WorldWideScience

Sample records for asdex upgrade edge

  1. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  2. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, Vl., E-mail: bobkov@ipp.mpg.de; Ochoukov, R.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Lunt, T.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Jacquet, Ph.; Monakhov, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zhang, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Stepanov, I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Colas, L.; Meyer, O. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23 Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2015-12-10

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene – FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  3. A Probe Head for Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R W; Ionita, C; Vianello, N

    2010-01-01

    For ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) a new probe head was developed for simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region. The probe head consists of a cylindrical graphite case. On the front side six graphite pins are mounted. With this arrangement the poloidal and rad...... is inserted up to three times for 100 ms each by the midplane manipulator into the scrape-off layer. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  4. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Codrina; Vianello, Nicola; Müller, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region were measured simultaneously during ELMy H-mode (high confinement) plasmas and L-mode (low confinement) plasmas and during a transition between the two modes. A special probe was used containing six Langmuir ...... into the scrape-off layer outside the last closed flux surface. The main emphasis is put on type I ELMs and from the results the radial turbulent particle flux and magnetic field variations are determined....

  5. Characterization and interpretation of the Edge Snake in between type-I edge localized modes at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, F; Guenter, S; Kallenbach, A; Maraschek, M; Boom, J; Fischer, R; Hicks, N; Reiter, B; Wolfrum, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Luhmann, N C Jr [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Park, H K [POSTECH, Pahang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Wenninger, R, E-mail: fabian.sommer@ipp.mpg.de [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A new magnetohydrodynamic instability called the 'Edge Snake', which was found in 2006 at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade during type-I ELMy H-modes, is investigated. It is located within the separatrix in the region of high temperature and density gradients and has a toroidal mode number of n = 1. The Edge Snake consists of a radially and poloidally strongly localized current wire, in which the temperature and density profiles flatten. This significant reduction in pressure gradient leads to a reduction in the neoclassical Bootstrap current and can plausibly explain the drive of the instability. The experimental observations point towards a magnetic island with a defect current inside the O-point of the island. The Edge Snake is compared with similar instabilities at JET, DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade.

  6. A fast acquisition rate system for charge exchange measurements at the plasma edge at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Cavedon, Marco; Viezzer, Eleonora; Dux, Ralph; Geiger, Benedikt; McDermott, Rachael Marie; Meyer, Hendrik; Stroth, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of high through-put Czerny-Turner spectrometer has been developed which allows to acquire multiple channels simultaneously with a repetition time on the order of \\SI{10}{\\us} at different wavelengths. The spectrometer has been coupled to the edge charge exchange recombination system at ASDEX Upgrade which has been recently refurbished with new lines of sight. Construction features, calibration methods, and initial measurements obtained with the new setup will be presented.

  7. ASDEX Upgrade Edge Transport Studies by Turbulence and Braginskii Divertor Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.P.; Kim, J.W.; Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The equilibration time for diverter transport simulations is in the range of milliseconds to seconds. There, perpendicular transport is given empirically and usually assumed to be constant in time and space. In this work, we aim at describing edge plasma profiles in both the H-mode and the L-mode confinement regimes using a model that couples the transport scale to the underlying turbulence scale. There are 2d and 3d variants of DALF, which is a turbulence code that describes short time scale nonlinear phenomena based on first principles of plasma physics. B2 employs an implicit method which is suitable for describing long time scale, quasi-steady state behavior, while fluctuation/intermittency is inherent in turbulence and typically gives rise to short time scale variations of the radial flux. We coarse rained the information from the 2d version of DALF within the order of turbulence auto correlation time and iterated over the divertor simulation (and thus passed plasma parameters to the turbulence code). Numerical algorithm and criteria for convergence in bridging the physics of two different scales is discussed. The generation mechanism of radial electric field in steep gradient regimes is revisited in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor geometry with realistic parameters. Inclusion of turbulent suppression effects by E x B shear flow is considered. (orig.)

  8. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Dux, R.; Dunne, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line Dα. The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  9. Implementation of the new multichannel X-mode edge density profile reflectometer for the ICRF antenna on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiam, D. E.; Silva, A.; Bobkov, V.; Carvalho, P. J.; Carvalho, P. F.; Cavazzana, R.; Conway, G. D.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fattorini, L.; Faugel, H.; Fernandes, A.; Fünfgelder, H.; Gonçalves, B.; Guimarais, L.; De Masi, G.; Meneses, L.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Rocchi, G.; Santos, J. M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.

    2016-11-01

    A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 1019 m-3, at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna. ICRF power coupling, operational effects, and poloidal variations of the plasma density profile can be consistently studied for the first time. In this work the diagnostic hardware architecture is described and the obtained density profile measurements were used to track outer radial plasma position and plasma shape.

  10. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-12-18

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E{sub r}. The gradients in E{sub r} and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E{sub r} profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He{sup 2+}, B{sup 5+}, C{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 10+}. The resulting E{sub r} profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E{sub r} profile forms a deep

  11. Simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX upgrade using EMC3-Eirene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: wei.zhang@ipp.mpg.de [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lunt, T.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Brida, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Applied Physics Department, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Jacquet, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Simulations were carried out with the 3D plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE, to study the deuterium gas (D{sub 2}) puff effects on edge density and the coupling of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) power in ASDEX Upgrade. Firstly we simulated an inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate (1.2 × 10{sup 22} electrons/s) lower divertor gas puff. Then we changed the gas source positions to the mid-plane or top of machine while keeping other conditions the same. Cases with different mid-plane or top gas valves are investigated. Our simulations indicate that compared to lower divertor gas puffing, the mid-plane gas puff can enhance the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a rather global (toroidally uniform) but significantly smaller enhancement is found for top gas puffing. Our results show quantitative agreement with the experiments.

  12. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron r...

  13. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availa...

  14. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; L. Barrera Orte,; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; M. Brüdgam,; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; P. de Marné,; D' Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; H. Fünfgelder,; Fuchs, J. C.; K. Gál,; M. García Muñoz,; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; T. Görler,; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; S. Günter,; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; T. Härtl,; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; H. Höhnle,; M. Hölzl,; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; C.-P. Käsemann,; Kallenbach, A.; S. Kálvin,; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; M.-E. Manso,; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; H.W. Müller,; M. Münich,; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; B. Plöckl,; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; van Rooij, G. J.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; A. Stäbler,; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; E. Würsching,; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron reso

  15. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and...

  16. Characterization of edge profiles and fluctuations in discharges with type-II and nitrogen-mitigated edge localized modes in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfrum, E; Bernert, M; Burckhart, A; Classen, I G J; Conway, G D; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Gude, A; Herrmann, A; Maraschek, M; McDermott, R; Puetterich, T; Wieland, B [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Boom, J E [FOM Institute for Plasmaphysics, Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann, N C Jr [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA95616 (United States); Park, H K [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Vicente, J [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fosao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Willensdorfer, M, E-mail: e.wolfrum@ipp.mpg.de [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Association EURATOM-OEAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) with high frequency and low power loss (type-II ELMs) occur in high triangularity, near double null configurations in ASDEX Upgrade with full tungsten plasma facing components. The transition from type-I to type-II ELMs is shown to occur above a collisionality threshold. For the first time the characteristic MHD fluctuations around 40 kHz have been localized. The fluctuations are observed in a wide region extending from the pedestal inward to normalized poloidal radius {rho}{sub pol} = 0.7. Their amplitudes on the low-field side of the plasma exhibit maxima above and below the mid-plane. The fluctuations move in the electron drift direction and lead to a reduced edge electron temperature gradient. The reduction in the edge pressure gradient is connected with these MHD fluctuations, which affect the electron temperature but not the electron density profiles. A comparison with nitrogen-mitigated type-I ELMs in the same plasma shape shows that core profiles are also affected. The electron temperature profile is self-similar for type-I and nitrogen-mitigated type-I ELMs but is not self-similar in the case of type-II ELMs.

  17. Neue Anwendungsgebiete der Elektronzyklotronresonanzheizung an ASDEX Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Höhnle, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden Heizszenarien der Elektronzyklotronresonanzheizung (ECRH) für neue Parametergebiete am Tokamak ASDEX Upgrade im Hinblick auf ITER entwickelt. Die ECRH wird seit dem Umbau des Materials der ersten Wand von Kohlenstoff zu Wolfram auch für die Kontrolle der Wolframkonzentration im Plasmazentrum gebraucht. In ITER-relevanten Entladungen an ASDEX Upgrade wird der Einsatz der ECRH in der üblich verwendeten außerordentlichen Mode an der zweiten Harmonischen (X2-Mode) jedoch b...

  18. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-10-01

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  19. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  20. Electric Probe Measurements of the Poloidal Velocity in the Scrape-Off Layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Schrittwieser, R..

    2014-01-01

    A reciprocating probe head with six pins was used for localized measurements of electric fields and densities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the edge shear layer (SL) near the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The edge SL is characterized by a strong sudden change...

  1. Direct observation of current in type-I edge-localized-mode filaments on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasmas in the high confinement regime are regularly subjected to relaxation oscillations, termed edge localized modes (ELMs), leading to large transport events. Present ELM theories rely on a combined effect of edge current and the edge pressure gradients which result in in...

