WorldWideScience

Sample records for asdex upgrade results

  1. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron r...

  2. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availa...

  3. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; L. Barrera Orte,; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; M. Brüdgam,; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; P. de Marné,; D' Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; H. Fünfgelder,; Fuchs, J. C.; K. Gál,; M. García Muñoz,; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; T. Görler,; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; S. Günter,; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; T. Härtl,; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; H. Höhnle,; M. Hölzl,; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; C.-P. Käsemann,; Kallenbach, A.; S. Kálvin,; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; M.-E. Manso,; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; H.W. Müller,; M. Münich,; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; B. Plöckl,; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; van Rooij, G. J.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; A. Stäbler,; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; E. Würsching,; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron reso

  4. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and...

  5. Results of high heat flux tests and structural analysis of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaksic, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.jaksic@ipp.mpg.de; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht; Böswirth, Bernd; Vorbrugg, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The main motivation for the HHF investigation of tungsten tiles was an untypical deformation of some specimens under thermal loading, observed during the previous tests in GLADIS test facility. • A nonlinear finite element (FE) model for simulations of the GLADIS tests has been built. • The unexpected plastic deformations are mainly caused by internal stresses due to the manufacturing process. The small discrepancies among the FEA investigated and measured plastic deformations are most likely caused, beside of the practical difficulties by measuring of low items, also by tile internal stresses. • The influences of the residual stresses caused by special production processes have to be taken into account by design of the structural part made of solid tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten as plasma-facing material for fusion devices is currently the most favorable candidate. In general solid tungsten is used for shielding the plasma chamber interior against the high heat generated from the plasma. For the purposes of implementation at ASDEX Upgrade and as a contribution to ITER the thermal performance of tungsten tiles has been extensively tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS during the development phase and beyond. These tests have been performed on full scale tungsten tile prototypes including their clamping and cooling structure. Simulating the adiabatically thermal loading due to plasma operation in ASDEX Upgrade, the tungsten tiles have been subjected to a thermal load with central heat flux of 10–24 MW/m{sup 2} and absorbed energy between 370 and 680 kJ. This loading results in maximum surface temperatures between 1300 °C and 2800 °C. The tests in GLADIS have been accompanied by intensive numerical investigations using FEA methods. For this purpose a multiple nonlinear finite element model has been set up. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux final tests and their numerical simulation. Moreover, first

  6. Neue Anwendungsgebiete der Elektronzyklotronresonanzheizung an ASDEX Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Höhnle, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden Heizszenarien der Elektronzyklotronresonanzheizung (ECRH) für neue Parametergebiete am Tokamak ASDEX Upgrade im Hinblick auf ITER entwickelt. Die ECRH wird seit dem Umbau des Materials der ersten Wand von Kohlenstoff zu Wolfram auch für die Kontrolle der Wolframkonzentration im Plasmazentrum gebraucht. In ITER-relevanten Entladungen an ASDEX Upgrade wird der Einsatz der ECRH in der üblich verwendeten außerordentlichen Mode an der zweiten Harmonischen (X2-Mode) jedoch b...

  7. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamm J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  8. Growth of axisymmetric instabilities in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmer, Till; Lackner, Karl; Strumberger, Erika; Fable, Emiliano; Kardaun, Otto [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma-Physik, EURATOM Association Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); McCarthy, Patrick [University College Cork (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    Modern poloidal divertor tokamaks, such as ASDEX upgrade (AUG), produce elongated plasmas, which are unstable against vertical displacement. The growth rate of this 2D instability in the presence of stabilizing passive conductors (PSL) with finite resistivity was calculated for 5416 AUG typical equilibria. For this, a general ideal MHD code package (NEMEC, CAS3DN, STARWALL) was used, which is able to take into account also the 3D structure of the PSL. The comparison of the resulting growth rates with the previously used rigid displacement model (movement only in z-direction, no skin effect for PSL considered, no induced surface currents) shows that the latter simplified model gives a consistently lower limit for typical AUG parameters (elongation, triangularity, current profile and axis position in radial direction). A statistical analysis of the results of the rigid displacement model shows the expected dependencies except for the triangularity, which has a stabilizing effect in this model. Based on results of our present, more general model, we conclude that a rigid displacement model gives an over-optimistic result regarding the effect of triangularity, in line with the experimental observation on AUG of an increasing discrepancy between previously predicted and observed growth rates for strongly triangular plasmas.

  9. A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Albrecht, E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Jaksic, Nikola; Leitenstern, Peter; Greuner, Henri; Krieger, Karl; Marné, Pascal de; Oberkofler, Martin; Rohde, Volker; Schall, Gerd

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade is developed and tested. • It allows replacing a relevant part of the divertor by dedicated targets and probes. • Modified solid standard targets. • Electrical and mechanical probes for dedicated investigations. • Test of actively cooled component. - Abstract: In 2013 a new bulk tungsten divertor, Div-III, was installed in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). During the concept and design phase of Div-III the option of adaptable divertor instrumentation and divertor modification as contribution for divertor investigations in preparation of ITER was given a high priority. To gain flexibility for the test of divertor modifications without affecting the operational space of AUG, the large divertor manipulator, DIM-II, was designed and installed. DIM-II allows to retract 2 out of 128 outer divertor target tiles including the water cooled support structure into a target exchange box and to replace these targets without breaking the vacuum of the AUG vessel. DIM-II is based on a carriage-rail system with a driving rod pushing a front-end with the target module into the divertor position for plasma operation. Three types of front-ends are foreseen for physics investigations: (i) modified standard targets clamped to the standard cooling structure, (ii) dedicated front-ends making use of the whole available volume of about 230 × 160 × 80 mm{sup 3} and (iii) actively cooled/heated targets for cooling water temperatures up to 230 °C. This paper presents the DIM-II design including the FEM calculations for the modified divertor support structure and the front-end options, as well as the test procedure and operation mode.

  10. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-10-01

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  11. Imaging motional Stark effect measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, O. P.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R.; Pütterich, T.; Wolf, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the Imaging Motional Stark Effect (IMSE) diagnostic obtained during its first measurement campaign at ASDEX Upgrade since installation as a permanent diagnostic. A brief overview of the IMSE technique is given, followed by measurements of a standard H-mode discharge, which are compared to equilibrium reconstructions showing good agreement where expected. The development of special discharges for the calibration of pitch angle is reported and safety factor profile changes during sawteeth crashes are shown, which can be resolved to a few percent due to the high sensitivity at good time resolution of the new IMSE system.

  12. Modelling and experiments on NTM stabilisation at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, Laura

    2009-07-27

    In the next fusion device ITER the so-called neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are foreseen as being extremely detrimental to plasma confinement. This type of resistive instability is related to the presence in the plasma of magnetic islands. These are experimentally controlled with local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and the island width decay during NTM stabilisation is modelled using the so-called Modified Rutherford equation. In this thesis, a modelling of the Modified Rutherford equation is carried out and simulations of the island width decay are compared with the experimentally observed ones in order to fit the two free machine-independent parameters present in the equation. A systematic study on a database of NTM stabilisation discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U is done within the context of a multi-machine benchmark for extrapolating the ECCD power requirements for ITER. The experimental measurements in both devices are discussed by means of consistency checks and sensitivity analysis and used to evaluate the two fitting parameters present in the Modified Rutherford equation. The influence of the asymmetry of the magnetic island on stabilisation is for the first time included in the model and the effect of ECCD on the marginal island after which the mode naturally decays is quantified. The effect of radial misalignment and over-stabilisation during the experiment are found to be the key quantities affecting the NTM stabilisation. As a main result of this thesis, the extrapolation to ITER of the NTM stabilisation results from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U shows that 10MW of ECCD power are enough to stabilise large NTMs as long as the O-point of the island and the ECCD beam are perfectly aligned. In fact, the high ratio between the island size at saturation and the deposition width of the ECCD beam foreseen for ITER is found to imply a maximum allowable radial misalignment of 2-3 cm and little difference in terms of gained performance between

  13. Characterisation of the core poloidal flow at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebschy, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McDermott, Rachael M.; Geiger, Benedikt; Cavedon, Marco; Dunne, Michael G.; Dux, Ralph; Fischer, Rainer; Kappatou, Athina; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Viezzer, Eleonora [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Plasma rotation has a strong influence on the transport of heat, particles, and momentum in fusion plasmas via a variety of mechanisms, for example, by the stabilization of modes and the suppression of plasma turbulence. In tokamaks, the toroidal rotation (u{sub tor}) is essentially a free parameter that is usually dominated by the external momentum input from neutral beams used to heat the plasma. The poloidal rotation (u{sub pol}), on the other hand, is strongly damped and is predicted to remain at Neoclassical (NC) levels of a few km/s. Measuring the inboard-outboard asymmetry of u{sub tor} with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy enables an indirect measurement of u{sub pol} and, hence, the measurement of the complete plasma flow on a flux surface. In order to characterise the nature of u{sub pol} at ASDEX Upgrade a poloidal rotation database has been built that contains a large variation in the parameters that, according to NC theory, drive u{sub pol}; namely, the main ion temperature and density gradients and collisionality. Initial results from this database and a detailed comparison of u{sub pol} to NC theory in interesting plasma scenarios, are presented in this poster.

  14. A phased array antenna for Doppler reflectometry in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Stefan; Lechte, Carsten; Kasparek, Walter [IGVP, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hennequin, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech., F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conway, Garrard; Happel, Tim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    In a toroidal plasma, Doppler reflectometry (DR) allows investigating electron density fluctuations with finite k {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The injected microwave beam's frequency determines the radial position of the probed region, its tilt angle selects the wavenumber satisfying the Bragg condition for backscattering. The rotation velocity can be calculated from the Doppler shift of the backscattered signal's frequency. By varying the injected frequency, radial profiles can be reconstructed. Varying the tilt angle resolves the k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -spectrum of the fluctuations. For DR, a pair of phased array antennas (PAAs) has been designed, built, and installed in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Beam steering is done by slightly changing the injected frequency, thus, the PAAs do not need any movable parts or electronics inside the vacuum vessel. From 75 to 105 GHz, the PAAs feature 13 frequency bands, each with an angular scan range of -20 to +20 {sup circle}. So, for each angle, there are 13 radial positions to be probed. The results from PAA characterisation, commissioning, and first DR measurements are presented.

  15. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  16. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Codrina; Vianello, Nicola; Müller, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region were measured simultaneously during ELMy H-mode (high confinement) plasmas and L-mode (low confinement) plasmas and during a transition between the two modes. A special probe was used containing six Langmuir ...... into the scrape-off layer outside the last closed flux surface. The main emphasis is put on type I ELMs and from the results the radial turbulent particle flux and magnetic field variations are determined....

  17. ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with and without nitrogen seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Dunne, M. G.; Beurskens, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Bogomolov, A.; Carralero, D.; Cavedon, M.; Fischer, R.; Laggner, F. M.; McDermott, R. M.; Meyer, H.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    The Type I ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with full W plasma facing components is studied in terms of time scales and energy losses for a large set of shots characterized by similar operational parameters but different nitrogen seeding rate and input power. ELMs with no nitrogen can have two typical behaviors, that can be classified depending on their duration, the long and the short ELMs. The work shows that both short and long ELMs have a similar first phase, but the long ELMs are characterized by a second phase with further energy losses. The second phase disappears when nitrogen is seeded with a flux rate above 1022 (e s-1). The phenomenon is compatible with a threshold effect. The presence of the second phase is related to a high divertor/scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and/or to a low pedestal temperature. The ELM energy losses of the two phases are regulated by different mechanisms. The energy losses of the first phase increase with nitrogen which, in turn, produce the increase of the pedestal temperature. So the energy losses of the first phase are regulated by the pedestal top parameters and the increase with nitrogen is due to the decreasing pedestal collisionality. The energy losses of the second phase are related to the divertor/SOL conditions. The long ELMs energy losses increase with increasing divertor temperature and with the number of the expelled filaments. In terms of the power lost by the plasma, the nitrogen seeding increases the power losses of the short ELMs. The long ELMs have a first phase with power losses comparable to the short ELMs losses. Assuming no major difference in the wetted area, these results suggest that (i) the nitrogen might increase the divertor heat fluxes during the short ELMs and that (ii) the long ELMs, despite the longer time scale, are not beneficial in terms of divertor heat loads.

  18. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  19. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  20. Recent ASDEX Upgrade research in support of ITER and DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Zohmthe ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak aim at improving the physics base for ITER and DEMO to aid the machine design and prepare efficient operation. Type I edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) has been shown at low pedestal collisionality (νped\\ast PLH occurs indicates that ITER could take advantage of it to initiate H-mode at lower density than that of the final Q = 10 operational point. Core density fluctuation measurements resolved in radius and wave number show that an increase of R/LTe introduced by off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) mainly increases the large scale fluctuations. The radial variation of the fluctuation level is in agreement with simulations using the GENE code. Fast particles are shown to undergo classical slowing down in the absence of large scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) events and for low heating power, but show signs of anomalous radial redistribution at large heating power, consistent with a broadened off-axis neutral beam current drive current profile under these conditions. Neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) suppression experiments using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) with feedback controlled deposition have allowed to test several control strategies for ITER, including automated control of (3,2) and (2,1) NTMs during a single discharge. Disruption mitigation studies using massive gas injection (MGI) can show an increased fuelling efficiency with high field side injection, but a saturation of the fuelling efficiency is observed at high injected mass as needed for runaway electron suppression. Large locked modes can significantly decrease the fuelling efficiency and increase the asymmetry of radiated power during MGI mitigation. Concerning power exhaust, the partially detached ITER divertor scenario has been demonstrated at Psep/R = 10 MW m-1 in ASDEX Upgrade, with a peak time averaged target load around 5 MW m-2, well consistent with the component limits

  1. Destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade with electron cyclotron current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igochine, V.; Chapman, I.T.; Bobkov, V.;

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that large sawteeth trigger the neoclassical tearing mode well below the usual threshold for this instability. At the same time, fast particles in the plasma core stabilize sawteeth and provide these large crashes. The paper presents results of first experiments in ASDEX...... Upgrade for destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). It is shown that moderate ECCD from a single gyrotron is able to destabilize the fast particle stabilized sawteeth. A reduction in sawtooth period by about 40% was achieved in first experiments...

  2. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, Vl., E-mail: bobkov@ipp.mpg.de; Ochoukov, R.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Lunt, T.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Jacquet, Ph.; Monakhov, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zhang, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Stepanov, I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Colas, L.; Meyer, O. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23 Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2015-12-10

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene – FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  3. Piezoelectric valve for massive gas injection in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, Mathias; Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technical University Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Herrmann, Albrecht; Mank, Klaus; Mertens, Vitus; Pautasso, Gabriella; Ploeckl, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A sudden loss of plasma temperature can cause a disruption, which poses a significant problem for current Tokamaks and future fusion devices. Hence, mitigating forces and thermal loads during disruptions is important for the integrity of the vessel and first wall components. Therefore, high speed gas valves are used to deliver a pulse of noble gas onto the plasma, which irradiates the thermal energy quickly, avoiding localized heat loads and mechanical stress due to induced currents. A new design for such a valve is currently under development. The valve plate is driven by two piezoelectric stack actuators. The stroke of the actuators (0.07 mm) is amplified by a monolithic titanium frame and reaches 2 mm. The frame also serves as spring to pre-load the actuators. In the idle state, it also presses the conical valve plate into the seal, closing the gas chamber (42 cm{sup 3}). The actuators accelerate the stem and the valve plate until it is fully opened after 2 ms. The orifice of the valve has a diameter of 14 mm. This allows a peak mass flow rate of the gas up to 8 . 10{sup 4} (Pa.m)/(s) after 1.8 ms and an average mass flow rate of 2 . 10{sup 4} (Pa.m)/(s) over the evacuation time of 10 ms. Therefore, one valve would be sufficient to deliver the required amount of gas to mitigate disruptions at ASDEX Upgrade.

  4. Development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for studying erosion, deposition, and fuel retention in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Peeter; Piip, Kaarel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hakola, Antti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Laan, Matti, E-mail: matti.laan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Aints, Märt [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Koivuranta, Seppo; Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lissovski, Aleksandr [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Mayer, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Fachgebt Plasma-Material-Wechelwirkung, Garching (Germany); Rohde, Volker; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LIBS development for in situ monitoring of first walls of fusion reactors. • Testing of samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade. • Reliable detection of deuterium depth profiles. • A method of LIBS data processing which allows to find the elemental depth profiles. • Comparison of LIBS results with those of other surface characterization methods. - Abstract: The paper deals with the development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) into an in situ method for studying erosion/deposition processes at the first walls of fusion reactors. To this end, samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade after the 2009 plasma operations were analyzed using LIBS for their composition and the results were compared with other post mortem deposition data. Quantitative depth profiles for the elemental concentrations were extracted from LIBS spectra by applying a novel data processing method. In addition, both multiline and multispot averaging procedures were applied to reduce fluctuations in the data. The LIBS concentration profiles matched qualitatively with those given by secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantitatively with the ion-beam data. The deuterium content of the samples could be reliably determined if the surface densities were >10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K. [Association Euratom-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, DTU Riso/ Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Moseev, D. [Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-08-21

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurement volume located close to the centre of the plasma. The measurements agree quantitatively with predictions of numerical simulations. Hence, CTS studies of fast-ion dynamics at ASDEX Upgrade are now feasible. The new background subtraction technique could be important for the design of CTS systems in other fusion experiments.

  6. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  7. Avoidance of disruptions at high βN in ASDEX Upgrade with off-axis ECRH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maraschek, M.; Nowak, S.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; Lazzaro, E.; McDermott, R.; Poli, E.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; Zohm, H.; Brunetti, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-08-01

    Experiments on disruption avoidance have been carried out in H-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas: the localized perpendicular injection of ECRH (1.5 MW ~ 0.2Ptot) onto the q = 2 resonant surface has led to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions in a high βN scenario (Ip = 1 MA, Bt = 2.1 T, q95 ~ 3.6, with NBI ~7.5 MW). In these discharges (at low q95 and low density) neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are excited: the growth and locking of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the disruption. The scheme of the experiment is successfully applied in the same way as in previous disruption avoidance experiments in FTU and ASDEX Upgrade. As soon as the disruption precursor signal (the locked mode detector and/or the loop voltage) reaches the preset threshold, the ECRH power is triggered by real-time control. A poloidal scan in deposition location (ρdep) has been carried out by setting the poloidal launching mirrors at different angles in each discharge. The results depend on ρdep: complete disruption avoidance can be achieved when the power is injected close to or onto the 2/1 island. When ECRH is injected outside the island (either at radii inside or outside the q = 2 surface), the discharge is disrupted as in the reference case.

  8. Radial transport of poloidal momentum in ASDEX Upgrade in L-mode and H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Schrittwieser, R.; Naulin, Volker

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocating probe was used for localized measurements of the radial transport of poloidal momentum in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). The probe measured poloidal and radial electric field components and density. We concentrate on three components of the momentum transport...

  9. Magnetic diagnostic of SOL-filaments generated by type I ELMs on JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Vianello, N.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    to a simple model, motivated by observations. A new diagnostic in the form of a reciprocating probe with three magnetic pickup loops was developed for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Measurements during the passage of type-I ELM filaments determine the filaments to be in the scrape off layer (SOL) and to carry currents...

  10. Electric Probe Measurements of the Poloidal Velocity in the Scrape-Off Layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Schrittwieser, R..

    2014-01-01

    A reciprocating probe head with six pins was used for localized measurements of electric fields and densities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the edge shear layer (SL) near the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The edge SL is characterized by a strong sudden change...

  11. Status of the new multi-frequency ECRH system for ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, D.; Grünwald, G.; Leuterer, F.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, a new multi-frequency ECRH system is under construction at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment. This system employs, for the first time in a fusion device, multi-frequency gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The first two gyrotrons, working at 105 and 140 GHz, were...

  12. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injecti...

  13. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  14. Interpretation of fast measurements of plasma potential, temperature and density in SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Adamek, J.; Müller, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpretation of fast (1 µs) and local (2–4 mm) measurements of plasma density, potential and electron temperature in the edge plasma of tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. Steady-state radial profiles demonstrate the credibility of the ball-pen probe. We demonstrate that floating poten...

  15. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    spectral channels at TEXTOR and 50 spectral channels at ASDEX Upgrade. The antenna patterns of probe and receiver, both steerable, determine size and location of the measuring volume, and the direction of the resolved fast ion velocity. With overmoded transmission lines, consisting of waveguides...

  16. Electromagnetic effects on turbulent transport in high-performance ASDEX Upgrade discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerk, H.; Dunne, M.; Ryter, F.; Schneider, P. A.; Wolfrum, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Modern tokamak H-mode discharges routinely operate at high plasma beta. Dedicated experiments performed on multiple machines measure contradicting dependence of the plasma confinement on this important parameter. In view of designing high-performance scenarios for next-generation devices like ITER, a fundamental understanding of the involved physics is crucial. Theoretical results—most of which have been obtained for simplified setups—indicate that increased beta does not only modify the characteristics of microturbulence but also potentially introduces fundamentally new physics. Empowered by highly accurate measurements at ASDEX Upgrade, the GENE turbulence code is used to perform a comprehensive gyrokinetic study of dedicated H-Mode plasmas. We find the stabilization of ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence to be the most pronounced beta effect in these experimentally relevant cases. The resulting beta-improved core confinement should thus be considered for extrapolations to future machines.

  17. Application of radial correlation doppler reflectometry on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzon, J.R.; Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, TUM, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Happel, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hennequin, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique (France); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Doppler Reflectometry (DR) is a diagnostic used for the characterization of plasma density turbulence in magnetic confinement devices. It allows to measure the perpendicular propagation velocity of density fluctuations and their perpendicular wavenumber spectrum with good spatial resolution. By studying the correlation between signals of two reflectometers probing at different radial positions (Radial Correlation DR), it is possible to evaluate the radial correlation length L{sub r} of the plasma turbulence by scanning the radial separation Δr. However, results from analytical calculations and two-dimensional full-wave simulations indicate that the L{sub r} measurement by RCDR is not straightforward and might depend on factors such as plasma velocity, fluctuation amplitudes and probing beam angle. Experimental data from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are studied. An assessment of the viability of the use of different signals and analysis methods, including an evaluation of potential caveats, is given.

  18. Disruption mitigation by injection of small quantities of noble gas in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, G.; Bernert, M.; Dibon, M.; Duval, B.; Dux, R.; Fable, E.; Fuchs, J. C.; Conway, G. D.; Giannone, L.; Gude, A.; Herrmann, A.; Hoelzl, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Mlynek, A.; Maraschek, M.; Nardon, E.; Papp, G.; Potzel, S.; Rapson, C.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The most recent experiments of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in ASDEX Upgrade have concentrated on small—relatively to the past—quantities of noble gas injected, and on the search for the minimum amount of gas necessary for the mitigation of the thermal loads on the divertor and for a significant reduction of the vertical force during the current quench. A scenario for the generation of a long-lived runaway electron beam has been established; this allows the study of runaway current dissipation by moderate quantities of argon injected. This paper presents these recent results and discusses them in the more general context of physical models and extrapolation, and of the open questions, relevant for the realization of the ITER disruption mitigation system.

  19. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation......Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson...... at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based...

  20. A Probe Head for Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R W; Ionita, C; Vianello, N

    2010-01-01

    For ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) a new probe head was developed for simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region. The probe head consists of a cylindrical graphite case. On the front side six graphite pins are mounted. With this arrangement the poloidal and rad...... is inserted up to three times for 100 ms each by the midplane manipulator into the scrape-off layer. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  1. Transforming the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system to a general-purpose plasma control platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Gräter, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Control framework split in core and custom part. • Core framework deployable in other fusion device environments. • Adaptible through customizable modules, plug-in support and generic interfaces. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System DCS is a modern and mature product, originally designed to regulate and supervise ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak plasma operation. In its core DCS is based on a generic, versatile real-time software framework with a plugin architecture that allows to easily combine, modify and extend control function modules in order to tailor the system to required features and let it continuously evolve with the progress of an experimental fusion device. Due to these properties other fusion experiments like the WEST project have expressed interest in adopting DCS. For this purpose, essential parts of DCS must be unpinned from the ASDEX Upgrade environment by exposure or introduction of generalised interfaces. Re-organisation of DCS modules allows distinguishing between intrinsic framework core functions and device-specific applications. In particular, DCS must be prepared for deployment in different system environments with their own realisations for user interface, pulse schedule preparation, parameter server, time and event distribution, diagnostic and actuator systems, network communication and data archiving. The article explains the principles of the revised DCS structure, derives the necessary interface definitions and describes major steps to achieve the separation between general-purpose framework and fusion device specific components.

  2. The ASDEX upgrade digital video processing system for real-time machine protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drube, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.drube@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, Gregor [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard H.; Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann; Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the Real-Time Video diagnostic system of ASDEX Upgrade. • We show the implemented image processing algorithms for machine protection. • The way to achieve a robust operating multi-threading Real-Time system is described. -- Abstract: This paper describes the design, implementation, and operation of the Video Real-Time (VRT) diagnostic system of the ASDEX Upgrade plasma experiment and its integration with the ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS). Hot spots produced by heating systems erroneously or accidentally hitting the vessel walls, or from objects in the vessel reaching into the plasma outer border, show up as bright areas in the videos during and after the reaction. A system to prevent damage to the machine by allowing for intervention in a running discharge of the experiment was proposed and implemented. The VRT was implemented on a multi-core real-time Linux system. Up to 16 analog video channels (color and b/w) are acquired and multiple regions of interest (ROI) are processed on each video frame. Detected critical states can be used to initiate appropriate reactions – e.g. gracefully terminate the discharge. The system has been in routine operation since 2007.

  3. New drive converter and digital control for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, Claus-Peter, E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jacob, Christian; Nguyen, Hong Ha; Stobbe, Ferdinand; Mayer, Alois [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, Edgar; Klein, Reiner [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • IGBT converter system with integrated control. • Proven technology reduces time and budget. • Flexibility to be integrated into a 35 years old installation. • Stable control algorithms for static and dynamic speed control. • Possibilities for active and reactive power management. - Abstract: Safety and reliability are major issues for the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) pulsed power supply systems. To avoid long downtimes during an experimental campaign, fault-prone components have to be identified and treated early. This becomes even more important due to the AUG participation in the EUROfusion Medium Sized Tokamak (MST) program. Operating equipment which is up to 40 years old adds additional complications. This contribution describes one such example where a 35 year old flywheel generator at AUG was identified as fault-prone and pre-emptively upgraded with a new drive converter with integrated control. Most challenging was to adapt a modern converter, originally designed for wind turbines, toward a drive system for a flywheel-motor-generator system. To identify the layout of the controller and the control parameters, accurate modeling and comprehensive simulations were performed. This effort paid off during commissioning and measuring results verified the calculated design values. Finally, the system shows good performance during AUG plasma experiments.

  4. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  5. Numerical and experimental study of the redistribution of energetic and impurity ions by sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaulmes, F.; Geiger, B.; Odstrčil, T.; Weiland, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Nielsen, S. K.; Westerhof, E.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-11-01

    In the non-linear phase of a sawtooth, the complete reconnection of field lines around the q  =  1 flux surface often occurs resulting in a radial displacement of the plasma core. A complete time-dependent electromagnetic model of this type of reconnection has been developed and implemented in the EBdyna_go code. This contribution aims at studying the behaviour of ions, both impurity and fast particles, in the pattern of reconnecting field lines during sawtoothing plasma experiments in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by using the newly developed numerical framework. Simulations of full reconnection with tungsten impurity that include the centrifugal force are achieved and recover the soft x-ray measurements. Based on this full-reconnection description of the sawtooth, a simple tool dedicated to estimate the duration of the reconnection is introduced. This work then studies the redistribution of fast ions during several experimentally observed sawteeth. In some cases of sawteeth at ASDEX Upgrade, full reconnection is not always observed or expected so the code gives an upper estimate of the actual experimental redistribution. The results of detailed simulations of the crashes are compared with measurements from various diagnostics such as collective Thomson scattering and fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy, including FIDA tomography. A convincing qualitative agreement is found in different parts of velocity space.

  6. Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fusion product activation probe experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äkäslompolo, S.; Bonheure, G.; Tardini, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-10-01

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material making it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitates, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within a factor of about two, which can be considered a quite good result considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations.Also an alternative to the present probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized orientation could measure the flux from a significantly larger part of the plasma. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  7. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J; Stejner, M; Salewski, M; Jacobsen, A S; Korsholm, S B; Leipold, F; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Schubert, M; Stober, J; Tardini, G; Wagner, D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurem...

  8. Design and concept validation of the new solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, A., E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Greuner, H.; Jaksic, N.; Böswirth, B.; Reimold, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Wischmeier, M.

    2013-10-15

    Div-III, a divertor with solid tungsten target tiles for ASDEX Upgrade is designed and tested and will be installed in 2013. It is a further step in exploring tungsten as material for plasma facing components. It avoids the restrictions of tungsten coatings on graphite and realizes an operation range up to 50 MJ energy removing capability in the outer divertor. In addition, it allows physics investigation such as erosion and deuterium retention as well as effects of castellation and target tilting. The design of the target itself and the attachment was optimized with FE-analysis and was intensively high heat tested up to a double overload. Cyclic tests reveal that the target and the attachment can be operated with the design load of 50 MJ without any damage. Even a twofold overload results in local recrystallization and minor cracks but the targets did not fail during operation. The redesign of the divertor structure was used to increase the conductance between the cryo-pump and the divertor region. The impact of the changed pumping efficiency was investigated with SOLPS/Eirene modeling. The modeling results are an indication for an easier access to lower SOL densities as expected for a higher pumping efficiency in the main chamber.

  9. Adjoint Monte Carlo Simulation of Fusion Product Activation Probe Experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Tardini, Giovanni; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material makig it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte-Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitated, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within 40%, which can be considered remarkable considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations. Also an alternative probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized...

  10. Electric probe measurements of the poloidal velocity in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Schrittwieser, R.; Lux, C.; Ionita, C. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Association EURATOM/OeAW (Austria); Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Nielsen, A.H. [Association EURATOM-DTU, Dept. of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Mueller, H.W.; Carralero, D.; Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-04-15

    A reciprocating probe head with six pins was used for localized measurements of electric fields and densities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the edge shear layer (SL) near the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The edge SL is characterized by a strong sudden change in the poloidal velocity vθ close to the separatrix. The probes were used to determine this velocity by different methods which are critically compared to each other concerning their reliability. By the first method the poloidal velocity was deduced from the radial electric field E{sub r} measured by two radially staggered probe pins, with vθ being due to the E{sub r} x B{sub φ}-drift (B{sub φ} is the toroidal field). The two other methods utilized the cross correlation of two poloidally staggered ion-biased probes and two poloidally staggered floating probes, respectively. In this case the time lags with maximum cross correlation were used to determine the poloidal velocity and its jump, yielding comparable results to the first method. Also the method of conditional averaging was applied to the latter signals. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Investigation of scrape-off layer and divertor heat transport in ASDEX Upgrade L-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Eich, T.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Scarabosio, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-05-01

    Power exhaust is one of the major challenges for the development of a fusion power plant. Predictions based upon a multimachine database give a scrape-off layer power fall-off length {λq}≤slant 1 mm for large fusion devices such as ITER. The power deposition profile on the target is broadened in the divertor by heat transport perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. This profile broadening is described by the power spreading S. Hence both {λq} and S need to be understood in order to estimate the expected divertor heat load for future fusion devices. For the investigation of S and {λq} L-Mode discharges with stable divertor conditions in hydrogen and deuterium were conducted in ASDEX Upgrade. A strong dependence of S on the divertor electron temperature and density is found which is the result of the competition between parallel electron heat conductivity and perpendicular diffusion in the divertor region. For high divertor temperatures it is found that the ion gyro radius at the divertor target needs to be considered. The dependence of the in/out asymmetry of the divertor power load on the electron density is investigated. The influence of the main ion species on the asymmetric behaviour is shown for hydrogen, deuterium and helium. A possible explanation for the observed asymmetry behaviour based on vertical drifts is proposed.

  12. Impact of lithium on the plasma performance in the all-metal-wall tokamak ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T.; Moreno Quicios, R.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Ploeckl, B.; McDermott, R.; Neu, R.; Wolfrum, E. [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Several tokamaks reported improvement in key plasma parameters concurrent with the presence of lithium in the plasma. At ASDEX Upgrade explorative experiments have been performed to find out if such effects can be observed when operating with an all-metal-wall. A gas gun launcher was developed capable to inject pellets containing about 1.6 x 10{sup 20} Li atoms at 2 Hz. The speed of about 600 m/s is sufficient to achieve core penetration and to create a homogeneous Li concentration of up to 10 %. With a typical sustainment time on the order of 100 ms, only transient Li presence without any pile up was achieved. Deposition of Li on plasma facing components, which remained for several discharges after injection, was observed. This short lived wall conditioning showed beneficial effects during plasma start-up. However, the accompanying surface contamination negatively impacted some diagnostics. The Li impact on the confinement was investigated in a dedicated plasma scenario with a proven sensitivity to nitrogen and helium. In phases with N seeding enhancing the confinement by about 30 %, Li injection resulted in a very modest, transient loss of confinement (about 5 %). No Li impact was found for pure Deuterium plasmas.

  13. A fast feedback controlled magnetic drive for the ASDEX Upgrade fast-ion loss detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J.; Herrmann, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Leitenstern, P.; Zoletnik, S.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Dominguez, A. D.; Kocan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, D.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-11-01

    A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads. The mechanical design and real time predictive algorithm presented here may be used for other reciprocating systems.

  14. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on the plasma rotation in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martitsch, A. F.; Kasilov, S. V.; Kernbichler, W.; Kapper, G.; Albert, C. G.; Heyn, M. F.; Smith, H. M.; Strumberger, E.; Fietz, S.; Suttrop, W.; Landreman, M.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-07-01

    The toroidal torque due to the non-resonant interaction with external magnetic perturbations (TF ripple and perturbations from ELM mitigation coils) in ASDEX Upgrade is modelled with help of the NEO-2 and SFINCS codes and compared to semi-analytical models. It is shown that almost all non-axisymmetric transport regimes contributing to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are realized within a single discharge at different radial positions. The NTV torque is obtained to be roughly a quarter of the NBI torque. This indicates the presence of other important momentum sources. The role of these momentum sources and possible integral torque balance measurements are briefly discussed.

