposa...

  13. EDU 623 ASH COURSES TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    ROOSER12

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   EDU 623 Week 1 No Child Left Behind (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 1 Skills Needed for Master of Education (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 2 Effective Teachers (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 Writing and Researching Skills Self-Assessment (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 1 Evaluating Research (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 2 Diversity in Schools (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 3 Lesson Plan Critique (Ash Course) ...

  14. Measurements of the production and transport of helium ash on the TFTR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium ash production and transport have been measured in TFTR deuterium-tritium plasmas using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. The helium ash confinement time, including recycling effects, is 6--10 times the energy confinement time and is compatible with sustained ignition in a reactor. The ash confinement time is dominated by edge pumping rates rather than core transport. The measured evolution of the local thermal ash density agrees with modeling, indicating that alpha particle slowing-down calculations used in the modeling are reasonable

  15. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash. PMID:27228215

  16. Decree No. 81-300 of 31 March 1981 authorising the Atomic Energy Commission and COGEMA to intervene in the field of ores and fossile substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree was made to enable COGEMA to diversify its activities in the mining sector. It was therefore necessary to amend both the Decree of 26 December 1975 authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to set up the COGEMA and the Decree of 29 September 1970 relating to the CEA, in view of the specific nature of the duties entrusted to this body by the latter Decree. (NEA)

  17. The effect of fly ash and coconut fibre ash as cement replacement materials on cement paste strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Kurniawan, R. W.; Yasin, A. K.; Fatoni, H. AT; Lutfi, F. M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Concrete is the backbone material in the construction field. The main concept of the concrete material is composed of a binder and filler. Cement, concrete main binder highlighted by environmentalists as one of the industry are not environmentally friendly because of the burning of cement raw materials in the kiln requires energy up to a temperature of 1450° C and the output air waste CO2. On the other hand, the compound content of cement that can be utilized in innovation is Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH), this compound will react with pozzolan material and produces additional strength and durability of concrete, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH). The objective of this research is to explore coconut fibers ash and fly ash. This material was used as cement replacement materials on cement paste. Experimental method was used in this study. SNI-03-1974-1990 is standard used to clarify the compressive strength of cement paste at the age of 7 days. The result of this study that the optimum composition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash to substitute 30% of cement with 25% and 5% for coconut fibers ash and fly ash with similar strength if to be compared normal cement paste.

  18. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  19. Economic Analysis of Sequestering Carbon in Green Ash Forests in the Lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsun Huang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the U.S. is the largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2, it has become crucial to develop options that are both cost effective and supportive of sustainable development to reduce atmospheric CO2. Electric utility companies have the options of reducing their use of fossil fuels, switching to alternative energy sources, increasing efficiency, or offsetting carbon emissions. This study determined the cost and profitability of sequestering carbon in green ash plantations, and the number of tons of carbon that can be sequestered. The profitability of green ash is $2,342 and $3,645 per acre on site indices (measurement of soil quality 65 and 105 land, respectively, calculated with a 2.5% alternative rate of return (ARR. These figures shift to –$248 and –$240 calculated with a 15.0% ARR. If landowners who have an ARR of 2.5% can sell carbon credits for $10 per ton of carbon, profits will increase by $107 per acre on poor sites and $242 on good sites. Over one rotation (cutting cycle, 38.56 net tons of carbon can be sequestered on an acre of poor quality land and 51.35 tons on good quality land. The cost of sequestering carbon, without including revenues from timber production and carbon credits, ranges from a high of $15.20 per ton on poor sites to $14.41 on good sites, calculated with a 2.5% ARR; to a high of $8.51 per ton on poor sites to $7.63 on good sites, calculated with a 15.0% ARR. The cost of storing carbon can be reduced significantly if the trees can be sold for wood products.

  20. Reuse of alkali from bio fly ash; Alkaligenanvendelse fra bioflyveaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Jensen, Joergen Peter; Simonsen, Peter; Sander, B.