  2. A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Albrecht, E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Jaksic, Nikola; Leitenstern, Peter; Greuner, Henri; Krieger, Karl; Marné, Pascal de; Oberkofler, Martin; Rohde, Volker; Schall, Gerd

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade is developed and tested. • It allows replacing a relevant part of the divertor by dedicated targets and probes. • Modified solid standard targets. • Electrical and mechanical probes for dedicated investigations. • Test of actively cooled component. - Abstract: In 2013 a new bulk tungsten divertor, Div-III, was installed in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). During the concept and design phase of Div-III the option of adaptable divertor instrumentation and divertor modification as contribution for divertor investigations in preparation of ITER was given a high priority. To gain flexibility for the test of divertor modifications without affecting the operational space of AUG, the large divertor manipulator, DIM-II, was designed and installed. DIM-II allows to retract 2 out of 128 outer divertor target tiles including the water cooled support structure into a target exchange box and to replace these targets without breaking the vacuum of the AUG vessel. DIM-II is based on a carriage-rail system with a driving rod pushing a front-end with the target module into the divertor position for plasma operation. Three types of front-ends are foreseen for physics investigations: (i) modified standard targets clamped to the standard cooling structure, (ii) dedicated front-ends making use of the whole available volume of about 230 × 160 × 80 mm{sup 3} and (iii) actively cooled/heated targets for cooling water temperatures up to 230 °C. This paper presents the DIM-II design including the FEM calculations for the modified divertor support structure and the front-end options, as well as the test procedure and operation mode.

  3. Interpretation of fast measurements of plasma potential, temperature and density in SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Adamek, J.; Müller, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpretation of fast (1 µs) and local (2–4 mm) measurements of plasma density, potential and electron temperature in the edge plasma of tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. Steady-state radial profiles demonstrate the credibility of the ball-pen probe. We demonstrate that floating poten...

  4. Growth of axisymmetric instabilities in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmer, Till; Lackner, Karl; Strumberger, Erika; Fable, Emiliano; Kardaun, Otto [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma-Physik, EURATOM Association Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); McCarthy, Patrick [University College Cork (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    Modern poloidal divertor tokamaks, such as ASDEX upgrade (AUG), produce elongated plasmas, which are unstable against vertical displacement. The growth rate of this 2D instability in the presence of stabilizing passive conductors (PSL) with finite resistivity was calculated for 5416 AUG typical equilibria. For this, a general ideal MHD code package (NEMEC, CAS3DN, STARWALL) was used, which is able to take into account also the 3D structure of the PSL. The comparison of the resulting growth rates with the previously used rigid displacement model (movement only in z-direction, no skin effect for PSL considered, no induced surface currents) shows that the latter simplified model gives a consistently lower limit for typical AUG parameters (elongation, triangularity, current profile and axis position in radial direction). A statistical analysis of the results of the rigid displacement model shows the expected dependencies except for the triangularity, which has a stabilizing effect in this model. Based on results of our present, more general model, we conclude that a rigid displacement model gives an over-optimistic result regarding the effect of triangularity, in line with the experimental observation on AUG of an increasing discrepancy between previously predicted and observed growth rates for strongly triangular plasmas.

  5. Recent ASDEX Upgrade research in support of ITER and DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Zohmthe ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak aim at improving the physics base for ITER and DEMO to aid the machine design and prepare efficient operation. Type I edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) has been shown at low pedestal collisionality (νped\\ast PLH occurs indicates that ITER could take advantage of it to initiate H-mode at lower density than that of the final Q = 10 operational point. Core density fluctuation measurements resolved in radius and wave number show that an increase of R/LTe introduced by off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) mainly increases the large scale fluctuations. The radial variation of the fluctuation level is in agreement with simulations using the GENE code. Fast particles are shown to undergo classical slowing down in the absence of large scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) events and for low heating power, but show signs of anomalous radial redistribution at large heating power, consistent with a broadened off-axis neutral beam current drive current profile under these conditions. Neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) suppression experiments using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) with feedback controlled deposition have allowed to test several control strategies for ITER, including automated control of (3,2) and (2,1) NTMs during a single discharge. Disruption mitigation studies using massive gas injection (MGI) can show an increased fuelling efficiency with high field side injection, but a saturation of the fuelling efficiency is observed at high injected mass as needed for runaway electron suppression. Large locked modes can significantly decrease the fuelling efficiency and increase the asymmetry of radiated power during MGI mitigation. Concerning power exhaust, the partially detached ITER divertor scenario has been demonstrated at Psep/R = 10 MW m-1 in ASDEX Upgrade, with a peak time averaged target load around 5 MW m-2, well consistent with the component limits

  6. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  7. Imaging motional Stark effect measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, O. P.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R.; Pütterich, T.; Wolf, R. C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the Imaging Motional Stark Effect (IMSE) diagnostic obtained during its first measurement campaign at ASDEX Upgrade since installation as a permanent diagnostic. A brief overview of the IMSE technique is given, followed by measurements of a standard H-mode discharge, which are compared to equilibrium reconstructions showing good agreement where expected. The development of special discharges for the calibration of pitch angle is reported and safety factor profile changes during sawteeth crashes are shown, which can be resolved to a few percent due to the high sensitivity at good time resolution of the new IMSE system.

  8. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, F.; Hölzl, M.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Morales, J.; Willensdorfer, M.; Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Pamela, S.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Strumberger, E.; Lessig, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which edge localized modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q  =  m/n, the coupling between the kink component (m  >  nq) and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant amplification can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  9. Non-linear modeling of the plasma response to RMPs in ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Orain, F; Viezzer, E; Dunne, M; Becoulet, M; Cahyna, P; Huijsmans, G T A; Morales, J; Willensdorfer, M; Suttrop, W; Kirk, A; Pamela, S; Strumberger, E; Guenter, S; Lessig, A

    2016-01-01

    The plasma response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in ASDEX Upgrade is modeled with the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, using input profiles that match those of the experiments as closely as possible. The RMP configuration for which Edge Localized Modes are best mitigated in experiments is related to the largest edge kink response observed near the X-point in modeling. On the edge resonant surfaces q = m=n, the coupling between the m + 2 kink component and the m resonant component is found to induce the amplification of the resonant magnetic perturbation. The ergodicity and the 3D-displacement near the X-point induced by the resonant ampli?cation can only partly explain the density pumpout observed in experiments.

  10. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  11. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  12. Modelling and experiments on NTM stabilisation at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, Laura

    2009-07-27

    In the next fusion device ITER the so-called neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are foreseen as being extremely detrimental to plasma confinement. This type of resistive instability is related to the presence in the plasma of magnetic islands. These are experimentally controlled with local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and the island width decay during NTM stabilisation is modelled using the so-called Modified Rutherford equation. In this thesis, a modelling of the Modified Rutherford equation is carried out and simulations of the island width decay are compared with the experimentally observed ones in order to fit the two free machine-independent parameters present in the equation. A systematic study on a database of NTM stabilisation discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U is done within the context of a multi-machine benchmark for extrapolating the ECCD power requirements for ITER. The experimental measurements in both devices are discussed by means of consistency checks and sensitivity analysis and used to evaluate the two fitting parameters present in the Modified Rutherford equation. The influence of the asymmetry of the magnetic island on stabilisation is for the first time included in the model and the effect of ECCD on the marginal island after which the mode naturally decays is quantified. The effect of radial misalignment and over-stabilisation during the experiment are found to be the key quantities affecting the NTM stabilisation. As a main result of this thesis, the extrapolation to ITER of the NTM stabilisation results from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U shows that 10MW of ECCD power are enough to stabilise large NTMs as long as the O-point of the island and the ECCD beam are perfectly aligned. In fact, the high ratio between the island size at saturation and the deposition width of the ECCD beam foreseen for ITER is found to imply a maximum allowable radial misalignment of 2-3 cm and little difference in terms of gained performance between

  13. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade including diamagnetic drift effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Krebs, Isabel; Franck, Emmanuel; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Orain, Francois; Morales, Jorge; Becoulet, Marina [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, Guido [ITER Organization, 13067 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-05-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for ITER due to high transient heat loads on divertor targets and wall structures. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed ELM simulations for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) including diamagnetic drift effects. The influence of diamagnetic terms onto the evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum for different AUG equilibria and the non-linear interaction of the toroidal harmonics are investigated. In particular, we confirm the diamagnetic stabilization of high mode numbers and present new features of a previously introduced quadratic mode coupling model for the early non-linear evolution of the mode structure. Preliminary comparisons of full ELM crashes with experimental observations are shown aiming at code validation and the understanding of different ELM types. Work is ongoing to include toroidal and neoclassical poloidal rotation in our simulations.

  14. Characterisation of the core poloidal flow at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebschy, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McDermott, Rachael M.; Geiger, Benedikt; Cavedon, Marco; Dunne, Michael G.; Dux, Ralph; Fischer, Rainer; Kappatou, Athina; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Viezzer, Eleonora [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Plasma rotation has a strong influence on the transport of heat, particles, and momentum in fusion plasmas via a variety of mechanisms, for example, by the stabilization of modes and the suppression of plasma turbulence. In tokamaks, the toroidal rotation (u{sub tor}) is essentially a free parameter that is usually dominated by the external momentum input from neutral beams used to heat the plasma. The poloidal rotation (u{sub pol}), on the other hand, is strongly damped and is predicted to remain at Neoclassical (NC) levels of a few km/s. Measuring the inboard-outboard asymmetry of u{sub tor} with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy enables an indirect measurement of u{sub pol} and, hence, the measurement of the complete plasma flow on a flux surface. In order to characterise the nature of u{sub pol} at ASDEX Upgrade a poloidal rotation database has been built that contains a large variation in the parameters that, according to NC theory, drive u{sub pol}; namely, the main ion temperature and density gradients and collisionality. Initial results from this database and a detailed comparison of u{sub pol} to NC theory in interesting plasma scenarios, are presented in this poster.