  15. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  16. Fringe jump analysis and implementation of polarimetry on the ASDEX Upgrade DCN interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, A; Casali, L; Ford, O; Eixenberger, H

    2014-11-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is equipped with a 5-channel DCN interferometer with a probing wavelength of 195 μm. Up to now, phase measurement and density calculation have been accomplished by hard-wired phase counting electronics. Meanwhile, a fast digitizer has been installed which acquires the raw signals. That way, the various causes of counting errors by integer multiples of 2π, so-called fringe jumps, can be analyzed, and phase reconstruction schemes based on digital signal processing can be developed. In addition, a prototype polarimeter setup has been installed on one channel and allows for measurement of the Faraday rotation experienced by the probing beam.

  17. Development of the Q  =  10 scenario for ITER on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinzer, J.; Beurskens, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Joffrin, E.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, C.; Kallenbach, A.; Hopf, C.; Lang, P. T.; Mlynek, A.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Zohm, H.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-10-01

    The development of the baseline H-mode scenario foreseen for ITER on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, i.e. discharges at q 95  =  3, relatively low β N ~ 1.8, high normalized density n/n GW ~ 0.85 and high triangularity δ  =  0.4, focused on the integration of elements foreseen for ITER and available on ASDEX Upgrade, such as ELM mitigation techniques and impurity seeding in combination with a metallic wall. Values for density and energy confinement simultaneously came close to the requirements of the ITER baseline scenario as long as β N stayed above 2. At lower heating power and thus lower β N normalized energy confinement H 98y2 ~ 0.85 is obtained. It has been found that stationary discharges are not easily achieved under these conditions due to the low natural ELM frequency occurring at the low q 95/high δ operational point. Up until now the ELM parameters were uncontrollable with the tools developed in other scenarios. Therefore studies on an alternative operational point at higher β N and q 95 have been conducted. In order to prepare for the ITER first non-activation operational phase, Helium operation has been investigated as well.

  18. ICRF antennas optimized for operation with a high-Z metallic wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammuto, I. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: i.zammuto@libero.it; Krivska, A. [Euratom Association, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Telecommunication Engineering Department, Czech Technical University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Bobkov, V.; Braun, F.; Bilato, R. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); EESA Department, University of Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    High-Z materials are considered the best candidates for plasma facing components (PFCs) in future fusion devices, while ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating is a method of choice because of its flexibility, cost effectiveness, and plug-to-power efficiency. But high-Z materials and ICRF have been a difficult combination. ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is pioneering the use of a tungsten (W) wall and in the next years it will prove (or disprove) the appropriateness of this combination for the future. This paper describes the optimization procedure for and the main features of a new proposed ICRF antenna for AUG specifically designed to improve the compatibility of ICRF with a high-Z metallic wall. The optimization criteria for a new design are based on a reduction of the parasitic parallel electric field responsible of the impurity production. The evolutionary design of the 2-strap antenna is compared with a redesigned 4-strap antenna embedded in the wall. Moreover, options and constraints on how to integrate a wider antenna in the present configuration of ASDEX Upgrade and its integration on the stabilizing wall are discussed.

  19. Validation of gyrokinetic modelling of light impurity transport including rotation in ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Casson, F J; Angioni, C; Camenen, Y; Dux, R; Fable, E; Fischer, R; Geiger, B; Manas, P; Menchero, L; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Upgraded spectroscopic hardware and an improved impurity concentration calculation allow accurate determination of boron density in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. A database of boron measurements is compared to quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations including Coriolis and centrifugal rotational effects over a range of H-mode plasma regimes. The peaking of the measured boron profiles shows a strong anti-correlation with the plasma rotation gradient, via a relationship explained and reproduced by the theory. It is demonstrated that the rotodiffusive impurity flux driven by the rotation gradient is required for the modelling to reproduce the hollow boron profiles at higher rotation gradients. The nonlinear simulations validate the quasilinear approach, and, with the addition of perpendicular flow shear, demonstrate that each symmetry breaking mechanism that causes momentum transport also couples to rotodiffusion. At lower rotation gradients, the parallel compressive convection is required to match the mos...

  20. Measurements and modeling of Alfven eigenmode induced fast ion transport and loss in DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanZeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R. K.; Munoz, M. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; White, R. B.; Akaslompolo, S.; Austin, M. E.; Boom, J. E.; Classen, I.G.J.; da Graca, S.; Geiger, B.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Luhmann, N.; Maraschek, M.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.; Sharapov, S.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tobias, B. J.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete c

  1. On the determination of the poloidal velocity and the shear layer in the SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Naulin, Volker

    A reciprocating probe with six pins was used for localized measurements in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the shear layer (SL) and a few mm inside it. The probe was used to determine the poloidal velocity with three different methods which are critically compared to each...

  2. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than 50%-toget

  3. A fast framing camera system for observation of acceleration and ablation of cryogenic hydrogen pellet in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, G.; Kálvin, S.; Veres, G.; Cierpka, P.; Lang, P. T.; Neuhauser, J.; Wittman, C.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2004-11-01

    An observation system using fast digital cameras was developed to measure a cryogenic hydrogen pellet's cloud structure, trajectory, and velocity changes during its ablation in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas. In this article the system, the applied numerical methods, and the results are presented. The three-dimensional pellet trajectory and velocity components were reconstructed from images of observations from two different directions. Pellet acceleration both in the radial and toroidal directions was detected. The pellet cloud distribution was measured with high spatio-temporal resolution. The cloud surrounding the pellet was found to be elongated along the magnetic field lines. Its typical size is 5-7 cm along the field lines and 2 cm in the perpendicular directions. A cloud extension in the poloidal direction was also observed which may be related to the drift of the detached part of the cloud.

  4. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: wei.zhang@ipp.mpg.de [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Jacquet, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  5. Erosion of tungsten and steel in the main chamber of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, A., E-mail: antti.hakola@vtt.fi [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Koivuranta, S.; Likonen, J. [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Herrmann, A.; Maier, H.; Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We have investigated net erosion and deposition of W and P92 steel in ASDEX Upgrade during its full-W operational phase. The outer divertor and the outer midplane are the strongest net erosion region for W, with rates up to 0.12 nm/s and 0.05 nm/s, respectively. The eroded W is transported via the scrape-off layer plasma and predominantly deposited in the upper (20–30%) and inner divertors (40–60%). The inner midplane does not contribute significantly to the erosion–deposition balance such that the remaining W is deposited in shadowed areas of the tokamak. Steel is eroded 3–10 times faster than W but could be used at the top and inner parts of the main chamber where the erosion rate is ∼0.01 nm/s.

  6. Resolving the bulk ion region of millimeter-wave collective Thomson scattering spectra at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejner, M., E-mail: mspe@fysik.dtu.dk; Nielsen, S.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Salewski, M. [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moseev, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D. H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements provide information about the composition and velocity distribution of confined ion populations in fusion plasmas. The bulk ion part of the CTS spectrum is dominated by scattering off fluctuations driven by the motion of thermalized ion populations. It thus contains information about the ion temperature, rotation velocity, and plasma composition. To resolve the bulk ion region and access this information, we installed a fast acquisition system capable of sampling rates up to 12.5 GS/s in the CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade. CTS spectra with frequency resolution in the range of 1 MHz are then obtained through direct digitization and Fourier analysis of the CTS signal. We here describe the design, calibration, and operation of the fast receiver system and give examples of measured bulk ion CTS spectra showing the effects of changing ion temperature, rotation velocity, and plasma composition.

  7. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, F.; Hölzl, M.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Morales, J.; Willensdorfer, M.; Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Pamela, S.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Strumberger, E.; Lessig, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which edge localized modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q  =  m/n, the coupling between the kink component (m  >  nq) and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant amplification can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  8. In-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsalas, M. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece) and EDFA-JET CSU, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: maximos@ipta.demokritos.gr; Coster, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Fuchs, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Herrmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Mueller, H.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Neuhauser, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Tsois, N. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    In ASDEX Upgrade, a fast reciprocating probe positioned in the lower divertor, capable of accessing the low-field side (LFS) and high-field side (HFS) scrape-off layer (SOL) just below the x-point, as well as the private flux region, was equipped with a Mach head and used to investigate fast flow fluctuations and in-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs. We compare the flow behaviour during ELMs in the three separate regions. Flow enhancement is observed in the HFS SOL, with Mach number values reaching or exceeding M = 2, flow reversal in the LFS SOL, and complex fluctuating behaviour in the private flux region (which includes flow reversal). We discuss the possible mechanisms that could drive these observations.

  9. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade including diamagnetic drift effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Krebs, Isabel; Franck, Emmanuel; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Orain, Francois; Morales, Jorge; Becoulet, Marina [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, Guido [ITER Organization, 13067 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-05-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for ITER due to high transient heat loads on divertor targets and wall structures. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed ELM simulations for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) including diamagnetic drift effects. The influence of diamagnetic terms onto the evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum for different AUG equilibria and the non-linear interaction of the toroidal harmonics are investigated. In particular, we confirm the diamagnetic stabilization of high mode numbers and present new features of a previously introduced quadratic mode coupling model for the early non-linear evolution of the mode structure. Preliminary comparisons of full ELM crashes with experimental observations are shown aiming at code validation and the understanding of different ELM types. Work is ongoing to include toroidal and neoclassical poloidal rotation in our simulations.

  10. Gyrokinetic studies of core turbulence features in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A. Bañón, E-mail: banon@physics.ucla.edu; Told, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Happel, T.; Görler, T.; Abiteboul, J.; Bustos, A.; Doerk, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Gyrokinetic validation studies are crucial for developing confidence in the model incorporated in numerical simulations and thus improving their predictive capabilities. As one step in this direction, we simulate an ASDEX Upgrade discharge with the GENE code, and analyze various fluctuating quantities and compare them to experimental measurements. The approach taken is the following. First, linear simulations are performed in order to determine the turbulence regime. Second, the heat fluxes in nonlinear simulations are matched to experimental fluxes by varying the logarithmic ion temperature gradient within the expected experimental error bars. Finally, the dependence of various quantities with respect to the ion temperature gradient is analyzed in detail. It is found that density and temperature fluctuations can vary significantly with small changes in this parameter, thus making comparisons with experiments very sensitive to uncertainties in the experimental profiles. However, cross-phases are more robust, indicating that they are better observables for comparisons between gyrokinetic simulations and experimental measurements.

  11. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Orain, F; Viezzer, E; Dunne, M; Becoulet, M; Cahyna, P; Huijsmans, G T A; Morales, J; Willensdorfer, M; Suttrop, W; Kirk, A; Pamela, S; Strumberger, E; Guenter, S; Lessig, A

    2016-01-01

    The plasma response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which Edge Localized Modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q = m=n, the coupling between the m + 2 kink component and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant ampli?cation can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  12. Video analysis of dust events in full-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, F.; Shalpegin, A.; Bardin, S.; Lunt, T.; Rohde, V.; Briançon, J. L.; Pautasso, G.; Vorpahl, C.; Neu, R.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-03-01

    Fast video data recorded during seven consecutive operation campaigns (2008-2012) in full-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade have been analyzed with an algorithm developed to automatically detect and track dust particles. A total of 2425 discharges have been analyzed, corresponding to 12 204 s of plasma operation. The analysis aimed at precisely identifying and sorting the discharge conditions responsible of the dust generation or remobilization. Dust rates are found to be significantly lower than in tokamaks with carbon PFCs. Significant dust events occur mostly during off-normal plasma phases such as disruptions and particularly those preceded by vertical displacement events (VDEs). Dust rates are also increased but to a lower extent during type-I ELMy H-modes. The influences of disruption energy, heating scenario, vessel venting and vessel vibrations are also presented.

  13. Making ICRF power compatible with a high-Z wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, V.; Aguiam, D.; Bilato, R.; Brezinsek, S.; Colas, L.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Herrmann, A.; Jacquot, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ochoukov, R.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, T.; Silva, A.; Tierens, W.; Tuccilo, A.; Tudisco, O.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of the ASDEX Upgrade 3-strap ICRF antenna data with the linear electro-magnetic TOPICA calculations is presented. The comparison substantiates a reduction of the local electric field at the radially protruding plasma-facing elements of the antenna as a relevant approach for minimizing tungsten (W) sputtering in conditions when the slow wave is strongly evanescent. The measured reaction of the time-averaged RF current at the antenna limiters to the antenna feeding variations is less sensitive than predicted by the calculations. This is likely to have been caused by temporal and spatial fluctuations in the 3D plasma density distribution affected by local non-linear interactions. The 3-strap antenna with the W-coated limiters produces drastically less W sputtering compared to the W-coated 2-strap antennas. This is consistent with the non-linear asymptotic SSWICH-SW calculations for RF sheaths.

  14. Advances in the density profile evaluation from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, P.; Manso, M. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Conway, G. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    The high temporal and spatial resolutions provided by broadband microwave reflectometry make it an attractive diagnostic technique to measure the density profile in fusion plasmas. However, great problems have been encountered due to the plasma turbulence that difficult, and sometimes prevent, the routine evaluation of density profiles. Advanced broadband systems employ ultra-fast sweeping in an attempt to perform the profile measurement in a time window smaller than the temporal scale of the main plasma fluctuations but this is not sufficient. Indeed, abrupt plasma movements and/or spatial turbulence always affect the reflectometry signals, as shown by numerical studies (with both one- and two-dimensional codes), for the case of ultra-fast sweeping and pulse radar systems. For this reason not only the system performance is important but the software tools also play a crucial role for reflectometry to become a standard density profile diagnostic. Here we present the recent advances towards automatic evaluation of density profiles from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX Upgrade. For regimes with moderate levels of plasma turbulence, density profiles are obtained from single reflectometry samples (temporal resolution of 20 {mu}s), and for higher turbulence levels average profiles are obtained from bursts of ultra-fast (20 {mu}s), closely spaced (10 {mu}s) sweeps. This method improved the accuracy and reliability of density profiles, which can now be obtained automatically from the edge to the bulk plasma - using reflectometry alone - in most plasma regimes of ASDEX Upgrade. New data processing capability has been implemented that allows the profiles to be available to the end-users 10-12 minutes after each discharge. These developments were possible due to the flexibility and high performance of the control and data acquisition systems and to the large number of measurements that can be performed with the diagnostic during each discharge (720 profiles both on the low

  15. A compact lithium pellet injector for tokamak pedestal studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo Parra, R.; Moreno Quicios, R.; Ploeckl, B.; Birkenmeier, G.; Herrmann, A.; Kocsis, G.; Laggner, F. M.; Lang, P. T.; Lunt, T.; Macian-Juan, R.; Rohde, V.; Sellmair, G.; Szepesi, T.; Wolfrum, E.; Zeidner, W.; Neu, R.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade, aiming to investigate the impact of lithium in an all-metal-wall tokamak and attempting to enhance the pedestal operational space. For this purpose, a lithium pellet injector has been developed, capable of injecting pellets carrying a particle content ranging from 1.82 × 1019 atoms (0.21 mg) to 1.64 × 1020 atoms (1.89 mg). The maximum repetition rate is about 2 Hz. Free flight launch from the torus outboard side without a guiding tube was realized. In such a configuration, angular dispersion and speed scatter are low, and a transfer efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved in the test bed. Pellets are accelerated in a gas gun; hence special care was taken to avoid deleterious effects by the propellant gas pulse. Therefore, the main plasma gas species was applied as propellant gas, leading to speeds ranging from 420 m/s to 700 m/s. In order to minimize the residual amount of gas to be introduced into the plasma vessel, a large expansion volume equipped with a cryopump was added into the flight path. In view of the experiments, an optimal propellant gas pressure of 50 bars was chosen for operation, since at this pressure maximum efficiency and low propellant gas flux coincide. This led to pellet speeds of 585 m/s ± 32 m/s. Lithium injection has been achieved at ASDEX Upgrade, showing deep pellet penetration into the plasma, though pedestal broadening has not been observed yet.

  16. Event detection and exception handling strategies in the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de; Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Event detection and exception handling is integrated in control system architecture. •Pulse control with local exception handling and pulse supervision with central exception handling are strictly separated. •Local exception handling limits the effect of an exception to a minimal part of the controlled system. •Central Exception Handling solves problems requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. -- Abstract: Thermonuclear plasmas are governed by nonlinear characteristics: plasma operation can be classified into scenarios with pronounced features like L and H-mode, ELMs or MHD activity. Transitions between them may be treated as events. Similarly, technical systems are also subject to events such as failure of measurement sensors, actuator saturation or violation of machine and plant operation limits. Such situations often are handled with a mixture of pulse abortion and iteratively improved pulse schedule reference programming. In case of protection-relevant events, however, the complexity of even a medium-sized device as ASDEX Upgrade requires a sophisticated and coordinated shutdown procedure rather than a simple stop of the pulse. The detection of events and their intelligent handling by the control system has been shown to be valuable also in terms of saving experiment time and cost. This paper outlines how ASDEX Upgrade's discharge control system (DCS) detects events and handles exceptions in two stages: locally and centrally. The goal of local exception handling is to limit the effect of an unexpected or asynchronous event to a minimal part of the controlled system. Thus, local exception handling facilitates robustness to failures but keeps the decision structures lean. A central state machine deals with exceptions requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. DCS implements the state machine by means of pulse schedule segments containing pre-programmed waveforms to define discharge goal and control

  17. Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, M. G.; Frassinetti, L.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Cavedon, M.; Fietz, S.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Kurzan, B.; Laggner, F.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R. M.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; The EUROfusion MST1 Team; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is also shown that the confinement increase is driven through the temperature pedestal at the three heating power levels studied. In a triangularity scan, an orthogonal effect of shaping and seeding is observed, where increased plasma triangularity increases the pedestal density, while impurity seeding (carbon and nitrogen) increases the pedestal temperature in addition to this effect. Modelling of these effects was also undertaken, with interpretive and predictive models being employed. The interpretive analysis shows a general agreement of the experimental pedestals in separate power, shaping, and seeding scans with peeling-ballooning theory. Predictive analysis was used to isolate the individual effects, showing that the trends of additional heating power and increased triangularity can be recoverd. However, a simple change of the effective charge in the plasma cannot explain the observed levels of confinement improvement in the present models.

  18. Compatibility of ITER scenarios with full tungsten wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, O.; Sips, A. C. C.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J. C.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Maggi, C. F.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T.; Schweinzer, J.; Stober, J.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-11-01

    The transition of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) from a graphite device to a full tungsten device is demonstrated with a reduction by an order of magnitude in both the carbon deposition and deuterium retention. The tungsten source is dominated by sputtering from intrinsic light impurities, and the tungsten influxes from the outboard limiters are the main source for the plasma. In H-mode discharges, central heating (neutral beams, ECRH) is used to increase turbulent outward transport avoiding tungsten accumulation. ICRH can only be used after boronization as its application otherwise results in large W influxes due to light impurities accelerated by electrical fields at the ICRH antennas. ELMs are important in reducing the inward transport of tungsten in the H-mode edge barrier and are controlled by gas puffing. Even without boronization, stationary, ITER baseline H-modes (confinement enhancement factor from ITER 98(y, 2) scaling H98 ~ 1, normalized beta βN ~ 2), with W concentrations below 3 × 10-5 were routinely achieved up to 1.2 MA plasma current. The compatibility of high performance improved H-modes with unboronized W wall was demonstrated, achieving H98 = 1.1 and βN up to 2.6 at modest triangularities δ cooled by N2 seeding. N2 seeding does not only protect the divertor tiles but also considerably improves the performance of improved H-mode discharges. The energy confinement increased to H98-factors of 1.25 (βN ~ 2.7) and thereby exceeded the best values in a carbon-dominated AUG machine under similar conditions. Recent investigations show that this improvement is due to higher temperatures rather than to peaking of the electron density profile. Further ITER discharge scenario tests include the demonstration of ECRF assisted low voltage plasma start-up and current rise to q95 = 3 at toroidal electric fields below 0.3 V m-1, to achieve a ITER compatible range of plasma internal inductance of 0.71-0.97. The results reported here strongly support tungsten as a first

  19. Characterization and interpretation of the Edge Snake in between type-I edge localized modes at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, F; Guenter, S; Kallenbach, A; Maraschek, M; Boom, J; Fischer, R; Hicks, N; Reiter, B; Wolfrum, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Luhmann, N C Jr [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Park, H K [POSTECH, Pahang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Wenninger, R, E-mail: fabian.sommer@ipp.mpg.de [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A new magnetohydrodynamic instability called the 'Edge Snake', which was found in 2006 at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade during type-I ELMy H-modes, is investigated. It is located within the separatrix in the region of high temperature and density gradients and has a toroidal mode number of n = 1. The Edge Snake consists of a radially and poloidally strongly localized current wire, in which the temperature and density profiles flatten. This significant reduction in pressure gradient leads to a reduction in the neoclassical Bootstrap current and can plausibly explain the drive of the instability. The experimental observations point towards a magnetic island with a defect current inside the O-point of the island. The Edge Snake is compared with similar instabilities at JET, DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade.

  20. On the effect of neoclassical flows on intrinsic momentum in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Fable, E.; Manas, P.; McDermott, R.; Peeters, A. G.; Barnes, M.; Parra, F.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-04-01

    A gyro-kinetic analysis of intrinsic rotation is presented for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The gyro-kinetic turbulence code, GKW and the neoclassical transport code, NEO are coupled so that the neoclassical equilibrium distribution function is included in the background distribution function in the gyro-kinetic turbulence simulation. This implementation is benchmarked against a similar implementation in the gyro-kinetic code, GS2 (Dorland et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 5579) and against analytical predictions. A quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic turbulence analysis is performed on Ohmic L-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas showing that the symmetry breaking effects due to neoclassical background flows can produce significant toroidal momentum transport. While its magnitude is of the order of other symmetry breaking mechanisms, such as the Coriolis pinch, up–down asymmetry in the magnetic flux surfaces and E× B flow shear, the flow gradients it can sustain are appreciably smaller than the maximum gradients measured at the mid-radius of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak core, which can be up to an order of magnitude larger. It is found that the gradient of the diamagnetic flow, and therefore the second derivatives of the density and temperature gradients are critical to the production of residual toroidal momentum flux. A quasi-linear estimate indicated that the second derivatives required to match the experimental flow gradient are up to an order of magnitude higher than the measured second derivatives. This analysis suggests that turbulent transport driven by neoclassical flows is not sufficient to explain the maximum flow gradients observed in ASDEX Upgrade.

  1. A fast acquisition rate system for charge exchange measurements at the plasma edge at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Cavedon, Marco; Viezzer, Eleonora; Dux, Ralph; Geiger, Benedikt; McDermott, Rachael Marie; Meyer, Hendrik; Stroth, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of high through-put Czerny-Turner spectrometer has been developed which allows to acquire multiple channels simultaneously with a repetition time on the order of \\SI{10}{\\us} at different wavelengths. The spectrometer has been coupled to the edge charge exchange recombination system at ASDEX Upgrade which has been recently refurbished with new lines of sight. Construction features, calibration methods, and initial measurements obtained with the new setup will be presented.

  2. Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Mantila, L.; Potzel, S.; Coster, D. P.; Wischmeier, M.; Brix, M.; Fischer, R.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Müller, H. W.; Scarabosio, A.; Stamp, M. F.; Brezinsek, S.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET Contributors, the

    2017-03-01

    The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.

  3. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    establish an the radiation increases in this region. To account for these effects, an empirical non-coronal model was developed which takes the impurity residence time at the pedestal into account. The validity of this assumption was verified by modelling the evolution of the impurities and radiation for ASDEX Upgrade H-modes with nitrogen seeding by coupling the ASTRA transport code with STRAHL. The time-dependent simulations include impurity radiation due to nitrogen and tungsten and the transport effects induced at the edge by the ELMs. The modelling results have been validated against the experimental data. The modelled radiation profiles show a very good agreement with the measured ones over both radius and time. In particular, the strong enhancement of the nitrogen radiation caused by non-coronal effects through the ELM-induced transport is well reproduced. The radiation properties of tungsten are very weakly influenced by non-coronal effects due to the faster equilibration. W radiation, which is highly dependent on the f{sub ELM}, strongly increases when f{sub ELM} is decreased, due to the lack of sufficiently strong flush out of this impurity. This is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates that maintaining high ELM frequency is essential for the stability and performance of the discharges. Analyses of the high density scenario with pellets indicate that several processes take place when pellets are injected into the plasma. In particular, due to their cooling effect, the temperature drops as soon as pellets are injected. This is compensated by an increase in density. These processes occur mainly at the edge and are propagated to the core via stiffness. This explains why the confinement stays approximately constant during the whole discharge. Both experiments and transport calculations reveal that the energy confinement time is independent of the density indicating that the currently used scaling is not valid in this regime. The results of this

  4. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    establish an the radiation increases in this region. To account for these effects, an empirical non-coronal model was developed which takes the impurity residence time at the pedestal into account. The validity of this assumption was verified by modelling the evolution of the impurities and radiation for ASDEX Upgrade H-modes with nitrogen seeding by coupling the ASTRA transport code with STRAHL. The time-dependent simulations include impurity radiation due to nitrogen and tungsten and the transport effects induced at the edge by the ELMs. The modelling results have been validated against the experimental data. The modelled radiation profiles show a very good agreement with the measured ones over both radius and time. In particular, the strong enhancement of the nitrogen radiation caused by non-coronal effects through the ELM-induced transport is well reproduced. The radiation properties of tungsten are very weakly influenced by non-coronal effects due to the faster equilibration. W radiation, which is highly dependent on the f{sub ELM}, strongly increases when f{sub ELM} is decreased, due to the lack of sufficiently strong flush out of this impurity. This is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates that maintaining high ELM frequency is essential for the stability and performance of the discharges. Analyses of the high density scenario with pellets indicate that several processes take place when pellets are injected into the plasma. In particular, due to their cooling effect, the temperature drops as soon as pellets are injected. This is compensated by an increase in density. These processes occur mainly at the edge and are propagated to the core via stiffness. This explains why the confinement stays approximately constant during the whole discharge. Both experiments and transport calculations reveal that the energy confinement time is independent of the density indicating that the currently used scaling is not valid in this regime. The results of this

  5. Numerically derived parametrisation of optimal RMP coil phase as a guide to experiments on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Li, L.; Kirk, A.; Dunne, M.; Dudson, B.; Piovesan, P.; Suttrop, W.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are a repetitive MHD instability, which may be mitigated or suppressed by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In tokamaks which have an upper and lower set of RMP coils, the applied spectrum of the RMPs can be tuned for optimal ELM control, by introducing a toroidal phase difference {{Δ }}{{Φ }} between the upper and lower rows. The magnitude of the outermost resonant component of the RMP field | {b}{{res}}1| (other proposed criteria are discussed herein) has been shown experimentally to correlate with mitigated ELM frequency, and to be controllable by {{Δ }}{{Φ }} (Kirk et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 043007). This suggests that ELM mitigation may be optimised by choosing {{Δ }}{{Φ }}={{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that | {b}{{res}}1| is maximised. However it is currently impractical to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} in advance of experiments. This motivates this computational study of the dependence of the optimal coil phase difference {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, on global plasma parameters {β }N and q 95, in order to produce a simple parametrisation of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}. In this work, a set of tokamak equilibria spanning a wide range of ({β }N, q 95) is produced, based on a reference equilibrium from an ASDEX Upgrade experiment. The MARS-F code (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681) is then used to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} across this equilibrium set for toroidal mode numbers n = 1-4, both for the vacuum field and including the plasma response. The computational scan finds that for fixed plasma boundary shape, rotation profiles and toroidal mode number n, {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} is a smoothly varying function of ({β }N, q 95). A 2D quadratic function in ({β }N, q 95) is used to parametrise {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that for given ({β }N, q 95) and n, an estimate of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} may be made without requiring a plasma response computation. To quantify the uncertainty

  6. Mechanical braking system for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, C.-P., E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Huart, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Michel Huart Personal Coaching and Consulting, Georgenschwaigstraße 23 RG, 80807 München (Germany); Stobbe, F.; Goldstein, I.; Sigalov, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, E. [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany); Perk, E. [Piper Test and Measurement Ltd., The Barn, Bilsington, Ashford, Kent TN25 7JT, England (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Compact and innovative solution for dumping of large kinetic energy. ► Small mass of energy converter at the shaft due to circulating storage medium. ► Design of the active parts ensures flat torque/power characteristics. ► Also suitable for spending a great part of operating life in “Freewheeling” mode. -- Abstract: A few years ago, IPP reviewed the safety of the ASDEX Upgrade pulsed power supply system. Two critical sub-systems had been identified: The (electrical) braking system for the flywheel generators and the oil lubrication system for the shaft bearings. A simultaneous failure of these two systems may lead to severe damages and could have consequences for the safety of operating personnel. Therefore a second, independent braking possibility for every generator was stipulated. Especially the challenges adapting a dynamometer, originally designed for motor test benches, towards a plant safety system for generator EZ4 will be described in the paper. Further on, the paper will present the problems, implementing such a system into an existing installation, including the calculation of the required supporting structure, balancing of the extended shaft line and required water cooling and control. Finally it will report on the performance achieved during operation.

  7. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Křivská, A., E-mail: alena.krivska@rma.ac.be [LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, 30 Avenue de la Renaissance B-1000, Brussels (Belgium); Bobkov, V.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  8. Long term project in ASDEX upgrade: Implementation of ferritic steel as in vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammuto, I., E-mail: irene.zammuto@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Giannone, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Houben, A. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    A long term project is started at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak aimed at the exploration of the compatibility of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) with fusion devices. The topic is oriented toward the preparation of future experiments such as ITER with its test blanket modules and DEMO with its first wall designed with RAFM. The goal of the project is to gather experience with ferromagnetic materials inside the vacuum vessel, dealing with magnetic perturbations, both in plasma and magnetic probes, and facing up the additional magnetic forces acting on the supporting structures. The project envisages a stepwise replacement of the traditional graphite tiles with ferritic steel. For the time being, the main AUG actor is the inner heat shield (IHS), but further development can be imagined in the future. Since 2013, two of the 15 tile rows of the IHS have been replaced with ferritic steel and since now the experimental campaign has not suffered any particular problem related to the perturbation field induced by the steel tiles, as predicted by the calculation. In the present paper, the preliminary study accomplished for the first phase for the evaluation of the forces and magnetic perturbation is reported, together with the further calculations required for the extension of the steel wall.

  9. ASDEX Upgrade Edge Transport Studies by Turbulence and Braginskii Divertor Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.P.; Kim, J.W.; Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The equilibration time for diverter transport simulations is in the range of milliseconds to seconds. There, perpendicular transport is given empirically and usually assumed to be constant in time and space. In this work, we aim at describing edge plasma profiles in both the H-mode and the L-mode confinement regimes using a model that couples the transport scale to the underlying turbulence scale. There are 2d and 3d variants of DALF, which is a turbulence code that describes short time scale nonlinear phenomena based on first principles of plasma physics. B2 employs an implicit method which is suitable for describing long time scale, quasi-steady state behavior, while fluctuation/intermittency is inherent in turbulence and typically gives rise to short time scale variations of the radial flux. We coarse rained the information from the 2d version of DALF within the order of turbulence auto correlation time and iterated over the divertor simulation (and thus passed plasma parameters to the turbulence code). Numerical algorithm and criteria for convergence in bridging the physics of two different scales is discussed. The generation mechanism of radial electric field in steep gradient regimes is revisited in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor geometry with realistic parameters. Inclusion of turbulent suppression effects by E x B shear flow is considered. (orig.)

  10. Filament transport, warm ions and erosion in ASDEX Upgrade L-modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, G.; Manz, P.; Carralero, D.; Laggner, F. M.; Fuchert, G.; Krieger, K.; Maier, H.; Reimold, F.; Schmid, K.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of blob filaments are investigated in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX Upgrade by means of lithium beam emission spectroscopy. A comparison of the measurements in L-mode with a recently developed analytical blob model based on a drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model indicates an influence of a finite ion temperature on the blob dynamics which has typically been neglected in other blob models. The blob dynamics agree well with the sheath-connected regime at lower plasma densities, and inertial effects play only a minor role. At higher densities, a transition into another regime with large blob amplitudes and increased transport is found. This points to a prominent role of blob transport at higher Greenwald fractions. On the basis of the measured blob properties, the erosion on plasma facing components is estimated. For pure deuterium plasmas, the high ion temperatures of blobs lead to a dominant erosion induced by blobs. However, if an impurity concentration of 1% is taken into account, the blob-induced erosion plays a minor role and background plasma parameters determine the total gross erosion.

  11. Machine safety issues with respect to the extension of ECRH systems at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuberta Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beam intensity of electron cyclotron resonance heating at ASDEX Upgrade has the potential to seriously damage in-vessel components, whenever not fully absorbed by the plasma. Operation is, therefore, interlocked with both plasma current and density above a given threshold. Microwave protection detectors installed in several ports on the low field side switch the heating system off, in case the stray radiation exceeds a given threshold. During regular inspections, however, damages were reported in the vicinity of the launchers and in particular around the tiles of the heat shield. On one hand, it was found that insulating material, which may not face the plasma, degraded due to millimetre wave absorption. The waves entered the free space behind the heat shield through gaps. On the other hand, local damage even of metallic components was observed on surfaces, which were directly exposed to the microwave beam. Polarisation errors, which led to a local shine through of significant beam power, were responsible. We note that this happened mainly on the high field side in a certain distance to the microwave protection detectors, which were not triggered by the events. In order to increase the level of protection, we identify three necessary measures: Firstly, polarisation control is to be automated such, that mode content and shine through can be monitored. Secondly, by installing additional detectors, the spatial coverage of stray radiation monitoring is enlarged. Thirdly, the heat shield tiles will be redesigned in order to increase the shielding against millimetre waves.