    2006-03-15

    Experiments to leach potassium salts from fly ash from straw combustion were performed. The fly ash was produced in the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant in south western Copenhagen, Denmark. The fly ash contained approximately 90 mass percent water soluble material. When the fly ash was dissolved at low pH, a slightly higher solubility was found. 100 gram fly ash consisted typically of 9 gram insoluble material, 9 gram calcium phosphate, 29 gram potassium sulfate and 53 gram of potassium chloride. In addition, 100 gram of fly ash contained approximately 1 mg of cadmium, corresponding to a concentration of cadmium of 10 ppm in the fly ash. Fly ash from the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant apparently has a significantly larger content of potassium salts than fly ash from other boilers. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model was used for calculating relevant phase diagrams and calculations of the necessary amount of water required for dissolving all the KCl and all KCl + K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of the fly ash. This theoretical minimum amount of water was calculated at a range of temperatures between 10 and 100 deg. C. The amount of water required at 100 deg. C was less than half of that required at 10 deg. C. Experiments were performed in order to find a feasible method for separating the potassium salts of the fly ash from the ash residue and especially from the soluble cadmium salts found in the fly ash. Experiments with counter current leaching of fly ash in a fluid bed gave unsatisfactory results. Apparently there was a lack of contact between the wash water and the ash. In addition, sedimentation was very slow resulting in an incomplete separation of wash water and ash residue. Experiments with ion exchange by adding CaCl{sub 2} to the wash water and successive precipitation of gypsum or anhydrite gave unsatisfactory results. Process simulation had shown that by this method the necessary amount of washing water could be decreased. This is due to

  1. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and

  2. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  4. Substitution between Biofuels and Fossil Fuels: Is There a Green Paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Long, Ngo Van

    2011-01-01

    We show that (i) subsidies for renewable energy policies with the intention of encouraging substitution away from fossil fuels may accentuate climate change damages by hastening fossil fuel extraction, and that (ii) the opposite result holds under some specified conditions. We focus on the case of subsidies for renewable resources produced under increasing marginal costs, and assume that both the renewable resources and the fossil fuels are currently in use. Such subsidies have a direct effec...

  5. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat

  6. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  7. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  8. Geochemical investigations of metals release from submerged coal fly ash using extended elutriate tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Chappell, M A; Seiter, J M; Stanley, J K; Averett, D E; Jones, W T; Pettway, B A; Kennedy, A J; Hendrix, S H; Steevens, J A

    2010-12-01

    A storage pond dike failure occurred at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant that resulted in the release of over 3.8 million cubic meters (5 million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of this material deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, 3.5 km upstream of the confluence of the Emory and Clinch Rivers, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts to date have focused on targeted removal of material from the channel through hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in some areas. The agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could alter the redox state of metals present in the fly ash and thereby change their sorption and mobility properties. A series of extended elutriate tests were used to determine the concentration and speciation of metals released from fly ash. Results indicated that arsenic and selenium species released from the fly ash materials during elutriate preparation were redox stable over the course of 10d, with dissolved arsenic being present as arsenate, and dissolved selenium being present as selenite. Concentrations of certain metals, such as arsenic, selenium, vanadium, and barium, increased in the elutriate waters over the 10d study, whereas manganese concentrations decreased, likely due to oxidation and precipitation reactions. PMID:20943255

  9. The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

  10. Electrochemical treatment of wood combustion fly ash for the removal of cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    Due to a high content of macronutrients and a potential liming capacity, recycling of ashes from biomass combustion to agricultural fields as fertilisers and/or for soil improvement is considered in Denmark and other countries utilising biomass as an energy source. However, especially the fly ash...

  11. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  12. Nuclear fusion: sixty years of efforts, great advances and challenges. May nuclear fusion replace fossil energies? The Grail which makes start-ups dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article proposes an overview of sixty years of researches, investments and realisations aimed at a better knowledge and control of nuclear fusion to solve the Planet's energy problems. After a brief overview of the Sun as an example, and while presenting the principle of magnetic fusion in a tokamak, some key figures illustration the development of ITER, the authors describe magnetic fusion as the royal road to nuclear fusion (challenges for the ITER project, development of Stellarator as a concurrent of tokamaks), and inertial fusion as an alternate approach (principle, military interest, plasma physics). They also indicate other approaches based on a change of energy source, a change in ignition process, or a change in fuel. In a second article, the author discusses the economic perspectives of nuclear fusion: a supposed unlimited fuel, existence of radioactive releases and pollution, operation risks and costs, technical challenges to be faced, a development to be amortised on more than a century except if more compact processes are elaborated and developed. The author also discusses issues of profitability and of proliferation. The third and last article comments the existence of many start-ups, notably financed by Silicon Valley rich companies, which invest in researches and projects on nuclear fusion. They try to develop more compact systems, and aim at manufacturing their first prototypes by 2020. On the other side, academics remain doubtful about their ability to reach their objectives