  15. Piezoelectric valve for massive gas injection in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, Mathias; Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technical University Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Herrmann, Albrecht; Mank, Klaus; Mertens, Vitus; Pautasso, Gabriella; Ploeckl, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A sudden loss of plasma temperature can cause a disruption, which poses a significant problem for current Tokamaks and future fusion devices. Hence, mitigating forces and thermal loads during disruptions is important for the integrity of the vessel and first wall components. Therefore, high speed gas valves are used to deliver a pulse of noble gas onto the plasma, which irradiates the thermal energy quickly, avoiding localized heat loads and mechanical stress due to induced currents. A new design for such a valve is currently under development. The valve plate is driven by two piezoelectric stack actuators. The stroke of the actuators (0.07 mm) is amplified by a monolithic titanium frame and reaches 2 mm. The frame also serves as spring to pre-load the actuators. In the idle state, it also presses the conical valve plate into the seal, closing the gas chamber (42 cm{sup 3}). The actuators accelerate the stem and the valve plate until it is fully opened after 2 ms. The orifice of the valve has a diameter of 14 mm. This allows a peak mass flow rate of the gas up to 8 . 10{sup 4} (Pa.m)/(s) after 1.8 ms and an average mass flow rate of 2 . 10{sup 4} (Pa.m)/(s) over the evacuation time of 10 ms. Therefore, one valve would be sufficient to deliver the required amount of gas to mitigate disruptions at ASDEX Upgrade.

  16. A phased array antenna for Doppler reflectometry in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Stefan; Lechte, Carsten; Kasparek, Walter [IGVP, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hennequin, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech., F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conway, Garrard; Happel, Tim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    In a toroidal plasma, Doppler reflectometry (DR) allows investigating electron density fluctuations with finite k {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The injected microwave beam's frequency determines the radial position of the probed region, its tilt angle selects the wavenumber satisfying the Bragg condition for backscattering. The rotation velocity can be calculated from the Doppler shift of the backscattered signal's frequency. By varying the injected frequency, radial profiles can be reconstructed. Varying the tilt angle resolves the k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -spectrum of the fluctuations. For DR, a pair of phased array antennas (PAAs) has been designed, built, and installed in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Beam steering is done by slightly changing the injected frequency, thus, the PAAs do not need any movable parts or electronics inside the vacuum vessel. From 75 to 105 GHz, the PAAs feature 13 frequency bands, each with an angular scan range of -20 to +20 {sup circle}. So, for each angle, there are 13 radial positions to be probed. The results from PAA characterisation, commissioning, and first DR measurements are presented.

  17. Advances in the density profile evaluation from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, P.; Manso, M. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Conway, G. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    The high temporal and spatial resolutions provided by broadband microwave reflectometry make it an attractive diagnostic technique to measure the density profile in fusion plasmas. However, great problems have been encountered due to the plasma turbulence that difficult, and sometimes prevent, the routine evaluation of density profiles. Advanced broadband systems employ ultra-fast sweeping in an attempt to perform the profile measurement in a time window smaller than the temporal scale of the main plasma fluctuations but this is not sufficient. Indeed, abrupt plasma movements and/or spatial turbulence always affect the reflectometry signals, as shown by numerical studies (with both one- and two-dimensional codes), for the case of ultra-fast sweeping and pulse radar systems. For this reason not only the system performance is important but the software tools also play a crucial role for reflectometry to become a standard density profile diagnostic. Here we present the recent advances towards automatic evaluation of density profiles from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX Upgrade. For regimes with moderate levels of plasma turbulence, density profiles are obtained from single reflectometry samples (temporal resolution of 20 {mu}s), and for higher turbulence levels average profiles are obtained from bursts of ultra-fast (20 {mu}s), closely spaced (10 {mu}s) sweeps. This method improved the accuracy and reliability of density profiles, which can now be obtained automatically from the edge to the bulk plasma - using reflectometry alone - in most plasma regimes of ASDEX Upgrade. New data processing capability has been implemented that allows the profiles to be available to the end-users 10-12 minutes after each discharge. These developments were possible due to the flexibility and high performance of the control and data acquisition systems and to the large number of measurements that can be performed with the diagnostic during each discharge (720 profiles both on the low

  18. ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with and without nitrogen seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Dunne, M. G.; Beurskens, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Bogomolov, A.; Carralero, D.; Cavedon, M.; Fischer, R.; Laggner, F. M.; McDermott, R. M.; Meyer, H.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    The Type I ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with full W plasma facing components is studied in terms of time scales and energy losses for a large set of shots characterized by similar operational parameters but different nitrogen seeding rate and input power. ELMs with no nitrogen can have two typical behaviors, that can be classified depending on their duration, the long and the short ELMs. The work shows that both short and long ELMs have a similar first phase, but the long ELMs are characterized by a second phase with further energy losses. The second phase disappears when nitrogen is seeded with a flux rate above 1022 (e s-1). The phenomenon is compatible with a threshold effect. The presence of the second phase is related to a high divertor/scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and/or to a low pedestal temperature. The ELM energy losses of the two phases are regulated by different mechanisms. The energy losses of the first phase increase with nitrogen which, in turn, produce the increase of the pedestal temperature. So the energy losses of the first phase are regulated by the pedestal top parameters and the increase with nitrogen is due to the decreasing pedestal collisionality. The energy losses of the second phase are related to the divertor/SOL conditions. The long ELMs energy losses increase with increasing divertor temperature and with the number of the expelled filaments. In terms of the power lost by the plasma, the nitrogen seeding increases the power losses of the short ELMs. The long ELMs have a first phase with power losses comparable to the short ELMs losses. Assuming no major difference in the wetted area, these results suggest that (i) the nitrogen might increase the divertor heat fluxes during the short ELMs and that (ii) the long ELMs, despite the longer time scale, are not beneficial in terms of divertor heat loads.

  19. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    CERN Document Server

    Valovič, M; Kirk, A; Suttrop, W; Cavedon, M; Fischer, L R; Garzotti, L; Guimarais, L; Kocsis, G; Cseh, G; Plőckl, B; Szepesi, T; Thornton, A; Mlynek, A; Tardini, G; Viezzer, E; Scannell, R; Wolfrum, E

    2015-01-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  20. Radial transport of poloidal momentum in ASDEX Upgrade in L-mode and H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Schrittwieser, R.; Naulin, Volker

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocating probe was used for localized measurements of the radial transport of poloidal momentum in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). The probe measured poloidal and radial electric field components and density. We concentrate on three components of the momentum transport...

  1. Magnetic diagnostic of SOL-filaments generated by type I ELMs on JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Vianello, N.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    to a simple model, motivated by observations. A new diagnostic in the form of a reciprocating probe with three magnetic pickup loops was developed for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Measurements during the passage of type-I ELM filaments determine the filaments to be in the scrape off layer (SOL) and to carry currents...

  2. Status of the new multi-frequency ECRH system for ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, D.; Grünwald, G.; Leuterer, F.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, a new multi-frequency ECRH system is under construction at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment. This system employs, for the first time in a fusion device, multi-frequency gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The first two gyrotrons, working at 105 and 140 GHz, were...

  3. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injecti...

  4. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  5. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    spectral channels at TEXTOR and 50 spectral channels at ASDEX Upgrade. The antenna patterns of probe and receiver, both steerable, determine size and location of the measuring volume, and the direction of the resolved fast ion velocity. With overmoded transmission lines, consisting of waveguides...

  6. Experimental studies of high-confinement mode plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Nazikian, R.; Leuthold, N.; Strumberger, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, J. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; McDermott, R. M.; Orain, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of externally applied small non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) with tokamak high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas is reviewed and illustrated by recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade. The plasma response to the vacuum MP field is amplified by stable ideal kink modes with low toroidal mode number n driven by the H-mode edge pressure gradient (and associated bootstrap current) which is experimentally evidenced by an observable shift of the poloidal mode number m away from field alignment (m  =  qn, with q being the safety factor) at the response maximum. A torque scan experiment demonstrates the importance of the perpendicular electron flow for shielding of the resonant magnetic perturbation, as expected from a two-fluid MHD picture. Two significant effects of MP occur in H-mode plasmas at low pedestal collisionality, ν \\text{ped}\\ast≤slant 0.4 : (a) a reduction of the global plasma density by up to 61 % and (b) a reduction of the energy loss associated with edge localised modes (ELMs) by a factor of up to 9. A comprehensive database of ELM mitigation pulses at low {ν\\ast} in ASDEX Upgrade shows that the degree of ELM mitigation correlates with the reduction of pedestal pressure which in turn is limited and defined by the onset of ELMs, i. e. a modification of the ELM stability limit by the magnetic perturbation.