  12. Improvement of the divertor bolometer diagnostic in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmer, Till; Meister, Hans; Bernert, Matthias; Koll, Juergen; Reimold, Felix; Wischmeier, Marco; Fantz, Ursel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    For future fusion devices such as ITER, the radiation balance in the divertor region will have a significant impact on the power exhaust balance. Therefore, scenarios with strongly localized radiation, like radiation in the high field side high density (HFSHD) region, X-Point radiation or radiation in the divertor legs during detachment, will be investigated in the next ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) operation campaign 2015. To obtain accurately the absolute divertor radiation out of these measurements, the AUG foil bolometer diagnostic system in the divertor region has been enhanced; two new cameras have been designed and manufactured. One will be mounted below the roof baffle and contains 28 lines of sight (LOS), which will observe the mentioned regions of particular physical interest. The second camera consists of 4 LOS and will be mounted at the high field side above the inner divertor nose. It will observe radiation arising from the X-Point region and from the outer divertor. The data will be analysed with a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to localize and quantify the divertor radiation.

  13. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P A; Blank, H; Geiger, B; Mank, K; Martinov, S; Ryter, F; Weiland, M; Weller, A

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  14. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivská, A.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Milanesio, D.; Ochoukov, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  15. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A.

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  16. Transport analysis of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casali L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Future fusion reactors, foreseen in the “European road map” such as DEMO, will operate under more demanding conditions compared to present devices. They will require high divertor and core radiation by impurity seeding to reduce heat loads on divertor target plates. In addition, DEMO will have to work at high core densities to reach adequate fusion performance. The performance of fusion reactors depends on three essential parameters: temperature, density and energy confinement time. The latter characterizes the loss rate due to both radiation and transport processes. The DEMO foreseen scenarios described above were not investigated so far, but are now addressed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. In this work we present the transport analysis of such scenarios. Plasma with high radiation by impurity seeding: transport analysis taking into account the radiation distribution shows no change in transport during impurity seeding. The observed confinement improvement is an effect of higher pedestal temperatures which extend to the core via stiffness. A non coronal radiation model was developed and compared to the bolometric measurements in order to provide a reliable radiation profile for transport calculations. High density plasmas with pellets: the analysis of kinetic profiles reveals a transient phase at the start of the pellet fuelling due to a slower density build up compared to the temperature decrease. The low particle diffusion can explain the confinement behaviour.

  17. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-07-20

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2{pi} when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has

  18. Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELM mitigation coils

    CERN Document Server

    Asunta, Otto; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Koskela, Tuomas; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Garcia-Muñoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ELM mitigation coils on fast ion wall loads was studied with the fast particle following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Neutral beam injected (NBI) particles were simulated in two AUG discharges both in the presence and in the absence of the magnetic field perturbation induced by the eight newly installed in-vessel coils. In one of the discharges (#26476) beams were applied individually, making it a useful basis for investigating the effect of the coils on different beams. However, no ELM mitigation was observed in #26476, probably due to the low plasma density. Therefore, another discharge (#26895) demonstrating clear ELM mitigation was also studied. The magnetic perturbation due to the in-vessel coils has a significant effect on the fast particle confinement, but only when total magnetic field, $B_{tot}$, is low. When $B_{tot}$ was high, the perturbation did not increase the losses, but merely resulted in redistribution of the wall power loads. Hence, it seems to be possible to ac...

  19. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    CERN Document Server

    Valovič, M; Kirk, A; Suttrop, W; Cavedon, M; Fischer, L R; Garzotti, L; Guimarais, L; Kocsis, G; Cseh, G; Plőckl, B; Szepesi, T; Thornton, A; Mlynek, A; Tardini, G; Viezzer, E; Scannell, R; Wolfrum, E

    2015-01-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  20. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Dux, R.; Dunne, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line Dα. The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  1. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  2. Characterization of type-I ELM induced filaments in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Andreas

    2008-03-18

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of filaments and their propagation in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The aim is to provide experimental measurements for understanding the filament formation process and their temporal evolution, and to provide a comprehensive database for an extrapolation to future fusion devices. For this purpose, a new magnetically driven probe for filament measurements has been developed and installed in ASDEX Upgrade. The probe carries several Langmuir probes and a magnetic coil in between. The Langmuir probes allow for measurements of the radial and poloidal/toroidal propagation of filaments as well as for measurements of filament size, density, and their radial (or temporal) evolution. The magnetic coil on the filament probe allows for measurements of currents in the filaments. A set of 7 coils, measuring 3 field components at different positions along the filament, has been used to measure the magnetic signature during an ELM. The aim was, on the one hand, to study which role filaments play for the magnetic structure, and on the other hand if the parallel currents predicted by the sheath damped model could be verified. Filament temperatures have been derived and the corresponding heat transport mechanisms have been studied. (orig.)

  3. Experimental studies of high-confinement mode plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Nazikian, R.; Leuthold, N.; Strumberger, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, J. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; McDermott, R. M.; Orain, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of externally applied small non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) with tokamak high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas is reviewed and illustrated by recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade. The plasma response to the vacuum MP field is amplified by stable ideal kink modes with low toroidal mode number n driven by the H-mode edge pressure gradient (and associated bootstrap current) which is experimentally evidenced by an observable shift of the poloidal mode number m away from field alignment (m  =  qn, with q being the safety factor) at the response maximum. A torque scan experiment demonstrates the importance of the perpendicular electron flow for shielding of the resonant magnetic perturbation, as expected from a two-fluid MHD picture. Two significant effects of MP occur in H-mode plasmas at low pedestal collisionality, ν \\text{ped}\\ast≤slant 0.4 : (a) a reduction of the global plasma density by up to 61 % and (b) a reduction of the energy loss associated with edge localised modes (ELMs) by a factor of up to 9. A comprehensive database of ELM mitigation pulses at low {ν\\ast} in ASDEX Upgrade shows that the degree of ELM mitigation correlates with the reduction of pedestal pressure which in turn is limited and defined by the onset of ELMs, i. e. a modification of the ELM stability limit by the magnetic perturbation.

  4. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-12-18

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E{sub r}. The gradients in E{sub r} and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E{sub r} profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He{sup 2+}, B{sup 5+}, C{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 10+}. The resulting E{sub r} profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E{sub r} profile forms a deep

  5. Radial transport in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade during L-mode and ELMy H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, C.; Naulin, Volker; Mehlmann, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial turbulent particle flux and the Reynolds stress in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade were investigated for two limited L-mode (low confinement) and one ELMy H-mode (high confinement) discharge. A fast reciprocating probe was used with a probe head containing five Langmuir pro...

  6. Non-boronized compared with boronized operation of ASDEX Upgrade with full-tungsten plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T.; Bobkov, V.; Fuchs, J. C.; Eich, T.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Horton, L. D.; Maggi, C. F.; Meister, H.; Müller, H. W.; Rohde, V.; Sips, A.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-04-01

    After completion of the tungsten coating of all plasma facing components, ASDEX Upgrade has been operated without boronization for 1 1/2 experimental campaigns. This has allowed the study of fuel retention under conditions of relatively low D co-deposition with low-Z impurities as well as the operational space of a full-tungsten device for the unfavourable condition of a relatively high intrinsic impurity level. Restrictions in operation were caused by the central accumulation of tungsten in combination with density peaking, resulting in H-L backtransitions induced by too low separatrix power flux. Most important control parameters have been found to be the central heating power, as delivered predominantly by ECRH, and the ELM frequency, most easily controlled by gas puffing. Generally, ELMs exhibit a positive impact, with the effect of impurity flushing out of the pedestal region overbalancing the ELM-induced W source. The restrictions of plasma operation in the unboronized W machine occurred predominantly under low or medium power conditions. Under medium-high power conditions, stable operation with virtually no difference between boronized and unboronized discharges was achieved. Due to the reduced intrinsic radiation with boronization and the limited power handling capability of VPS coated divertor tiles (≈10 MW m-2), boronized operation at high heating powers was possible only with radiative cooling. To enable this, a previously developed feedback system using (thermo-)electric current measurements as approximate sensor for the divertor power flux was introduced into the standard AUG operation. To avoid the problems with reduced ELM frequency due to core plasma radiation, nitrogen was selected as radiating species since its radiative characteristic peaks at lower electron temperatures in comparison with Ne and Ar, favouring SOL and divertor radiative losses. Nitrogen seeding resulted not only in the desired divertor power load reduction but also in improved

  7. Optical emission measurements of H 2 and D 2 molecules in the divertor region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Behringer, K.; Gafert, J.; Coster, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    A spectroscopic method has been developed for measuring molecular influxes and particle densities in fusion edge plasmas, which is based on the H 2 and D 2 Fulcher emission bands around 600 nm wavelength. A first application to the ASDEX Upgrade divertor plasma is described. The influx of hydrogen molecules was determined from the population of the upper Fulcher state using the theoretical number of ionization and dissociation events per Fulcher photon ( Seff + Deff)/XB Ful, as calculated by a collisional-radiative model. These results were compared with expectations on the basis of the atomic hydrogen fluxes and a typical molecule/atom ratio. Measurements and calculations agree in their time dependence, but the experimental values are somewhat lower, which may be within the error margin or of more significance. The Fulcher radiation was also compared directly to B2-EIRENE predictions, resulting in a higher discrepancy. In addition, the vibrational population of the ground state molecules was determined from that of the excited state using a method based on Franck-Condon factors. It can be characterized by a Tvib between 3000 and 9000 K, inversely correlated with electron temperature. This variation is predicted by the collisional-radiative code and even allows an estimate of Te. Vibrational excitation increases ionization and dissociation rate coefficients, as clearly demonstrated by the code calculations. It is therefore very likely that the observed discrepancy in molecular intensity is mainly caused by the omission of vibrational excitation in the present version of B2-EIRENE. The described flux measurements are expected to be accurate above Te=5 eV, but are more difficult at lower temperatures due to the strong Te dependence of ( Seff + Deff)/XB Ful in that region.

  8. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Rasmussen, J.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Maraschek, M.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, M.; Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.

    2015-03-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) can provide measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. On ASDEX Upgrade, the measured spectra include an additional signal which previously has hampered data interpretation. A new set-up using two independent heterodyne receiver systems enables subtraction of the additional part from the total spectrum, revealing the resulting CTS spectrum. Here we present CTS measurements from the plasma centre obtained in L-mode and H-mode plasmas with and without neutral beam injection (NBI). For the first time, the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration, since CTS is presently the only diagnostic to measure the confined alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions.

  9. The enhanced pellet centrifuge launcher at ASDEX Upgrade: Advanced operation and application as technology test facility for ITER and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeckl, B., E-mail: bernhard.ploeckl@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Chr. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lamalle, Ph. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lang, P.T.; Rohde, V.; Viezzer, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The pellet centrifuge at ASDEX Upgrade has served for more than 20 years as a powerful tool for plasma control. Its recently enhanced control system provides more thorough control over parameters and a detailed view of all measured values. A study has recently been initiated on the conceptual design of an optimized DEMO core particle fuelling system. For this approach, first technical tests aimed on an optimized pellet transfer with respect to the preparation of the solid fuel and the transfer systems have been performed. An investigation of the temperature dependence of transfer efficiency (mass loss due to erosion and broken pellets) has revealed a weak dependence. For ITER, in which it is intended to operate a heating scheme with ICRF minority heating of He-3, test injections are performed using D{sub 2}-pellets as carriers for He-4. Admixing of N{sub 2} was investigated as well.

  10. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Wojeński, A.; Vezinet, D.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Herrmann, A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2016-11-01

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  11. Implementation of the new multichannel X-mode edge density profile reflectometer for the ICRF antenna on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiam, D. E.; Silva, A.; Bobkov, V.; Carvalho, P. J.; Carvalho, P. F.; Cavazzana, R.; Conway, G. D.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fattorini, L.; Faugel, H.; Fernandes, A.; Fünfgelder, H.; Gonçalves, B.; Guimarais, L.; De Masi, G.; Meneses, L.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Rocchi, G.; Santos, J. M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.

    2016-11-01

    A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 1019 m-3, at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna. ICRF power coupling, operational effects, and poloidal variations of the plasma density profile can be consistently studied for the first time. In this work the diagnostic hardware architecture is described and the obtained density profile measurements were used to track outer radial plasma position and plasma shape.

  12. Sawtooth control using electron cyclotron current drive in the presence of energetic particles in high performance ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, I T; Maraschek, M; McCarthy, P J; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Sawtooth control using steerable electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been demonstrated in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with a significant population of energetic ions in the plasma core and long uncontrolled sawtooth periods. The sawtooth period is found to be minimised when the ECCD resonance is swept to just inside the q = 1 surface. By utilising ECCD inside q = 1 for sawtooth control, it is possible to avoid the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, even at significnatly higher pressure than anticipated in the ITER baseline scenario. Operation at 25% higher normalised pressure has been achieved when only modest ECCD power is used for sawtooth control compared to identical discharges without sawtooth control when neo-classical tearing modes are triggered by the sawteeth. Modelling suggests that the destabilisation arising from the change in the local magnetic shear caused by the ECCD is able to compete with the stabilising influence of the energetic particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  13. ICRF wave field measurements in the presence of scrape off layer turbulence on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Suárez López, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new array of B-dot probes was installed on ASDEX Upgrade. The purpose of the new diagnostic is to study Ion Cyclotron Range-off Frequencies (ICRF) wave field distributions in the evanescent scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma region on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. The vacuum measurements (no gas, BT = 0 T) reveal ICRF wave field measurements consistent with the profiles expected from the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antennas outside the antenna box: the shape of the toroidal distribution of both the amplitude and the phase is the same for the case of only the central straps being active, as for the case of only the side straps being active. These profiles become strongly modified during plasma operations. The modifications can be separated into two types: "Inter-edge localized mode (ELM)" and "During-ELM" periods. The phase distribution of the ICRF wave fields remains well-defined during the Inter-ELM period; however, it becomes more spread out over the entire 360° range during ELMs. The observed modulations cannot be explained by the observed changes in the ICRF power, as monitored in the transmission line. However, they are consistent with ICRF coupling changes introduced by plasma filaments: the plasma density perturbations due to the filaments are high enough to change the nature of the fast ICRF wave field from evanescent to propagating. The coverage of the present diagnostic is being expanded to include both the low field side and the high field side probes. Additionally, a manipulator probe head is being developed to measure ICRF wave field radial profiles across the SOL region.

  14. Analysis of the H-mode density limit in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak using bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias

    2013-10-23

    The high confinement mode (H-mode) is the operational scenario foreseen for ITER, DEMO and future fusion power plants. At high densities, which are favourable in order to maximize the fusion power, a back transition from the H-mode to the low confinement mode (L-mode) is observed. This H-mode density limit (HDL) occurs at densities on the order of, but below, the Greenwald density. In this thesis, the HDL is revisited in the fully tungsten walled ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG). In AUG discharges, four distinct operational phases were identified in the approach towards the HDL. First, there is a stable H-mode, where the plasma density increases at steady confinement, followed by a degrading H-mode, where the core electron density is fixed and the confinement, expressed as the energy confinement time, reduces. In the third phase, the breakdown of the H-mode and transition to the L-mode, the overall electron density is fixed and the confinement decreases further, leading, finally, to an L-mode, where the density increases again at a steady confinement at typical L-mode values until the disruptive Greenwald limit is reached. These four phases are reproducible, quasi-stable plasma regimes and provide a framework in which the HDL can be further analysed. Radiation losses and several other mechanisms, that were proposed as explanations for the HDL, are ruled out for the current set of AUG experiments with tungsten walls. In addition, a threshold of the radial electric field or of the power flux into the divertor appears to be responsible for the final transition back to L-mode, however, it does not determine the onset of the HDL. The observation of the four phases is explained by the combination of two mechanisms: a fueling limit due to an outward shift of the ionization profile and an additional energy loss channel, which decreases the confinement. The latter is most likely created by an increased radial convective transport at the edge of the plasma. It is shown that the

  15. The I-mode confinement regime at ASDEX Upgrade: global properties and characterization of strongly intermittent density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, T.; Manz, P.; Ryter, F.; Bernert, M.; Dunne, M.; Hennequin, P.; Hetzenecker, A.; Stroth, U.; Conway, G. D.; Guimarais, L.; Honoré, C.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-01-01

    Properties of the I-mode confinement regime on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are summarized. A weak dependence of the power threshold for the L-I transition on the toroidal magnetic field strength is found. During improved confinement, the edge radial electric field well deepens. Stability calculations show that the I-mode pedestal is peeling-ballooning stable. Turbulence investigations reveal strongly intermittent density fluctuations linked to the weakly coherent mode in the confined plasma, which become stronger as the confinement quality increases. Across all investigated structure sizes ({{k}\\bot}≈ 5 -12 cm-1, with {{k}\\bot} the perpendicular wavenumber of turbulent density fluctuations), the intermittent turbulence bursts are observed. Comparison with bolometry data shows that they move poloidally toward the X-point and finally end up in the divertor. This might be indicative that they play a role in inhibiting the density profile growth, such that no pedestal is formed in the edge density profile.

  16. Interplay between turbulence, neoclassical and zonal flows during the transition from low to high confinement mode at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedon, M.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E.; Birkenmeier, G.; Happel, T.; Laggner, F. M.; Manz, P.; Ryter, F.; Stroth, U.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-01-01

    The spatio-temporal interplay between turbulence, mean and zonal flows has been investigated at the L-H and H-L transitions in the edge region of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Close to both transitions, an intermediate phase (I-phase) characterized by ‘limit cycle like oscillations’ (LCOs) is observed in which periodic bursts of turbulence correlate with \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} flow reduction and relaxation of gradients. During the I-phase, the \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} velocity is dominated by the mean flows indicating that turbulence driven flows are small. Periodic dithers between L-mode and the phases with LCOs are also observed just before the H-mode onset where the edge density and temperature profile gradients evolve on similar timescale as the flows. Thus connection between mean and \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} flows holds during the all evolution from L-mode to H-mode demonstrating the fundamental role of the neoclassical flows in the L-H transition physics.

  17. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L., E-mail: Louis.Giannone@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cerna, M. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Cole, R.; Fitzek, M. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); McCarthy, P.J. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association EURATOM-DCU, Cork (Ireland); Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  18. Development of a flexible Doppler reflectometry system and its application to turbulence characterization in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troester, Carolin Helma

    2008-04-15

    An essential challenge in present fusion plasma research is the study of plasma turbulence. The turbulence behavior is investigated experimentally on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak using Doppler reflectometry, a diagnostic technique sensitive to density fluctuations at a specific wavenumber k {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. This microwave radar diagnostic utilizes localized Bragg backscattering of the launched beam (k{sub 0}) by the density fluctuations at the plasma cutoff layer. The incident angle {theta} selects the probed k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} via the Bragg condition k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {approx} 2k{sub 0}sin{theta}. The measured Doppler shifted frequency spectrum allows the determination of the perpendicular plasma rotation velocity, u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} =v{sub E} {sub x} {sub B}+v{sub turb}, directly from the Doppler frequency shift(f{sub D} = u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} /2{pi}), and the turbulence amplitude from the backscattered power level. This thesis work presents a survey of u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} radial profiles and k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} spectrum measurements for a variety of plasma conditions obtained by scanning the antenna tilt angle. This was achieved by extending the existing V-band Doppler reflectometry system (50 - 75 GHz) with a new W-band system (75 - 110 GHz), which was especially designed for measuring the k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} spectrum and additionally expands the radial coverage into the plasma core region. It consists of a remote steerable antenna with an adjustable line of sight allowing for dynamic wavenumber selection up to 25 cm {sup -1} and a reflectometer with a 'phase locked loop' stabilized transmitter allowing for the precise determination of the instrument response function. The proper system functionality was demonstrated by laboratory testing and benckmarking against the V-band system. The new profile measurements obtained show a

  19. Modelling of the ICRF induced E  ×  B convection in the scrape-off-layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, Y.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Coster, D.; Lunt, T.; Bilato, R.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Van Eester, D.; Křivská, A.; Jacquet, P.; Guimarais, L.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-09-01

    In magnetic controlled fusion devices, plasma heating with radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequency relies on the electric field of the fast wave to heat the plasma. However, the slow wave can be generated parasitically. The electric field of the slow wave can induce large biased plasma potential (DC potential) through sheath rectification. The rapid variation of the rectified potential across the equilibrium magnetic field can cause significant convective transport (E  ×  B drifts) in the scrape-off layer (SOL). In order to understand this phenomenon and reproduce the experiments, 3D realistic simulations are carried out with the 3D edge plasma fluid and kinetic neutral code EMC3-Eirene in ASDEX Upgrade. For this, we have added the prescribed drift terms to the EMC3 equations and verified the 3D code results against the analytical ones in cylindrical geometry. The edge plasma potential derived from the experiments is used to calculate the drift velocities, which are then treated as input fields in the code to obtain the final density distributions. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  20. A new thermal He-beam diagnostic for electron density and temperature measurements in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griener, Michael; Wolfrum, Elisabeth; Eich, Thomas; Herrmann, Albrecht; Rohde, Volker [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Stroth, Ulrich [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Physik Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    In a nuclear fusion device power is exhausted across the last closed flux surface into the so-called 'scrape-off layer', SOL. In order to study the transport dynamics to (a) the divertor via parallel heat flux and (b) to the wall via filaments, a diagnostic for the determination of n{sub e} and T{sub e} with high spatial and temporal resolution is required. Although the diagnostic capabilities of the ASDEX Upgrade edge plasma are excellent, there is a lack of spatially and temporally highly resolved electron temperature measurements in the SOL. Therefore a piezo valve will be installed in ASDEX Upgrade in April 2015. It allows fast chopping of a thermal He-beam which is part of the new diagnostic. In the first campaign, existing lines of sight of the CXRS diagnostic will be used to measure various He I transitions to confirm the collisional radiative model for He. The principle of the thermal He-diagnostic as well as calculations of the achievable spatial resolution of the initial set-up are presented.

  1. High power ECRH and ECCD in moderately collisional ASDEX Upgrade Hmodes and status of EC system upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stober J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with H-modes with significant heat exchange between electrons and ions, but which can still show large differences between electron and ion-temperatures especially inside half minor radius. These conditions are referred to as moderately collisional. A systematic study shows that an increasing fraction of electron heating increases the transport in the ion channel mainly due to the dependence of the ITG dominated ion transport on the ratio Te/Ti in agreement with modeling. The rotational shear in the plasmas under study was so small that it hardly influences ITG stability, such that variations of the rotation profile due to a change of the heating method were of minor importance. These findings connect to studies of advanced tokamak scenarios using ECCD as a tool to modify the q-profile. The electron heating connected to the ECCD tends to increase the transport in the ion channel quite in contrast to the goal to operate at reduced current but with increased confinement. The confinement only increases as the fraction of ion heating is increased by adding more NBI. An ITER case was modeled as well. Due to the larger value of νei ・ τE the ratio Te/Ti is only moderately reduced even with strong electron heating and the confinement reduction is small even for the hypothetic case of using only ECRH as additional heating. Finally the paper discusses the ongoing upgrade of the AUG ECRH-system.

  2. Toroidal modelling of RMP response in ASDEX Upgrade: coil phase scan, q 95 dependence, and toroidal torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Ryan, D.; Kirk, A.; Li, Li; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, J. C.; Kurzan, B.; Piovesan, P.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-05-01

    The plasma response to the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields, produced by the ELM control coils in ASDEX Upgrade experiments, is computationally modelled using the MARS-F/K codes (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681, Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503). A systematic investigation is carried out, considering various plasma and coil configurations as in the ELM control experiments. The low q plasmas, with {{q}95}˜ 3.8 (q 95 is the safety factor q value at 95% of the equilibrium poloidal flux), responding to low n (n is the toroidal mode number) field perturbations from each single row of the ELM coils, generates a core kink amplification effect. Combining two rows, with different toroidal phasing, thus leads to either cancellation or reinforcement of the core kink response, which in turn determines the poloidal location of the peak plasma surface displacement. The core kink response is typically weak for the n  =  4 coil configuration at low q, and for the n  =  2 configuration but only at high q ({{q}95}˜ 5.5 ). A phase shift of around 60 degrees for low q plasmas, and around 90 degrees for high q plasmas, is found in the coil phasing, between the plasma response field and the vacuum RMP field, that maximizes the edge resonant field component. This leads to an optimal coil phasing of about 100 (-100) degrees for low (high) q plasmas, that maximizes both the edge resonant field component and the plasma surface displacement near the X-point of the separatrix. This optimal phasing closely corresponds to the best ELM mitigation observed in experiments. A strong parallel sound wave damping moderately reduces the core kink response but has minor effect on the edge peeling response. For low q plasmas, modelling shows that both the resonant electromagnetic torque and the neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque (due to the presence of 3D magnetic field perturbations) contribute to the toroidal flow damping, in particular near the

  3. Arc erosion of full metal plasma facing components at the inner baffle region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rohde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At the inner baffle of the AUG divertor massive polished inserts of tungsten and P92 steel were installed to measure the erosion by arcing. For tungsten most of the traces are less than 0.4µm deep and a similar amount of tungsten is deposited close to the traces. Few craters up to 4µm resulting in an average erosion rate of 2×1013 at cm−2s−1 are observed. The behaviour for P92 steel is quite different: most of the traces are 4µm deep, up to 80µm were observed. An average erosion rate of 400×1013 at cm−2s−1, i.e. more than a factor of hundred higher compared to tungsten, is found. Therefore, erosion by arcing has to be taken into account to determine the optimal material mix for future fusion devices.

  4. 2-dimensional mapping of ICRF-induced scrape-off layer modifications with a retarding field analyser on ASDEX-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, L.; Bobkov, V.; Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H. W.; Manz, P.; Kubič, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    Using a reciprocating Retarding Field Analyser (RFA), Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) modifications were investigated on ASDEX-Upgrade during heating with waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF), suspected for enhanced impurity production in this all-metal machine. Two quantities involved in the sputtering were measured: the current Islit on a saturated slit plate, proportional to the parallel ion flux and the mean parallel energy t of collected ions, averaged over many RF cycles. Combining multiple RFA reciprocations over a scan of q95 provided 2D poloidal/radial resolution. In the outer SOL a localized RF-perturbed zone was evidenced on the RFA side magnetically connected to an active ICRF antenna. A flat 2D Islit pattern surrounded by steep gradients was observed, correlatively with t exceeding 150eV. The centre of the zone is connected radially slightly behind the leading edge of antenna side limiters, with a radial extension up to ±2cm. The zone is broadest and t is largest near the bottom of the active antenna. This is interpreted as a zone of local plasma biasing via sheath rectification, creating density convection around it. The Islit pattern is qualitatively consistent with simple considerations about E×B particle convection.

  5. Localized Scrape-Off Layer density modifications by Ion Cyclotron near fields in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade L-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, L., E-mail: laurent.colas@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquet, Ph. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Brix, M.; Meneses, L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marsen, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Silva, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Crombé, K.; Křivska, A. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Rimini, F.G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Combining Lithium beam emission spectroscopy and edge reflectometry, localized Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) density modifications by Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) near fields were characterized in JET L-mode plasmas. When using the ICRF wave launchers connected magnetically to the Li-beam chord, the density decreased more steeply 2–3 cm outside the last closed flux surface (mapped onto the outer mid-plane) and its value at the outer limiter radial position was half the ohmic value. The depletion depends on the ICRF power and on the phasing between adjacent radiating straps. Convection due to ponderomotive effects and/or E × B{sub 0} drifts is suspected: during ICRF-heated H-mode discharges in 2013, DC potentials up to 70 V were measured locally in the outer SOL by a floating reciprocating probe, located toroidally several metres from the active antennas. These observations are compared with probe measurements on ASDEX-Upgrade. Their implications for wave coupling, heat loads and impurity production are discussed.

  6. Characterization of edge profiles and fluctuations in discharges with type-II and nitrogen-mitigated edge localized modes in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfrum, E; Bernert, M; Burckhart, A; Classen, I G J; Conway, G D; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Gude, A; Herrmann, A; Maraschek, M; McDermott, R; Puetterich, T; Wieland, B [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Boom, J E [FOM Institute for Plasmaphysics, Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann, N C Jr [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA95616 (United States); Park, H K [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Vicente, J [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fosao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Willensdorfer, M, E-mail: e.wolfrum@ipp.mpg.de [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Association EURATOM-OEAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) with high frequency and low power loss (type-II ELMs) occur in high triangularity, near double null configurations in ASDEX Upgrade with full tungsten plasma facing components. The transition from type-I to type-II ELMs is shown to occur above a collisionality threshold. For the first time the characteristic MHD fluctuations around 40 kHz have been localized. The fluctuations are observed in a wide region extending from the pedestal inward to normalized poloidal radius {rho}{sub pol} = 0.7. Their amplitudes on the low-field side of the plasma exhibit maxima above and below the mid-plane. The fluctuations move in the electron drift direction and lead to a reduced edge electron temperature gradient. The reduction in the edge pressure gradient is connected with these MHD fluctuations, which affect the electron temperature but not the electron density profiles. A comparison with nitrogen-mitigated type-I ELMs in the same plasma shape shows that core profiles are also affected. The electron temperature profile is self-similar for type-I and nitrogen-mitigated type-I ELMs but is not self-similar in the case of type-II ELMs.

  7. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits...

  8. Numerical and experimental study of the redistribution of energetic and impurity ions by sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaulmes, F.; Geiger, B.; Odstrčil, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the non-linear phase of a sawtooth, the complete reconnection of field lines around the q = 1 flux surface often occurs resulting in a radial displacement of the plasma core. A complete time-dependent electromagnetic model of this type of reconnection has been developed and implemented in the ...

  9. Direct observation of current in type-I edge-localized-mode filaments on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasmas in the high confinement regime are regularly subjected to relaxation oscillations, termed edge localized modes (ELMs), leading to large transport events. Present ELM theories rely on a combined effect of edge current and the edge pressure gradients which result in in...

  10. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  11. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  12. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  13. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Rasmussen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    , the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration......, since CTS is presently the only diagnostic to measure the confined alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions....

  14. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  15. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  16. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  17. Recent results on the TCS-Upgrade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, J. A.; Brooks, R. D.; Deards, C. L.; Hoffman, A. L.; Lee, K. Y.; Melnik, P. A.; Miller, K. E.; Milroy, R. D.; Velas, K. M.; Vlases, G. C.

    2010-11-01

    The Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment Upgrade (TCSU) device is a facility to form and sustain field-reversed configurations (FRC) in quasi-steady state using rotating magnetic fields (RMF). Results from operation with internal flux rings and an additional Ti gettering campaign are reported. Several new diagnostics have been installed including a 90-channel three-axis (30 radial positions) internal magnetic field probe, a multi-point Thomson scattering system, and a Langmuir probe. A broad range of RMF frequencies, from 85 kHz -- 240 kHz, and field configurations have been investigated with a full diagnostic set and results will be reported. Results from operation with odd-parity RMF antennas, which should close field lines, [S.A. Cohen and R.D. Milroy, Physics of Plasmas 7, 2539, (2000)] will also be reported.

  18. Planar Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade: Beam Tests results

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; Beimforde, M; Benoit, M; Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Gallrapp, C; George, M; Gibson, S; Grinstein, S; Janoska, Z; Jentzsch, J; Jinnouchi, O; Kishida, T; La Rosa, A; Libov, V; Macchiolo, A; Marchiori, G; Münstermann, D; Nagai, R; Piacquadio, G; Ristic, B; Rubinskiy, I; Rummler, A; Takubo, Y; Troska, G; Tsiskaridtze, S; Tsurin, I; Unno, Y; Weigel, P; Wittig, T

    2012-01-01

    Results of beam tests with planar silicon pixel sensors aimed towards the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include spatial resolution, charge collection performance and charge sharing between neighbouring cells as a function of track incidence angle for different bulk materials. Measurements of n-in-n pixel sensors are presented as a function of fluence for different irradiations. Furthermore p-type silicon sensors from several vendors with slightly differing layouts were tested. All tested sensors were connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. We show that both n-type and p-type tested planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after integrated fluences expected at HL-LHC.

  19. Recent Results from the IR Upgrade FEL at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V; Behre, C P; Biallas, G H; Boyce, J; Douglas, D; Dylla, H F D; Evans, R; Grippo, A G; Gubeli, J G; Hardy, D; Hernandez-Garcia, C; Jordan, K; Merminga, L; Neil, G; Preble, J P; Shinn, M D; Siggins, T; Walker, R L; Williams, G P; Zhang, S

    2005-01-01

    After demonstrating 10 kW operation with 1 second pulses, the Jefferson Lab program switched to demonstrating high power operation at short wavelengths using a new 8 cm period wiggler and a THz suppression chicane. We report here on the lasing results to date using this new configuration. We have demonstrated a large reduction in THz heating on the mirrors. We have also eliminated heating in the mirror steering assemblies, making operation at high power much more stable. Finally, we have greatly reduced astigmatism in the optical cavity, allowing operation with a very short Rayleigh range. The laser has been tuned from 0.9 to 3.1 microns using the new wiggler. User experiments commenced in April of 2005 with the FEL Upgrade operating over the 1-3 micron range. We are in the process of installing a 5.5 cm permanent magnet wiggler that will give us even larger tuning range and higher power.

  20. Charge breeder for the SPIRAL1 upgrade: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, L., E-mail: maunoury@ganil.fr; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Bajeat, O.; Frigot, R.; Jeanne, A.; Jardin, P.; Kamalou, O.; Lecomte, P.; Osmond, B.; Peschard, G.; Savalle, A. [GANIL, Bd H. Becquerel BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Angot, J.; Sole, P.; Lamy, T. [LPSC - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barton, C. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    In the framework of the SPIRAL1 upgrade under progress at the GANIL lab, the charge breeder based on a LPSC Phoenix ECRIS, first tested at ISOLDE has been modified to benefit of the last enhancements of this device from the 1+/n+ community. The modifications mainly concern the 1 + optics, vacuum techniques, and the RF—buffer gas injection into the charge breeder. Prior to its installation in the midst of the low energy beam line of the SPIRAL1 facility, it has been decided to qualify its performances and several operation modes at the test bench of LPSC lab. This contribution shall present preliminary results of experiments conducted at LPSC concerning the 1 + to n+ conversion efficiencies for noble gases as well as for alkali elements and the corresponding transformation times.