  13. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste. PMID:27154845

  14. Divest from the Carbon Bubble? Reviewing the Implications and Limitations of Fossil Fuel Divestment for Institutional Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Ritchie; Hadi Dowlatabadi

    2015-01-01

    Climate change policies that rapidly curtail fossil fuel consumption will lead to structural adjustments in the business operations of the energy industry. Due to an uncertain global climate and energy policy framework, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of fossil energy reserves that could remain unused. This ambiguity has the potential to create losses for investors holding securities associated with any aspects of the fossil fuel industry. Carbon bubble risk is understood as financ...

  15. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  16. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated

  17. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  18. Application of coal ash to environmental improvement Transformation into zeolite, potassium fertilizer, and FGD absorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, R.

    1999-01-01

    http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/09213449 The rapid increase in population and economic growth have led to an increase in energy demand. Coal reserves are distributed worldwide, and coal is now known to be the most stable and available energy source. However, utilization of coal as an energy source involves the generation of a great amount of coal ash, and the recycling rate of the ash is rather low. Coal ash is mainly used in civil construction materials, and there is a lim...

  19. Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

  20. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by

  1. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed. PMID:27079853

  2. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300-500kgPha(-1) application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25Mgha(-1) straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. PMID:27082447

  3. Spreading dynamic of viscous volcanic ash in stimulated jet engine conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    song, wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash is widely recognised as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The volcanic ash deposition process in a jet turbine is potentially complex. Volcanic ash in the air stream enters the inner liners of the combustors and partially or completely melts under the flames up to 2000 °C, at which point part of the ash deposits in the combustor fuel nozzle. Molten volcanic particles within high energy airflow escape the combustor to enter the turbine and impact the stationary (e.g., inlet nozzle guide vanes) and rotating airfoils (e.g., first stage high-pressure turbine blades) at high speed (up to Mach 1.25) in different directions, with the result that ash may stick, flow and remain liquid or solidify. Thus, the wetting behaviour of molten volcanic ash particle is fundamental to investigate impingement phenomena of ash droplet on the surface of real jet engine operation. The topic of wetting has received tremendous interest from both fundamental and applied points of view. However, due to the interdisciplinary gap between jet engine engineering and geology science, explicit investigation of wetting behaviour of volcanic ash at high temperature is in its infancy. We have taken a big step towards meeting this challenge. Here, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the wetting behaviour of viscous volcanic ash over a wide temperature range from 1100 to 1550 °C using an improved sessile-drop method. The results of our experiment demonstrate that temperature and viscosity play a critical role in determining the wetting possibility and governing the spreading kinetics of volcanic ash at high temperatures. Our systemic analysis of spreading of molten volcanic ash systems allows us to report on the fundamental differences between the mechanisms controlling spreading of organic liquids at room temperature and molten volcanic ash droplets.

  4. Extinction and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The author examines evidence of mass extinctions in the fossil record and searches for reasons for such large extinctions. Five major mass extinctions eliminated at least 40 percent of animal genera in the oceans and from 65 to 95 percent of ocean species. Questions include the occurrence of gradual or catastrophic extinctions, causes, environment, the capacity of a perturbation to cause extinctions each time it happens, and the possibility and identification of complex events leading to a mass extinction.

  5. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  6. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  7. EDU 623 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com     EDU 623 Week 1 No Child Left Behind (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 1 Skills Needed for Master of Education (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 1 DQ 2 Effective Teachers (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 Writing and Researching Skills Self-Assessment (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 1 Evaluating Research (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 2 DQ 2 Diversity in Schools (Ash Course) EDU 623 Week 3 Lesson Plan Critiqu...