  7. Electric probe measurements of the poloidal velocity in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Schrittwieser, R.; Lux, C.; Ionita, C. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Association EURATOM/OeAW (Austria); Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Nielsen, A.H. [Association EURATOM-DTU, Dept. of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Mueller, H.W.; Carralero, D.; Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-04-15

    A reciprocating probe head with six pins was used for localized measurements of electric fields and densities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the edge shear layer (SL) near the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The edge SL is characterized by a strong sudden change in the poloidal velocity vθ close to the separatrix. The probes were used to determine this velocity by different methods which are critically compared to each other concerning their reliability. By the first method the poloidal velocity was deduced from the radial electric field E{sub r} measured by two radially staggered probe pins, with vθ being due to the E{sub r} x B{sub φ}-drift (B{sub φ} is the toroidal field). The two other methods utilized the cross correlation of two poloidally staggered ion-biased probes and two poloidally staggered floating probes, respectively. In this case the time lags with maximum cross correlation were used to determine the poloidal velocity and its jump, yielding comparable results to the first method. Also the method of conditional averaging was applied to the latter signals. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Numerically derived parametrisation of optimal RMP coil phase as a guide to experiments on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Li, L.; Kirk, A.; Dunne, M.; Dudson, B.; Piovesan, P.; Suttrop, W.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are a repetitive MHD instability, which may be mitigated or suppressed by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In tokamaks which have an upper and lower set of RMP coils, the applied spectrum of the RMPs can be tuned for optimal ELM control, by introducing a toroidal phase difference {{Δ }}{{Φ }} between the upper and lower rows. The magnitude of the outermost resonant component of the RMP field | {b}{{res}}1| (other proposed criteria are discussed herein) has been shown experimentally to correlate with mitigated ELM frequency, and to be controllable by {{Δ }}{{Φ }} (Kirk et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 043007). This suggests that ELM mitigation may be optimised by choosing {{Δ }}{{Φ }}={{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that | {b}{{res}}1| is maximised. However it is currently impractical to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} in advance of experiments. This motivates this computational study of the dependence of the optimal coil phase difference {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, on global plasma parameters {β }N and q 95, in order to produce a simple parametrisation of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}. In this work, a set of tokamak equilibria spanning a wide range of ({β }N, q 95) is produced, based on a reference equilibrium from an ASDEX Upgrade experiment. The MARS-F code (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681) is then used to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} across this equilibrium set for toroidal mode numbers n = 1-4, both for the vacuum field and including the plasma response. The computational scan finds that for fixed plasma boundary shape, rotation profiles and toroidal mode number n, {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} is a smoothly varying function of ({β }N, q 95). A 2D quadratic function in ({β }N, q 95) is used to parametrise {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that for given ({β }N, q 95) and n, an estimate of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} may be made without requiring a plasma response computation. To quantify the uncertainty

  9. Transforming the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system to a general-purpose plasma control platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Gräter, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Control framework split in core and custom part. • Core framework deployable in other fusion device environments. • Adaptible through customizable modules, plug-in support and generic interfaces. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System DCS is a modern and mature product, originally designed to regulate and supervise ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak plasma operation. In its core DCS is based on a generic, versatile real-time software framework with a plugin architecture that allows to easily combine, modify and extend control function modules in order to tailor the system to required features and let it continuously evolve with the progress of an experimental fusion device. Due to these properties other fusion experiments like the WEST project have expressed interest in adopting DCS. For this purpose, essential parts of DCS must be unpinned from the ASDEX Upgrade environment by exposure or introduction of generalised interfaces. Re-organisation of DCS modules allows distinguishing between intrinsic framework core functions and device-specific applications. In particular, DCS must be prepared for deployment in different system environments with their own realisations for user interface, pulse schedule preparation, parameter server, time and event distribution, diagnostic and actuator systems, network communication and data archiving. The article explains the principles of the revised DCS structure, derives the necessary interface definitions and describes major steps to achieve the separation between general-purpose framework and fusion device specific components.

  10. The ASDEX upgrade digital video processing system for real-time machine protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drube, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.drube@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, Gregor [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard H.; Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann; Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the Real-Time Video diagnostic system of ASDEX Upgrade. • We show the implemented image processing algorithms for machine protection. • The way to achieve a robust operating multi-threading Real-Time system is described. -- Abstract: This paper describes the design, implementation, and operation of the Video Real-Time (VRT) diagnostic system of the ASDEX Upgrade plasma experiment and its integration with the ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS). Hot spots produced by heating systems erroneously or accidentally hitting the vessel walls, or from objects in the vessel reaching into the plasma outer border, show up as bright areas in the videos during and after the reaction. A system to prevent damage to the machine by allowing for intervention in a running discharge of the experiment was proposed and implemented. The VRT was implemented on a multi-core real-time Linux system. Up to 16 analog video channels (color and b/w) are acquired and multiple regions of interest (ROI) are processed on each video frame. Detected critical states can be used to initiate appropriate reactions – e.g. gracefully terminate the discharge. The system has been in routine operation since 2007.

  11. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamm J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  12. ICRF wave field measurements in the presence of scrape off layer turbulence on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Suárez López, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new array of B-dot probes was installed on ASDEX Upgrade. The purpose of the new diagnostic is to study Ion Cyclotron Range-off Frequencies (ICRF) wave field distributions in the evanescent scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma region on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. The vacuum measurements (no gas, BT = 0 T) reveal ICRF wave field measurements consistent with the profiles expected from the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antennas outside the antenna box: the shape of the toroidal distribution of both the amplitude and the phase is the same for the case of only the central straps being active, as for the case of only the side straps being active. These profiles become strongly modified during plasma operations. The modifications can be separated into two types: "Inter-edge localized mode (ELM)" and "During-ELM" periods. The phase distribution of the ICRF wave fields remains well-defined during the Inter-ELM period; however, it becomes more spread out over the entire 360° range during ELMs. The observed modulations cannot be explained by the observed changes in the ICRF power, as monitored in the transmission line. However, they are consistent with ICRF coupling changes introduced by plasma filaments: the plasma density perturbations due to the filaments are high enough to change the nature of the fast ICRF wave field from evanescent to propagating. The coverage of the present diagnostic is being expanded to include both the low field side and the high field side probes. Additionally, a manipulator probe head is being developed to measure ICRF wave field radial profiles across the SOL region.

  13. Destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade with electron cyclotron current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igochine, V.; Chapman, I.T.; Bobkov, V.;

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that large sawteeth trigger the neoclassical tearing mode well below the usual threshold for this instability. At the same time, fast particles in the plasma core stabilize sawteeth and provide these large crashes. The paper presents results of first experiments in ASDEX...... Upgrade for destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). It is shown that moderate ECCD from a single gyrotron is able to destabilize the fast particle stabilized sawteeth. A reduction in sawtooth period by about 40% was achieved in first experiments...

  14. A fast feedback controlled magnetic drive for the ASDEX Upgrade fast-ion loss detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J.; Herrmann, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Leitenstern, P.; Zoletnik, S.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Dominguez, A. D.; Kocan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, D.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-11-01

    A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads. The mechanical design and real time predictive algorithm presented here may be used for other reciprocating systems.

  15. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on the plasma rotation in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martitsch, A. F.; Kasilov, S. V.; Kernbichler, W.; Kapper, G.; Albert, C. G.; Heyn, M. F.; Smith, H. M.; Strumberger, E.; Fietz, S.; Suttrop, W.; Landreman, M.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-07-01

    The toroidal torque due to the non-resonant interaction with external magnetic perturbations (TF ripple and perturbations from ELM mitigation coils) in ASDEX Upgrade is modelled with help of the NEO-2 and SFINCS codes and compared to semi-analytical models. It is shown that almost all non-axisymmetric transport regimes contributing to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are realized within a single discharge at different radial positions. The NTV torque is obtained to be roughly a quarter of the NBI torque. This indicates the presence of other important momentum sources. The role of these momentum sources and possible integral torque balance measurements are briefly discussed.

  16. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  17. Fringe jump analysis and implementation of polarimetry on the ASDEX Upgrade DCN interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, A; Casali, L; Ford, O; Eixenberger, H

    2014-11-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is equipped with a 5-channel DCN interferometer with a probing wavelength of 195 μm. Up to now, phase measurement and density calculation have been accomplished by hard-wired phase counting electronics. Meanwhile, a fast digitizer has been installed which acquires the raw signals. That way, the various causes of counting errors by integer multiples of 2π, so-called fringe jumps, can be analyzed, and phase reconstruction schemes based on digital signal processing can be developed. In addition, a prototype polarimeter setup has been installed on one channel and allows for measurement of the Faraday rotation experienced by the probing beam.

  18. Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Mantila, L.; Potzel, S.; Coster, D. P.; Wischmeier, M.; Brix, M.; Fischer, R.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Müller, H. W.; Scarabosio, A.; Stamp, M. F.; Brezinsek, S.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET Contributors, the

    2017-03-01

    The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.