  1. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  2. BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotherton, Kevin

    2009-04-30

    The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.

  3. First Results from the DUV-FEL Upgrade at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xijie; Murphy, James; Pinayev, Igor; Rakowsky, George; Rose, James; Shaftan, Timur; Sheehy, Brian; Skaritka, John; Wu, Zilu; Yu Li Hua

    2005-01-01

    The DUV-FEL at BNL is the world’s only facility dedicated to laser-seeded FEL R&D and its applications. Tremendous progress was made in both HGHG FEL and its applications in the last couple years.*,** In response to the requests of many users to study chemical science at the facility, the DUV-FEL linac was upgraded from 200 to 300 MeV to enable the HGHG FEL to produce 100 uJ pulses of 100 nm light. This will establish the DUV FEL as a premier user facility for ultraviolet radiation and enable state-of-the-art gas phase photochemistry research. The upgraded facility will also make possible key R&D experiments such as higher harmonic HGHG (n>5) that would lay the groundwork for future X-ray FEL based on HGHG. The upgraded HGHG FEL will operate at the 4th harmonic with the seed laser at either 800 nm or 400nm. The increase of the electron beam energy will be accomplished by installing a 5th linac cavity and two 45 MW klystrons. New HGHG modulator and dispersion sections vacuum chambers w...

  4. Tumor type resulting in upgrade: An analysis based on 333 low grade soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS are rare tumors. Based on histopathological criteria, three grades are distinguished from low (G1 to intermediate (G2 and high grade (G3. After complete initial surgical resection, some G1 STS recur as lesions with an upgrade of a previous G1 STS to a recurrent G2 STS. This upgrade indicates higher malignancy of the STS. Our aim was to find possible risk factors for these upgrades including age, localization of tumor and tumor type. Methods: This retrospective case-control study evaluated 333 patients. Of these 333, 54.7% were male and 45.3% female. All patients underwent R0 resections and among these, 10% subsequently upgraded. The processed data include age, gender, tumor type, tumor localization, local recurrence and upgrade. Results: Patients with upgrades have a higher mean age of 5.5 years than our reference collective. The tumor type has a significant effect on upgrades. Patients with fibrosarcomas are at a threefold risk of an upgrade compared to patients with other G1 STS.Conclusion: Our results indicate that age and tumor type play a key role in upgrades in G1 STS. Patients, age 60 and above and diagnosed with G1 fibrosarcomas, are three times as likely to upgrade compared to patients younger than 60 with other G1 STS. We discuss the significance of these risk factors and whether aside from complete tumor resection, additional therapies (e.g. irradiation may be applied to improve therapeutic outcome.

  5. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH optoelectronic readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Carniti, P

    2016-01-01

    Starting from 2018, the LHCb detector will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and extend its potential for new discoveries. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors are one of the key components for particle identification of the LHCb detector and the upgraded specifications will require a redesign of the optoelectronic readout chain. In the present work, we describe the experimental setup and the results of the tests carried out with a particle beam to assess and validate the performance of the optoelectronic readout system.

  6. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I. G.; Akers, R. J.; Allan, A.; Allan, S. Y.; Appel, L. C.; Asunta, O.; Barnes, M.; Barratt, N. C.; N. Ben Ayed,; Bradley, J. W.; Canik, J.; Cahyna, P.; Cecconello, M.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I.T.; Ciric, D.; Colyer, G.; Conway, N. J.; Cox, M.; Crowley, B. J.; Cowley, S. C.; Cunningham, G.; Danilov, A.; Darke, A.; de Bock, M. F. M.; De Temmerman, G.; Dendy, R. O.; Denner, P.; Dickinson, D.; Dnestrovskij, A. Y.; Dnestrovsky, Y.; Driscoll, M. D.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunstan, M.; Dura, P.; Elmore, S.; Field, A. R.; Fishpool, G.; Freethy, S.; Fundamenski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Ghim, Y. C.; Gibson, K. J.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Harrison, J.; E. Havlíčková,; Hawkes, N. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hender, T. C.; Highcock, E.; Higgins, D.; Hill, P.; Hnat, B.; Hole, M. J.; J. Horáček,; Howell, D. F.; Imada, K.; Jones, O.; Kaveeva, E.; Keeling, D.; Kirk, A.; M. Kočan,; Lake, R. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leggate, H. J.; Liang, Y.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisgo, S. W.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lloyd, B.; Maddison, G. P.; Mailloux, J.; Martin, R.; McArdle, G. J.; McClements, K. G.; McMillan, B.; Michael, C.; Militello, F.; Molchanov, P.; Mordijck, S.; Morgan, T.; Morris, A. W.; Muir, D. G.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Naylor, G.; Nielsen, A. H.; O' Brien, M. R.; O' Gorman, T.; Pamela, S.; Parra, F. I.; Patel, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Price, M. N.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, J. R.; Romanelli, M.; Rozhansky, V.; Saarelma, S.; Sangaroon, S.; Saveliev, A.; Scannell, R.; Seidl, J.; Sharapov, S. E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Shevchenko, V.; Shibaev, S.; Stork, D.; Storrs, J.; Sykes, A.; Tallents, G. J.; Tamain, P.; Taylor, D.; Temple, D.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Thornton, A.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.; M. Valovič,; Vann, R. G. L.; Verwichte, E.; Voskoboynikov, P.; Voss, G.; Warder, S. E. V.; Wilson, H. R.; Wodniak, I.; Zoletnik, S.; Zagorski, R.; MAST Team,; NBI Team,

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pe

  7. Overview of physics results from MAST towards ITER/DEMO and the MAST Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Abel, I.G.; Akers, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the...

  8. First studies of ITER-diagnostic mirrors in a tokamak with an all-metal interior: results of the first mirror test in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litnovsky, A.; Matveeva, M.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; Mayer, M.; Sugiyama, K.; Krieger, K.; Voitsenya, V.; Vayakis, G.; Costley, A. E.; Reichle, R.; De Temmerman, G.; Richter, S.; Breuer, U.; Buzi, L.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; Wienhold, P.

    2013-01-01

    In ITER, mirrors will be used as plasma-viewing elements in all optical and laser diagnostics. In the harsh environment, mirror performance will degrade hampering the operation of associated diagnostics. The most adverse effect on mirror performance is caused by the deposition of impurities. It is e

  9. Upgrade of the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Hernandez, Carlos; Wiencke, Lawrence; Mayotte, Eric; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) explores the nature and origin of cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV. It uses a hybrid technique that combines a Fluorescence Detector (FD) and a 3000 Km2 surface Detector (SD) array. Two laser test beam facilities are located near the center of the observatory. The Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) track the atmospheric conditions during FD's operations and perform additional functions. The CLF was upgraded substantially in 2013 with a solid state laser, new generation GPS, robotic beam calibration system, and better thermal and dust isolation. The upgrade also includes a back scatter Raman Lidar receiver, providing an independent measurement the aerosol optical depth (tau(z,t)). We describe the new features, capabilities, and applications of the updated instrument, including, tau(z,t) calculations for atmospheric monitoring using a data normalized method, laser energy calibration, and steered laser firing for arrival directions studies. We also present the first tau(z,t) results after the upgrade,using two using two independent techniques. One method uses the FD's measurements of the CLF's laser shots in bi-static configuration. The other uses the Raman LIDAR in back scattered configuration.

  10. Viewgraphs presented at the ASDEX/DOE workshop on disruptions in divertor tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granetz, R.; Gruber, O.; Zohm, H. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The emphasis of this year`s ASDEX/DOE workshop was on disruptions in diverted tokamaks. The meeting was held here at MIT on 14--15 March. It is particularly appropriate that MIT hosted the workshop this year, since Alcator C-Mod had just recently completed its very first run campaign, and disruptions are one of the key areas of research in our program. There were a total of 14 speakers, with participants from IPP (Garching), CRPP (Lausanne), Culham, General Atomics, PPPL, Sandia, ORNL, the ITER JCT, and MIT. The subjects addressed included statistical analysis of disruption probabilities in ASDEX, modelling of the vertical axisymmetric plasma motion in DIII-D, impact of disruptions on the design of the ITER divertors, modelling of runaway electrons, and TSC calculations of disruption-induced currents and forces in TPX, etc. One item of particular interest to us was the experimental correlation of halo current magnitude with plasma current on ASDEX-Upgrade. The data indicates at least a linear, and possibly even a quadractic dependence. This has important implications for Alcator C-Mod, since it would predict halo currents of order 1 MA or more at full performance. At the conclusion of the talks, an informal discussion of disruption databases was held, primarily for the purpose of helping us develop a useful one for C-Mod.

  11. Recent ASDEX Upgrade research in support of ITER and DEMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2015-01-01

    to be the decisive element for the L–H power threshold. A physics based scaling of the density at which the minimum PLH occurs indicates that ITER could take advantage of it to initiate H-mode at lower density than that of the final Q = 10 operational point. Core density fluctuation measurements resolved in radius...

  12. First test beam results of prototype modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS strip tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is foreseen to be upgraded to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This will result in higher particle rates and radiation doses. The ATLAS experiment plans to replace its inner tracking detector by a new all-silicon tracker which is based on the concept of modularity. For the new silicon strip tracker a large prototyping and evaluation campaign is ongoing. Many modules of different types were built and tested both in the laboratories and in test beams. In the following first results obtained in test beams are presented. Both mini and full-size modules for the central and forward regions were tested before and after irradiation to fluences as expected at the HL-LHC.

  13. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  14. Upgrade of the LHC Schottky Monitor, Operational Experience and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Schottky system allows the measurement of beam parameters such as tune and chromaticity in an entirely non-invasive way by extracting information from the statistical fluctuations in the incoherent motion of particles. The system was commissioned in 2011 and provided satisfactory beam-parameter measurements during LHC run 1 for lead-ions. However, for protons its usability was substantially limited due to strong interfering signals originating from the coherent motion of the particle bunch. The system has recently been upgraded with optimized travelling-wave pick-ups and an improved 4.8~GHz microwave signal path, with the front-end and the triple down-mixing chain optimized to reduce coherent signals. Design and operational aspects for the complete system are shown and the results from measurements with LHC beams in Run II are presented and discussed.

  15. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  16. Testbeam results of the upgraded fast beam condition monitor at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria; Karacheban, Olena; Lohmann, Wolfgang [BTU, Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Burtowy, Piotr; Ryjov, Vladimir; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Przyborowski, Dominik [AGH-UST, Cracow (Poland); Schuwalow, Sergej; Walsh, Roberval [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Fast Beam Condition Monitor BCM1F at CMS is based on single-crystal diamond sensor with nanosecond time resolution. BCM1F delivered luminosity and machine induced background information to the CMS and LHC control room during the first running period of the LHC. A major upgrade to BCM1F was developed and built during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2014. The increased rate and the 25ns spacing should be handled with sensors subdivided by a double pad metallization and a faster new front-end ASIC. A prototype with these new components was investigated in the testbeam at DESY-II. The results are presented and also verified by Superfish simulations.

  17. Results on low mass WIMPs using an upgraded CRESST-II detector

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Bucci, C; Canonica, L; Erb, A; Feilitzsch, F v; Iachellini, N Ferreiro; Gorla, P; Gütlein, A; Hauff, D; Huff, P; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kister, C; Kluck, H; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Loebell, J; Münster, A; Petricca, F; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Schönert, S; Seidel, W; Sivers, M v; Stodolsky, L; Strandhagen, C; Strauss, R; Tanzke, A; Uffinger, M; Ulrich, A; Usherov, I; Wüstrich, M; Wawoczny, S; Willers, M; Zöller, A

    2014-01-01

    The CRESST-II cryogenic dark matter search aims for the detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in CaWO$_4$ crystals. We present results from a low-threshold analysis of a single upgraded detector module. This module efficiently vetoes low energy backgrounds induced by $\\alpha$-decays on inner surfaces of the detector. With an exposure of 29.35 kg live days collected in 2013 we set a limit on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering which probes a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3 GeV/c$^2$, previously not covered in direct detection searches. A possible excess over background discussed for the previous run (from 2009 to 2011) is not confirmed.

  18. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  19. Recent results of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073610

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has to undergo significant updates at the end of the current decade, in order to withstand the increased occupancy and radiation damage that will be produced by the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. In this presentation we give an overview of the recent accomplishments of the R&D activity on the planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS Inner Detector upgrade.

  20. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Alimonti, G.; /INFN, Milan; Barbero, M.; /Bonn U.; Bates, R.; /Glasgow U.; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /Manchester U.; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Buttar, C.; /Glasgow U.; Capua, M.; /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Cobal, M.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Cristofoli, A.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Dalla Betta, G.F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; /INFN, Genoa; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Devetak, E.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; DeWilde, B.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Di Girolamo, B.; /CERN; Dobos, D.; /CERN; Einsweiler, K.; /LBL, Berkeley; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  1. The nuMOIRCS project: detector upgrade overview and early commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Josh; Wung, Matthew; Fabricius, Maximilian; Tanaka, Ichi; Arimoto, Nobuo; Cook, David; Elms, Brian; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Hu, Yen-Sang; Iwata, Ikuru; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Takato, Naruhisa; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Weber, Mark

    2016-08-01

    In 2014 and 2015 the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) instrument at the Subaru Telescope on Maunakea is underwent a significant modernization and upgrade project. We upgraded the two Hawaii2 detectors to Hawaii2-RG models, modernized the cryogenic temperature control system, and rewrote much of the instrument control software. The detector upgrade replaced the Hawaii2 detectors which use the Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller (TUFPAC) electronics with Hawaii2-RG detectors using SIDECAR ASIC (a fully integrated FPA controller system-on-a-chip) and a SAM interface card. We achieved an improvement in read noise by a factor of about 2 with this detector and electronics upgrade. The cryogenic temperature control upgrade focused on modernizing the components and making the procedures for warm up and cool down of the instrument safer. We have moved PID control loops out of the instrument control software and into Lakeshore model 336 cryogenic temperature controllers and have added interlocks on the warming systems to prevent overheating of the instrument. Much of the instrument control software has also been re-written. This was necessitated by the different interface to the detector electronics (ASIC and SAM vs. TUFPAC) and by the desire to modernize the interface to the telescope control software which has been updated to Subaru's "Gen2" system since the time of MOIRCS construction and first light. The new software is also designed to increase reliability of operation of the instrument, decrease overheads, and be easier for night time operators and support astronomers to use.

  2. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  3. Micron Size Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line, Recent Results and ATF-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, G A; Boorman, G; Bosco, A; Deacon, L; Karataev, P; Howell, D; Nevay, L J; Corner, L; Delerue, N; Foster, B; Gannaway, F; Newman, M; Senanayake, R; Walczak, R; Hayano, H; Aryshev, A; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2010-01-01

    The KEK Accelerator test facility (ATF) extraction line laser-wire system has been upgraded last year allowing the measurement of micron scale transverse size electron beams. The most recent measurements using the upgraded system are presented. The ATF-II extraction line design call for the major upgrade of the existing laser-wire system. We report on the hardware upgrades, including the major hardware upgrades to the laser transport, the laser beam diagnostics line, and the mechanical control systems.

  4. Note: Upgrade of electron cyclotron emission imaging system and preliminary results on HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M., E-mail: jiangm@swip.ac.cn; Shi, Z. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Xu, Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Z. C. [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging system on the HL-2A tokamak has been upgraded to 24 (poloidally) × 16 (radially) channels based on the previous 24 × 8 array. The measurement region can be flexibly shifted due to the independence of the two local oscillator sources, and the field of view can be adjusted easily by changing the position of the zoom lenses. The temporal resolution is about 2.5 μs and the achievable spatial resolution is 1 cm. After laboratory calibration, it was installed on HL-2A tokamak in 2014, and the local 2D mode structures of MHD activities were obtained for the first time.

  5. Recent Results of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    To cope with the higher occupancy and radiation damage at the HL-LHC also the LHC experiments will be upgraded. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) is an international collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists, exploring the feasibility of employing planar pixel sensors for this scenario. Depending on the radius, different pixel concepts are investigated using laboratory and beam test measurements. At small radii the extreme radiation environment and strong space constraints are addressed with very thin pixel sensors active thickness in the range of (75-150) mum, and the development of slim as well as active edges. At larger radii the main challenge is the cost reduction to allow for instrumenting the large area of (7-10) m^2. To reach this goal the pixel productions are being transferred to 6 inch production lines. Additionally, investigated are more cost-efficient and industrialised interconnection techniques as well as the n-in-p technology, which, being a single-sided pr...

  6. Micron size laser-wire system at the ATF extraction line, recent results and ATF-II upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryshev, A., E-mail: alar@post.kek.j [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A. [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Corner, L. [John Adams Institute at Oxford University, Nuclear and Astrophysics Laboratory, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Deacon, L. [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F. [John Adams Institute at Oxford University, Nuclear and Astrophysics Laboratory, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hayano, H. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Howell, D. [John Adams Institute at Oxford University, Nuclear and Astrophysics Laboratory, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Karataev, P. [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Nevay, L.; Newman, M.; Senanayake, R. [John Adams Institute at Oxford University, Nuclear and Astrophysics Laboratory, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Walczak, R. [John Adams Institute at Oxford University, Nuclear and Astrophysics Laboratory, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    The KEK Accelerator test facility (ATF) extraction line laser-wire system has been upgraded last year allowing the measurement of micron scale transverse size electron beams. The last measurements using the upgraded system from recent operation at the ATF are presented, demonstrating raw measurements of order 3{mu}m RMS. The main component contributions to this measurement are also discussed.

  7. Micron size laser-wire system at the ATF extraction line, recent results and ATF-II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryshev, A.; Blair, G. A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Corner, L.; Deacon, L.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Hayano, H.; Howell, D.; Karataev, P.; Nevay, L.; Newman, M.; Senanayake, R.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Walczak, R.

    2010-11-01

    The KEK Accelerator test facility (ATF) extraction line laser-wire system has been upgraded last year allowing the measurement of micron scale transverse size electron beams. The last measurements using the upgraded system from recent operation at the ATF are presented, demonstrating raw measurements of order 3 μm RMS. The main component contributions to this measurement are also discussed.

  8. Selected results from the static characterization of edgeless n-on-p planar pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, Gabriele; Bomben, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; La Rosa, Alessandro; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the High Luminosity Phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the Inner Detector with an all-Silicon system. The n-on-p technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. There is also the demand to reduce the inactive areas to a minimum. The ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento started a collaboration for the development on a novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process which can cope with all these requirements. This paper reports selected results from the electrical characterization, both before and after irradiation, of test structures from the first production batch.

  9. Improvements made to the Bruce A upgraders and heavy water cleanup system as part of the Bruce A Units 1 and 2 restart project and commissioning results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davloor, R., E-mail: ram.davloor@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Steinberg, G.; Boddy, C. [SNC Lavalin Nuclear, Oakville, Ontario (Canada); Rocci, D. [Aecon Nuclear, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As part of the Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, major modifications and maintenance were completed on the heat transport and moderator upgraders and the heavy water cleanup system. This represents the first time that major rehabilitation has been done to such systems in a CANDU nuclear station for the purpose of life extension. Prior to shutdown in 1997, the upgraders and cleanup system significantly underperformed against the stated design. The rehabilitation, which included major design changes and implementation of new systems, resulted in the upgraders exceeding design throughput and making product with quality much better than specified. This paper describes the work done, results from inspections and follow-up, and performance data from commissioning. (author)

  10. Preliminary results of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Gemme, C; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Povoli, M; Ronchin, S; Zoboli, A; Zorzi, N; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Dong, S; Fazio, S; Grenier, P; Grinstein, S; Gjersdal, H; Hansson, P; Huegging, F; Jackson, P; Kocian, M; Rivero, F; Rohne, O; Sandaker, H; Sjobak, K; Slavicek, T; Tsung, W; Tsybychev, D; Wermes, N; Young, C

    2009-01-01

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200um, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110um to 150um. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am241 gamma-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 beta-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  11. Preliminary Results of 3D-DDTC Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, Alessandro; /CERN; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; Gemme, C.; /INFN, Genoa; Pernegger, H.; /CERN; Piemonte, C.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Povoli, M.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Ronchin, S.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Zoboli, A.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Zorzi, N.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Dong, S.; /SLAC; Fazio, S.; /Calabria U.; Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Grinstein, S.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Gjersdal, H.; /Oslo U.; Hansson, P.; /SLAC; Huegging, F.; /Bonn U. /SLAC /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2012-04-04

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180 GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200 {mu}m, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am{sup 241} {gamma}-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 {beta}-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  12. Overview of Results from the Upgraded ICRF System on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, G.; Wukitch, S. J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Boivin, R. L.; Fiore, C.; Goetz, J. A.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Lee, W. D.; Marmar, E.; Mazurenko, A.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.; Hosea, J.; Perkins, F. W.; Phillips, C. K.; Taylor, G.; White, R.; Wilson, J. R.

    2000-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod's ICRF program has added to existing physics studies and generated new physics results. Simulations of mode conversion physics using the full-wave code TORIC are in good agreement with experimental measurements of electron power deposition profiles. Phase contrast imaging has detected density fluctuations associated with the propagation of the launched fast wave and also ion Bernstein waves in the plasma core. During experiments to measure toroidal rotation, a core transport barrier was observed in addition to the edge H-mode barrier with the minority ion resonance on the high-field side of the axis. Initial operation of the PPPL 4-strap ICRF antenna was hindered by impurity generation problems and antenna arcing which were largely eliminated by improvements made in January 2000. Subsequently, more than 3 MW of power have been launched into plasma. A closed-box configuration for this antenna will be tested.

  13. Results of FE65-P2 Pixel Readout Test Chip for High Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    A pixel readout test chip called FE65-P2 has been fabricated on 65 nm CMOS technology. FE65-P2 contains a matrix of 64 x 64 pixels on 50 micron by 50 micron pitch, designed to read out a bump bonded sensor. The goals of FE65-P2 are to demonstrate excellent analog performance isolated from digital activity well enough to achieve 500 electron stable threshold, be radiation hard to at least 500 Mrad, and prove the novel concept of isolated analog front ends embedded in a flat digital design, dubbed “analog islands in a digital sea”. Experience from FE65-P2 and hybrid assemblies will be applied to the design for a large format readout chip, called RD53A, to be produced in a wafer run in early 2017 by the RD53 collaboration. We review the case for 65 nm technology and report on threshold stability test results for the FE65-P2.

  14. Monitoring of the turbulent solar wind with the upgraded Large Phased Array of the Lebedev Institute of Physics: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, V. I.; Chashei, I. V.; Oreshko, V. V.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Svidskii, P. M.; Lapshin, V. B.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The design properties and technical characteristics of the upgraded Large Phased Array (LPA) are briefly described. The results of an annual cycle of observations of interplanetary scintillations of radio sources on the LPA with the new 96-beam BEAM 3 system are presented. Within a day, about 5000 radio sources displaying second-timescale fluctuations in their flux densities due to interplanetary scintillations were observed. At present, the parameters of many of these radio sources are unknown. Therefore, the number of sources with root-mean-square flux-density fluctuations greater than 0.2 Jy in a 3° × 3° area of sky was used to characterize the scintillation level. The observational data obtained during the period of the maximum of solar cycle 24 can be interpreted using a three-component model for the spatial structure of the solar wind, consisting of a stable global component, propagating disturbances, and corotating structures. The global component corresponds to the spherically symmetric structure of the distribution of the turbulent interplanetary plasma. Disturbances propagating from the Sun are observed against the background of the global structure. Propagating disturbances recorded at heliocentric distances of 0.4-1 AU and at all heliolatitudes reach the Earth's orbit one to two days after the scintillation enhancement. Enhancements of ionospheric scintillations are observed during night-time. Corotating disturbances have a recurrence period of 27 d . Disturbances of the ionosphere are observed as the coronal base of a corotating structure approaches the western edge of the solar limb.

  15. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  16. Beam Commissioning Results of the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS Injection System with Upgraded 400 MeV Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.

    In order to achieve 1 MW beam power, injection system of the 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) was upgraded to the design injection energy of 400 MeV in the 2013 from that of 181 MeV. The higher injection energy plays a key role to mitigate the space charge effect at lower energy region so as to realize 1 MW beam. The beam commissioning with newly installed and upgraded components was successful to demonstrate a more than 550 kW beam power in the RCS with sufficiently low beam loss. This is a milestone towards realizing 1 MW, which is scheduled in October 2014. A detail of the design criteria along with 1st stage beam commissioning results are presented.

  17. Consistency between real and synthetic fast-ion measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner

    2015-01-01

    by comparing fast-ion measurements from collective Thomson scattering, fast-ion spectroscopy, and neutron rate detectors with numerical predictions from the TRANSP/NUBEAM transport code. We also study the sensitivity of the theoretical predictions to uncertainties in the plasma kinetic profiles. We find...... the fast-ion distribution function in 2D velocity space....

  18. Fast-ion transport and neutral beam current drive in ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou;

    2015-01-01

    during on-axis injection and outwards shifted profiles during off-axis injection. Due to this change of the fast-ion population, a clear modification of the plasma current profile is predicted but not observed by a motional Stark effect diagnostic. The fast-ion transport caused by MHD activity has been...... studied in low collisionality discharges that exhibit strong (1, 1) modes. In particular due to sawtooth crashes, significant radial redistribution of co-rotating fast-ions is observed which can very well be described by the Kadomtsev model. In addition, first tomographic reconstructions of the central 2D...

  19. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.;

    2012-01-01

    with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG....

  20. Resolving the bulk ion region of millimeter-wave collective Thomson scattering spectra at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou;

    2014-01-01

    resolution in the range of 1 MHz are then obtained through direct digitization and Fourier analysis of the CTS signal. We here describe the design, calibration, and operation of the fast receiver system and give examples of measured bulk ion CTS spectra showing the effects of changing ion temperature...

  1. Fast Ion Dynamics in ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR Measured by Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, Dmitry

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  2. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner;

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion device...

  3. Trends of W behavior in ICRF assisted discharges in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, A.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Sertoli, M.

    2015-08-01

    During Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) operation with metallic plasma facing components, plasma wall interaction processes are modified, which needs to be understood in order to reduce the ICRF-related rise in impurity concentration and maximize ICRF coupling. This contribution is focused on gathering and analyzing a database on W-behavior during ICRF spanning a multi-parameter space. The gas puff dependence is investigated in selected pulses that feature the injection of deuterium (D2) main gas, with impurity gas nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr). CW was found to decrease with the total gas injection rate, which was also correlated with the changes of electron density in the location of the CW measurements. Although the addition of N2, Ar and Kr impacted on the increase in sputtering, to achieve a similar CW level with mixed puffing, one needs to inject considerably more gas. Moreover, CW is shown to change after implementation of boron coatings on the ICRF antenna limiters.

  4. Convective and Diffusive Energetic Particle Losses Induced by Shear Alfven Waves in the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Hicks, N.; van Voornveld, R.; Classen, I.G.J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Igochine, V.; Jaemsae, S.; Maraschek, M.; Sassenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the first phase-space characterization of convective and diffusive energetic particle losses induced by shear Alfven waves in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. While single toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and Alfven cascades (AC) eject resonant fast ions in a convective process

  5. High frequency magnetic fluctuations correlated with the inter-ELM pedestal evolution in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, F. M.; Wolfrum, E.; Cavedon, M.; Mink, F.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M. G.; Manz, P.; Doerk, H.; Birkenmeier, G.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Aumayr, F.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that determine the structure of the high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal, the evolution of the plasma edge electron density and temperature profiles between edge localised modes (ELMs) is investigated. The onset of radial magnetic fluctuations with frequencies above 200 kHz is found to correlate with the stagnation of the electron temperature pedestal gradient. During the presence of these magnetic fluctuations the gradients of the edge electron density and temperature are clamped and stable against the ELM onset. The detected magnetic fluctuation frequency is analysed for a variety of plasma discharges with different electron pressure pedestals. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuation frequency scales with the neoclassically estimated \\text{E} × \\text{B} velocity at the plasma edge. This points to a location of the underlying instability in the gradient region. Furthermore, the magnetic signature of these fluctuations indicates a global mode structure with toroidal mode numbers of approximately 10. The fluctuations are also observed on the high field side with significant amplitude, indicating a mode structure that is symmetric on the low field side and high field side. The associated fluctuations in the current on the high field side might be attributed to either a strong peeling part or the presence of non-adiabatic electron response.

  6. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  7. On the asymmetries of ELM divertor power deposition in JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eich, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Fundamenski, W.

    2009-01-01

    . The paper discusses a comparable simple extension of the model by introducing a non-zero characteristic velocity of the Maxwellian distributed particles. This way the experimentally observed temporal evolution as well as the in/out energy imbalance can be described. The extended model named free......An analytical expression was derived for describing the divertor target power during ELMs based on the model discussed in [W. Fundamenski, R.A. Pitts, Plasma Phys. Control. Fus. 48 (2006) 109] where the power load arises from a Maxwellian distribution of particles released into the SOL region...

  8. ATLAS UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for ...

  9. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, P; Poikela, T; Crossley, M; Kucharczyk, M; Whitehead, M; Dumps, R; Mountain, R; Artuso, M; Rodrigues, E; Tlustos, L; Papadelis, A; Buytaert, J; Blusk, S; Parkes, C; Xing, Z; Eklund, L; Coco, V; Michel, T; Campbell, M; Bowcock, T J V; Wang, J C; Akiba, K; Gligorov, V; Huse, T; Llin, L F; Gandelman, M; Plackett, R; Esperante, D; Maneuski, D; Bayer, F; Llopart, X; Alexander, M; Gallas, A; Nichols, M; van Beuzekom, M G; John, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC plans to massively increase its data taking capabilities by running at a higher luminosity with a fully upgraded detector around 2016. This scheme is independent of (but compatible with) the plans for the SLHC upgrades. The silicon detector will be upgraded to provide a 40 MHz readout and to be able to cope with the increased radiation environment. This paper describes the options currently under consideration. A highlight of the R\\&D so far undertaken is a beam test during summer 2009 using the Timepix chip to track charged particles. Preliminary results are presented, including a measurement of the resolution achieved by the 55 mu m pitch pixel array of better than 9.5 mu m for perpendicular tracks and 55 mu m for angled tracks. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Commissioning and operational results of helium refrigeration system at JLab for the 12GeV upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Norton, Robert O. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Creel, Jonathan D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The new 4.5 K refrigerator system at the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL-2) for the 12 GeV upgrade was commissioned in late spring of 2013, following the commissioning of the new compressor system, and has been supporting 12 GeV LINAC commissioning since that time. Six design modes were tested during commissioning, consisting of a maximum capacity, nominal capacity, maximum liquefaction, maximum refrigeration, maximum fill and a stand-by/reduced load condition. The maximum capacity was designed to support a 238 g/s, 30 K and 1.16 bar cold compressor return flow, a 15 g/s, 4.5 K liquefaction load and a 12.6 kW, 35-55 K shield load. The other modes were selected to ensure proper component sizing and selection to allow the cold box to operate over a wide range of conditions and capacities. The cold box system is comprised of two physically independent cold boxes with interconnecting transfer-lines. The outside (upper) 300-60 K vertical cold box has no turbines and incorporates a liquid nitrogen pre-cooler and 80-K beds. The inside (lower) 60-4.5 K horizontal cold box houses seven turbines that are configured in four expansion stages including one Joule-Thompson expander and a 20-K bed. The helium compression system has five compressors to support three pressure levels in the cold box. This paper will summarize the analysis of the test data obtained over the wide range of operating conditions and capacities which were tested.

  11. Test beam results of the GE1/1 prototype for a future upgrade of the CMS high-$\\eta$ muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Armagnaud, C; Aspell, P; Ban, Y; Bally, S; Benussi, L; Berzano, U; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bunkowski, K; Cai, J; Chatelain, J P; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; David, E; de Robertis, G; De Oliveira, R; Duarte Pinto, S; Ferry, S; Formenti, F; Franconi, L; Gnanvo, K; Gutierrez, A; Hohlmann, M; Karchin, P E; Loddo, F; Magazzú, G; Maggi, M; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mehta, K; Merlin, J; Mohapatra, A; Moulik, T; Nemallapudi, M V; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Raffone, G; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Staib, M J; Teng, H; Tytgat, M; Tupputi, S A; Turini, N; Smilkjovic, N; Villa, M; Zaganidis, N; Zientek, M

    2011-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are an interesting technology under consideration for the future upgrade of the forward region of the CMS muon system, specifically in the $1.6<| \\eta |<2.4$ endcap region. With a sufficiently fine segmentation GEMs can provide precision tracking as well as fast trigger information. The main objective is to contribute to the improvement of the CMS muon trigger. The construction of large-area GEM detectors is challenging both from the technological and production aspects. In view of the CMS upgrade we have designed and built the largest full-size Triple-GEM muon detector, which is able to meet the stringent requirements given the hostile environment at the high-luminosity LHC. Measurements were performed during several test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS in 2010 and 2011. The main issues under study are efficiency, spatial resolution and timing performance with different inter-electrode gap configurations and gas mixtures. In this paper results of the performance of the pro...

  12. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  13. Aligning component upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Cosmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  14. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  15. Advanced Accelerator Magnets for Upgrading the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; de Rijk, G; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is working at about half its design value, limited by the defective splices of the magnet interconnections. While the full energy will be attained after the splice consolidation in 2014, CERN is preparing a plan for a Luminosity upgrade (High Luminosity LHC) around 2020 and has launched a pre-study for exploring an Energy upgrade (High Energy LHC) around 2030. Both upgrades strongly rely on advanced accelerator magnet technology, requiring dipoles and quadrupoles of accelerator quality and operating fields in the 11-13 T range for the luminosity upgrade and 16-20 T range for the energy upgrade. The paper will review the last ten year of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet R&D and compare it to the needs of the upgrades and will critically assess the results of the Nb3Sn and HTS technology and the planned R&D programs also based on the inputs of first year of LHC operation.