  8. HCA 421(ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HCA 421 Week 1 DQ 1 (Basic Strategy) (Ash) HCA 421 Week 1 DQ 2 (Internal Audit of Strategic Assets) (Ash) HCA 421 Week 2 Assignment Competition in Healthcare (Ash) HCA 421 Week 2 DQ 1 (Strategic External Assessment Industry and Competition) (Ash) HCA 421 Week 2 DQ 2 (Market Segments) (Ash) HCA 421 Week 3 Assignment The Future Direction of Health Care (Five challenges) (Ash) HCA 421 Week 3 DQ 1 (Pr...

  9. HCA 415(ASH) course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 34

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HCA 415 Week 1 DQ 1 Historical Contributions of Public Health (Ash) HCA 415 Week 1 DQ 2 Poverty and Health (Ash) HCA 415 Week 2 DQ 1 U.S. Health Care System Critical Issues (Ash) HCA 415 Week 2 DQ 2 Role of Prevention in Health Status (Ash) HCA 415 Week 2 Assignment Public Health and the Law (Ash) HCA 415 Week 3 DQ 1 Tools for Assessing Community Health (Ash) HCA 415 Week 3 DQ 2 Essential Ser...

  10. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  11. En stratigrafisk og tafonomisk analyse af fossile fugle og fjer fra Fur Formationen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2007-01-01

    Resultaterne af den første kvantitative stratigrafiske og tafonomiske analyse af de fossile fugle fra Fur Formationen viser at: 1) Hovedparten (71%) af det stratigrafisk bestembare fossile fuglemateriale stammer fra to horisonter, dels i intervallet fra askelag +22 til +35 og dels i intervallet....../estuarine aflejringer med et højt energi niveau. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  12. Ecological consequences of elevated total dissolved solids associated with fossil fuel extraction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossil fuel burning is considered a major contributor to global climate change. The outlook for production and consumption of fossil fuels int he US indicates continued growth to support growing energy demands. For example, coal-generated electricity is projected ot increase from...

  13. Fossil Fuels. A Supplement to the "Science 100, 101" Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprovich, William, Comp.

    When the fossil fuels unit was first designed for Science 101 (the currently approved provincial guide for grade 10 science in Manitoba), Canadian support materials were very limited. Since students are asked to interpret data concerning energy consumption and sources for certain fossil fuels, the need for appropriate Canadian data became obvious.…

  14. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash

  15. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  16. Automated Manufacture of Fertilizing Agglomerates from Burnt Wood Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In Sweden, extensive research is conducted to find alternative sources of energy that should partly replace the electric power production from nuclear power. With the ambition to create a sustainable system for producing energy, the use of renewable energy is expected to grow further and biofuels are expected to account for a significant part of this increase. However, when biofuels are burned or gasified, ash appears as a by-product. In order to overcome the problems related to deposition in...

  17. Results in energy saving obtained with the application of speed variator in fossil power stations; Resultados de ahorro de energia obtenidos con la aplicacion de variadores de velocidad en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlos Rueda, Rosa Maria [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The project of installation of speed variator in fossil power stations (CT's) of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), as an energy saving measure, is a pilot project that began with the support of the Subdivision de Generacion, and promoted by the Energy Saving Program of the Electric Sector (PAESE), with the putting in operation of an equipment in the condensate pump of the Punta Prieta II C. T. U3. The energy saving observed was substantial, fluctuating between the 19.4% at high loads (at 90% load) and the 71.1% at low loads (at 40% load) of the generating unit. With these results, it was decided to extend the scope of the project with the installation of 6 more equipment for equal number of fossil power stations, located in 4 of the 5 Regions of Generation. The fossil power stations, selected for this stage of the project were: C. T. Felipe Carrillo Puerto U1, C.T. Lerma U4, C.T. Salamanca U1, C.T. Monterrey U6, C.T. Francisco Villa U3 and the C.T. Punta Prieta II-U1. The equipment was in operation during the first quarter of 1998, and the first results indicate an energy savings average per equipment, between 39% and 52%. The recovery of the investment fluctuates between the 48.4% and the 87.6% in less than two years of operation, with which a maximum period of recovery of 3 years is expected. The estimated potential of energy saving, considering the application of these devices in condensate pumps, feedwater pumps (where no speed variator is installed) forced draft fans, induced draft fans and gas recirculation fans, as well as circulation water pumps, of the existing Generating Power stations, ascends to an annual total of 830,000, which represents an approximate 9.4% of the National consumption of self services. [Spanish] El proyecto de instalacion de variadores de velocidad en Centrales Termoelectricas (CT's) de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), como medida de ahorro de energia, es un proyecto piloto que se inicio con el apoyo de la