  19. Development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for studying erosion, deposition, and fuel retention in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Peeter; Piip, Kaarel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hakola, Antti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Laan, Matti, E-mail: matti.laan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Aints, Märt [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Koivuranta, Seppo; Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lissovski, Aleksandr [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Mayer, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Fachgebt Plasma-Material-Wechelwirkung, Garching (Germany); Rohde, Volker; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LIBS development for in situ monitoring of first walls of fusion reactors. • Testing of samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade. • Reliable detection of deuterium depth profiles. • A method of LIBS data processing which allows to find the elemental depth profiles. • Comparison of LIBS results with those of other surface characterization methods. - Abstract: The paper deals with the development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) into an in situ method for studying erosion/deposition processes at the first walls of fusion reactors. To this end, samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade after the 2009 plasma operations were analyzed using LIBS for their composition and the results were compared with other post mortem deposition data. Quantitative depth profiles for the elemental concentrations were extracted from LIBS spectra by applying a novel data processing method. In addition, both multiline and multispot averaging procedures were applied to reduce fluctuations in the data. The LIBS concentration profiles matched qualitatively with those given by secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantitatively with the ion-beam data. The deuterium content of the samples could be reliably determined if the surface densities were >10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Avoidance of disruptions at high βN in ASDEX Upgrade with off-axis ECRH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maraschek, M.; Nowak, S.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; Lazzaro, E.; McDermott, R.; Poli, E.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; Zohm, H.; Brunetti, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-08-01

    Experiments on disruption avoidance have been carried out in H-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas: the localized perpendicular injection of ECRH (1.5 MW ~ 0.2Ptot) onto the q = 2 resonant surface has led to the delay and/or complete avoidance of disruptions in a high βN scenario (Ip = 1 MA, Bt = 2.1 T, q95 ~ 3.6, with NBI ~7.5 MW). In these discharges (at low q95 and low density) neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are excited: the growth and locking of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the disruption. The scheme of the experiment is successfully applied in the same way as in previous disruption avoidance experiments in FTU and ASDEX Upgrade. As soon as the disruption precursor signal (the locked mode detector and/or the loop voltage) reaches the preset threshold, the ECRH power is triggered by real-time control. A poloidal scan in deposition location (ρdep) has been carried out by setting the poloidal launching mirrors at different angles in each discharge. The results depend on ρdep: complete disruption avoidance can be achieved when the power is injected close to or onto the 2/1 island. When ECRH is injected outside the island (either at radii inside or outside the q = 2 surface), the discharge is disrupted as in the reference case.

  1. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K. [Association Euratom-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, DTU Riso/ Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Moseev, D. [Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-08-21

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurement volume located close to the centre of the plasma. The measurements agree quantitatively with predictions of numerical simulations. Hence, CTS studies of fast-ion dynamics at ASDEX Upgrade are now feasible. The new background subtraction technique could be important for the design of CTS systems in other fusion experiments.

  2. Development of the Q  =  10 scenario for ITER on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinzer, J.; Beurskens, M.; Frassinetti, L.; Joffrin, E.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, C.; Kallenbach, A.; Hopf, C.; Lang, P. T.; Mlynek, A.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Tardini, G.; Wolfrum, E.; Zohm, H.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-10-01

    The development of the baseline H-mode scenario foreseen for ITER on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, i.e. discharges at q 95  =  3, relatively low β N ~ 1.8, high normalized density n/n GW ~ 0.85 and high triangularity δ  =  0.4, focused on the integration of elements foreseen for ITER and available on ASDEX Upgrade, such as ELM mitigation techniques and impurity seeding in combination with a metallic wall. Values for density and energy confinement simultaneously came close to the requirements of the ITER baseline scenario as long as β N stayed above 2. At lower heating power and thus lower β N normalized energy confinement H 98y2 ~ 0.85 is obtained. It has been found that stationary discharges are not easily achieved under these conditions due to the low natural ELM frequency occurring at the low q 95/high δ operational point. Up until now the ELM parameters were uncontrollable with the tools developed in other scenarios. Therefore studies on an alternative operational point at higher β N and q 95 have been conducted. In order to prepare for the ITER first non-activation operational phase, Helium operation has been investigated as well.

  3. ICRF antennas optimized for operation with a high-Z metallic wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammuto, I. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: i.zammuto@libero.it; Krivska, A. [Euratom Association, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Telecommunication Engineering Department, Czech Technical University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Bobkov, V.; Braun, F.; Bilato, R. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); EESA Department, University of Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    High-Z materials are considered the best candidates for plasma facing components (PFCs) in future fusion devices, while ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating is a method of choice because of its flexibility, cost effectiveness, and plug-to-power efficiency. But high-Z materials and ICRF have been a difficult combination. ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is pioneering the use of a tungsten (W) wall and in the next years it will prove (or disprove) the appropriateness of this combination for the future. This paper describes the optimization procedure for and the main features of a new proposed ICRF antenna for AUG specifically designed to improve the compatibility of ICRF with a high-Z metallic wall. The optimization criteria for a new design are based on a reduction of the parasitic parallel electric field responsible of the impurity production. The evolutionary design of the 2-strap antenna is compared with a redesigned 4-strap antenna embedded in the wall. Moreover, options and constraints on how to integrate a wider antenna in the present configuration of ASDEX Upgrade and its integration on the stabilizing wall are discussed.

  4. Validation of gyrokinetic modelling of light impurity transport including rotation in ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Casson, F J; Angioni, C; Camenen, Y; Dux, R; Fable, E; Fischer, R; Geiger, B; Manas, P; Menchero, L; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Upgraded spectroscopic hardware and an improved impurity concentration calculation allow accurate determination of boron density in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. A database of boron measurements is compared to quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations including Coriolis and centrifugal rotational effects over a range of H-mode plasma regimes. The peaking of the measured boron profiles shows a strong anti-correlation with the plasma rotation gradient, via a relationship explained and reproduced by the theory. It is demonstrated that the rotodiffusive impurity flux driven by the rotation gradient is required for the modelling to reproduce the hollow boron profiles at higher rotation gradients. The nonlinear simulations validate the quasilinear approach, and, with the addition of perpendicular flow shear, demonstrate that each symmetry breaking mechanism that causes momentum transport also couples to rotodiffusion. At lower rotation gradients, the parallel compressive convection is required to match the mos...

  5. Measurements and modeling of Alfven eigenmode induced fast ion transport and loss in DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanZeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R. K.; Munoz, M. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; White, R. B.; Akaslompolo, S.; Austin, M. E.; Boom, J. E.; Classen, I.G.J.; da Graca, S.; Geiger, B.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Luhmann, N.; Maraschek, M.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.; Sharapov, S.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tobias, B. J.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete c

  6. On the determination of the poloidal velocity and the shear layer in the SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Naulin, Volker

    A reciprocating probe with six pins was used for localized measurements in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the shear layer (SL) and a few mm inside it. The probe was used to determine the poloidal velocity with three different methods which are critically compared to each...

  7. Fast-ion transport in the presence of magnetic reconnection induced by sawtooth oscillations in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Dux, R.; Ryter, F.; Tardini, G.; Orte, L. B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Igochine, V.; McDermott, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of beam-generated fast ions has been investigated experimentally at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak in the presence of sawtooth crashes. After sawtooth crashes, phase space resolved fast-ion D-alpha measurements show a significant reduction of the central fast-ion density-more than 50%-toget

  8. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  9. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  10. Compatibility of ITER scenarios with full tungsten wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, O.; Sips, A. C. C.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J. C.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Maggi, C. F.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T.; Schweinzer, J.; Stober, J.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-11-01

    The transition of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) from a graphite device to a full tungsten device is demonstrated with a reduction by an order of magnitude in both the carbon deposition and deuterium retention. The tungsten source is dominated by sputtering from intrinsic light impurities, and the tungsten influxes from the outboard limiters are the main source for the plasma. In H-mode discharges, central heating (neutral beams, ECRH) is used to increase turbulent outward transport avoiding tungsten accumulation. ICRH can only be used after boronization as its application otherwise results in large W influxes due to light impurities accelerated by electrical fields at the ICRH antennas. ELMs are important in reducing the inward transport of tungsten in the H-mode edge barrier and are controlled by gas puffing. Even without boronization, stationary, ITER baseline H-modes (confinement enhancement factor from ITER 98(y, 2) scaling H98 ~ 1, normalized beta βN ~ 2), with W concentrations below 3 × 10-5 were routinely achieved up to 1.2 MA plasma current. The compatibility of high performance improved H-modes with unboronized W wall was demonstrated, achieving H98 = 1.1 and βN up to 2.6 at modest triangularities δ cooled by N2 seeding. N2 seeding does not only protect the divertor tiles but also considerably improves the performance of improved H-mode discharges. The energy confinement increased to H98-factors of 1.25 (βN ~ 2.7) and thereby exceeded the best values in a carbon-dominated AUG machine under similar conditions. Recent investigations show that this improvement is due to higher temperatures rather than to peaking of the electron density profile. Further ITER discharge scenario tests include the demonstration of ECRF assisted low voltage plasma start-up and current rise to q95 = 3 at toroidal electric fields below 0.3 V m-1, to achieve a ITER compatible range of plasma internal inductance of 0.71-0.97. The results reported here strongly support tungsten as a first

  11. The I-mode confinement regime at ASDEX Upgrade: global properties and characterization of strongly intermittent density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happel, T.; Manz, P.; Ryter, F.; Bernert, M.; Dunne, M.; Hennequin, P.; Hetzenecker, A.; Stroth, U.; Conway, G. D.; Guimarais, L.; Honoré, C.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-01-01

    Properties of the I-mode confinement regime on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are summarized. A weak dependence of the power threshold for the L-I transition on the toroidal magnetic field strength is found. During improved confinement, the edge radial electric field well deepens. Stability calculations show that the I-mode pedestal is peeling-ballooning stable. Turbulence investigations reveal strongly intermittent density fluctuations linked to the weakly coherent mode in the confined plasma, which become stronger as the confinement quality increases. Across all investigated structure sizes ({{k}\\bot}≈ 5 -12 cm-1, with {{k}\\bot} the perpendicular wavenumber of turbulent density fluctuations), the intermittent turbulence bursts are observed. Comparison with bolometry data shows that they move poloidally toward the X-point and finally end up in the divertor. This might be indicative that they play a role in inhibiting the density profile growth, such that no pedestal is formed in the edge density profile.