  16. Subsidiary Upgrading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Dörrenbächer, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThis study reports the results of interviews with 65 managers in 11 Germanheadquarters and in their 13 Hungarian subsidiaries. We focused on the role of thesubsidiary with regard to market, product and value-adding mandates. Further, weinvestigated whether the Hungarian subsidiaries had e...

  17. LHCb DAQ network upgrade tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    My project concerned the evaluation of new technologies for the DAQ network upgrade of LHCb. The first part consisted in developing and Open Flow-based Clos network. This new technology is very interesting and powerful but, as shown by the results, it still needs further improvements. The second part consisted in testing and benchmarking 40GbE network equipment: Mellanox MT27500, Chelsio T580 and Huawei Cloud Engine 12804. An event-building simulation is currently been performed in order to check the feasibility of the DAQ network upgrade in LS2. The first results are promising.

  18. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    the k products in T that can be upgraded to not be dominated by any products in P at the lowest cost. This problem is non-trivial due to not only the large data set sizes, but also to the many possibilities for upgrading a product. We identify and provide solutions for the different options...... by the join approach to prune upgrade candidates with uncompetitive upgrade costs. Empirical studies with synthetic and real data show that the join approach is efficient and scalable....

  19. The D0 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  20. LHCb: The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Borghi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the LHC. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of ~1 fb$^{–1}$ of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. We therefore plan for an upgraded spectrometer by 2018 with a 40 MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency, especially in the hadronic channels

  1. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.;

    2015-01-01

    with the theoretical predictions based on the Kadomtsev model. Between the sawtooth crashes, the fishbone modes are excited which, however, do not cause measurable changes in the global fast-ion population. During experiments with on- and off-axis NBI and without strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes, the fast......-ion measurements agree very well with the neo-classical predictions. This shows that the MHD-induced (large-scale), as well as a possible turbulence-induced (small-scale) fast-ion transport is negligible under these conditions. However, in discharges performed to study the off-axis NBI current drive efficiency...

  2. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on low collisionality discharges in MAST and a comparison with ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Liu, Yueqiang; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Eich, T; Fuchs, C; Ham, C; Harrison, J R; Jakubowski, M W; Pamela, S; Peterka, M; Ryan, D; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J; Valovic, M; Sieglin, B; Orte, L Barrera; Willensdorfer, M; Kurzan, B; Fischer, R; Upgrade, ASDEX

    2014-01-01

    Sustained ELM mitigation has been achieved on MAST and AUG using RMPs with a range of toroidal mode numbers over a wide region of low to medium collisionality discharges. The ELM energy loss and peak heat loads at the divertor targets have been reduced. The ELM mitigation phase is typically associated with a drop in plasma density and overall stored energy. In one particular scenario on MAST, by carefully adjusting the fuelling it has been possible to counteract the drop in density and to produce plasmas with mitigated ELMs, reduced peak divertor heat flux and with minimal degradation in pedestal height and confined energy. While the applied resonant magnetic perturbation field can be a good indicator for the onset of ELM mitigation on MAST and AUG there are some cases where this is not the case and which clearly emphasise the need to take into account the plasma response to the applied perturbations. The plasma response calculations show that the increase in ELM frequency is correlated with the size of the e...

  3. Fast ion measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade and proposal for the ITER CTS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran;

    Moving towards the era of burning fusion plasmas, a better knowledge of the physics of highly energetic particles, such as fusion born alpha particles, becomes essential. Diagnosing the fast ions in a fusion plasma is a challenging task, but the technique of collective Thomson scattering (CTS......) provides the possibility of revealing the velocity distribution of the confined fast ions along a given direction – resolved both in time and space. Recently, the ITER baseline design has been expanded to include the enabling of the front end of a fast ion CTS diagnostic system resolving dynamics...... perpendicular to the magnetic field. The feasibility study and conceptual design of this diagnostic was provided by the CTS group at Risø DTU. The development of the ITER CTS diagnostic builds on the experiences and expertise gained from the construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems...

  4. Investigation of inter-ELM ion heat transport in the H-mode pedestal of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Fable, E.; Cavedon, M.; Angioni, C.; Dux, R.; Laggner, F. M.; Bernert, M.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The ion heat transport in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is investigated in various H-mode discharges with different pedestal ion collisionalities. Interpretive modelling suggests that in all analyzed discharges the ion heat diffusivity coefficient, {χ\\text{i}} , in the pedestal is close to the neoclassical prediction within the experimental uncertainties. The impact of changing the deposition location of the electron cyclotron resonance heating on the ion heat transport has been studied. The effect on the background profiles is small. The pre-ELM (edge localized modes) edge profiles as well as the behaviour of the electron temperature and density, ion temperature and impurity toroidal rotation during the ELM cycle are very similar in discharges with on- and off-axis ECRH heating. No significant deviation of {χ\\text{i}} from neoclassics is observed when changing the ECRH deposition location to the plasma edge.

  5. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  6. LEP is upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency cavity is installed on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. This upgrade, known as LEP-2, allowed the accelerator to reach new, higher energies and so investigate new areas of physics.

  7. Trajectory for Industrial Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ordered the closure of outdated production lines in 18 industries as part of the country's plan to upgrade its industrial structure and move up the value chain.

  8. LHC Upgrade Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    The EU CARE-HHH and US-LARP studies for an LHC luminosity upgrade aim at increasing the peak luminosity by a factor of 10, to 1035 cm-2s-1. The luminosity can be raised by rebuilding the interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. In addition to advanced low-beta quadrupoles, the upgraded IRs may accommodate other new elements such as slim s.c. dipoles or quadrupoles embedded deep inside the detectors, global low-angle crab cavities, and wire compensators of long-range beam-beam effects. Important constraints on the upgrade path are the maximum acceptable number of detector pile-up events, favoring many closely spaced bunches, and the heat load on the cold-magnet beam screens, pointing towards fewer and more intense bunches. In order to translate the increased peak luminosity into a correspondingly higher integrated luminosity, the upgrade of the LHC ring should be complemented by an upgrade of the injector complex. I will present preferred upgrade scenarios for the L...

  9. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H- source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, B.; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-01

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called "Large Area Grid" (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  10. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  11. The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, A

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. In the next years, LHCb will measure a large number of interesting channels in heavy flavor decays. However, the limit of 1 fb−1 of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. An upgraded spectrometer with a 40MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency specially in the hadronic channels, widening our physics scope beyond that of heavy flavor. Here, the different possibilities under study for the different detectors are reviewed as well as the ongoing R&D activiti...

  12. Altair performance and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  13. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  14. HIRFL Operation and Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoHongwei; WangYifang; ZhanWenlong; WeiBaowen; HIRFLTeam

    2003-01-01

    After almost one year shutdown for upgrading the vacuum chamber of the iniector SFC,SFC has been in operation separately since May 2003. The SFC operation statistics and accelerated heams from May to December 2003 are shown in Table 1 and 2. The main cyclotron SSC has beenfor still shut down in 2003 for upgrading the SSC power supply system, control and diagnostic system, and themain experimental area, LECR3, an ECR ion source dedicated for atomic physics and surface physics research, has provided 2488 hours beams for experiments of atomic physics research.

  15. The UKIRT Upgrades Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

    Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

  16. ATLAS/CMS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00370685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Precision studies of the Standard Model (SM) and the searches of the physics beyond the SM are ongoing at the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A luminosity upgrade of LHC is planned, which provides a significant challenge for the experiments. In this report, the plans of the ATLAS and CMS upgrades are introduced. Physics prospects for selected topics, including Higgs coupling measurements, Bs,d -> mumu decays, and top quark decays through flavor changing neutral current, are also shown.

  17. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  18. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  19. CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Phase I Upgrade Status

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    The Hadron Forward Calorimeter of CMS is going through a complete Phase I upgrade. The current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being replaced with thinner window, higher quantum efficiency, four-anode photomultiplier tubes. The new PMTs will provide better light detection performance, a significantly reduced background and unique handles to recover the signal in the presence of background. This report will describe the nature of the essential upgrade elements with supporting beam test results and the status of the upgrade progression.

  20. CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Phase I Upgrade Status

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2014-01-01

    The Hadron Forward Calorimeter of CMS is going through a complete Phase I upgrade. The current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being replaced with thinner window, higher quantum efficiency, four-anode photomultiplier tubes. The new PMTs will provide better light detection performance, a significantly reduced background and unique handles to recover the signal in the presence of background. This report will describe the nature of the essential upgrade elements with supporting beam test results and the status of the upgrade progression.

  1. PF-AR upgrading project

    CERN Document Server

    Kasuga, T

    2002-01-01

    The upgrading project of the dedicated pulse X-ray source PF-AR has been completed by the end of the 2001 fiscal year. Machine commissioning exclusively using the injector linac was successfully accomplished in the beginning of January 2002. After fine tuning of the machine and cleaning of the vacuum system with the beams from the middle of January to the middle of March, routine operation for users has begun in April. The historical details, commissioning and results of the project are reported. (author)

  2. The VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Jans, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    A significant upgrade of the LHCb detector is scheduled to be installed in 2018-2019. Afterwards all sub-detectors will be read out at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and the trigger will be fully implemented in software. The silicon strip vertex detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector. In these proceedings the following items are discussed: frontend ASIC, data rates, data transmission, cooling, radiation hard sensors, module design and simulated performance.

  3. CMS upgrades for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the impact of the LHC luminosity upgrade on CMS detector. While most of the CMS can possibly cope with the increased luminosity, the Tracker must undergo a major redesign in technology both in terms of detector substrates as well as in the data transfer links. I will show the impact on CMS of reduced bunch length and machine elements close to the interaction point.

  4. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  5. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  6. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  7. Tracking triggers for the upgraded DOe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Bloom, P. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Mani, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Pellett, D. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Costa, J. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreira, L. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baumbaugh, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Blazey, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Borcherding, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Wilcox, J. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The high luminosity environment of the upgraded Tevatron will require not only the upgrade of various DOe subdetectors, but the trigger system as well. With respect to the present system, the upgraded trigger system must operate faster and provide a higher degree of background rejection while extending the physics acceptance beyond that of the current system. This will be accomplished in part by incorporating the scintillating fiber tracker and the preshower detector into the Level 1 trigger. Track logic, implemented in commercial FPGAs, will be used to identify tracks in the scintillating fiber tracker with P{sub T}>1.5 GeV/c and electron candidates in the preshower detector. Integration of the trigger logic and readout electronics permits the identification of all tracks in a few hundred nanoseconds. Here, preliminary designs for the readout and trigger electronics are presented along with simulation results for trigger efficiencies and rejection factors. (orig.).

  8. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Iouri

    2016-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is built to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. With the upgrade of its Inner Tracking System (ITS), the ALICE experiment is going to increase the rate of data taking by almost two orders of magnitude. At the same time, the precision of secondary vertex reconstruction will become by at least a factor 3 better than it currently is. In this talk, we briefly show some selected physics results motivating the upgrade of the ITS, describe the design goals and the layout of the new detector, and highlight a few important measurements that will be realized after the completion of this upgrade.

  9. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  10. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred f b −1 expected for LHC running to 3000 f b −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ext...

  11. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  12. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  13. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    van Beuzekom, Martin; Ketel, Tjeerd; Gershon, Timothy; Parkes, Christopher; Reid, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus for allowing precision measurements in hadronic physics. It provides not only superb impact parameter resolutions but also excellent momentum resolution, both important discriminating tools for precision high energy physics. This poster focuses on the R&D going into the future LHCb VELO detector. At present there are two proposed options for the upgrade; pixel chips or strip detectors. The LHCb upgrade is designed with higher luminosities and increased yields in mind. In order to get more out of the LHCb detector changes to the front end electronics will have to be made. At present, the first level hardware trigger is sets a limiting factor on the maximum efficiency for hadronic channels. As the VELO is positioned so close the proton-proton interaction region, whatever the choice of sensor, we will require efficient cooling and some proposed solutions are outlined. The LHCb TimePix telescope has had a very successful years running, with various devic...

  14. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  15. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  16. FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ► Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ► Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ► Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ► Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the

  17. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  18. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  19. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  20. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production.

  1. Superhilac upgrade project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-05-01

    This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10/sup 7/ to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U/sup 90 +/ and U/sup 91 +/ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown.

  2. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  3. ATLAS Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  4. Upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Daniel; Garczarczyk, Markus; Giavitto, Gianluca; Sitarek, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) located on the Canary island of La Palma. With 17m diameter mirror dishes and ultra-fast electronics, they provide an energy threshold as low as 50 GeV for observations at low zenith angles. The first MAGIC telescope was taken in operation in 2004 whereas the second one joined in 2009. In 2011 we started a major upgrade program to improve and to unify the stereoscopic system of the two similar but at that time different telescopes. Here we report on the upgrade of the readout electronics and digital trigger of the two telescopes, the upgrade of the camera of the MAGIC I telescope as well as the commissioning of the system after this major upgrade.

  5. D0 Upgrade for RUN II

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, P

    1999-01-01

    The D0 detector at The Fermilab Tevatron is undergoing a major upgrade to prepare for data taking with luminosities reaching 2 x 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. The upgrade includes a new central tracking array, new muon detector components and electronic upgrades to many subsystems. The D0 upgraded detector will be operational for RUN II in spring 2000.

  6. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  7. LHCb: A new Readout Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and the first hardware implementation of a new Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade. The system is based on FPGAs and bi-directional links for the control of the entire readout architecture. First results on the validation of the system are also given.

  8. Kicker pulsers for recycler NOVA upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Chris C

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the Recycler injection kicker system required a faster rise time pulser. This system required a field rise and fall time of < 57 ns and a field flattop of 1.6 {\\mu}s. This paper describes the variety of improvements made over the years that have resulted in this latest thyratron pulser. The effects of the trigger, the reservoir and the load impedance on delay and rise time will be discussed.

  9. El Modelo de Gestión de Información y Conocimiento: resultados de su aplicación en una empresa en perfeccionamiento (Information and Knowledge Management Framework: its application results in company upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Artiles Visbal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El Modelo de Gestión de Información y Conocimiento para la empresa en perfeccionamiento (MOGICEP utiliza la gestión del conocimiento como enfoque gerencial, se sustenta en el marco regulatorio del país para la organización de la información, su aplicación se basa en el cumplimento de las etapas que lo conforman y las herramientas que permiten la evaluación de la organización objeto de estudio, estas aportan datos e información y además facilitan el control del modelo propuesto. Esta combinación resulta en extremo necesaria para las organizaciones cualquiera que sea su sector de aplicación. Todo sistema de información debe contribuir decisivamente a propiciar espacios de intercambio, de identificación y de generación de nuevo conocimiento, de ordenación de los datos y de la información interna, para que sean utilizados en el momento preciso por quienes lo necesiten y demanden. Si logramos organizar la información de conjunto con el conocimiento podemos alcanzar en más breve tiempo mejores resultados; este trabajo expone algunas de las experiencias obtenidas en la aplicación del MOGICEP. Abstract The Information and Knowledge Management Framework for company upgrading (MOGICEP uses knowledge management as a managerial approach and is based on the country's regulatory framework for the organization of information. Its application is based on the fulfillment of the stages involved and on the tools to assess the organization under study. These tools provide data and information, at the same time that allow for the control of the proposed model. This combination is extremely necessary for organizations, irrespective of their field of application. Any information system should contribute decisively to promote not only opportunities for exchange, identification and generation of new knowledge, but also data management and internal information, in a way that this information system may be used for those who need and demand it

  10. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H{sup −} source development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, B., E-mail: bernd.heinemann@ipp.mpg.de; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called “Large Area Grid” (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  11. Silicon sensor technologies for the ATLAS IBL upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P

    2012-01-01

    An overview of radiation hard planar and 3D pixel sensor technologies currently under development for ATLAS upgrades is presented. The first upgrade will be the installation in 2013 of an additional pixel layer inside the current inner detector, the Insertable B Layer (IBL). The two technologies are competing to equip the IBL. The IBL sensor qualification procedure is described. Beam test results of un-irradiated and irradiated planar and 3D sensors are presented.

  12. Evaluation of Slum Upgrading Programs: Literature Review and Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    José Brakarz; Laura Jaitman

    2013-01-01

    This technical note analyzes the methodologies used to evaluate neighborhood upgrading programs, describes their results, and suggests approaches for future evaluations. Local and central governments are increasingly utilizing slum or neighborhood upgrading programs to deal with the multiple problems of urban poverty. These programs employ a methodology of integral interventions, combining of both infrastructure works and social services targeted to specific neighborhoods. Due to this variety...

  13. Primary Vertex Reconstruction for Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Wanczyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is the study of beauty and charm hadron decays with the main focus on CP violating phenomena and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through rare decays. At the present, the second data taking period is ongoing, which is called Run II. After 2018 during the long shutdown, the replacement of signicant parts of the LHCb detector is planned. One of main changes is upgrade of the present software and hardware trigger to a more rapid full software trigger. Primary Vertex (PV) is a basis for the further tracking and it is sensitive to the LHC running conditions, which are going to change for the Upgrade. In particular, the center-of-mass collision energy should reach the maximum value of 14 TeV. As a result the quality of the reconstruction has to be studied and the reconstruction algorithms have to be optimized.

  14. ECE Imaging Bandwidth Upgrade for TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, C. W.; Zhang, P.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; van de Pol, M. J.; Spakman, G. W.; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The 128 channel 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) Imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. This instrument was upgraded in February 2007 with new wideband ECE electronics which increased the instantaneous frequency coverage by >50% to 6.4 GHz with a corresponding increase in horizontal plasma coverage. Frequency extenders have been developed to combine modules together to double the instantaneous coverage to 12.8 GHz. Technical details regarding both the electronics upgrade and the frequency extenders as well as the preliminary physics results will be presented. Implementation of a similar but new ECEI instrument on the DIII-D tokamak will be extensively discussed.

  15. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  16. Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Tracker of the CMS experiment, comprising of a pixel and a strip detector, has so far been excellent, as reflected in the wealth of beautiful physics results from CMS. However, the foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. \\\\ In the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016/17 the pixel detector will be exchanged. The new device is designed for an instantaneous luminosity of $2\\cdot 10^{34}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and an integrated luminosity of 500\\,fb$^{-1}$. The number of layers will be increased from three to four in the barrel part and from two to three in the end caps, thus providing four-hit coverage over the full pseudorapidity range. A smaller beampipe allows the reduction of the radius of the innermost layer, improving the tracking performance. Further improvements include a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more effi...

  17. Proposal to upgrade the MIPP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Isenhower, D; Towell, R; Watson, S; Peterson, R J; Baker, W; Carey, D; Christian, D; Demarteau, M; Jensen, D; Johnstone, C; Meyer, H; Raja, R; Ronzhin, A; Solomey, Nickolas; Wester, W; Gutbrod, H H; Peters, K; Feldman, G; Torun, Y; Messier, M D; Paley, J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Duru, F; Gülmez, E; Gunaydin, Y; Onel, Y; Penzo, Aldo L; Avdeichikov, V; Leitner, R; Manjavidze, J; Nikitin, V; Rufanov, I; Sisakian, A; Topuria, T; Manley, D M; Löhner, H; Messchendorpfl, J; Gustafson, H R; Longo, M; Nigmanov, T; Rajaram, D; Kruglov, S P; Lopatin, I V; Kozlenko, N G; Kulbardis, A A; Nowinsky, D V; Radkov, A K; Sumachev, V V; Bujak, A; Gutay, L; Godley, A; Mishra, S R; Rosenfeld, C; Dukes, C; Materniak, C; Nelson, K; Norman, A; Desiati, P; Halzen, F; Montaruli, T

    2006-01-01

    The upgraded MIPP physics results are needed for the support of NuMI projects, atmospheric cosmic ray and neutrino programs worldwide and will permit a systematic study of non-perturbative QCD interctions. The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and ~20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz. This will also enable us to measure the medium energy numi target to be used for the NOvA/MINERvA experiments. We outline the capabilities of the upgraded MIPP detector to obtain high statistics particle production data on a number of nuclei that will help towards the understanding and simulation of hadronic showers in matter. Measurements of nitrogen cross sections will permit a better understanding of cosmic ray shower systematic...

  18. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  19. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Meloni, Simone; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Williams, Mark Richard James

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a proposed selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to maximise the output of useful physics events, and a range of possible signal efficiencies are presented as a function of the available bandwidth.

  20. ATLAS Detector : Performance and Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Describe the ATLAS detector and summarize most relevant and recent information about the detector performance in 2016 with LHC colliding bunches at sqrt(s)=13 TeV with luminosity above the nominal value. Describe the different upgrade phases previewed for the detector and main activities already ongoing.

  1. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  2. On optimal strategies for upgrading networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Ravi, R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Graduate School of Industrial Administration; Sundaram, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-07-02

    We study {ital budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems}. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. Given an edge weighted graph {ital G(V,E)}, in the {ital edge based upgrading model}, it is assumed that each edge {ital e} of the given network has an associated function {ital c(e)} that specifies for each edge {ital e} the amount by which the length {ital l(e)} is to be reduced. In the {ital node based upgrading model} a node {ital v} can be upgraded at an expense of cost {ital (v)}. Such an upgrade reduces the cost of each edge incident on {ital v} by a fixed factor {rho}, where 0 < {rho} < 1. For a given budget, {ital B}, the goal is to find an improvement strategy such that the total cost of reduction is a most the given budget {ital B} and the cost of a subgraph (e.g. minimum spanning tree) under the modified edge lengths is the best over all possible strategies which obey the budget constraint. Define an ({alpha},{beta})-approximation algorithm as a polynomial-time algorithm that produces a solution within {alpha} times the optimal function value, violating the budget constraint by a factor of at most {Beta}. The results obtained in this paper include the following 1. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above is {bold NP}-hard. 2. In the node based model, we show how to devise a near optimal strategy for improving the bottleneck spanning tree. The algorithms have a performance guarantee of (2 ln {ital n}, 1). 3. for the edge based improvement problems we present improved (in terms of performance and time) approximation algorithms. 4. We also present pseudo-polynomial time algorithms (extendible to polynomial time approximation schemes) for a number of edge/node based improvement problems when restricted to the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  3. Regulation effects of the German renewable energy act on the ecological upgrade of hydro-power plants. Results of a survey; Lenkungswirkung der Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetze (EEG 2004 und 2009) fuer die oekologische Modernisierung von Wasserkraftanlagen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderer, Pia [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Naumann, Stephan [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Germany lacks a unified register containing data on the equipment of hydropower stations with environmental facilities or of those subject to requirements for reducing the environmental impact on the status of waters. Thanks to the cooperation of the hydro-power plant operators, our survey allowed us for the first time to gain insight into the regulation effects of the German Renewable Energy Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz; EEG) as well as into the ecological upgrade potential of German hydro-power plants. EEG 2004 and 2009 funded measures implemented at hydro-power stations are focused on ensuring a minimum flow as well as on longitudinal connectivity. This priority is consistent with the water management requirement of achieving the goals of the Water Framework Directive in this area. (orig.)

  4. System Framework for the Design of an Avionics Architecture with Upgrade Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological growth of ‘avionics systems’ has outpaced the service-life of aircraft, resulting in avionics upgrade as a preferred cost-effective option to new design. Mid-life upgrade of “avionics systems“ by state-of-the-art mission systems has been a challenging engineering task. The complexity of avionics upgrade process is due to the design rigidity of avionics systems architecture. An avionics architecture with growth potential is required to optimise avionics upgrade with state-of-the-art systems. A research program that partially addresses avionics systems upgrade by developing a methodology to design an avionics architecture with in-built growth potential is discussed in this research paper. A ‘system approach’ is adopted to develop a methodology that identifies the design parameters that will facilitate design of an avionics architecture with upgrade potential.

  5. Take control of upgrading to Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Start on the right foot with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard! Little is more exciting and unnerving than a major operating system upgrade for your Mac, but thousands of people have upgraded to Panther and Tiger calmly and successfully with the advice in Joe Kissell's previous hit Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's expert guidance, developed over innumerable test installations, walks you through the six steps necessary before upgrading, which of Leopard's three installation options is right for you, how to perform the actual upgrade, and post-installation checking and cleanup.

  6. Upgrade of the area II spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Bolduc, C.

    1995-08-01

    Because of the low beam energies required for experiments of astrophysical interest, the first test experiments with radioactive {sup 18}F beams can be performed in Area II. Because of the shorter distances between ion source and detector this also results in higher transmission efficiencies. The Enge split-pole spectrograph, which was not used during the last 8 years, was equipped with a new cryopump system, upgrades to the magnet power supply and the NMR system were performed. A rotating target system was built which should alleviate target deterioration effects that were observed in first test experiments.

  7. DA{phi}NE Upgrade Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesini, David; Biagini, Maria Enrica; Biscari, Caterina; Boni, Roberto; Boscolo, Manuela; Bossi, Fabio; Buonomo, Bruno; Clozza, Alberto; Delle Monache, Giovanni; Demma, Theo; Di Pasquale, Enrico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Drago, Alessandro; Gallo, Alessandro; Ghigo, Andrea; Guiducci, Susanna; Ligi, Carlo; Marcellini, Fabio; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, Catia [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory at INFN-LNF has been upgraded in the second half of 2007 with the scope of testing a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, fabricated and installed to realize the new configuration. The ring injection systems have been also modified with the installation of new stripline fast injection kickers. Moreover the old bellows have been substituted by the new ones and all ion clearing electrodes in the electron ring have been removed. In the talk we describe the new layout as well as several experimental results obtained during the new run.

  8. Upgrading Longitudinal Beam Behavior In Ihep Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, A; Ivanov, S; Lebedev, O; Simonov, A; Sytov, S

    2004-01-01

    Operation of 1.5 GeV fast-cycling Booster proton syn chrotron of IHEP has been long hampered by unwanted oscillations in bunch length. To identify the reason of such beam behavior, a dedicated beam-dynamics research program has been initiated. The scope of this activity has covered a variety of the might-be mechanisms behind-coherent instabilities, malfunction of voltage amplitude feedbacks, quality of the voltage program, etc. Ultimately, phase loop encircling the VCO has been upgraded, which resulted in a noticeably suppressed scale of both, dipole and quadrupole oscillations of beam.

  9. System Framework for the Design of an Avionics Architecture with Upgrade Potential

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The technological growth of ‘avionics systems’ has outpaced the service-life of aircraft, resulting in avionics upgrade as a preferred cost-effective option to new design. Mid-life upgrade of “avionics systems“ by state-of-the-art mission systems has been a challenging engineering task. The complexity of avionics upgrade process is due to the design rigidity of avionics systems architecture. An avionics architecture with growth potential is required to optimise avionics upgrade with state-of-...

  10. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wolbers, Stephen; Barker, B; Bledsoe, S; Boes, T; Bowden, Mark; Cancelo, Gugstavo I; Dürling, G; Forster, B; Haynes, B; Hendricks, B; Kasza, T; Kutschke, Robert K; Mahlum, R; Martens, Michael A; Mengel, M; Olsen, M; Pavlicek, V; Pham, T; Piccoli, Luciano; Steimel, Jim; Treptow, K; Votava, Margaret; Webber, Robert C; West, B; Zhang, D

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980s, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  11. The Pegasus-Upgrade Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Frerichs, H. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schmitz, O.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tokamak operation at near-unity aspect ratio provides access to advanced tokamak physics at modest parameters. High plasma current is accessible at very low toroidal field. This offers H-mode performance at Te levels that allow use of electrostatic and magnetic probe arrays through the edge pedestal region into the plasma core. An upgrade to the Pegasus ST is planned to exploit these features and pursue unique studies in three areas: local measurements of pedestal and ELM dynamics at Alfvenic timescales; direct measurement of the local plasma response to application of 3D magnetic perturbations with high spectral flexibility; and extension of Local Helicity Injection for nonsolenoidal startup to NSTX-U-relevant confinement and stability regimes. Significant but relatively low-cost upgrades to the facility are proposed: a new centerstack with larger solenoid and 2x the number of toroidal field conductors; a new TF power supply and conversion of the 200 MVA OH power supply to a cascaded multilevel inverter configuration; and installation of an extensive 3D-magnetic perturbation coil system for ELM mitigation and suppression studies. The upgraded facility will provide 0.3 MA plasmas with pulse lengths of 50-100 msec flattop, aspect ratio <1.25, and toroidal field up to 0.4 T. These research activities will be integrated into related efforts on DIII-D and NSTX-U. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. The ALICE pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The ALICE collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus to be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2019-2020. A key element of the ALICE upgrade is the new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System. With respect to the current detector, the new Inner Tracking System will significantly enhance the pointing resolution, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities. This will be obtained by seven concentric detector layers based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with a pixel pitch of about 30×30 μm2. A key feature of the new Inner Tracking System, which is optimised for high tracking accuracy at low transverse momenta, is the very low mass of the three innermost layers, which feature a material budget of 0.3% X0 per layer. This contribution presents the design goals and layout of the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System, summarises the R&D activities focussing on the technical implementation of the main detector components, and the projected detector performance.

  13. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  14. Floating point coprocessor upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T.

    1987-04-01

    A method was developed to increase the throughput of the Hewlett Packard, 98635A floating point processor equipped, model 236C computer. The increase was carried out in three phases each with a clock and or chip change during the modification. Two programs were written to test the results and evaluate the increases in performance made to the computer. The first one shows reduction in processing times of 34.3%, while the other recorded 34.6%.

  15. Lhasa Airport Gets Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On November 12, Gonggar Airport in Lhasa, capital of southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region, ended its 43-year history of not being able to handle night flights with a passenger jet bound for Chengdu City in neighboring Sichuan Province, taking off at 7:50 p.m.The progress is the result of a $150-million navigation lighting project that the airport completed in June.Gonggar Airport, situated 3,600 meters above sea level, is one of the world’shighest airports. It began operation in March 1956. After an expansion projectin 2001 -03, the airport can now handle 1.1 million passengers every year.

  16. DAFNE Interaction Regions upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, C; Biagini, M E; Biscari, C; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Bossi, F; Buonomo, B; Clozza, A; Delle Monache, G; Demma, T; Di Pasquale, E; Di Pirro, G; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Ghigo, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Murtas, F; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M; Quintieri, L; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Sgamma, F; Spataro, B; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Vaccarezza, C; Zobov, M; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Smaluk, V; Bettoni, S; Schioppa, M; Valente, P; Ohmi, K; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Roudeau, P; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B.F; Esposito, M; Paoloni, E; Branchini, P

    2008-01-01

    DAFNE, the Frascati F-factory, has recently completed experimental runs for the three main detectors, KLOE, FINUDA and DEAR achieving 1.6x10E+32 cm-2s-1 peak and 10 pb-1 daily integrated luminosities. Improving these results by a significant factor requires changing the collision scheme. For this reason, in view of the SIDDHARTA detector installation, relevant modifications of the machine have been realized, aimed at implementing a new collision scheme based on a large Piwinski angle and crab-waist, together with several other hardware modifications involving injection kickers, bellows and beam pipe sections.

  17. ACAB software upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.; Balmisa, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    This report address two issues, namely the ``Selection of the most current nuclear data libraries available`` and the ``User`s manual of the updated ACAB code``. A general summary of the major features of ACAB is provides in Section 1 which highlights the new capabilities included in the present version of ACAB. We address the issue of the nuclear data libraries selected as starting point in preparing the libraries to be used directly by ACAB. Section II describes the main features of the selected libraries. In Section IV, the impact of using these libraries in Inertial Fusion Energy, IFE, applications is assessed by comparing activation results obtained using different activation cross-sections data libraries. The points considered are the processing of libraries and libraries adapted to be directly read by ACAB. The ``processing`` efforts made within the frame of this project have been focused on the COLLAPSE code. Important modifications have been made, and in Section IV we provide an overall description of the new version. The content of the data bases employed by the updated ACAB code are described in Section V. The input data file for running ACAB is dealt with in Section VI, and some example problems are discussed in Section VII. Finally, regarding analysis of activation results we described in Section VIII the updated version of the CHAINS code.

  18. H-1 Upgrades (4BW/4BN) (H-1 Upgrades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Nautical Miles R&M - Reliability and Maintainability RM - Reference Model TV-1 - Technical Standards Profile Univ . - Universal H-1 Upgrades December 2015...Speed (kts) 165 165 135 139 139 Payload (Hot Day) (lbs) 3500 lbs 3500 lbs 2500 lbs 6 Wing Stations 4 Universal Under Wing Stations 3429 3429 Weapon...Stations Universal Mounts 6 6 4 4 4 Precision Guided Munitions 16 16 12 16 16 Maneuverability/Agility (G’s) -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to

  19. The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. There is a planned upgrade during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), expected in 2019, which will allow the detector to run at higher luminosities by transforming the entire readout to a trigger-less system. This will include a substantial upgrade of the Vertex Locator (VELO), the silicon tracker that surrounds the LHCb interaction region. The VELO is moving from silicon strip technology to hybrid pixel sensors, where silicon sensors are bonded to VeloPix ASICs. Sensor prototypes have undergone rigorous testing using the Timepix3 Telescope at the SPS, CERN. The main components of the upgrade are summarised and testbeam results presented.

  20. Emission system upgrades for older vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.R.; Finkenbiner, K.; Sommerville, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    Thirteen 1975--1980 model year vehicles were equipped with a set of components to upgrade their emission control systems. Each vehicle was tested before maintenance (as-received), after tune-up and correction of original equipment emission system defects (baseline), and after installation of the emission upgrade system (upgrade). Average emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NHMC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with the emission upgrade system installed were reduced more than 60% from the baseline immediately after upgrade. Six of the vehicles accumulated 48,000 kilometers with the upgrade system. After 48,000 kilometers, average emissions of NMHC and NOx were still reduced approximately 50% compared to the baseline and average emissions of CO were reduced approximately 20%.

  1. Upgrade of the LHCb VELO detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm forward spectrometer optimised for performing heavy-flavour physics analyses, using proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC machine. A major upgrade of the LHCb experiment will take place prior to the start of Run 3 operations in 2021. The upgraded Vertex Locator (VELO) is an essential component of this upgrade. Its main role is to enable high precision track and vertex reconstruction, with data-driven readout to the software trigger at 40 MHz, in the higher-luminosity environment of Run 3. To achieve this goal, significant improvements are planned with respect to the current detector, including a switch from microstrips to pixels, upgraded electronics, and a new cooling system. I will briefly motiviate the need for an upgrade, describe the main aspects of the VELO upgrade design, and show highlights of recent sensor characterisation studies using the CERN SPS test beam.