  18. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  19. Optimising Ambient Setting Bayer Derived Fly Ash Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Jamieson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bayer process utilises high concentrations of caustic and elevated temperature to liberate alumina from bauxite, for the production of aluminium and other chemicals. Within Australia, this process results in 40 million tonnes of mineral residues (Red mud each year. Over the same period, the energy production sector will produce 14 million tonnes of coal combustion products (Fly ash. Both industrial residues require impoundment storage, yet combining some of these components can produce geopolymers, an alternative to cement. Geopolymers derived from Bayer liquor and fly ash have been made successfully with a compressive strength in excess of 40 MPa after oven curing. However, any product from these industries would require large volume applications with robust operational conditions to maximise utilisation. To facilitate potential unconfined large-scale production, Bayer derived fly ash geopolymers have been optimised to achieve ambient curing. Fly ash from two different power stations have been successfully trialled showing the versatility of the Bayer liquor-ash combination for making geopolymers.

  20. Rebound characteristics for ash particles impacting a planar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Li, Sufen; Han, Jian; Xie, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The formation of ash deposition on the heat transfer tubes in a boiler reduces the heat transfer coefficient by about 25%. Because of these fouling layers, the efficiency with which energy can be absorbed from flue gases is reduced. The growth of ash deposition is strongly dependent on the interaction of the incident particle with the surface of heat transfer tubes. In this study the interaction is modeled as the outcome of collision between an incident fly ash particle and planar surface that represents a heat transfer surface. The present paper focuses on the applicability of the experimental results to indicate the rebound characteristics of fly ash particles impacting a planar surface. This is studied by impaction experiments of fly ash particles from the power plant dust, under various particle diameters and with different velocities (ranging from 0.1 to 20 m/s). The experiments are carried out in an atmospheric column, and using a digital camera system, individual impacts are recorded. Furthermore, the measured coefficient of restitution values can be predicted by a dynamic simulation model.

  1. Life cycle perspective on recycling of ashes; Livscykelperspektiv paa aatervinning av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to, from a life cycle perspective, discuss the consequences of recycling or disposing combustion ashes. The aim was to regard regional as well as global environmental impacts and point at potential conflicts between different environmental objectives, in order to produce basic information for decision-making on criteria and regulations for ash handling.Three different ashes were studied: bottom ash from waste incineration, fly ash from combustion of peat and from forest fuels. For all ashes three different scenarios were studied, two where the ash is recycled, and one where it is disposed. Focus was put on the difference between the three scenarios during 100 years. The use of bottom ash from waste incineration for roads saved crushed rock and energy, but produced more leaching of metals than the disposal alternative. Using this ash in drainage strata saves sand but causes higher metal leaching too. The same conclusions can be drawn for fly ash from peat, here leaching of Arsenic is the main factor. Using the peat ash as road contraction material saves more resources than the use for drainage blankets. For forest fuel ash, both the use as road construction material and recycling to the forest saves resources and energy. Recycling to the forest saves most energy but also the resources of Zinc, Phosphorous and Dolomite. Leaching of metals is most important for the forest recycling, and the nature of this resource recycling can be argued. The results are most sensitive concerning transports and leaching, but also for maintenance of the constructions where the ash is used. For the forest fuel ash, the suppositions about the necessity of compensation for nutrients removed with the fuel, have important effects for the result. Generally it can be said, for all three cases, that the estimates of leaching of metals are very uncertain, and that there is a need to develop the existing models for long term leaching. The three cases demonstrated

  2. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    . The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

  3. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  4. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  5. 灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术应用及节能减排措施%Use of Agglomerating Ash Fluid Bed Pulverized Coal Gasification Technology and Measures for Energy Saving and Discharge Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕可军