  12. Interplay between turbulence, neoclassical and zonal flows during the transition from low to high confinement mode at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedon, M.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E.; Birkenmeier, G.; Happel, T.; Laggner, F. M.; Manz, P.; Ryter, F.; Stroth, U.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-01-01

    The spatio-temporal interplay between turbulence, mean and zonal flows has been investigated at the L-H and H-L transitions in the edge region of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Close to both transitions, an intermediate phase (I-phase) characterized by ‘limit cycle like oscillations’ (LCOs) is observed in which periodic bursts of turbulence correlate with \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} flow reduction and relaxation of gradients. During the I-phase, the \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} velocity is dominated by the mean flows indicating that turbulence driven flows are small. Periodic dithers between L-mode and the phases with LCOs are also observed just before the H-mode onset where the edge density and temperature profile gradients evolve on similar timescale as the flows. Thus connection between mean and \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} flows holds during the all evolution from L-mode to H-mode demonstrating the fundamental role of the neoclassical flows in the L-H transition physics.

  13. Erosion of tungsten and steel in the main chamber of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, A., E-mail: antti.hakola@vtt.fi [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Koivuranta, S.; Likonen, J. [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Herrmann, A.; Maier, H.; Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We have investigated net erosion and deposition of W and P92 steel in ASDEX Upgrade during its full-W operational phase. The outer divertor and the outer midplane are the strongest net erosion region for W, with rates up to 0.12 nm/s and 0.05 nm/s, respectively. The eroded W is transported via the scrape-off layer plasma and predominantly deposited in the upper (20–30%) and inner divertors (40–60%). The inner midplane does not contribute significantly to the erosion–deposition balance such that the remaining W is deposited in shadowed areas of the tokamak. Steel is eroded 3–10 times faster than W but could be used at the top and inner parts of the main chamber where the erosion rate is ∼0.01 nm/s.

  14. Electromagnetic effects on turbulent transport in high-performance ASDEX Upgrade discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerk, H.; Dunne, M.; Ryter, F.; Schneider, P. A.; Wolfrum, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Modern tokamak H-mode discharges routinely operate at high plasma beta. Dedicated experiments performed on multiple machines measure contradicting dependence of the plasma confinement on this important parameter. In view of designing high-performance scenarios for next-generation devices like ITER, a fundamental understanding of the involved physics is crucial. Theoretical results—most of which have been obtained for simplified setups—indicate that increased beta does not only modify the characteristics of microturbulence but also potentially introduces fundamentally new physics. Empowered by highly accurate measurements at ASDEX Upgrade, the GENE turbulence code is used to perform a comprehensive gyrokinetic study of dedicated H-Mode plasmas. We find the stabilization of ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence to be the most pronounced beta effect in these experimentally relevant cases. The resulting beta-improved core confinement should thus be considered for extrapolations to future machines.

  15. Resolving the bulk ion region of millimeter-wave collective Thomson scattering spectra at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejner, M., E-mail: mspe@fysik.dtu.dk; Nielsen, S.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Salewski, M. [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moseev, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D. H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements provide information about the composition and velocity distribution of confined ion populations in fusion plasmas. The bulk ion part of the CTS spectrum is dominated by scattering off fluctuations driven by the motion of thermalized ion populations. It thus contains information about the ion temperature, rotation velocity, and plasma composition. To resolve the bulk ion region and access this information, we installed a fast acquisition system capable of sampling rates up to 12.5 GS/s in the CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade. CTS spectra with frequency resolution in the range of 1 MHz are then obtained through direct digitization and Fourier analysis of the CTS signal. We here describe the design, calibration, and operation of the fast receiver system and give examples of measured bulk ion CTS spectra showing the effects of changing ion temperature, rotation velocity, and plasma composition.

  16. Application of radial correlation doppler reflectometry on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzon, J.R.; Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, TUM, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Happel, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hennequin, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique (France); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Doppler Reflectometry (DR) is a diagnostic used for the characterization of plasma density turbulence in magnetic confinement devices. It allows to measure the perpendicular propagation velocity of density fluctuations and their perpendicular wavenumber spectrum with good spatial resolution. By studying the correlation between signals of two reflectometers probing at different radial positions (Radial Correlation DR), it is possible to evaluate the radial correlation length L{sub r} of the plasma turbulence by scanning the radial separation Δr. However, results from analytical calculations and two-dimensional full-wave simulations indicate that the L{sub r} measurement by RCDR is not straightforward and might depend on factors such as plasma velocity, fluctuation amplitudes and probing beam angle. Experimental data from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are studied. An assessment of the viability of the use of different signals and analysis methods, including an evaluation of potential caveats, is given.

  17. Disruption mitigation by injection of small quantities of noble gas in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, G.; Bernert, M.; Dibon, M.; Duval, B.; Dux, R.; Fable, E.; Fuchs, J. C.; Conway, G. D.; Giannone, L.; Gude, A.; Herrmann, A.; Hoelzl, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Mlynek, A.; Maraschek, M.; Nardon, E.; Papp, G.; Potzel, S.; Rapson, C.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The most recent experiments of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in ASDEX Upgrade have concentrated on small—relatively to the past—quantities of noble gas injected, and on the search for the minimum amount of gas necessary for the mitigation of the thermal loads on the divertor and for a significant reduction of the vertical force during the current quench. A scenario for the generation of a long-lived runaway electron beam has been established; this allows the study of runaway current dissipation by moderate quantities of argon injected. This paper presents these recent results and discusses them in the more general context of physical models and extrapolation, and of the open questions, relevant for the realization of the ITER disruption mitigation system.

  18. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation......Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson...... at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based...

  19. In-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsalas, M. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece) and EDFA-JET CSU, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: maximos@ipta.demokritos.gr; Coster, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Fuchs, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Herrmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Mueller, H.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Neuhauser, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Tsois, N. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    In ASDEX Upgrade, a fast reciprocating probe positioned in the lower divertor, capable of accessing the low-field side (LFS) and high-field side (HFS) scrape-off layer (SOL) just below the x-point, as well as the private flux region, was equipped with a Mach head and used to investigate fast flow fluctuations and in-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs. We compare the flow behaviour during ELMs in the three separate regions. Flow enhancement is observed in the HFS SOL, with Mach number values reaching or exceeding M = 2, flow reversal in the LFS SOL, and complex fluctuating behaviour in the private flux region (which includes flow reversal). We discuss the possible mechanisms that could drive these observations.

  20. Gyrokinetic studies of core turbulence features in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A. Bañón, E-mail: banon@physics.ucla.edu; Told, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Happel, T.; Görler, T.; Abiteboul, J.; Bustos, A.; Doerk, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrase 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Gyrokinetic validation studies are crucial for developing confidence in the model incorporated in numerical simulations and thus improving their predictive capabilities. As one step in this direction, we simulate an ASDEX Upgrade discharge with the GENE code, and analyze various fluctuating quantities and compare them to experimental measurements. The approach taken is the following. First, linear simulations are performed in order to determine the turbulence regime. Second, the heat fluxes in nonlinear simulations are matched to experimental fluxes by varying the logarithmic ion temperature gradient within the expected experimental error bars. Finally, the dependence of various quantities with respect to the ion temperature gradient is analyzed in detail. It is found that density and temperature fluctuations can vary significantly with small changes in this parameter, thus making comparisons with experiments very sensitive to uncertainties in the experimental profiles. However, cross-phases are more robust, indicating that they are better observables for comparisons between gyrokinetic simulations and experimental measurements.

  1. Video analysis of dust events in full-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, F.; Shalpegin, A.; Bardin, S.; Lunt, T.; Rohde, V.; Briançon, J. L.; Pautasso, G.; Vorpahl, C.; Neu, R.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-03-01

    Fast video data recorded during seven consecutive operation campaigns (2008-2012) in full-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade have been analyzed with an algorithm developed to automatically detect and track dust particles. A total of 2425 discharges have been analyzed, corresponding to 12 204 s of plasma operation. The analysis aimed at precisely identifying and sorting the discharge conditions responsible of the dust generation or remobilization. Dust rates are found to be significantly lower than in tokamaks with carbon PFCs. Significant dust events occur mostly during off-normal plasma phases such as disruptions and particularly those preceded by vertical displacement events (VDEs). Dust rates are also increased but to a lower extent during type-I ELMy H-modes. The influences of disruption energy, heating scenario, vessel venting and vessel vibrations are also presented.

  2. Making ICRF power compatible with a high-Z wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, V.; Aguiam, D.; Bilato, R.; Brezinsek, S.; Colas, L.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Herrmann, A.; Jacquot, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ochoukov, R.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, T.; Silva, A.; Tierens, W.; Tuccilo, A.; Tudisco, O.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of the ASDEX Upgrade 3-strap ICRF antenna data with the linear electro-magnetic TOPICA calculations is presented. The comparison substantiates a reduction of the local electric field at the radially protruding plasma-facing elements of the antenna as a relevant approach for minimizing tungsten (W) sputtering in conditions when the slow wave is strongly evanescent. The measured reaction of the time-averaged RF current at the antenna limiters to the antenna feeding variations is less sensitive than predicted by the calculations. This is likely to have been caused by temporal and spatial fluctuations in the 3D plasma density distribution affected by local non-linear interactions. The 3-strap antenna with the W-coated limiters produces drastically less W sputtering compared to the W-coated 2-strap antennas. This is consistent with the non-linear asymptotic SSWICH-SW calculations for RF sheaths.