  2. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  3. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul

    2016-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of $1 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO$_{2}$ cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detect...

  4. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  5. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kubinski, R; Kuchinsky, N; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Kwarciany, R; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Larwill, M; Laurens, P; Lavigne, B; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Le Meur, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leitner, R; Leonidopoulos, C; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Lindenmeyer, C; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Litmaath, M; Lizarazo, J; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Machado, E; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manakov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Markley, D; Markus, M; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M; Martin-Chassard, G; Mattingly, S E K; Matulik, M; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McKenna, M; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Mendes, A; Mendoza, D; Mendoza, L; Meng, X; Merekov, Y P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mikhailov, V; Miller, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mostafa, M; Moua, S; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagaraj, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimhan, V S; Narayanan, A; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neuenschwander, R T; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nozdrin, A; Nunnemann, T; Nurczyk, A; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Olis, D; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Olsen, J; Oshima, N; Oshinowo, B O; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Polosov, P; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Porokhovoy, S; Prado da Silva, W L; Pritchard, W; Prokhorov, I; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ramberg, E; Ramirez-Gomez, R; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rao, M V S; Rapidis, P A; Rapisarda, S; Raskowski, J; Ratoff, P N; Ray, R E; Reay, N W; Rechenmacher, R; Reddy, L V; Regan, T; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Roco, M T; Rotolo, C; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rucinski, R; Rud, V I; Rusakovich, N; Russo, P; Sabirov, B; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Satyanarayana, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shankar, H C; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Sheahan, P; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shishkin, A A; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, D E; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spartana, N; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stefanik, A; Steinberg, J L; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tentindo-Repond, S; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Terentyev, N K; Teterin, V; Thomas, E; Thompson, J; Thooris, B; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokmenin, V V; Tolian, C; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, D; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Touze, F; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Utes, M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; Van Gemmeren, P; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Vaz, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vigneault, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vishwanath, P R; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vorobyov, A; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Vysotsky, V S; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, L; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijnen, T A M; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilcer, N; Willutzki, H; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Wu, Z; Xie, Y; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yarema, R J; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Yoffe, F; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zanabria, M; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zmuda, T; Zutshi, V; Zviagintsev, S; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  6. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014

  7. Upgrading existing evaporators to reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist the evaporator engineer who will be performing the technical and economic analyses to determine the most suitable evaporator upgrading technique for his particular plant. Information is included on potentials for upgrading evaporators; correctable operating factors; heat recovery and other improvements in energy use with minor capital investments; upgrading through major capital investments; guidelines for formulating an upgrading program; and new technologies encompassing advanced designs, use of solar and low-grade heat sources, and heat transfer enhancement. A 36 item bibliography is included. (LCL)

  8. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  9. Upgrading of Boundary Dam spillway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhail, Gordon; MacMillan, Dave; Smith, Bert [KGS Group, Winnipeg, (Canada); Lacelle, Justin [SaskPower, Regina, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    An initial dam safety review was performed in 2005 and identified a number of concerns; the most critical were insufficient spillway capacity and deficiencies in the condition of the existing spillways. This paper described the challenges faced by the upgrading operation on the 50 year old Boundary Dam spillway started in 2008. SaskPower retained the KGS Group to increase the design spillway capacity to 1200 m3/s and remedy observed defects. The construction project involved maintaining the reservoir at full supply level while the 20m long spillway chute and stilling basin below were completely replaced. The difficulties came from the need to complete each year's construction such that the spillway could potentially pass spring flood flows. This paper showed that the upgrade measures selected for implementation were developed through close dialogue between the owner and the designer, with valuable input provided by a panel of external experts as well as from contractors participating in the design process.

  10. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  11. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...

  12. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  13. How Can China Achieve Industrial Upgrade?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建成; 毛蕴诗

    2008-01-01

    Traditional OEM enterprises are facing increasing upgrading pressure due to tighten export environment. This paper carries out a comparative case study on two bathroom hardware manufacturers,by analyzing enterprises upgrading process from OEM to ODM and OBM,this article will be a good reference for other Chinese OEM manufacturers who pursue an independent road of innovation.

  14. ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sankey, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This talk for ACES summarises the current status of the ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade, describing and comparing the two architectures under consideration, namely the two hardware level system described in the Phase-II Upgrade Scoping Document and the more recent single hardware level system.

  15. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  16. Upgradable Software Product Customization by Code Query

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    of a subset of software systems that we call software products: software that needs special support for customization. Through customization, external companies can modify part of the original product to better t the needs of a niche market. Upon the release of a new version of the original software product......, external companies must port their customizations to the latest version of the base software product, a process called an upgrade. Companies typically consider upgrades as mandatory, and hence must bear their high cost on a regular basis. The objectives of customizability and upgradability are conicting...... this constitutes the upgrade problem. We study the upgrade problem in the eld of enterprise systems from a technical point of view, and consider the large spectrum of existing software engineering techniques for customization. We ground our work in an empirical study, that shows that customizations cannot...

  17. Biological upgrading of coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Culture screening and performance studies were performed with a variety of cultures in removing nitrogen compounds from coal liquid. Two cultures were shown to be effective in removing 17 and 26 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid as determined by elemental analysis. Experiments will continue in an effort to find additional cultures and isolates able to degrade nitrogen, as well as oxygen and sulfur as heteroatom compounds, from coal liquids. A biological process for upgrading of coal liquids would offer significant advantages, such as operation at ordinary temperature and pressure with better energy efficiency. Of greater importance is the fact that microorganisms do not require an external supply of hydrogen for heteroatom removal, obtaining required hydrogen from water. Furthermore, the biocatalysts are continuously regenerated by growth on the heteroatom compounds. Ring structures are degraded as the heteroatoms are removed. The heteroatoms are in an inocuous form, such as NH[sub 3], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  18. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  19. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  20. ATLAS Offline Data Quality System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS data quality software infrastructure provides tools for prompt investigation of and feedback on collected data and propagation of these results to analysis users. Both manual and automatic inputs are used in this system. In 2011, we upgraded our framework to record all issues affecting the quality of the data in a manner which allows users to extract as much information (of the data) for their particular analyses as possible. By improved recording of issues, we are allowed the ability to reassess the impact of the quality of the data on different physics measurements and adapt accordingly. We have gained significant experience with collision data operations and analysis; we have used this experience to improve the data quality system, particularly in areas of scaling and user interface. This document describes the experience gained in assessing and recording of the data quality of ATLAS and subsequent benefits to the analysis users.

  1. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  2. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  3. The Nova Upgrade Facility for ICF ignition and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdermilk, W. H.; Campbell, E. M.; Hunt, J. T.; Murray, J. R.; Storm, E.; Tobin, M. T.; Trenholme, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is motivated by its potential defense and civilian applications, including ultimately the generation of electric power. The U.S. ICF Program was reviewed recently by the National Academy of Science (NAS) and the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC). Both committees issued final reports in 1991 which recommended that first priority in the ICF program be placed on demonstrating fusion ignition and modest gain (G less than 10). The U.S. Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have proposed an upgrade of the existing Nova Laser Facility at LLNL to accomplish these goals. Both the NAS and FPAC have endorsed the upgrade of Nova as the optimal path to achieving ignition and gain. Results from Nova Upgrade Experiments will be used to define requirements for driver and target technology both for future high-yield military applications, such as the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) proposed by the Department of Energy, and for high-gain energy applications leading to an ICF engineering test facility. The central role and modifications which Nova Upgrade would play in the national ICF strategy are described.

  4. SAC-OCDM/TDM system for upgrading the TDM PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Chen; Shilin Xiao; Lilin Yi; Yi Dong; Weisheng Hu

    2011-01-01

    A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SAC-OCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains, which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON, in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly. The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective. A downstream experiment is demonstrated, and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.%A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SACOCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed.To the best of our knowledge,our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains,which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON,in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly.The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective.A downstream experiment is demonstrated,and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.The time division multiplexing (TDM) technique is used in the Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and Gigabit passive optical network (GPON),which is currently used commercially and performs optimally.Nextgeneration broadband access networks are a new topic.Therefore,whether there is a need to upgrade directly the bit rates,of EPON and GPON or to introduce new techniques in passive optical network (PON) remains to be elucidated.

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact.

  6. Making SPIFFI SPIFFIER: upgrade of the SPIFFI instrument for use in ERIS and performance analysis from re-commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, E. M.; Gräff, D.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Hartl, M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Buron, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Huber, H.; Rau, C.; Plattner, M.; Wiezorrek, E.; Weisz, H.; Amico, P.; Glindemann, A.; Hau, G.; Kuntschner, H.

    2016-08-01

    SPIFFI is an AO-fed integral field spectrograph operating as part of SINFONI on the VLT, which will be upgraded and reused as SPIFFIER in the new VLT instrument ERIS. In January 2016, we used new technology developments to perform an early upgrade to optical subsystems in the SPIFFI instrument so ongoing scientific programs can make use of enhanced performance before ERIS arrives in 2020. We report on the upgraded components and the performance of SPIFFI after the upgrade, including gains in throughput and spatial and spectral resolution. We show results from re-commissioning, highlighting the potential for scientific programs to use the capabilities of the upgraded SPIFFI. Finally, we discuss the additional upgrades for SPIFFIER which will be implemented before it is integrated into ERIS.

  7. Making SPIFFI SPIFFIER: Upgrade of the SPIFFI instrument for use in ERIS and performance analysis from re-commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    George, E M; Feuchtgruber, H; Hartl, M; Eisenhauer, F; Buron, A; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Huber, H; Rau, C; Plattner, M; Wiezorrek, E; Weisz, H; Amico, P; Glindeman, A; Hau, G; Kuntschner, H

    2016-01-01

    SPIFFI is an AO-fed integral field spectrograph operating as part of SINFONI on the VLT, which will be upgraded and reused as SPIFFIER in the new VLT instrument ERIS. In January 2016, we used new technology developments to perform an early upgrade to optical subsystems in the SPIFFI instrument so ongoing scientific programs can make use of enhanced performance before ERIS arrives in 2020. We report on the upgraded components and the performance of SPIFFI after the upgrade, including gains in throughput and spatial and spectral resolution. We show results from re-commissioning, highlighting the potential for scientific programs to use the capabilities of the upgraded SPIFFI. Finally, we discuss the additional upgrades for SPIFFIER which will be implemented before it is integrated into ERIS.

  8. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  9. Visbreaking based integrated process for bitumen upgrading and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, C.; Gonzalez, M.F.; Carbognani, L.; Perez-Zurita, M.J.; Lopez-Linares, F.; Husein, M.; Moore, G.; Pereira, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Alberta In Situ Centre For In Situ Energy, Schulich School Of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    New and cost effective upgrading schemes for distillates production and residue disposal are needed in order to recover Alberta's vast heavy oil and bitumen reserves. On average, heavy oils and bitumen contain 50 per cent (w/w) of components remaining after vacuum distillation. A new alternative for upgrading vacuum resids was proposed. The method involves the following 3 processing steps: production of modified, nearly unstable heavy molecules by mild thermal cracking known as visbreaking; adsorption of modified heavy molecules over inexpensive, tailor-designed porous sorbents or catalysts; and, production of hydrogen by low temperature catalytic steam gasification of the adsorbed molecules. This cost effective way of producing hydrogen is based on the selective segregation of a minimal fraction of the heaviest hydrocarbon molecules, those most instable, followed by their gasification at low temperature. This paper presented results on the combined processing as well as using both a model molecule and real feedstock from the Athabasca vacuum resids for the adsorption and hydrogen production steps. The study showed that this new process can obtain high rates of hydrogen production when a kaolin based solid formulation is used as both, adsorbent and catalysts, for these heavy molecules. It was concluded that this alternative method for producing hydrogen at upgrading sites in northern Alberta has potential for both installed and future up-graders to improve the quality of synthetic crude being produced. The hydrogen produced from the gasification of these heavy compounds could be used for both refining purposes or for in-situ reservoir upgrading. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  10. South Ukraine NPP: Safety improvements through Plant Computer upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenman, O. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 4350 Northern Pike, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Chernyshov, M. A. [Westron, LLC, 1 Acad. Proskura St., Kharkiv 61070 (Ukraine); Denning, R. S. [Battelle, 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Kolesov, S. A. [NAEK Energoatom, 3 Vetrov Str., Kiev, 01032 (Ukraine); Balakan, H. H.; Bilyk, B. I.; Kuznetsov, V. I. [PO South Ukraine NPP, NAEK Energoatom, Mylolayv Region, 55000 (Ukraine); Trosman, G. [US Dept. of Energy, International Nuclear Safety Program, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes some results of the Plant Computer upgrade at the Units 2 and 3 of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A Plant Computer, which is also called the Computer Information System (CIS), is one of the key safety-related systems at VVER-1000 nuclear plants. The main function of the CIS is information support for the plant operators during normal and emergency operational modes. Before this upgrade, South Ukraine NPP operated out-of-date and obsolete systems. This upgrade project wax founded by the U.S. DOE in the framework of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP). The most efficient way to improve the quality and reliability of information provided to the plant operator is to upgrade the Human-System Interface (HSI), which is the Upper Level (UL) CIS. The upgrade of the CIS data-acquisition system (DAS), which is the Lower Level (LL) CIS, would have less effect on the unit safety. Generally speaking, the lifetime of the LL CIS is much higher than one of the UL CIS. Unlike Plant Computers at the Western-designed plants, the functionality of the WER-1000 CISs includes a control function (Centralized Protection Testing) and a number of the plant equipment monitoring functions, for example, Protection and Interlock Monitoring and Turbo-Generator Temperature Monitoring. The new system is consistent with a historical migration of the format by which information is presented to the operator away from the traditional graphic displays, for example, Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P and ID's), toward Integral Data displays. The cognitive approach to information presentation is currently limited by some licensing issues, but is adapted to a greater degree with each new system. The paper provides some lessons learned on the management of the international team. (authors)

  11. Development and Application of a Life Cycle-Based Model to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Oil Sands Upgrading Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Diana M; Bergerson, Joule A; Alvarez-Majmutov, Anton; Chen, Jinwen; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-12-20

    A life cycle-based model, OSTUM (Oil Sands Technologies for Upgrading Model), which evaluates the energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of current oil sands upgrading technologies, is developed. Upgrading converts oil sands bitumen into high quality synthetic crude oil (SCO), a refinery feedstock. OSTUM's novel attributes include the following: the breadth of technologies and upgrading operations options that can be analyzed, energy intensity and GHG emissions being estimated at the process unit level, it not being dependent on a proprietary process simulator, and use of publicly available data. OSTUM is applied to a hypothetical, but realistic, upgrading operation based on delayed coking, the most common upgrading technology, resulting in emissions of 328 kg CO2e/m(3) SCO. The primary contributor to upgrading emissions (45%) is the use of natural gas for hydrogen production through steam methane reforming, followed by the use of natural gas as fuel in the rest of the process units' heaters (39%). OSTUM's results are in agreement with those of a process simulation model developed by CanmetENERGY, other literature, and confidential data of a commercial upgrading operation. For the application of the model, emissions are found to be most sensitive to the amount of natural gas utilized as feedstock by the steam methane reformer. OSTUM is capable of evaluating the impact of different technologies, feedstock qualities, operating conditions, and fuel mixes on upgrading emissions, and its life cycle perspective allows easy incorporation of results into well-to-wheel analyses.

  12. New purification and upgrading technologies for biogas; Nya renings- och uppgraderingstekniker foer biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan Benjaminsson [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    reduced if the recovered liquid carbon dioxide can be sold. - Membrane technique; biogas is upgraded with polymeric membranes that are permeable for carbon dioxide but not for methane molecules. The method is expected to be adaptable for both smaller and bigger biogas plants and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,14 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 180 Nm{sup 3}/h. All above mentioned upgrading techniques have methane losses less than two percent and all methods except for the in situ methane enrichment are expected to upgrade biogas to vehicle gas according to the Swedish Standard. In situ methane is expected to upgrade biogas up to 95 % methane content. By combustion of unpurified landfill gas in a gas engine, corrosive combustion products and white deposits are formed. Purification of landfill gas can decrease maintenance costs for gas engines. Two landfill gas purification methods have been evaluated and with the first method, contaminants are trapped in ice crystals when the gas is chilled to -25 deg C. The second method purifies landfill gas with condensed carbon dioxide. An important result of the master thesis is that the in situ methane enrichment has a chance to become an interesting alternative for smaller sewage treatment plants but the method requires additional upgrading to reach 97 % methane content. The most important conclusion is that cryogenic upgrading and membrane technique are expected to satisfy the Swedish Standard. The methods have relatively low upgrading costs and the methane losses are less than two percent. This gives them a good chance to established in Sweden.

  13. Upgrades to MINERVA control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maurice; Eastman, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) is an array of four robotic telescopes located on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona that will find and characterize rocky planets around our nearest stars. We discuss the latest upgrades to the MINERVA robotic control software. Previously, our robotic control software was only capable of taking radial velocities or photometry for the entire night, but not both. We have recently increased the speed and ease of transitioning between photometry and radial velocity (RV) observations. We can now arbitrarily assign a subset of the telescopes to either photometric or spectroscopic observations. This capability enables us to monitor stellar activity while measuring the star’s RV, gather photometry on one star while continuing our RV survey of other targets and provide education and public outreach opportunities where others can observe with one or more telescopes while we continue using the remaining telescopes for research. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 1144152.

  14. The upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, T

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is set for a significant upgrade, which will be ready for Run~3 of the LHC in 2020. This upgrade will allow LHCb to run at a significantly higher instantaneous luminosity and collect an integrated luminosity of $50\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ by the end of Run~4. In this process the Vertex locator (VELO) detector will be upgraded to a pixel-based silicon detector. The upgraded VELO will improve upon the current detector by being closer to the beam and having lower material modules with microchannel cooling and a thinner RF-foil. Simulations have shown that it will maintain its excellent performance, even after the radiation damage caused by collecting an integrated luminosity of $50\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$.

  15. Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb Experiment at the LHC is successfully performing precision measurements primarily in the area of flavour physics. The collaboration is preparing an upgrade that will start taking data in 2021 with a trigger-less readout at five times the current luminosity. The vertex locator has been crucial in the success of the experiment and will continue to be so for the upgrade. It will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector and this paper discusses the performance benchmarks of the upgraded detector. Despite the challenging experimental environment, the vertex locator will maintain or improve upon its benchmark figures compared to the current detector. Finally the long term plans for LHCb, beyond those of the upgrade currently in preparation, are discussed.

  16. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  17. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  18. Technology to Upgrade Magneto-Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CAS scientists have developed a new surface-coating technology to upgrade the product quality of China's permanent magnet materials. The success is appraised by an evaluation penal of the CAS Shenyang Branch in northeastern China' s Liaoning Province.

  19. Low temperature extraction and upgrading of oil sands and bitumen in supercritical fluid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Sarah A; Riley, Sandra H; McGrady, G Sean; Tanhawiriyakul, Supaporn; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Willson, Christopher D

    2010-07-21

    Preliminary results are reported for the extraction and catalytic hydrocracking of Alberta bitumen and oil sands using supercritical fluid mixtures; high levels of extraction and upgrading were attained using reaction conditions significantly milder than those previously reported.

  20. Study of the influence of design parameters of MAPS for the ALICE ITS Upgrade: Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Munteanu, Laura-Iuliana

    2016-01-01

    This report illustrates the results of measurements performed on various MAPS chips used during the R&D phase for the ALICE ITS Upgrade. It lists the influence that pixel design parameters have on the performance of the chips.

  1. Expected performance for an upgraded ATLAS detector at High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note summarises the expected performance of the ATLAS detector after the upgrades for the High-Luminosity LHC. The performance evaluations are based on full simulation of the upgraded Phase-II detector with in-time and out-of-time pile-up for luminosities up to $7.5\\times10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ corresponding to an average of number of inelastic collisions per bunch crossing of up to 200. The simulation uses an updated and optimised design of the inner tracker upgrade and an improved reconstruction software, resulting in improved performance compared to previous studies for High-Luminosity LHC.

  2. Lower Hybrid System upgrade on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, B.; Beunas, A.; Bibet, P.; Kazarian, F.

    2003-12-01

    An upgrade of the heating systems is in progress on Tore Supra. It is focused on the manufacturing of a new coupler, using the PAM concept as foreseen for ITER launcher, and the upgrade of the existing transmitter by replacing the 16 existing 500 kW, 210 s klystrons with new 750 kW, 1000s klystrons. Main features of the launcher and klystron are presented.

  3. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  4. First lasing of the IR upgrade FEL at Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Behre; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Christopher Curtis; David Douglas; H. Dylla; L. Dillon-townes; Richard Evans; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; John Heckman; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Tommy Hiatt; Kevin Jordan; Nikolitsa Merminga; George Neil; Joseph Preble; Harvey Rutt; Michelle D. Shinn; Timothy Siggins; Hiroyuki Toyokawa; David W. Waldman; Richard Walker; Neil Wilson; Byung Yunn; Shukui Zhang

    2004-08-01

    We report initial lasing results from the IR Upgrade FEL at Jefferson Lab[1]. The electron accelerator was operated with low average current beam at 80 MeV. The time structure of the beam was 120 pC bunches at 4.678 MHz with up to 750 {micro}sec pulses at 2Hz. Lasing was established over the entire wavelength range of the mirrors (5.5-6.6 {micro}m). The detuning curve length, turn-on time, and power were in agreement with modeling results assuming a 1 psec FWHM micropulse. The same model predicts over 10 kW of power output with 10 mA of beam and 10% output coupling, which is the ultimate design goal of the IR Upgrade FEL. The behavior of the laser while the dispersion section strength was varied was found to qualitatively match predictions. Initial CW lasing results also will be presented.

  5. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

  6. Expected performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade is underway. This tracking detector, consisting of silicon pixel and strip modules, will replace the current ATLAS Inner Detector to reconstruct tracks from charged particles produced at the very high collision rate expected from the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The latest Inner Tracker designs considered, and the most recent expected performance results from simulation are presented.

  7. Phase 1 Front-End CMS Calorimeter (HE) Upgrade Preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of HE Phase 1 Front-End upgrade is shown. For the final quality control of the new generation HE front-end electronics components a Burn-in stand has been prepared. All electronics components are being tested on the burn-in stand and should pass through the burn-in QC before the installation on the CMS. First tests and results are presented.

  8. Upgrade Opportunities for Buildings in City Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This proposal focus on the potential of the existing buildings upgrade process in achieving the 20-20-20 goals, as these are the biggest energy consumers, the most significant built area and the better placed buildings within our cities. These buildings frequently lack basic maintenance and need intervention, but include within themselves a vast amount of incorporated energy and centuries of construction knowledge. Beyond the advantages that may result from re-attracting people back into the city centre, upgrading these existing buildings can also have positive bounce-back effect on the reduction of the energy needs related to transportation, as demonstrated in studies that alert to the impact of the building sprawl in the total energy use. As “buildings account for 40 % of total energy consumption in the Union”, the better performance of this sector has a significant role, remembering that “these requirements shall take account of general indoor climate conditions, in order to avoid possible negative effects such as inadequate ventilation, as well as local conditions and the designated function and the age of the building” [1]. The importance of “upgrading” the existing buildings resides on the fact that new buildings represent only approximately 1 or 2% of the total usable area, an estimate that is bound to decrease due to the current construction crisis. While the recent buildings tend to be more efficient, the numerous existing buildings are important stakeholders due to their massive consumptions and incorporated energy. The ongoing Annex 56 on “Energy & Greenhouse Gas Optimized Building Renovation” assumes that “Current standards do not respond effectively to the numerous constraints imposed by existing buildings and in many cases, the requirements result in very expensive measures and complex procedures, seldom accepted by occupants, owners or developers. It is then urgent for the new standards to respond to these

  9. Characterization of COTS ADC radiation properties for ATLAS LAr calorimeter readout upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, H; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, H; Chen, K; Lanni, F; Rescia, S

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS LAr calorimeters plan to upgrade the readout electronics for both Phase-I and Phase-II LHC luminosity upgrades. Detector signals will be digitized at the front-end, and data will be streamed out to the back-end system continuously. Therefore, radiation tolerant ADCs are key components for both upgrade phases. This presentation will report on irradiation test results of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ADCs that have potentials to be used in the readout electronics upgrade. Total-ionization-dose (TID) irradiation test results will be described, which has been used to pre-screen COTS ADCs for further studies. Various SEE studies of a candidate ADC with both neutron and proton beams will be presented. Finally, annealing studies following ATLAS policy on radiation tolerant electronics will be reported.

  10. The LHCb Upgrade Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Leverington, Blake D

    2014-01-01

    The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker is designed to replace the current downstream tracking detectors in the LHCb Upgrade during 2018 (CERN/LHCC 2014-001; LHCb TDR 15). The operation and the results obtained from the data collected 2011 and 2012 demonstrate that the current detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of O ( 1 fb-1) of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. This will be achieved using 25 ns bunch spacing with the average number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing n = 7 : 6. Collecting data at this luminosity will only be possible if the detector is improved by increasing the readout of the front-end electronics to 40MHz and implementing a more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency. The increase in interactions per bunch crossing will result in an increased occupancy in the tracking detectors and will exceed the operational occupancy for the Outer Tracker. Here we presen...

  11. Upgrades to the LHC Injection and Beam Dumping Systems for the HL-LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Hrivnak, Jan; Lechner, Anton; Maciariello, Fausto; Mereghetti, Alessio; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Vittal Shetty, N; Shetty, Nikhil Vittal; Steele, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC project will push the performance of the LHC injection and beam dumping systems towards new limits. This paper describes the systems affected and presents the new beam parameters for these systems. It also describes the studies to be performed to determine which sub-components of these systems need to be upgraded to fulfil the new HL-LHC requirements. The results from the preliminary upgrade studies for the injection absorbers TDI are presented.

  12. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fuchs, B; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hemery, N; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m$^2$ plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  13. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.

    2016-04-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  14. The upgrade system of BESIII ETOF with MRPC technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaozhuang; Li, Cheng; Heng, Yuekun; Wu, Zhi; Cao, Ping; Dai, Hongliang; Ji, Xiaolu; Gong, Wenxuan; Liu, Zhen; Luo, Xiaolan; Sun, Weijia; Wang, Siyu; Wang, Yun; Yang, Rongxing; Ye, Mei; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2016-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) endcap Time-Of-Filght (ETOF) was proposed to upgrade with Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) technology to substitute the current ETOF of scintillator+PMT for extending time resolutin better than 80 ps and enhance the particle identification capability to satisfy the higher precision requirement of physics. The ETOF system including MRPC modules, front end electronics (FEE), CLOCK module, fast control boards and time to digital modules (TDIG), has been designed, constructed and done some experimental tests seperately. Aiming at examining the quality of entire ETOF system and training the operation of all participated parts, a cosmic ray test system was built at the laboratory and underwent about three months to guarantee performance. In this paper the results will be presented indicating that the entire ETOF system works well and satisfies the requirements of the upgrade.

  15. ATLAS Future Plans: Upgrade and the Physics with High Luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS experiment is planning a series of detector upgrades to cope with the planned increases in instantaneous luminosity and multiple interactions per crossing to maintain its physics capabilities. During the coming decade, the Large Hadron Collider will collide protons on protons at a center of mass energy up to 14 TeV with luminosities steadily increasing in a phased approach to over 5 × 1034 cm−2s−1. The resulting large data sets will significantly enhance the physics reach of the ATLAS detector building on the recent discovery of the Higgs-like boson. The planned detector upgrades being designed to cope with the increasing luminosity and its impact on the ATLAS physics program will be discussed.

  16. On-detector Electronics for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, S.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb Experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The experiment will be upgraded to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at a 40 MHz event rate with all selection algorithms executed in a CPU farm. The upgraded Vertex Locator will be a hybrid pixel detector read out by the VeloPix ASIC with on-chip zero-suppression. The overview of the system and the design of the VELO on-detector electronics that include the front-end hybrid, the opto-conversion and power distribution boards will be summarised. The results from the evaluation of these prototypes and further enhancement techniques will be discussed.

  17. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995; Foeraedlade traedbraenslen 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinterbaeck, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1995-11-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Timing and Readout Contorl in the LHCb Upgraded Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    In 2019, the LHCb experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade where its detectors electronics and entire readout system will be changed to read-out events at the full LHC rate of 40 MHz. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and readout control system for such upgrade is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the distribution of the clock, timing and synchronization information across the entire readout system using generic FTTH technology like Passive Optical Networks. Moreover the system will be responsible to generically control the Front-End electronics by transmitting configuration data and receiving monitoring data, offloading the software control system from the heavy task of manipulating complex protocols of thousands of Front-End electronics devices. The way in which this was implemented is here reviewed with a description of results from first implementations of the system, including usages in test-benches, implementation of techniques for timing distribution and latency control."

  19. Resolution studies and performance evaluation of the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hynds, Daniel Peter McFarlane; Soler, Paul; Parkes, Christopher

    2015-03-25

    The LHCb detector at CERN is scheduled to undergo an upgrade during the second long shutdown of the LHC. As part of this upgrade, the vertex detector (VELO) will be replaced with a new hybrid pixel detector, based on an evolution of the Timepix ASIC. The performance of this detector should improve upon that achieved by the current VELO, in addition to facilitating the complete detector readout at 40 MHz. As part of the preparation for this upgrade, this thesis presents the results of studies carried out on the single hit resolution of silicon hybrid pixel detectors. The development of a particle beam telescope has been carried out to allow these studies, shown to operate with track rates in excess of 45 kHz and with a pointing resolution at the device under test of less than 2 μm. A wide range of sensor types, thicknesses and resistivities have then been tested under different operating conditions and the results presented, with single hit resolutions varying between 4 μm and 12 μm depending on the conditi...

  20. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2014-04-21

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine\\'s upgrade, the results may not be accurate because many other environmental factors in addition to wind speed, such as temperature, air pressure, turbulence intensity, wind shear and humidity, all potentially affect the turbine\\'s power output. Wind industry practitioners are aware of the need to filter out effects from environmental conditions. Toward that objective, we developed a kernel plus method that allows incorporation of multivariate environmental factors in a power curve model, thereby controlling the effects from environmental factors while comparing power outputs. We demonstrate that the kernel plus method can serve as a useful tool for quantifying a turbine\\'s upgrade because it is sensitive to small and moderate changes caused by certain turbine upgrades. Although we demonstrate the utility of the kernel plus method in this specific application, the resulting method is a general, multivariate model that can connect other physical factors, as long as their measurements are available, with a turbine\\'s power output, which may allow us to explore new physical properties associated with wind turbine performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. (Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  2. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  3. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon 5 photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobbe, N. [Fermilab

    2016-09-01

    The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

  4. Upgrade Physics Prospects with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Victoria Jane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start in 2026 and aims to collect $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions by 2037. This enormous dataset will increase the discovery potential of the LHC and allow precision measurements of Standard Model processes. However, the very high instantaneous luminosity of $5-7 \\times 10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{-}2 s^{-1}}$ poses serious challenges in terms of high “pile-up” of 140 or 200 overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing inside the ATLAS detector. In this talk, I will summarise the planned ATLAS detector upgrades and the analysis techniques, including pile-up mitigation, for High Luminosity-LHC running. I will also present the physics prospects for the ATLAS experiment, including results for precision measurements of the $125\\;\\mathrm{GeV}$ Higgs boson and the top quark, for vector boson scattering and the physics reach for supersymmetric and other beyond-the-Standard-Models.

  5. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  6. LHCb : Tracking system of the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment will run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm^-2 s^-1 with a fully software based trigger, allowing to read out the detector at a rate of 40MHz. For this purpose, the full tracking system will be newly developed: the vertex locator (VELO) will be replaced by a pixel-based detector, withstanding the high radiation dose and providing an excellent track reconstruction with an efficiency of above 99% for all charged particles of interest. Upstream of the magnet, a silicon mico-strip detector with a high granularity and an improved acceptance coverage, called the Upstream Tracker (UT), will replace the current silicon strip tracker, and provide a rough momentum estimate. The tracking system downstream of the magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre tracker (SciFi), which will consist of 12 layers using 2.5m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photo-multipliers, providing a spatial resolution better than 100 micron and resulting in a total momentum reso...

  7. Upgrade of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Caspers, F; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Jimenez, J M; Magnin, N; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Salvant, B; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    Two LHC injection kicker systems, each comprising 4 magnets per ring, produce a kick of 1.3 T·m with a rise-time of less than 900 ns and a flattop ripple of less than ±0.5%. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, to provide a path for the image current of the LHC beam and screen the ferrite yoke against wake fields. The screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The initially implemented beam screen ensured a low rate of electrical breakdowns and an adequately low beam coupling impedance. Operation with increasingly higher intensity beams, stable for many hours at a time, has resulted in substantial heating of the ferrite yoke, sometimes requiring cool-down over several hours before the LHC can be refilled. During the long shutdown in 2013/2014 all eight kicker magnets will be upgraded with an improved beam screen and an increased emissivity of the vacuum tank. In addition equipment adjacent to the injection kickers and various vacuum components will be modified to...

  8. Muon Physics at Run-I and its upgrade plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benekos Nektarios Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC and its multi-purpose Detector, ATLAS, has been operated successfully at record centre-of-mass energies of 7 and TeV. After this successful LHC Run-1, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly 10 years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC project, delivering of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the data set from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2030. To cope with the corresponding rate increase, the ATLAS detector needs to be upgraded. The upgrade will proceed in two steps: Phase I in the LHC shutdown 2018/19 and Phase II in 2023-25. The largest of the ATLAS Phase-1 upgrades concerns the replacement of the first muon station of the highrapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel. This configuration copes with the highest rates expected in Phase II and considerably enhances the performance of the forward muon system by adding triggering functionality to the first muon station. Prospects for the ongoing and future data taking are presented. This article presents the main muon physics results from LHC Run-1 based on a total luminosity of 30 fb^-1. Prospects for the ongoing and future data taking are also presented. We will conclude with an update of the status of the project and the steps towards a complete operational system, ready to be installed in ATLAS in 2018/19.