    2011-01-01

    The agglomerating ash fluid bed pulverized coal gasification technology is described, its special features, process flow and the measures taken for energy saving and discharge reduction, with results. A comparison is given of the gasifiers at atmospheric and 1. 0 Mpa pressures for the production of 1 000 m3 of gas with the UGI oxygen-enriched gasifier, and the results show that the energy consumption of the atmospheric fluid bed gasifier is slightly lower than that of the UGI oxygen-enriched gasifier, while the 1.0 Mpa pressurized one is more advantageous than the atmospheric one in terms of energy saving.%介绍了灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的特点、工艺流程及采取的节能减排措施和效果.对常压和加压1.0 MPa灰融聚流化床粉煤气化炉生产1 000m3煤气的能耗分别与UGI富氧气化炉进行比较,结果表明:常压灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术的能耗略低于UGI富氧气化技术,而加压1.0 MPa灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术比常压灰融聚流化床粉煤气化技术在节能方面更具优势.

  6. A novel approach for treatment of CO{sub 2} from fossil fired power plants. Part B: The energy suitability of integrated tri-reforming power plants (ITRPPs) for methanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minutillo, M. [Department of Technology, University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, Naples (Italy); Perna, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In Part A of this two-paper work, a novel approach for treatment of CO{sub 2} from fossil fired power plants was studied. This approach consists of flue gases utilization as co-reactants in a catalytic process, the tri-reforming process, to generate a synthesis gas suitable in chemical industries for production of chemicals (methanol, DME, ammonia and urea, etc.). In particular, the further conversion of syngas to a transportation fuel, such as methanol, is an attractive solution to introduce near zero-emission technologies (i.e. fuel cells) in vehicular applications. In fact, the methanol can be used in DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell) or as fuel for on-board reforming to produce hydrogen for PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Thus, in order to analyze the tri-reforming process, integrated systems, ITRPPs (Integrated Tri-Reforming Power Plants) for co-generation of electrical power and synthesis gas were defined and their performances were investigated. The integrated systems consist of a power island, based on a thermal power plant (a steam turbine power plant, ITRPP-SC, and a gas turbine combined cycle ITRPP-CC), and a methane tri-reforming island. This paper (Part B) focuses on the methanol synthesis process by using the syngas produced by the methane tri-reforming island. Therefore, the ITRPP plant configurations have been modified adding the methanol synthesis island and the performances of these integrated plants, that co-produce electrical power and methanol, have been evaluated. The energy and environmental analysis has been carried out by means of a numerical approach which has allowed to calculate the syngas composition, to define the energy and mass balances and to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions for each configurations. Furthermore, the conventional technology for methanol generation, based on methane steam reforming with carbon dioxide addition, has been analysed and the performances of integrated systems (ISRPP, Integrated Steam Reforming

  7. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  8. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Charles H. K. Lam; Alvin W. M. Ip; John Patrick Barford; Gordon McKay

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and...

  10. 节能减排背景下我国化石能源勘探开发利用的科技应对策略%Strategic countermeasures of science and technology for the exploration, development and utilization of fossil energy in the background of energy-saving and emission-reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊俊; 杨军; 瞿辉

    2015-01-01

    Fossil energy represented by coal ,petroleum and natural gas will be the main component of energy consumption in China for a long period in the future .In recent years ,the Chinese government has been pushing forward energy-saving and emission-reduction to adjust the economic structure and transform the development pattern ,scientific and technological innovation has become the inevitable choice to promote the efficiency and quality of fossil energy industry and to advance the sustainable development in China .The research and development work on fossil energy could follow the global trend ,which was described as multivariate ,green and scientific development ,and the promising breakthrough points could be fixed on delicate and in-depth exploration ,safe and effective development as well as intensive and economical use . Taking the market demand as guide ,the research and development work in this field could be emphasized on basic theory ,key technology ,major equipment ,demonstration project construction and innovative platform construction ,so as to promote the capability of independent innovation and the core competence of enterprises and industries .The ultimate goals of the innovation in fossil energy industry are:① to push the transformation of coal industry towards a green ,safe ,efficient ,economic and scientific development phase;②to expand the reserves and maintain the yield of petroleum ;③to promote the development of natural gas;④to cultivate theunconventional oil and gas to serve as the new source of energy supply .The above efforts would play a key role in ensuring the energy security and optimizing the energy structure of China .%未来较长一段时期,以煤炭、石油和天然气为代表的化石能源仍将占据我国能源消费结构的主体地位。在以节能减排为抓手促进经济结构调整、发展方式转变的宏观背景下,科技创新成为我国化石能源开发利用这一传统产业提质增效和可持