  3. A compact lithium pellet injector for tokamak pedestal studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo Parra, R.; Moreno Quicios, R.; Ploeckl, B.; Birkenmeier, G.; Herrmann, A.; Kocsis, G.; Laggner, F. M.; Lang, P. T.; Lunt, T.; Macian-Juan, R.; Rohde, V.; Sellmair, G.; Szepesi, T.; Wolfrum, E.; Zeidner, W.; Neu, R.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade, aiming to investigate the impact of lithium in an all-metal-wall tokamak and attempting to enhance the pedestal operational space. For this purpose, a lithium pellet injector has been developed, capable of injecting pellets carrying a particle content ranging from 1.82 × 1019 atoms (0.21 mg) to 1.64 × 1020 atoms (1.89 mg). The maximum repetition rate is about 2 Hz. Free flight launch from the torus outboard side without a guiding tube was realized. In such a configuration, angular dispersion and speed scatter are low, and a transfer efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved in the test bed. Pellets are accelerated in a gas gun; hence special care was taken to avoid deleterious effects by the propellant gas pulse. Therefore, the main plasma gas species was applied as propellant gas, leading to speeds ranging from 420 m/s to 700 m/s. In order to minimize the residual amount of gas to be introduced into the plasma vessel, a large expansion volume equipped with a cryopump was added into the flight path. In view of the experiments, an optimal propellant gas pressure of 50 bars was chosen for operation, since at this pressure maximum efficiency and low propellant gas flux coincide. This led to pellet speeds of 585 m/s ± 32 m/s. Lithium injection has been achieved at ASDEX Upgrade, showing deep pellet penetration into the plasma, though pedestal broadening has not been observed yet.

  4. Event detection and exception handling strategies in the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de; Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Event detection and exception handling is integrated in control system architecture. •Pulse control with local exception handling and pulse supervision with central exception handling are strictly separated. •Local exception handling limits the effect of an exception to a minimal part of the controlled system. •Central Exception Handling solves problems requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. -- Abstract: Thermonuclear plasmas are governed by nonlinear characteristics: plasma operation can be classified into scenarios with pronounced features like L and H-mode, ELMs or MHD activity. Transitions between them may be treated as events. Similarly, technical systems are also subject to events such as failure of measurement sensors, actuator saturation or violation of machine and plant operation limits. Such situations often are handled with a mixture of pulse abortion and iteratively improved pulse schedule reference programming. In case of protection-relevant events, however, the complexity of even a medium-sized device as ASDEX Upgrade requires a sophisticated and coordinated shutdown procedure rather than a simple stop of the pulse. The detection of events and their intelligent handling by the control system has been shown to be valuable also in terms of saving experiment time and cost. This paper outlines how ASDEX Upgrade's discharge control system (DCS) detects events and handles exceptions in two stages: locally and centrally. The goal of local exception handling is to limit the effect of an unexpected or asynchronous event to a minimal part of the controlled system. Thus, local exception handling facilitates robustness to failures but keeps the decision structures lean. A central state machine deals with exceptions requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. DCS implements the state machine by means of pulse schedule segments containing pre-programmed waveforms to define discharge goal and control

  5. A new thermal He-beam diagnostic for electron density and temperature measurements in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griener, Michael; Wolfrum, Elisabeth; Eich, Thomas; Herrmann, Albrecht; Rohde, Volker [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Stroth, Ulrich [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Physik Department E28, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    In a nuclear fusion device power is exhausted across the last closed flux surface into the so-called 'scrape-off layer', SOL. In order to study the transport dynamics to (a) the divertor via parallel heat flux and (b) to the wall via filaments, a diagnostic for the determination of n{sub e} and T{sub e} with high spatial and temporal resolution is required. Although the diagnostic capabilities of the ASDEX Upgrade edge plasma are excellent, there is a lack of spatially and temporally highly resolved electron temperature measurements in the SOL. Therefore a piezo valve will be installed in ASDEX Upgrade in April 2015. It allows fast chopping of a thermal He-beam which is part of the new diagnostic. In the first campaign, existing lines of sight of the CXRS diagnostic will be used to measure various He I transitions to confirm the collisional radiative model for He. The principle of the thermal He-diagnostic as well as calculations of the achievable spatial resolution of the initial set-up are presented.

  6. Analysis of the H-mode density limit in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak using bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias

    2013-10-23

    The high confinement mode (H-mode) is the operational scenario foreseen for ITER, DEMO and future fusion power plants. At high densities, which are favourable in order to maximize the fusion power, a back transition from the H-mode to the low confinement mode (L-mode) is observed. This H-mode density limit (HDL) occurs at densities on the order of, but below, the Greenwald density. In this thesis, the HDL is revisited in the fully tungsten walled ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG). In AUG discharges, four distinct operational phases were identified in the approach towards the HDL. First, there is a stable H-mode, where the plasma density increases at steady confinement, followed by a degrading H-mode, where the core electron density is fixed and the confinement, expressed as the energy confinement time, reduces. In the third phase, the breakdown of the H-mode and transition to the L-mode, the overall electron density is fixed and the confinement decreases further, leading, finally, to an L-mode, where the density increases again at a steady confinement at typical L-mode values until the disruptive Greenwald limit is reached. These four phases are reproducible, quasi-stable plasma regimes and provide a framework in which the HDL can be further analysed. Radiation losses and several other mechanisms, that were proposed as explanations for the HDL, are ruled out for the current set of AUG experiments with tungsten walls. In addition, a threshold of the radial electric field or of the power flux into the divertor appears to be responsible for the final transition back to L-mode, however, it does not determine the onset of the HDL. The observation of the four phases is explained by the combination of two mechanisms: a fueling limit due to an outward shift of the ionization profile and an additional energy loss channel, which decreases the confinement. The latter is most likely created by an increased radial convective transport at the edge of the plasma. It is shown that the

  7. On the effect of neoclassical flows on intrinsic momentum in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Fable, E.; Manas, P.; McDermott, R.; Peeters, A. G.; Barnes, M.; Parra, F.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-04-01

    A gyro-kinetic analysis of intrinsic rotation is presented for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The gyro-kinetic turbulence code, GKW and the neoclassical transport code, NEO are coupled so that the neoclassical equilibrium distribution function is included in the background distribution function in the gyro-kinetic turbulence simulation. This implementation is benchmarked against a similar implementation in the gyro-kinetic code, GS2 (Dorland et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 5579) and against analytical predictions. A quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic turbulence analysis is performed on Ohmic L-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas showing that the symmetry breaking effects due to neoclassical background flows can produce significant toroidal momentum transport. While its magnitude is of the order of other symmetry breaking mechanisms, such as the Coriolis pinch, up–down asymmetry in the magnetic flux surfaces and E× B flow shear, the flow gradients it can sustain are appreciably smaller than the maximum gradients measured at the mid-radius of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak core, which can be up to an order of magnitude larger. It is found that the gradient of the diamagnetic flow, and therefore the second derivatives of the density and temperature gradients are critical to the production of residual toroidal momentum flux. A quasi-linear estimate indicated that the second derivatives required to match the experimental flow gradient are up to an order of magnitude higher than the measured second derivatives. This analysis suggests that turbulent transport driven by neoclassical flows is not sufficient to explain the maximum flow gradients observed in ASDEX Upgrade.

  8. New drive converter and digital control for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, Claus-Peter, E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jacob, Christian; Nguyen, Hong Ha; Stobbe, Ferdinand; Mayer, Alois [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, Edgar; Klein, Reiner [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • IGBT converter system with integrated control. • Proven technology reduces time and budget. • Flexibility to be integrated into a 35 years old installation. • Stable control algorithms for static and dynamic speed control. • Possibilities for active and reactive power management. - Abstract: Safety and reliability are major issues for the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) pulsed power supply systems. To avoid long downtimes during an experimental campaign, fault-prone components have to be identified and treated early. This becomes even more important due to the AUG participation in the EUROfusion Medium Sized Tokamak (MST) program. Operating equipment which is up to 40 years old adds additional complications. This contribution describes one such example where a 35 year old flywheel generator at AUG was identified as fault-prone and pre-emptively upgraded with a new drive converter with integrated control. Most challenging was to adapt a modern converter, originally designed for wind turbines, toward a drive system for a flywheel-motor-generator system. To identify the layout of the controller and the control parameters, accurate modeling and comprehensive simulations were performed. This effort paid off during commissioning and measuring results verified the calculated design values. Finally, the system shows good performance during AUG plasma experiments.

  9. Improved Collective Thomson Scattering measurements of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J; Stejner, M; Salewski, M; Jacobsen, A S; Korsholm, S B; Leipold, F; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Moseev, D; Schubert, M; Stober, J; Tardini, G; Wagner, D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the confined fast ions is important in both current and future fusion experiments. These ions play a key role in heating the plasma and will be crucial for achieving conditions for burning plasma in next-step fusion devices. Microwave-based Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) is well suited for reactor conditions and offers such an opportunity by providing measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. We currently operate a CTS system at ASDEX Upgrade using a gyrotron which generates probing radiation at 105 GHz. A new setup using two independent receiver systems has enabled improved subtraction of the background signal, and hence the first accurate characterization of fast-ion properties. Here we review this new dual-receiver CTS setup and present results on fast-ion measurements based on the improved background characterization. These results have been obtained both with and without NBI heating, and with the measurem...