  9. Thes - Website for Thermal Shields Upgrade Management

    CERN Document Server

    Micula, Adina

    2013-01-01

    There are a total of 1695 thermal shields (TS) in the interconnections between the superconducting magnets. During LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) all of these TS are being upgraded with a new fixation design. This procedure involves the transport of all the TS from LHC to a workshop on the surface where they are being modified and the subsequent transport of the upgraded TS back to the tunnel where they are laid on the cryostats and await the closure of the interconnection. These operations have to be carefully coordinated in order to ensure that there are always enough modified TS to satisfy the demand in the tunnel and respect the time constraint imposed by the schedule of LS1. As part of my summer project, I developed a database driven website whose aim is to enable the TS upgrade monitoring.

  10. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  11. Upgrading of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of biomass over the rice husk ash catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, B.; Hidayat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of organic compounds that exhibit a wide spectrum of chemical functionality, and generally contain some water. Their direct use as fuels may present some difficulties due to their high viscosity, poor heating value, corrosiveness and instability. For possible future use as replacements for hydrocarbon chemical feedstocks and fuels, the liquids will require considerable upgrading to improve its characteristics. By esterification of the bio oil as the upgrading method, the properties of the bio-oil could be improved. In the paper, the upgrading of a bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis was studied over rice husk ash catalysts. The raw bio-oil was produced by pyrolysis of rice husk.From the experiment results, it can be concluded that the densities of upgraded bio-oil were reduced from 1.24 to 0.95 g.cm-3, and the higherheating value increased from 16.0 to 27.2 MJ/kg and the acidity of upgraded bio-oil was also alleviated from 2.3 to 4.4. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and FT-IR analysis showed that the ester compounds in the upgraded bio-oil increased. It is possible to improve the properties of bio-oil by esterifying the raw bio-oil.

  12. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balunas, William Keaton; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 × 10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architectur...

  13. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    George, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and ...

  14. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Benjamin William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of 7.5 × 1034 cm−2s−1, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture and expected ...

  15. Upgraded cameras for the HESS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gérard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-François; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, James; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Lypova, Iryna; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; de Naurois, Mathieu; Nayman, Patrick; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, François

    2016-08-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of five imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, sensitive to cosmic gamma rays of energies between 30 GeV and several tens of TeV. Four of them started operations in 2003 and their photomultiplier tube (PMT) cameras are currently undergoing a major upgrade, with the goals of improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the failure rate of the ageing systems. With the exception of the 960 PMTs, all components inside the camera have been replaced: these include the readout and trigger electronics, the power, ventilation and pneumatic systems and the control and data acquisition software. New designs and technical solutions have been introduced: the readout makes use of the NECTAr analog memory chip, which samples and stores the PMT signals and was developed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The control of all hardware subsystems is carried out by an FPGA coupled to an embedded ARM computer, a modular design which has proven to be very fast and reliable. The new camera software is based on modern C++ libraries such as Apache Thrift, ØMQ and Protocol buffers, offering very good performance, robustness, flexibility and ease of development. The first camera was upgraded in 2015, the other three cameras are foreseen to follow in fall 2016. We describe the design, the performance, the results of the tests and the lessons learned from the first upgraded H.E.S.S. camera.

  16. ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition Upgrades for High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balunas, William Keaton; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning a second phase of upgrades to prepare for the "High Luminosity LHC", a 4th major run due to start in 2026. In order to deliver an order of magnitude more data than previous runs, 14 TeV protons will collide with an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, resulting in much higher pileup and data rates than the current experiment was designed to handle. While this extreme scenario is essential to realise the physics programme, it is a huge challenge for the detector, trigger, data acquisition and computing. The detector upgrades themselves also present new requirements and opportunities for the trigger and data acquisition system. Initial upgrade designs for the trigger and data acquisition system are shown, including the real time low latency hardware trigger, hardware-based tracking, the high throughput data acquisition system and the commodity hardware and software-based data handling and event filtering. The motivation, overall architecture an...

  17. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2011-11-12

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand control of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.

  18. Performance of the ALEPH upgraded silicon vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Creanza, D; Girone, M.; Maggi, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Raso, G.; Tempesta, P.; Burns, M.; Coyle, P.; Engster, C.; Frank, M.; Moneta, L.; Wachnik, M.; Wagner, A.; Zaslavsky, J.; Focardi, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Halley, A.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Barber, G.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.; Gentry, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Price, D.; Stacey, A.; Toudup, L.W.; Williams, M.I.; Billault, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Blanc, P.E.; Destelle, J.J.; Karst, P.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Thulasidas, M.; Dietl, H.; Moser, H.G.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Waltermann, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Profeti, A.; Rizzo, G.; Verdini, P.G.; Walsh, J.; Bizzell, J.P.; Maley, P.D.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Black, S.; Kim, H.Y.; Bosisio, L.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Elmer, P.

    1997-01-01

    The ALEPH Vertex Detector (VDET) has been upgraded for the second phase of LEP running. The new version still uses double sided silicon strip detectors, fabricated with the same technology as the previous one, but the upgraded one is twice as long and has about half passive material in the tracking volume. Furthermore the readout electronics is now radiation hard (MX7-RH chips). An almost complete version of the upgraded VDET was installed in ALEPH during a three week LEP technical stop and took data in November 1995 during the LEP run at 130 GeV. The new detector worked well showing high signal over noise ratio and good efficiency. The point resolution measured during this run, using high momentum muons, 13 μm in the τ - φ view and 21 μm in the τ - z view, is dominated by the alignment precision, due to the low statistics available for this short LEP run. This result is however acceptable, since for lower momentum charged particle, the multiple scattering gives a significant contribution to the final im...

  19. Performance of the Aleph Upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Girone, M.; Maggi, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Raso, G.; Tempesta, P.; Burns, M.; Coyle, P.; Engster, C.; Frank, M.; Moneta, L.; Wachnik, M.; Wagner, A.; Zaslavsky, J.; Focardi, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Halley, A.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Barber, G.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.; Gentry, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Price, D.; Stacey, A.; Toudup, L.W.; Williams, M.I.; Billault, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Blanc, P.E.; Destelle, J.J.; Karst, P.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Thulasidas, M.; Dietl, H.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Waltermann, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Dell`Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Profeti, A.; Rizzo, G.; Verdini, P.G.; Walsh, J.; Bizzell, J.P.; Maley, P.D.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Black, S.; Kim, H.Y.; Bosisio, L.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Elmer, P. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50125 Firenze (Italy)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Physics, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)]|[Centre de Physique des Particules, Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, IN2P3-CNRS, 13288 Marseille (France)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita e INFN Sezione di Pisa, 56010 Pisa (Italy)]|[Particle Physics Dept., Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)]|[Institute for Particle Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The ALEPH Vertex Detector (VDET) has been upgraded for the second phase of LEP running. The new version still uses double sided silicon strip detectors, fabricated with the same technology as the previous one, but the upgraded one is twice as long and has about half passive material in the tracking volume. Furthermore the readout electronics is now radiation hard (MX7-RH chips). An almost complete version of the upgraded VDET was installed in ALEPH during a three week LEP technical stop and took data in November 1995 during the LEP run at 130 GeV. The new detector worked well showing high signal over noise ratio and good efficiency. The point resolution measured during this run, using high momentum muons, 13 {mu}m in the r-{phi} view and 21 {mu}m in the r-z view, is dominated by the alignment precision, due to the low statistics available for this short LEP run. This result is however acceptable, since for lower momentum charged particle, the multiple scattering gives a significant contribution to the final impact parameter resolution. A better resolution has been achieved in the next run, when an initial period at the Z peak has been foreseen to calibrate and align the whole detector. (orig.).

  20. The upstream tracker for the LHCb upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, Olaf, E-mail: olafs@physik.uzh.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb collaboration is planning a comprehensive upgrade of the experiment for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2019/20. As part of this upgrade, the tracking station in front of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by a new planar four-layer silicon micro-strip detector with 40 MHz readout and silicon sensors with finer granularity and improved radiation hardness. Key design aspects of this new Upstream Tracker are described and a brief overview of the status of the project is given.

  1. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  2. CMS DT Upgrade The Sector Collector Relocation

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro Tobar, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Sector Collector relocation is the first stage of the upgrade program for the Drift Tubes subdetector of the CMS experiment. It was accomplished during Long Shutdown 2013-2014, and consisted in the relocation of the second-level trigger and readout electronics from the experimental to the service cavern, relieving the environmental constraints and improving accessibility for maintenance and upgrade. Extending the electrical links would degrade reliability, so the information is converted to optical with a custom system capable of dealing with the DC-unbalanced data. Initially, present electronics are used, so optical-to-copper conversion has also been installed.

  3. Upgrade of the CERN telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between 8.00 p.m. and 10.00 p.m. on Monday 9 October. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this time. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  4. UPGRADES TO Monteburns, VERSION 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trellue, Holly R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Monteburns VERSION 3.0 is an upgrade of the existing Monteburns code available through RSICC. The new version includes modern programming style, increased parallel computing, more accurate capture gamma calculations and an automated input generator. This capability was demonstrated through a small PWR core simulation.

  5. Hardware upgrade for A2 data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrick, Michael; Gradl, Wolfgang; Otte, Peter-Bernd; Neiser, Andreas; Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Koerner, Tito [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The A2 Collaboration uses an energy tagged photon beam which is produced via bremsstrahlung off the MAMI electron beam. The detector system consists of Crystal Ball and TAPS and covers almost the whole solid angle. A frozen-spin polarized target allows to perform high precision measurements of polarization observables in meson photo-production. During the last summer, a major upgrade of the data acquisition system was performed, both on the hardware and the software side. The goal of this upgrade was increased reliability of the system and an improvement in the data rate to disk. By doubling the number of readout CPUs and employing special VME crates with a split backplane, the number of bus accesses per readout cycle and crate was cut by a factor of two, giving almost a factor of two gain in the readout rate. In the course of the upgrade, we also switched most of the detector control system to using the distributed control system EPICS. For the upgraded control system, some new tools were developed to make full use of the capabilities of this decentralised slow control and monitoring system. The poster presents some of the major contributions to this project.

  6. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  8. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...

  9. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  10. ATLAS Upgrades Towards the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cinca, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV in 2011 and 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly 10 years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The final goal is to extend the data set from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2030. Current planning in ATLAS also has significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades to accommodate running already beyond nominal luminosity this decade. The challenge of coping with HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for an all-new inner-tracker, significant upgrades in the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data a...

  11. PC Made Easy: Upgrading Computer Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Matt

    1997-01-01

    Provides guidelines for ordering the best computer books, geared to the library's size. Covers series, articles, subjects, and publishers most useful to a broad audience, as well as the best places to seek information on new titles and where to find reviews. Offers time savers for upgrading a computer book collection and discusses weeding…

  12. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.;

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin i...

  13. The JLAB 12 GeV Energy Upgrade of CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Leigh H. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    This presentation should describe the progress of the 12GeV Upgrade of CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The status of the upgrade should be presented as well as details on the construction, procurement, installation and commissioning of the magnet and SRF components of the upgrade.

  14. Instrumentation Upgrades to TITAN's Cooler Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Daniel; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The use of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) is critical to improving the precision of Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides with half-lives substantially less than 100 ms, but the process of charge breeding imparts an unacceptably high energy spread to the ion bunch sent to TITAN's precision Penning trap for mass measurement. TITAN's Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada was designed to cool HCIs with a plasma of simultaneously trapped electrons. CPET is currently undergoing commissioning offline at TRIUMF. In order to prepare CPET for full operation, several technical challenges associated with the use of electrons in a strong magnetic field had to be overcome. First among these was the detection of electrons outside of CPET. A novel, thin charge-collecting detector was successfully developed. Known as the mesh detector, it is charge-agnostic and can be made effectively transparent to allow for the passage of any charged particle at the user's request. The second challenge, moving CPET's electron source off the central beam axis was overcome by the creation of an electron source which would allow for electron injection into CPET and the passage of cooled ions out of CPET. CPET's 7 T solenoid generates a stray field far outside of the magnet's central bore that forced the design of a set of electron injection optics that bend, steer and focus the beam in three dimensions. Results from the successful installation of these upgrades as well as a report on future work will be discussed. This work was partially supported by NSERC, the CFI and the DFG.

  15. CMS Forward Pixel Upgrade Electronics and System Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Hannsjorg Artur

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses results of electronics and system testing of the CMS forward pixel (FPIX) detector upgrade for Phase 1. The FPIX detector is comprised of four stand-alone half cylinders, each of which contains frontend readout electronic boards, power regulators, cables and fibers in addition to the pixel modules. All of the components undergo rigorous testing and quality assurance before assembly into the half cylinders. Afterwards, we perform full system tests on the completely assembled half cylinders, including calibrations at final operating temperatures, characterization of the realistic readout chain, and system grounding and noise studies. The results from all these tests are discussed.

  16. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  17. Simulated Performance of a Strip-Based Upgraded VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, T; Coutinho, R; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Latham, T; Schindler, H

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the expected performance of an upgraded Vertex Locator based on silicon-strip sensors, two different sensor layouts and two different thermo-mechanical module designs were implemented in the LHCb simulation framework. In this note, the digitisation, clustering and track reconstruction algorithms are described, and the simulated performance, at beam conditions corresponding to instantaneous luminosities of 1 and 2$\\times 10^{33} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$, is compared to that of the current Vertex Locator. Results are presented on the material budget, strip and cluster occupancies, tracking efficiencies as well as on primary vertex, impact parameter and decay time resolutions.

  18. ATLAS Phase-II-Upgrade Pixel Data Transmission Development

    CERN Document Server

    Wensing, Marius; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector (ITk) in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The readout of the ITk pixel system will be most challenging in terms of data rate and readout speed. Simulation of the on-detector electronics based on the currently foreseen trigger rate of 1 MHz indicate that a readout speed of up to 5 Gbps per data link is necessary. Due to radiation levels, the first part of transmission has to be implemented electrically. System simulation and test results of cable candidates will be presented.

  19. Production of biofuels via bio-oil upgrading & refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2016-03-18

    This chapter provides cursory reviews of biomass liquefaction, relevant petroleum processing technology, and relevant model compound studies. More detail is provided for upgrading of biomass liquefaction products, including an overview of potential fractionation and catalytic processing methods, hydroprocessing as the primary means of interest, scale of operation, operating conditions and catalysts, and product properties. Batch results are included where needed to provide a more complete narrative, but continuous-flow operations are emphasized as being more informative. Liquid fuel products from biomass through direct liquefaction and hydroprocessing are discussed, such as fuel properties based on chemical analysis and comparison of petroleum fuels and biofuels.

  20. High-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis for biogas upgrading: the role of anaerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Gong, Shufen; Sun, Yuanzi; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis has been proved to be a feasible biological method for biogas upgrading. To improve its performance, the feasibility of typical anaerobic granules as the inoculum was investigated in both batch and continuous experiments. The results from batch experiments showed that glucose-acclimated granules seemed to perform better than granules acclimated to acidified products (AP, i.e. acetate, propionate and ethanol) in in situ biogas upgrading systems and a slightly higher H2 consumption rate (1.5 mmol H2 g VSS(-1) h(-1)) was obtained for glucose-acclimated granules. For AP-acclimated granules, the inhibition on anaerobic digestion and pH increase (up to 9.55±0.16) took place, and the upgrading performance was adversely affected. In contrast, better performance for AP-acclimated granules was observed in ex situ systems, possibly due to their higher hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activities (HMA). Moreover, when gas-liquid mass transfer limitations were alleviated, the upgrading performance was significantly improved (three-fold) for both glucose-acclimated and AP-acclimated granules. The HMA of anaerobic granules could be further enhanced to improve biogas upgrading performance via continuous cultivation with H2/CO2 as the sole substrate. During the three months' cultivation, secondary granulation and microbial population shift were observed, but anaerobic granules still remained intact and their HMA increased from 0.2 to 0.6 g COD g VSS(-1) d(-1). It indicated that the formation of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic granules, a new type of anaerobic granules specialized for high-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and biogas upgrading, might be possible. Conclusively, anaerobic granules showed great potential for biogas upgrading.

  1. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  2. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  3. An Upgrade Proposal from the PHENIX Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bandara, N; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Baron, O; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Benjamin, G; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Blackburn, J; Blau, D S; Bobrek, M; Bok, J; Boose, S; Boyle, K; Britton,, C L; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Bumazhnov, V; Butler, C; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Carollo, A; Chai, J -S; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Chollet, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossett, N; Csanád, M; D'Orazio, L; Dairaku, S; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Debraine, A; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Eberle, L; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; FingerJr., M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Gastaldi, F; Ge, H; Giannotti, P; Giordarno, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; Hayashi, S; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hoefferkamp, M; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hori, Y; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Hutchins, J R; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Ivanov, V; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kehayias, H -J; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kravtsov, P; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kuriyama, M; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Lefferts, R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Lipski, A; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Lynch, M; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; Masumoto, S; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKay, R; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Menegasso, R; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Ninomiya, K; Nishimura, S; Northacker, D; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nukariya, A; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; Ozawa, K; Pancake, C; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Popule, J; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Radhakrishnan, S; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Reynolds, R; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Roschin, E; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Shafto, E; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sicho, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sippach, F W; Skolnik, M; Snowball, M; Solano, S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Soumya, M; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stevens, L; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Tate, A; Tennant, E; Thorsland, E; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Torii, H; Towell, C; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Trofimov, V; Tserruya, I; Tsuji, T; Tullo, A; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Watson, T S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Whitaker, S; White, A S; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; Young, M; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zarndt, E; Zelenski, A; Zhang, L; Zhou, S; Zolin, L; Zou, L; Zumberge, C

    2015-01-01

    In this document the PHENIX collaboration proposes a major upgrade to the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This upgrade, sPHENIX, enables an extremely rich jet and beauty quarkonia physics program addressing fundamental questions about the nature of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), discovered experimentally at RHIC to be a perfect fluid. The startling dynamics of the QGP on fluid-like length scales is an emergent property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), seemingly implicit in the Lagrangian but stubbornly hidden from view. QCD is an asymptotically free theory, but how QCD manifests as a strongly coupled fluid with specific shear viscosity near $T_C$, as low as allowed by the uncertainty principle, is as fundamental an issue as that of how confinement itself arises.

  4. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2016-10-18

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  5. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2016-10-18

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  6. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  7. Phase 2 Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mersi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    An upgrade program is planned for the LHC which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above ${5\\times10^{34}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{-2}}\\mathrm{s^{-1}}}$ sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of ${3000\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}}$ at the end of that decade. In this ultimate scenario, called Phase-2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC), CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R\\&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R\\&D activities and expected detector performance.

  8. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  9. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  10. Upgrading hydro-electric generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulson, D.M.; Villalon, M.

    1987-11-01

    Approximately 1,720,000 kW of installed hydro-electric generating capacity is either owned directly by pulp and paper companies in Canada or is operated principally in their service. The 216 units involved were commissioned between 1902 and 1982. This paper suggests an approach to upgrading the generating units themselves as well as the related electrical and mechanical equipment and civil structures, giving approximate durations and costs. A complete system study is recommended. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarno, Rochmadi, Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  12. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  15. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  16. LHCb; DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2x 10$^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ . s$^{-1}$. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of HCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and (relative) cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ ...

  17. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  18. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ~ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  19. ATLAS Upgrades for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, I M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly fo...

  20. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be kept lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tr...

  1. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred \\ifb\\ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for...

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  3. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  4. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  5. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  6. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  7. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  8. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  9. STANDARDIZATION OF CEBAF 12 GEV UPGRADE CAVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffany Bass, G. Davis, Christiana Wilson, Mircea Stirbet

    2012-07-01

    CEBAF 12GeV upgrade project includes 80 new 7-cell cavities to form 10 cryomodules. Each cavity underwent RF qualification at 2.07K using a high power accelerating gradient test and an HOM survey in Jefferson Lab's Vertical Testing Area (VTA) before cavity string assembly. In order to ensure consistently high quality data, updated cavity testing procedures and analysis were implemented and used by a group of VTA operators. For high power tests, a cavity testing procedure was developed and used in conjunction with a LabVIEW program to collect the test data. Additionally while the cavity was at 2.07K, an HOM survey was performed using a network analyzer and a combination of Excel and Mathematica programs. Data analysis was standardized and an online logbook, Pansophy, was used for data storage and mining. The Pansophy system allowed test results to be easily summarized and searchable across all cavity tests. In this presentation, the CEBAF 12GeV upgrade cavity testing procedure, method for data analysis, and results reporting results will be discussed.

  10. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  11. Improving Genetic Algorithm to Solve Multi-objectives Optimal of Upgrading Infrastructure in NGWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dac-Nhuong Le

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of upgrading to the Next Generation Wireless Network (NGWN is backward compatibility with pre-existing networks, the cost and operational benefit of gradually enhancing networks, by replacing, upgrading and installing new wireless network infrastructure elements that can accommodate both voice and data demand. In this paper, I propose a new genetic algorithm based on a combination of two populations to solve multi-objective optimization infrastructure upgrade problem in NGWN. Network topology model has two levels in which mobile users are sources and both base stations and base station controllers are concentrators. My objective function is the costs of connection from sources to concentrators such as the cost of the installation, connection, replacement, and capacity upgrade of infrastructure equipment. I generate two populations satisfies constraints and combine its to build solutions and evaluate the performance of my algorithm with data randomly generated. The experimental results show that this approach is appropriate and effective Finally, I have applied this algorithm to planning of upgrade infrastructure in telecommunication networks in Haiphong city.

  12. Searching for New Physics with Top Quarks and Upgrade to the Muon Spectrometer at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Thomas Andrew

    2015-06-29

    Over the funding period of this award, my research has focused on searching for new physics with top quarks and in the Higgs sector. The highly energetic top quark events at the LHC are an excellent venue to search for new physics, as well as make standard model measurements. Further, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson motivates searching for new physics that could be associated with it. This one-year award has facilitated the beginning of my research program, which has resulted in four publications, several conference talks, and multiple leadership positions within physics groups. Additionally, we are contributing to ATLAS upgrades and operations. As part of the Phase I upgrade, I have taken on the responsibility of the design, prototyping, and quality control of a signal packet router for the trigger electronics of the New Small Wheel. This is a critical component of the upgrade, as the router is the main switchboard for all trigger signals to track finding processors. I am also leading the Phase II upgrade of the readout electronics of the muon spectrometer, and have been selected as the USATLAS Level-2 manager of the Phase II upgrade of the muon spectrometer. The award has been critical in these contributions to the experiment.

  13. TU-G-BRD-02: Automated Systematic Quality Assurance Program for Radiation Oncology Information System Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Yi, B; Eley, J; Mutaf, Y; Rahman, S; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To: (1) describe an independent, automated, systematic software-based protocol for verifying clinical data accuracy/integrity for mitigation of data corruption/loss risks following radiation oncology information system (ROIS) upgrades; and (2) report on application of this approach in an academic/community practice environment. Methods: We propose a robust approach to perform quality assurance on the ROIS after an upgrade, targeting four data sources: (1) ROIS relational database; (2) ROIS DICOM interface; (3) ROIS treatment machine data configuration; and (4) ROIS-generated clinical reports. We investigated the database schema for differences between pre-/post-upgrade states. Paired DICOM data streams for the same object (such as RT-Plan/Treatment Record) were compared between pre-/post-upgrade states for data corruption. We examined machine configuration and related commissioning data files for changes and corruption. ROIS-generated treatment appointment and treatment parameter reports were compared to ensure patient encounter and treatment plan accuracy. This protocol was supplemented by an end-to-end clinical workflow test to verify essential ROI functionality and integrity of components interfaced during patient care chain of activities. We describe the implementation of this protocol during a Varian ARIA system upgrade at our clinic. Results: We verified 1,638 data tables with 2.4 billion data records. For 222 under-treatment patients, 605 DICOM RT plans and 13,480 DICOM treatment records retrieved from the ROIS DICOM interface were compared, with no differences in fractions, doses delivered, or treatment parameters. We identified 82 new data tables and 78 amended/deleted tables consistent with the upgrade. Reports for 5,073 patient encounters over a 2-week horizon were compared and were identical to those before the upgrade. Content in 12,237 xml machine files was compared, with no differences identified. Conclusion: An independent QA

  14. SuperHILAC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1986-06-01

    A high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source is to be installed in the third injector (Abel) at the SuperHILAC, representing the first accelerator use of this novel ion source. The MEVVA source has produced over 1 A of uranium in all charge states, with typically more than 100 electrical mA (emA) of U/sup 5 +/. A substantial fraction of this high current, heavy ion beam must be successfully transported to the entrance of the Wideroe linac to approach the 10 emA space-charge output limit of the Wideroe. Calculations show that up to 50 emA of U/sup 5 +/ can be transported through the present high voltage column. A bouncer will be added to the Cockcroft-Walton supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport line vacuum will be improved to reduce charge exchange, and the phase matching between the 23 MHz Wideroe and the 70 MHz Alvarez linacs will be improved by the addition of two 70 HMz bunchers. The installation of the MEVVA source along with the modifications described above are expected to result in a five-fold increase in beam delivered to Bevatron experiments, increasing the extracted uranium beam to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse.

  15. Laser Guide Star Facility Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S.; Calia, D. B.; Buzzoni, B.; Duhoux, P.; Fischer, G.; Guidolin, I.; Haimerl, A.; Hackenberg, W.; Hinterschuster, R.; Holzlöhner, R.; Jolley, P.; Pfrommer, T.; Popovic, D.; Alvarez, J.-L.; Beltran, J.; Girard, J.; Pallanca, L.; Riquelme, M.; Gonte, F.

    2014-03-01

    The Laser Guide Star Facility is part of VLT Unit Telescope 4 and provides a single centre-launched sodium beacon for the two adaptive optics instruments SINFONI and NACO. The original facility, installed in 2006, employed a high-power dye laser source, PARSEC, producing an output beam that was delivered via a single-mode optical fibre to launch optics located behind the telescope secondary mirror. We recently installed a new prototype laser source, PARLA, based on Raman optical fibre technology. Requirements for the new laser include start-up times compatible with flexible observing, an output beam appropriate for the existing fibre-delivery system and an on-sky power of up to 7 watts. This is the first time that this type of laser has been deployed at a major observing facility, and it has a pathfinder role for future adaptive optics systems. Reported here are the main results of the development, deployment and early operation since the resumption of science operation in February 2013.

  16. Scanning facility to irradiate mechanical structures for the LHC upgrade programme

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Parker, K; Wilson, J; Baca, M

    2015-01-01

    The existing luminosity of the LHC will be increased in stages to a factor of 10 above its current level (HL-LHC) by 2022. This planned increase in luminosity results in significantly higher levels of radiation inside the proposed ATLAS Upgrade detector. This means existing detector technologies together with new components and materials need to be re-examined to evaluate their performance and durability at these higher fluences. Of particular interest is the effect of radiation on the upgraded ATLAS tracker. To study these effects a new ATLAS irradiation scanning facility has been developed using the Medical Physics Cyclotron at the University of Birmingham. The intense cyclotron beams allow irradiated samples to receive in minutes fluences corresponding to years of operation at the HL-LHC. Since commissioning in early 2013, this facility has been used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and carbon fibre sandwiches for the ATLAS upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors and passive mate...

  17. Discussion of the indexes of nonoutburst coal seam upgrade and its corresponding critical values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI dian-ping; LIU Yan-wei; LIU Ming-ju; MENG Lei

    2009-01-01

    In view of the measurement difficulties of indexes recommended by the 50 Items Experience of Coal Mine Gas Prevention in the process of the nonoutburst coal seam upgrade, this paper took the No.8 coal seam of Huainan Mining Group as research object. Discussed the suitability of indexes and corresponding critical values, put forward method in determining the indexes and its critical values by analysis and investigation of the gas geological condition and the-spot tracking near position where an outburst occurred combined with laboratory experiment, and established the indexes and its critical values of nonoutburst coal seam upgrade in No.8 coal seam of Huainan Mining Group. The results show that it is suitable to take gas content and tectonic soft coal thickness easily to gain in routine production as primary upgrade indexes that its critical values are 7.5 m3/t and 0.8 m, respectively. In addition, takefvalue and Ap value as auxiliary indexes.

  18. Shifts in value chain governance and upgrading in the European periphery of automotive production: evidence from Bursa, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güldem Ãzatagan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines shifts in value chain governance and upgrading in the automotive component production node of Bursa in Turkey. Component suppliers in Bursa have gained design and product-development competences, one result of which is that European and global firms have turned to the creation of modular value chains for the sourcing of components from these suppliers. This paper considers the implications of the insertion of Turkish suppliers into modular value chains on suppliers’ upgrad...

  19. An Application of the Wiles Test in the Formulation of Education Strategy for the Newly-Upgraded Colleges of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using graduates from the newly-upgraded colleges as a sample, we used the Wiles test on the Human Capital Hypothesis vs. the Screening Hypothesis of education economics. The results were in favor of the former, i.e., higher education was more likely a production means than just a signal in the job market. Thus the newly-upgraded colleges should adjust their curriculum and faculty structure to accommodate the skill demands in job markets.

  20. Status of the Upgrades for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter (to be merged with 86)

    CERN Document Server

    Paramesvaran, Sudarshan

    2013-01-01

    The CMS collaboration is planning a set of improvements to the detector's hadron calorimeters in the coming years. These changes will include the replacement of the HPD photodetectors with silicon photomultipliers, the introduction of increased depth segmentation to the calorimeter, and the inclusion of TDC capabilities to the detector's ADCs. The status of the research and development for these upgrades will be discussed, along with the results from the testing of the upgraded microTCA readout electronics which is being evaluated with current LHC data taking.

  1. Testbeam studies of pre-prototype silicon strip sensors for the LHCb UT upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Abba, Andrea; Blusk, Steven; Britton, Thomas; Davis, Adam; Dendek, Adam; Dey, Biplab; Ely, Scott; Evans, T.; Fu, Jinlin; Gandini, Paolo; Lionetto, Federica; Manning, Peter Michael; Meadows, Brian; Mountain, Raymond; Neri, Nicola; Petruzzo, Marco; Pikies, Malgorzata; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Szumlak, Tomasz; Wang, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is preparing for a major upgrade in 2018-2019. One of the key components in the upgrade is a new silicon tracker situated upstream of the analysis magnet of the experiment. The Upstream Tracker (UT) will consist of four planes of silicon strip detectors, with each plane covering an area of about 2m$^2$. An important consideration of these detectors is their performance after they have been exposed to a large radiation dose. In this article we present test beam results of pre-prototype n-in-p and p-in-n sensors that have been irradiated with doses up to 23.3 MRad.

  2. QIE12: A New High-Performance ASIC for the ATLAS TileCal Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration; Proudfoot, James; Stanek, Robert; Chekanov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the QIE12, a custom ASIC, being developed for the ATLAS TileCal Phase 2 Upgrade. The design features 1.5 fC sensitivity, more than 17 bits of dynamic range with logarithmic response, and an on-chip TDC with one nanosecond resolution. It has a programmable shunt output for monitoring the integrated current. The device operates with no dead-time at 40 MHz, making it ideal for calorimetry at the LHC. We present bench measurements and integration studies that characterize the performance, radiation tolerance measurements, and the design for the ATLAS TileCal detector for the Phase 2 Upgrade.

  3. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  4. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  5. Test of the photon detection system for the LHCb RICH Upgrade in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, Mateusz Karol; Calabrese, Roberto; Cardinale, Roberta; Carniti, Paolo; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cojocariu, Lucian Nicolae; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dorosz, Piotr Andrzej; Easo, Sajan; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frei, Christoph; Gambetta, Silvia; Gibson, Valerie; Gotti, Claudio; Harnew, Neville; He, Jibo; Keizer, Floris; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Maciuc, Florin; Maino, Matteo; Malaguti, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mccann, Michael Andrew; Morris, Adam; Muheim, Franz; Papanestis, Antonis; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petrolini, Alessandro; Piedigrossi, Didier; Pistone, Alessandro; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Sigurdsson, Saevar; Simi, Gabriele; Smith, Jackson William; Spradlin, Patrick; Tomassetti, Luca; Wotton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to use the available luminosity at the LHC in Run III and extend its potential for discovery. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors are one of the key components of the LHCb detector for particle identification. In this paper, we describe the setup and the results of the first tests in a particle beam carried out to assess prototypes of the upgraded optoelectronic chain from the Multi-Anode PMT photosensor to the readout and data acquisition system.

  6. Status and upgrade of the VEPP-4 storage-ring facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    The VEPP-4 facility is an e + e - collider with a beam energy up to 2 GeV. The scientific program includes topics in high-energy and nuclear physics, as well as various investigations using synchrotron radiation and polarized or unpolarized charged-particle beams. An energy upgrade to 5 GeV is planned, and reliable and efficient operation of the storage-ring complex upon increased energy must be provided. We discuss the recent experimental results and the opportunities to be created by the energy upgrade.

  7. Test of the photon detection system for the LHCb RICH Upgrade in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to make more efficient use of the available luminosity at the LHC in Run III and extend its potential for discovery. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors are key components of the LHCb detector for particle identification. In this paper we describe the setup and the results of tests in a charged particle beam, carried out to assess prototypes of the upgraded opto-electronic chain from the Multi-Anode PMT photosensor to the readout and data acquisition system.

  8. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  9. VeloPix ASIC for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cid Vidal, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full detector readout at 40 MHz. LHCb will run without a hardware trigger and all data will be fed directly to the software triggering algorithms in the CPU farm. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight silicon hybrid pixel detector with 55 um square pixels, operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb luminosity requirements. VeloPix is a binary pixel chip with a matrix of 256 x 256 pixels, covering an area of 2 cm^2. It is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, and is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s/ASIC, resulting in a data rate of more than 16 Gbit/s. Combining pixels into groups of 2x4 super-pixels enables the use of shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combine...