  11. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  12. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  13. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  14. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Justin G A Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A.; Pierluigi Bonello

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in ...

  15. Use of ashes and ash-and-slad wastes in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahtinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of ash waste saves expenses on main materials without compromising the quality of the product, while solving the problem of disposal of ash materials. The aim of this work is classification of ashes and evaluation its use in construction.Classification of ash-and-slad wastes based on type of burned coal, way of incineration, flame temperature, way of ash disposal is made. The chemical composition and behavior of shale ash, its main deposits, its advantages as a mineral concrete admixture are analysed. Fly ashes are divided into siliceous ashes and basic ashes.Various application areas of ash-and-slad wastes in construction are considered, the examples of its use are given.

  16. Environmental impacts of energy utilization and environmental energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Due to increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources and future policies for energy sector in Turkey. Throughout the paper several problems relating to energy sources, environment and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. (author)

  17. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  18. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  19. Thermal properties of insulating material prepared from coal fly ash and asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal power plants are producing ash in enormous quantity as fly ash and bottom ash, whenever coal is combusted. Lakhra Coal Power Plant produces waste of solid fossil fuel and lime stone. Due to the silica, alumina and iron oxide it is good to be used in cement preparation and land filling. In this study a new application is identified, which is more useful and beneficial. This paper presents the results carried out investigating the insulating material prepared from the coal fly ash and asphalt by using the simple unit operations of sizing the materials. At melting temperature of the asphalt sieved fly ash is mixed with it to produce complex heavy sludge. Two samples of different ratios from the rapidly solidifying insulating material were prepared in the molding press at 200 psi pressure. Arm-field heat conduction apparatus HT-l was applied to test its thermal properties. Thermal properties of the material were observed to be heat resistant with mean thermal conductivity at 10 watt 0.8949 w/m-K for Sample No.1 and 0.91886 w/m-K for Sample No.2; whereas the mean thermal resistances calculated were 30.4 I 65m/sup 2/-K/w and 29.6234m/sup 2/-K/w, respectively. The results obtained during this study are satisfactory and we hope that the insulation material prepared would be used in Pakistan in building constructions for heat resistance and insulation purposes. (author)

  20. Analog-experiment analysis of ash-deposition monitoring model of boiler economizers in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei-liang; XIA Guo-dong; XU Shou-chen

    2005-01-01

    Ash deposition is a form of particulate fouling, and appears usually in boiler economizers. The ash deposition increases capital expenditure, energy input and maintenance costs. An analog experiment for monitoring ash deposition was performed from the analogous objective of a 410 t/h boiler economizer to verify the rationality and reliability of the ash-deposition-monitoring model presented in order to increase the security and economy in economizer running. The analog experiment platform is a tube-shell exchanger that conforms well to the conditions of a self-modeling area. The analog flue gas in the shell side is the heated air mixed with ash,and in the tube side the fluid is water heated by the flue gas. The fluid state in the water side and the flue gas side follows the second self-modeling area. A 4-factor-3 level orthogonal table was used to schedule 9 operation conditions of orthogonal experiment, with the 4 factors being heat power, flue gas velocity, ashes grain diameter and adding ashes quantity while the three levels are different values due to different position classes in every factor. The ash deposition thermal resistances is calculated by the model with the measure parameters of temperature and pressure drop. It shows that the values of the ash deposition thermal resistances gradually increase up to a stable state. And the experimental results are reliable by F testing method at α = 0. 001. Therefore, the model can be applied in online monitoring of ash deposition in a boiler economizers in power plants and provides scientific decision on ash deposition prediction and sootblowing.