  10. Boosting Event Building Performance using Infiniband FDR for CMS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bawej, Tomasz Adrian; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Forrest, Andrew Kevin; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; Vivian O'Dell; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CMS upgrade during CERN long shutdown period (LS1), the CMS data acquisition system is incorporating Infiniband FDR technology to boost event building performance for operation from 2015 onwards. Infiniband promises to provide substantial increase in data transmission speeds compared to the older 1GE network used during the 2009-2013 LHC run. Several options exist to end user developers when choosing a foundation for software upgrades, including the uDAPL (DAT Collaborative) and Infiniband verbs libraries (OFED). Due to advances in technology, the CMS data acquisition system will be able to achieve the required throughput of 100 kHz with increased event sizes while downsizing the number of nodes by using a combination of 10GE, 40GE and 56 GB Infiniband FDR. This paper presents the analysis and results of a comparison between GE and Infiniband solutions as well as a look at how they integrate into an event building architecture, while preserving the scalability, efficiency and deterministic late...

  11. RF Power Upgrade for CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Kimber,Richard Nelson

    2011-03-01

    Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is currently upgrading the 6GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) to 12GeV. As part of the upgrade, RF systems will be added, bringing the total from 340 to 420. Existing RF systems can provide up to 6.5 kW of CW RF at 1497 MHZ. The 80 new systems will provide increased RF power of up to 13 kW CW each. Built around a newly designed and higher efficiency 13 kW klystron developed for JLab by L-3 Communications, each new RF chain is a completely revamped system using hardware different than our present installations. This paper will discuss the main components of the new systems including the 13 kW klystron, waveguide isolator, and HV power supply using switch-mode technology. Methodology for selection of the various components and results of initial testing will also be addressed. Notice: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  12. Parameters of Upgrading Existing Building into a Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rupali Kapure

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Before turning to specific programs for upgrading buildings, it’s important to understand the market dynamics of greening existing buildings. From a macroeconomic perspective, energy efficiency upgrades represent the most cost-effective way to meet growing energy demands. From a microeconomic perspective, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient and certified green buildings merit higher market values, greater rents, and higher occupancies. From a corporate sustainability viewpoint, greening existing buildings is a direct way to reduce a company’s carbon footprint. As a result, corporate real estate managers in the United States have begun to decide in favour of greening both owned and leased buildings, seeing many economic benefits from this switch. Green buildings offer many marketing benefits for building owners and tenants, including opportunities for creating new green “brands” and also “future-proofing” their real estate against both future energy price increases and also value erosion as the trend toward green buildings continues to grow. Marketing benefits will vary by geographic location, building and tenant type, and other factors, but they are present in all privately owned real estate.

  13. Tests of the CMS Phase 1 Upgrade FPIX Half Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The pixel detector is an integral part of the CMS silicon tracker, designed to measure the position and momentum of charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward pixel detector will replace the existing forward pixel detector at the end of 2016. This upgrade will include three forward disks on each end, and is organized in four mechanical support structures, called half-cylinders. Each half-cylinder contains frontend readout electronic boards, power regulators, cables and fibers in addition to the three half disks with the active pixel modules. Full system tests are being performed on the half cylinders after each step of assembly and after its completion. I will describe the various steps of the testing and qualification procedure, focusing on the final assembly and the full system test for the integrated half-cylinder. I will also discuss the results obtained for the completed detector before its shipment to CERN.

  14. LHCB : The upgraded LHCb RICH detector: status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The two RICH detectors installed in LHCb have performed successfully during the 2010-2012 data taking period. The data from these detectors were essential to most of the physics results published by LHCb. In order to extend its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena it is planned to upgrade the LHCb experiment in 2018 with a 40MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system. This would increase the readout rate and occupancies for the RICH detectors. The RICH detector will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream RICH detector. Tests of the complete opto-electronic chain have been performed during testbeam sessions in autumn 2014. The status and perspectives of the RICH upgrade project will be presented.

  15. Phase1 upgrade of the CMS-HF Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gulmez, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, results of the Phase I upgrade of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter (HF) are discussed. The CMS-HF Calorimeter was using regular PMTs. Cherenkov light produced in the quartz fibers embedded in the iron absorber was read out with the PMTs. However, occasionally, stray muons hitting the PMT windows cause Cherenkov radiation in the PMT itself and produce large signals. These large signals mimic a very high-energy particle and are tagged as important by the trigger. To reduce this problem, PMTs had to be replaced. The four-anode PMTs that were chosen have thinner windows; thereby reducing the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window. As part of the upgrade, the read-out electronics is to be replaced so that the PMTs are read out in two channels by connecting each pair of anodes to a single channel. Information provided by these two channels will help us reject the false signals due to the stray muons since the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window is more likely to produce a signal only in one...

  16. Proton Beam Intensity Upgrades for the Neutrino Program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab

    2016-12-15

    Fermilab is committed to upgrading its accelerator complex towards the intensity frontier to pursue HEP research in the neutrino sector and beyond. The upgrade has two steps: 1) the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), which is underway, has its primary goal to start providing 700 kW beam power on NOvA target by the end of 2017 and 2) the foreseen PIP–II will replace the existing LINAC, a 400 MeV injector to the Booster, by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC by the middle of next decade, with output beam intensity from the Booster increased significantly and the beam power on the NOvA target increased to <1.2 MW. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for the next two decades. In this context, we have recently developed and commissioned an innovative beam injection scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme". This scheme is already in operation and has a potential to increase the Booster beam intensity from the PIP design goal by a considerable amount with a reduced beam emittance and beam loss. In this paper, we will present results from our experience from the new scheme in operation, current status and future plans.

  17. Performance of Upgraded Cooling System for Lhd Helical Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Obana, T.; Yanagi, N.; Moriuchi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Oba, K.; Mito, T.; Motojima, O.; Okamura, T.; Semba, T.; Yoshinaga, S.; Wakisaka, H.

    2008-03-01

    Helical coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are large scale superconducting magnets for heliotron plasma experiments. The helical coils had been cooled by saturated helium at 4.4 K, 120 kPa until 2005. An upgrade of the cooling system was carried out in 2006 in order to improve the cryogenic stability of the helical coils and then it has been possible to supply the coils with subcooled helium at 3.2 K, 120 kPa. A designed mass flow of the supplied subcooled helium is 50 g/s. The subcooled helium is generated at a heat exchanger in a saturated helium bath. A series of two centrifugal cold compressors with gas foil bearing is utilized to lower the helium pressure in the bath. The supplied helium temperature is regulated by rotational speed of the cold compressors and power of a heater in the bath. The mass flow of the supplied helium is also controlled manually by a supply valve and its surplus is evaporated by ten heaters at the outlet above the coils. In the present study, the performance of the cooling system has been investigated and a stable operating method has also developed. As the result, it was confirmed that the performance of the upgraded cooling system satisfies the requirements.

  18. Analysis of NSTX Upgrade OH Magnet and Center Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Zolfaghari, P. Titus, J. Chrzanowski, A. Salehzadeh, F. Dahlgren

    2010-11-30

    The new ohmic heating (OH) coil and center stack for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) upgrade are required to meet cooling and structural requirements for operation at the enhanced 1 Tesla toroidal field and 2 MA plasma current. The OH coil is designed to be cooled in the time between discharges by water flowing in the center of the coil conductor. We performed resistive heating and thermal hydraulic analyses to optimize coolant channel size to keep the coil temperature below 100 C and meet the required 20 minute cooling time. Coupled electromagnetic, thermal and structural FEA analyses were performed to determine if the OH coil meets the requirements of the structural design criteria. Structural response of the OH coil to its self-field and the field from other coils was analyzed. A model was developed to analyze the thermal and electromagnetic interaction of centerstack components such as the OH coil, TF inner legs and the Bellville washer preload mechanism. Torsional loads from the TF interaction with the OH and poloidal fields are transferred through the TF flag extensions via a torque transfer coupling to the rest of the tokamak structure. A 3D FEA analysis was performed to qualify this design. The results of these analyses, which will be presented in this paper, have led to the design of OH coil and centerstack components that meet the requirements of the NSTX-upgrade structural design criteria.

  19. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)

  20. Physics potential and the status of DOE upgrade at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Jaehoon, Yu

    2001-01-01

    The DOE experiment is one of the two collider experiments at Fermilab. The DOE detector is a multipurpose detector and took its data during Fermilab TeVatron collider run in 1992-1996. Both the DO detector and the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab are currently undergoing significant upgrade to extend the reach to new physics and to further probe Standard Model. In this paper, physics potential of the upgraded DOE detector and the upgrade status are discussed.

  1. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  2. Status of the Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melconian, Dan

    2016-09-01

    The Texas A&M University Re-accelerated EXotics (T-REX) project, an upgrade to the Cyclotron Institute, will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams of a unique energy range and the ability to provide primary beams to two experiments concurrently. The upgrade is nearing completion of its three major tasks: re-commissioning of the existing K150 cyclotron; construction of light- and heavy-ion guide transport systems; and charge-boosting the K150 RIB for re-acceleration using the K500 cyclotron. The light-ion guide transport system will utilize the high intensity (>= 10 μ A) proton beam from the K150 to produce rare ions via fusion-evapouration reactions or proton-induced fission fragments. These ions will be transported to an ECR charge breeder prior to injection in the K500. The heavy-ion guide will use deep inelastic, transfer and fragmentation reactions using the up to 25 MeV/u primary beams from the K150. The products will be separated by a superconducting solenoid and collected in a large gas-catcher, after which a multi-RFQ system will transport the RIB to any of: the charge-breeder and K500; the TAMU Penning Trap beamline; or an MR-TOF for beam analysis. The status of the T-REX upgrade and an overview of its capabilities will be presented Supported by DOE Grant Number DE-FG03-93ER40773 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant Number H-A-0098.

  3. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  4. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...... countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  5. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  6. VELO aperture considerations for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Giovannozzi, M; Holzer, B; Neat, M

    2012-01-01

    In Long Shutdown 2 the VELO detectors will be replaced by new modules compatible with the LHCb Upgrade 40 MHz read-out system. A smaller inner radius of the VELO RF foil and of the silicon sensor active area will allow LHCb to considerably improve the impact parameter resolution. Here, a limit of the minimum VELO aperture during physics (Stable Beams) is discussed. A value of 3.5 mm for the nominal radius of the inner edge fo the RF foil seems acceptable.

  7. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  8. Upgrade and yields of the IGISOL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, P. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: Pasi.Karvonen@phys.jyu.fi; Penttilae, H.; Aystoe, J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Elomaa, V-V. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Peraejaervi, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 (Finland); Rahaman, S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Sonoda, T. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); K. U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tordoff, B. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The front end of the Jyvaeskylae IGISOL facility was upgraded in 2003 by increasing its pumping capacity and by improving the radiation shielding. In late 2005, the skimmer electrode of the mass separator was replaced by a sextupole ion guide, which improved the mass separator efficiency up to an order of magnitude. The current design of the facility is described. The updated yield data, achieved with and without the additional JYFLTRAP purification, using both fusion evaporation reactions and particle induced fission is presented to give an overview of the capability of the facility. These data have been determined either by radioactivity measurements or by direct ion counting after the Penning trap system.

  9. HEAVY OIL UPGRADING WITH MINIMAL INVESTMENT COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By making best use of the low value by-products and maximum utilization of the existed processing units to minimize the investment cost,several heavy oil upgrading processes have been developed and put into practice in China.For domestic sweet crudes,RFCC combined with decanted oil coking or deasphalting has been selected.By RFCC-coking or deasphalting synergy,inferior quality feedstock can be accepted and needle coke and paving asphalt are produced.For imported sulfur crudes,high vacuum distillation combined with asphalt production and combined coking with the use of coke in cement industry and Fluidized Bed Combustion are recommend.

  10. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F; Sanchez, PDA; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, JP; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Wogsland, BJ; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article is the Preprint version of the final published article which can be accessed at the link below. The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e− collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking. This work has b...

  11. Upgrading Fermi Without Traveling to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has received an upgrade that increased its sensitivity by a whopping 40% and nobody had to travel to space to make it happen! The difference instead stems from remarkable improvement to the software used to analyze Fermi-LATs data, and it has resulted in a new high-energy map of our sky.Animation (click to watch!) comparing the Pass 7 to the Pass 8 Fermi-LAT analysis, in a region in the constellation Carina. Pass 8 provides more accurate directions for incoming gamma rays, so more of them fall closer to their sources, creating taller spikes and a sharper image. [NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration]Pass 8Fermi-LAT has been surveying the whole sky since August 2008. It detects gamma-ray photons by converting them into electron-positron pairs and tracking the paths of these charged particles. But differentiating this signal from the charged cosmic rays that also pass through the detector with a flux that can be 10,000 times larger! is a challenging process. Making this distinction and rebuilding the path of the original gamma ray relies on complex analysis software.Pass 8 is a complete reprocessing of all data collected by Fermi-LAT. The software has gone through many revisions before now, but this is the first revision that has taken into account all of the experience that the Fermi team has gained operating the LAT in its orbital environment.The improvements made in Pass 8 include better background rejection of misclassified charged particles, improvements to the point spread function and effective area of the detector, and an extension of the effective energy range from below 100 MeV to beyond a few hundred GeV. The changes made in Pass 8 have increased the sensitivity of Fermi-LAT by an astonishing 40%.Map of the High-Energy SkySky map of the sources in the 2FHL catalog, classified by their most likely association. Click for a better look! [Ackermann et al. 2016]The first result from the

  12. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  13. ATLAS Upgrade Instrumentation in the US

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00069444; Evans, Hal; Seiden, Abe

    2013-01-01

    Planned upgrades of the LHC over the next decade should allow the machine to operate at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV with instantaneous luminosities in the range 5--7e34 cm^-2 s^-1. With these parameters, ATLAS could collect 3,000 fb^-1 of data in approximately 10 years. However, the conditions under which this data would be acquired are much harsher than those currently encountered at the LHC. For example, the number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing will rise from the level of 20--30 per 50 ns crossing observed in 2012 to 140--200 every 25 ns. In order to deepen our understanding of the newly discovered Higgs boson and to extend our searches for physics beyond that new particle, the ATLAS detector, trigger, and readout will have to undergo significant upgrades. In this whitepaper we describe R&D necessary for ATLAS to continue to run effectively at the highest luminosities foreseen from the LHC. Emphasis is placed on those R&D efforts in which US institutions are playing a leadin...

  14. CEBAF Upgrade: Cryomodule Performance And Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Michael A.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; Hovater, J. Curt; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joe; Reece, Charles E.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

    2014-02-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the 12 GeV Upgrade is a doubling of the available beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due in large part to the addition of ten C100 cryomodules plus associated new RF in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver 100 MeV per installed cryomodule. Each C100 cryomodule is built around a string of eight seven-cell, electro-polished, superconducting RF cavities. While an average performance of 100MV per cryomodule is needed to achieve the overall 12 GeV beam energy goal, the actual performance goal for the cryomodules is an average energy gain of 108 MV to provide operational headroom. Cryomodule production started in December 2010. All ten of the C100 cryomodules are installed in the linac tunnels and are on schedule to complete commissioning by September 2013. Performance during Commissioning has ranged from 104 MV to 118 MV. In May, 2012 a test of an early C100 achieved 108 MV with full beam loading. This paper will discuss the performance of the C100 cryomodules along with operational challenges and lessons learned for future designs.

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavour production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 $\\mu$m. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and a material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. %In particular, the properties of the two innermost layers define the ITS performance in measuring the displaced vertex of such short-lived particles. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavour detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detec...

  16. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  17. Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvala, N; Vrecko, D; Burica, O; Strazar, M; Levstek, M

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated based on data from ASP and MBBR pilot plants operating in parallel on the existing plant. Only two kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted to represent the real plant behaviour. Steady-state analyses have shown a similar efficiency of both processes in relation to carbon removal, but improved performance of MBBR in relation to nitrogen removal. Better performance of MBBR can be expected especially at low temperatures. Simulations have not confirmed the expected less volume required for the MBBR process. Finally, the MBBR was chosen for plant upgrading. The developed process model will be further used to evaluate the final plant configuration and to optimise the plant operating parameters.

  18. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00246160

    2015-01-01

    {During the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded detector will fully replace the current ITS having six layers by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity in LHC. The choice of MAPS has been driven by the specific requirements of ALICE as a heavy ion experiment dealing with rare probes at low $p_\\mathrm{T}$. This leads to stringent requirements on the material budget of 0.3$\\%~X/X_{0}$ per layer for the three innermost layers. Furthermore, the detector will see large hit densities of $\\sim 19~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}/\\mathrm{event}$ on average for minimum-bias events in the inner most layer and has to stand moderate radiation loads of 700 kRad TID and $1\\times 10^{13}$ 1 MeV n$_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ NIEL at maximum. The MAPS dete...

  19. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  20. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hovater, C; Guerra, A; Nelson, R; Terrel, R A; Wissmann, M

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to “kick” the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity’s transverse shunt impedance. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity originally. In addition the new RF system supports the proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. Currently we are halfway through the upgrade with two IOTs in operation and two more to be in...

  1. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  2. 242-A MCS Logic Acceptance Test Report for Year 2000 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEATS, M.C.

    1999-08-31

    242-A Evaporator distributive control system upgrade to D/3 version 9.0-2 for year 2000 compliance. Testing was performed per test procedure HNF-3568. There were no unresolved exceptions. The system responded correctly to all testing and meets the requirements to operate the 242-A This report documents the acceptance test results for the Evaporator facility.

  3. Cryogenic Test of Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, B; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Calaga, Rama; Cullen, C; Capatina, Ofelia; Hammons, L; Li, Z; Marques, C; Skaritka, J; Verdú-Andres, S; Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    A Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed and fabricated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A vertical cryogenic test has been done at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). The cavity achieved 4.5 MV deflecting voltage with a quality factor above 3×109 . We report the test results of this design.

  4. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program.

  5. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer are presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  6. JLab's Hall A after the 12 GeV upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Lerose

    2004-11-14

    An overview is presented of the planned physics program for JLab's Hall A following the 12 GeV upgrade with emphasis on the equipment needed to achieve the desired experimental goals. Results of simulations of sample experiments with anticipated uncertainties are presented.

  7. Contraints on neighbourhood activism: experiences with services upgrading in Nakuru, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Post; S.I. Mwangi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to explain why community action and partnering in services upgrading in Nakuru, Kenya, has only produced very modest results. Although inhabitants feel connected to their neighbourhood, they do not automatically translate their attachment into concrete action to improve liveability.

  8. The Phase-II ATLAS Pixel Tracker Upgrade: Layout and Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In early 2017 a new layout will be decided for the ATLAS experiment as it undergoes an upgrade of its tracking detector during the Phase-II LHC shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The various layouts are described and a description of the supporting structures are presented, along with results from testing of prototypes.

  9. Learning, Upgrading, Innovation in the South African Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Justin; Lorentzen, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    , their internal upgrading and R&D agenda, and their interface with South Africa's national innovation system (NIS). The analysis makes use of eight case studies, and illustrates the conditions under which indigenous innovation in the automotive industries can happen in a developing country. This finding......This paper addresses the innovation activities of automotive component manufacturers in South Africa. It looks at the technological trajectory of a handful of firms that stand out from the crowd and analyses the results of their endeavours in the context of their interaction with foreign capital...... contradicts at least part of the conventional wisdom concerning the location of innovation activities in global car value chains. Results also point to a deficient NIS insofar as there appears to be a disjuncture between the demand for engineering competence in the manufacturing sector on the one hand...

  10. I{sup Y}Q upgrading at a 1 bbl/d scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W. [ETX Systems, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The complex relationships between the many chemical and physical processes involved in heavy oil thermal upgrading have inhibited technology development in heavy oil because these underlying processes have been difficult to quantify. This paper presented a model which provides focus for the development of new upgrading technology. It is based on the understanding that product yields and qualities are influenced by the balance between mass transfer and reaction kinetics. ETX Systems developed the I{sup Y}Q upgrading technology which exceeds benchmarks in terms of liquid yields, product qualities and economics. The attributes of the technology result in a smaller environmental footprint associated with heavy oil development. A pilot plant has been built at a 1 bbl/day scale. The fluidized bed process complete with circulation of hot solids was commissioned in the fall of 2007. The unit has since provided field support for the original yield and quality claims assigned to the I{sup Y}Q upgrading technology. The results have exceeded original expectations. ETX Systems has also launched a project to prove commercial operability at a scale of 2000 bbl/day. This presentation focused on the challenges faced during the pilot exercise. The results have shown the advantage of lowering operating temperatures with respect to both yield and quality. tabs., figs.

  11. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. Magnetic switching, final chapter, Book I: the ATA upgrade prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birx, D.; Cook, E.; Hawkins, S.; Poor, S.; Reginato, L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.W.

    1983-03-22

    Efforts directed at finding a 10 kHz switch to replace the current 1 kHz gas blown spark gap have culminated in a prototype for an upgrade of ATA. The design and performance of this prototype as well as possible options and recommendations concerning an eventual upgrade are described. 4 references, 9 figures.

  13. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  14. Towards Optimum Material Choices for HL-LHC Collimator Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Quaranta, E.; Biancacci, N.; Bruce, R.; Carra, F.; Métral, E.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, A.; Salvant, B.

    2016-01-01

    properties that address different limitations of the present collimation system, solutions have been found to fulfil various upgrade challenges. This paper describes the proposed staged approach to deploy new materials in the upgraded HL-LHC collimation system. Beam tests at the CERN HiRadMat facility were also performed to benchmark simulation methods and constitutive material models.

  15. The 12 GeV Energy Upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Fulvia C.

    2012-09-01

    Two new cryomodules and an extensive upgrade of the bending magnets at Jefferson Lab has been recently completed in preparation for the full energy upgrade in about one year. Jefferson Laboratory has undertaken a major upgrade of its flagship facility, the CW re-circulating CEBAF linac, with the goal of doubling the linac energy to 12 GeV. I will discuss here the main scope and timeline of the upgrade and report on recent accomplishments and the present status. I will then discuss in more detail the core of the upgrade, the new additional C100 cryomodules, their production, tests and recent successful performance. I will then conclude by looking at the future plans of Jefferson Laboratory, from the commissioning and operations of the 12 GeV CEBAF to the design of the MEIC electron ion collider.

  16. Initital Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, DB; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) of the ATLAS experiment has been operating well since the start of LHC data taking and played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery. To face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC proton beam energy and luminosity, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo. This poster presents the L1Calo upgrade program for the initial upgrade phase in 2013-14. The program includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing. Two existing digital algorithm processor subsystems will receive hardware and firmware upgrades to increase the real-time data path bandwidth, allowing topological information to be processed at level-1. An entirely new subsystem, the L1 topological processor, will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1- muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies.

  17. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  18. The upgraded S18 neutron interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, G. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-11-01

    The instrument S18, the perfect-crystal neutron interferometer was reopened in October 1998. The instrument, which was dismantled during the reactor shutdown, has been set up again within the last two years. The upgraded version allows more advanced neutron optics experiments for fundamental, nuclear and condensed-matter physics. The instrument also takes advantage of the new super-mirror guide which provides considerably higher intensities. Several types of large perfect-crystal interferometers are available for different applications. A new multipurpose monochromator allows the use of a wide wavelength range and the configuration of the system as an advanced high-resolution Bonse-Hart small-angle scattering camera. Another instrument option is the use of completely polarised beams which are obtained using permanent magnetic prism deflection. An additional third analyser axis permits novel post-selection experiments concerning momentum distribution and polarisation analysis of the interfering beams. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs.

  19. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  20. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  1. Upgrade of the LHCb ECAL monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Guz, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb ECAL is a shashlik calorimeter of 6016 cells, covering 7.68 x 6.24 m$^2$ area. To monitor the readout chain of each ECAL cell, the LHCb ECAL is equipped with a LED based monitoring system. During the LHC Run I (2009-2012) it was found that the precision of the monitoring suffers from the radiation degradation of transparency of polystyrene clear fibers used to transport the LED light to the ECAL photomultipliers. In order to improve the performance of the monitoring system, and especially in view of significant increase of LHCb working luminosity foreseen after 2018, the present plastic fibers have been replaced by radiation hard quartzfi bers. The performance of the old LHCb ECAL monitoring system during LHC Run I and the design of the upgraded system are discussed here.

  2. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-05-09

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  3. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Akre, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx{reg_sign} ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  5. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  6. Big advance towards the LHC upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is currently the world’s most powerful accelerator. With its technical achievements it has already set world records. However, big science looks very far ahead in time and is already preparing already for the LHC’s magnet upgrade, which should involve a 10-fold increase of the collision rates toward the end of the next decade. The new magnet technology involves the use of an advanced superconducting material that has just started to show its potential.   The first Long Quadrupole Shell (LQS01) model during assembly at Fermilab. The first important step in the qualification of the new technology for use in the LHC was achieved at the beginning of December when the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) – a consortium of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory founded by US Department Of Energy (DOE) in 2003 – successfully tested the first long focussing magnet th...

  7. LS1: electrical engineering upgrades and consolidation

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, F

    2012-01-01

    Compared to past shutdowns, the Engineering Department Electrical Engineering (EN-EL) Group's activity volume will be multiplied by about four during LS1. The Group is experienced in handling such situations and will cope with this by transferring manpower from studies to worksite supervision and thanks to its subcontractors who know how to increase their manpower in such a manner as to maintain a good level of professionalism. EN-EL is substantially increasing its resources to cope with this workload. This increase in resources is, however, limited by the management capacity of EN-EL's core staff. As a consequence, not all of the requested activities will be possible and prioritization will be necessary. This paper details the upgrades and the consolidation to be carried out during LS1 and the measures taken by EN-EL to cope with this heavy workload.

  8. Moscow Meson Factory DTL RF System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Esin, S K; Kvasha, A I; Serov, V L

    2004-01-01

    The last paper devoted to description of the first part (DTL) RF system of Moscow Meson Factory upgrade was published in the Proceedings of PAC95 Conference in Dallas. Since then some new works directed at improvement of reliability and efficiency of the RF system were carried out. Among them there are a new powerful pulse triode “Katran” installed in the output RF power amplifiers (PA) of three channels, modifications of the anode modulator control circuit and crow-bar system, a new additional RF channel for RF supply of RFQ and some alterations in placing of the anode modulator equipment decreasing a level of interference’s at crow-bar circuits. Some new checked at MMF RF channels ideas concerning of PA tuning are of interest for people working in this sphere of activity.

  9. LLRF System for the CEBAF Separator Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plawski, Tomasz E. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curt [JLAB; Seidman, David J. [JLAB; Wissmann, Mark J. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of four new 748.5 MHz normal conducting deflecting cavities in the 5th pass extraction region. This system will work together with the existing 499 MHz RF Separator in order to allow simultaneous delivery of the beam to four CEBAF experimental halls. The RF system employs two digital LLRF systems controlling four cavities in a vector sum. Cavity tune information of the individual cavities is also obtained using a multiplexing scheme of the forward and reflected RF signals. In this paper we will present detailed LLRF design and the current status of the CEBAF 748.5/499 MHz beam extraction system.

  10. A GEANT4 simulation study of BESⅢ endcap TOF upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SHAO Ming; LI Cheng; CHEN Hong-Fang; HENG Yue-Kun; SUN Yong-Jie; TANG Ze-Bo

    2013-01-01

    A GEANT4-based Monte-Carlo (MC) model is developed to study the performance of endcap timeof-flight (ETOF) at BESⅢ.It's found that the multiple scattering effects,mainly from the materials at the MDC endcap,can cause multi-hit on the ETOF's readout cell and significantly influence the timing property of ETOF.A multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) with a smaller readout cell structure is more suitable for the ETOF detector due to significantly reduced multi-hit rate (per channel),from 71.5% for currently-used scintillator-based ETOF to 21.8% or 16.7% for MRPC-based ETOF,depending on the readout pad size used.The timing performance of an MRPC ETOF is also improved.These simulation results suggest and guide an ETOF upgrade effort at BESⅢ.

  11. Fire safety assessment and upgrading of existing traffic tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederichs U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many traffic tunnels in the European Union need records of their conservation and safety status, including fire performance. Besides other countries the German road transport authorities plan to enhance the safety of their tunnels. As an example, the results of investigations performed with a two-tube tunnel in Northern Germany, which has been examined to assess fire safety, is reported. It turned out, that the older tube, which got fire protection boards on the ceilings and the wall crowns, fully fits the demands according to the current rules. The later tube needs an upgrading to avoid catastrophic impairment of air and car traffic in the vicinity of the tunnels. For the retrofitting a number of protection materials are in the market. The execution of the measure requires smart planning as to reach the strived goal.

  12. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  13. DC-DC Powering for the CMS Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  14. DC–DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@rwth-aachen.de; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-21

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC–DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC–DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC–DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC–DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  15. A new heavy residue upgrading process to retrofit existing refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedian, Maryam; Zarkesh, Jamshid [NIOC-Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Light crude oil reserves have declined and new fields being explored tend to be heavy oil, requiring processes to convert heavy residue to light products. The aim of this paper is to present the use of heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) to upgrade heavy residues in existing refineries. A case study was carried out on a refinery with 250,000 barrel per day capacity, two cases were examined: the base case and the HRH case. Results showed that HRH provides higher IRR and NPV than the base case for the same investment. The heavy residue hydroconversion process was proved to be a feasible and reliable alternative which could eliminate residue while creating added value in existing refineries.

  16. Evaluation of a possible upgrade of the IAU 2006 precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.-C.; Capitaine, N.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted a new precession model at its 2006 General Assembly. After more than ten years since the publication of the so-called IAU 2006 precession, we have noticed progress in solar system ephemerides and geophysical observations, which can be used to refine the precession model. Another progress is the increase by 30% since 2003, of the length of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations to be compared with the theoretical model. Aims: The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of upgrading the IAU 2006 precession model based on new solutions of the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB) motion, new theoretical contributions to the precession rates, and the revised J2 long-term variation obtained from the satellite laser ranging (SLR). Methods: The new precession expressions for the ecliptic are derived by fitting the new analytical planetary theory VSOP2013 to the numerical ephemerides DE422 or INPOP10a. The solution for the precession of the equator was obtained by integrating the dynamical precession equations with the use of an updated Earth model including the J2 quadratic long-term variation. The new precession expressions (denoted LC solution in this paper) are compared with the IAU 2006 model by using the most accurate VLBI observations up to 2015. Results: For the precession of the ecliptic, the changes in the new solutions with respect to the IAU 2006 are about several tens of microarcseconds in the linear terms of PA and QA. The upgraded precession of the equator is such that the quadratic and cubic terms in the quantity ψA differ significantly from IAU 2006 due to the revised J2 model. The statistics of the VLBI celestial pole offsets (1979-2015) and least squares fits with different empirical models, show that the LC precession is slightly more consistent with the VLBI observations, but the improvement relative to the IAU 2006 model is not definitely convincing at present

  17. C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2016-10-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (20 - 40 keV hydrogen, 4 MW total), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved plasma stability. Under such conditions, highly reproducible FRCs with a significant fast-ion population and total plasma temperature of about 1 keV were achieved. The FRC's were macroscopically stable and decayed on characteristic transport time scales of a few milliseconds. In order to sustain an FRC configuration, the C-2 device was upgraded with a new neutral beam injection (NBI) system, which can deliver a total of 10 + MW of hydrogen beam power, by far the largest ever used in a compact toroid plasma experiment. Compared to C-2, the beam energy was lowered to 15 keV and angled injection geometry was adopted to provide better beam coupling to the FRC. The upgraded neutral beams produce a dominant fast ion population that makes a dramatic beneficial impact on the overall plasma performance. Specifically: (1) high-performance, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (5 + ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without the beams, (2) the sustainment is fully correlated with neutral beam injection, (3) confinement of fast ions is close to the classical limit, and (4) new, benign collective fast ion effects were observed. Collectively, these accomplishments represent a dramatic advance towards the scientific validation of the FRC-based approach to fusion. This talk will provide a comprehensive overview of the C-2U device and recent experimental advances.

  18. Physics Program for the STAR/CBM eTOF Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration and the CBM Collaboration institutions: Heidelberg, Darmstadt, CCNU, Tsinghua, and USTC propose to install an end-cap time-of-flight upgrade (eTOF) to the STAR detector for the RHIC beam energy scan phase II (BES-II) program in 2019 and 2020. BES-II will cover the collision energy range 3.0 to 19.6 GeV. This is the region of interest in the search for a critical point and first-order phase transition, identified by the results from BES-I and by model calculations. For the collider-mode portion of the energy scan, 7.7 to 19.6 GeV, eTOF will extend particle identification (PID) for pions, kaons, and protons to a rapidity of 1.2, complementing the inner Time Projection Chamber (iTPC) upgrade to the forward tracking. The rapidity coverage for PID would extend to only 0.8 without the eTOF upgrade. The eTOF upgrade will enable precision studies of the key bulk property observables, essential to the BES-II search. An internal fixed-target program will allow the energy scan to cover 3.0 to 7.7 ...

  19. Assessment of activated sludge, membrane bioreactors and vertical flow wetlands for upgrading sewage treatment works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, A; Le Corre, K S; Dotro, G; Jefferson, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that utilising a vertical flow (VF) wetland after a conventional activated sludge (CAS) delivers equivalent or better effluent quality to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) based on a side-by-side pilot trial. The CAS was operated under the solids retention times (SRT) of 6, 12, and 20 days, with the effluent from each pilot plant fed onto a soil aquifer treatment column to better understand their water reuse application potential. Results showed an upgraded CAS + VF system could deliver effluents with median values of 34 mgO2.L((-1)), 7 mg.L(-1) and 1.9 mg.L(-1) for organics, solids and ammonia nitrogen, respectively, which were statistically similar to those from the MBR. Water reuse standards were achieved by the upgraded system for most parameters, with the exception of total coliform removal. The upgraded system delivered superior metal removal when compared to the CAS. An economic analysis showed upgrading a CAS with a VF wetland was more favourable than investing in an MBR system for example works of 5000 and 50,000 population equivalents if the VF system was operated at hydraulic loading rates of 0.03 m.d(-1) and 0.08 m.d(-1), respectively. This was delivered for a tenth of the carbon footprint of the MBR treatment.

  20. Accelerating the Delivery of Home Performance Upgrades through a Synergistic Business Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, Tom; Ojczyk, Cindy

    2016-04-11

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40% by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades; B) determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks; and C) access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.