  10. Mechanical braking system for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, C.-P., E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Huart, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Michel Huart Personal Coaching and Consulting, Georgenschwaigstraße 23 RG, 80807 München (Germany); Stobbe, F.; Goldstein, I.; Sigalov, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, E. [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany); Perk, E. [Piper Test and Measurement Ltd., The Barn, Bilsington, Ashford, Kent TN25 7JT, England (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Compact and innovative solution for dumping of large kinetic energy. ► Small mass of energy converter at the shaft due to circulating storage medium. ► Design of the active parts ensures flat torque/power characteristics. ► Also suitable for spending a great part of operating life in “Freewheeling” mode. -- Abstract: A few years ago, IPP reviewed the safety of the ASDEX Upgrade pulsed power supply system. Two critical sub-systems had been identified: The (electrical) braking system for the flywheel generators and the oil lubrication system for the shaft bearings. A simultaneous failure of these two systems may lead to severe damages and could have consequences for the safety of operating personnel. Therefore a second, independent braking possibility for every generator was stipulated. Especially the challenges adapting a dynamometer, originally designed for motor test benches, towards a plant safety system for generator EZ4 will be described in the paper. Further on, the paper will present the problems, implementing such a system into an existing installation, including the calculation of the required supporting structure, balancing of the extended shaft line and required water cooling and control. Finally it will report on the performance achieved during operation.

  11. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Křivská, A., E-mail: alena.krivska@rma.ac.be [LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, 30 Avenue de la Renaissance B-1000, Brussels (Belgium); Bobkov, V.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  12. Investigation of scrape-off layer and divertor heat transport in ASDEX Upgrade L-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Eich, T.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Scarabosio, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-05-01

    Power exhaust is one of the major challenges for the development of a fusion power plant. Predictions based upon a multimachine database give a scrape-off layer power fall-off length {λq}≤slant 1 mm for large fusion devices such as ITER. The power deposition profile on the target is broadened in the divertor by heat transport perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. This profile broadening is described by the power spreading S. Hence both {λq} and S need to be understood in order to estimate the expected divertor heat load for future fusion devices. For the investigation of S and {λq} L-Mode discharges with stable divertor conditions in hydrogen and deuterium were conducted in ASDEX Upgrade. A strong dependence of S on the divertor electron temperature and density is found which is the result of the competition between parallel electron heat conductivity and perpendicular diffusion in the divertor region. For high divertor temperatures it is found that the ion gyro radius at the divertor target needs to be considered. The dependence of the in/out asymmetry of the divertor power load on the electron density is investigated. The influence of the main ion species on the asymmetric behaviour is shown for hydrogen, deuterium and helium. A possible explanation for the observed asymmetry behaviour based on vertical drifts is proposed.

  13. Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fusion product activation probe experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äkäslompolo, S.; Bonheure, G.; Tardini, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-10-01

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material making it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitates, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within a factor of about two, which can be considered a quite good result considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations.Also an alternative to the present probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized orientation could measure the flux from a significantly larger part of the plasma. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  14. Long term project in ASDEX upgrade: Implementation of ferritic steel as in vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammuto, I., E-mail: irene.zammuto@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Giannone, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Houben, A. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    A long term project is started at the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak aimed at the exploration of the compatibility of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) with fusion devices. The topic is oriented toward the preparation of future experiments such as ITER with its test blanket modules and DEMO with its first wall designed with RAFM. The goal of the project is to gather experience with ferromagnetic materials inside the vacuum vessel, dealing with magnetic perturbations, both in plasma and magnetic probes, and facing up the additional magnetic forces acting on the supporting structures. The project envisages a stepwise replacement of the traditional graphite tiles with ferritic steel. For the time being, the main AUG actor is the inner heat shield (IHS), but further development can be imagined in the future. Since 2013, two of the 15 tile rows of the IHS have been replaced with ferritic steel and since now the experimental campaign has not suffered any particular problem related to the perturbation field induced by the steel tiles, as predicted by the calculation. In the present paper, the preliminary study accomplished for the first phase for the evaluation of the forces and magnetic perturbation is reported, together with the further calculations required for the extension of the steel wall.

  15. Impact of lithium on the plasma performance in the all-metal-wall tokamak ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T.; Moreno Quicios, R.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Ploeckl, B.; McDermott, R.; Neu, R.; Wolfrum, E. [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Several tokamaks reported improvement in key plasma parameters concurrent with the presence of lithium in the plasma. At ASDEX Upgrade explorative experiments have been performed to find out if such effects can be observed when operating with an all-metal-wall. A gas gun launcher was developed capable to inject pellets containing about 1.6 x 10{sup 20} Li atoms at 2 Hz. The speed of about 600 m/s is sufficient to achieve core penetration and to create a homogeneous Li concentration of up to 10 %. With a typical sustainment time on the order of 100 ms, only transient Li presence without any pile up was achieved. Deposition of Li on plasma facing components, which remained for several discharges after injection, was observed. This short lived wall conditioning showed beneficial effects during plasma start-up. However, the accompanying surface contamination negatively impacted some diagnostics. The Li impact on the confinement was investigated in a dedicated plasma scenario with a proven sensitivity to nitrogen and helium. In phases with N seeding enhancing the confinement by about 30 %, Li injection resulted in a very modest, transient loss of confinement (about 5 %). No Li impact was found for pure Deuterium plasmas.

  16. Design and concept validation of the new solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, A., E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Greuner, H.; Jaksic, N.; Böswirth, B.; Reimold, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Wischmeier, M.

    2013-10-15

    Div-III, a divertor with solid tungsten target tiles for ASDEX Upgrade is designed and tested and will be installed in 2013. It is a further step in exploring tungsten as material for plasma facing components. It avoids the restrictions of tungsten coatings on graphite and realizes an operation range up to 50 MJ energy removing capability in the outer divertor. In addition, it allows physics investigation such as erosion and deuterium retention as well as effects of castellation and target tilting. The design of the target itself and the attachment was optimized with FE-analysis and was intensively high heat tested up to a double overload. Cyclic tests reveal that the target and the attachment can be operated with the design load of 50 MJ without any damage. Even a twofold overload results in local recrystallization and minor cracks but the targets did not fail during operation. The redesign of the divertor structure was used to increase the conductance between the cryo-pump and the divertor region. The impact of the changed pumping efficiency was investigated with SOLPS/Eirene modeling. The modeling results are an indication for an easier access to lower SOL densities as expected for a higher pumping efficiency in the main chamber.

  17. Filament transport, warm ions and erosion in ASDEX Upgrade L-modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, G.; Manz, P.; Carralero, D.; Laggner, F. M.; Fuchert, G.; Krieger, K.; Maier, H.; Reimold, F.; Schmid, K.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of blob filaments are investigated in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX Upgrade by means of lithium beam emission spectroscopy. A comparison of the measurements in L-mode with a recently developed analytical blob model based on a drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model indicates an influence of a finite ion temperature on the blob dynamics which has typically been neglected in other blob models. The blob dynamics agree well with the sheath-connected regime at lower plasma densities, and inertial effects play only a minor role. At higher densities, a transition into another regime with large blob amplitudes and increased transport is found. This points to a prominent role of blob transport at higher Greenwald fractions. On the basis of the measured blob properties, the erosion on plasma facing components is estimated. For pure deuterium plasmas, the high ion temperatures of blobs lead to a dominant erosion induced by blobs. However, if an impurity concentration of 1% is taken into account, the blob-induced erosion plays a minor role and background plasma parameters determine the total gross erosion.

  18. Machine safety issues with respect to the extension of ECRH systems at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuberta Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beam intensity of electron cyclotron resonance heating at ASDEX Upgrade has the potential to seriously damage in-vessel components, whenever not fully absorbed by the plasma. Operation is, therefore, interlocked with both plasma current and density above a given threshold. Microwave protection detectors installed in several ports on the low field side switch the heating system off, in case the stray radiation exceeds a given threshold. During regular inspections, however, damages were reported in the vicinity of the launchers and in particular around the tiles of the heat shield. On one hand, it was found that insulating material, which may not face the plasma, degraded due to millimetre wave absorption. The waves entered the free space behind the heat shield through gaps. On the other hand, local damage even of metallic components was observed on surfaces, which were directly exposed to the microwave beam. Polarisation errors, which led to a local shine through of significant beam power, were responsible. We note that this happened mainly on the high field side in a certain distance to the microwave protection detectors, which were not triggered by the events. In order to increase the level of protection, we identify three necessary measures: Firstly, polarisation control is to be automated such, that mode content and shine through can be monitored. Secondly, by installing additional detectors, the spatial coverage of stray radiation monitoring is enlarged. Thirdly, the heat shield tiles will be redesigned in order to increase the shielding against millimetre waves.

  19. Improvement of the divertor bolometer diagnostic in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmer, Till; Meister, Hans; Bernert, Matthias; Koll, Juergen; Reimold, Felix; Wischmeier, Marco; Fantz, Ursel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    For future fusion devices such as ITER, the radiation balance in the divertor region will have a significant impact on the power exhaust balance. Therefore, scenarios with strongly localized radiation, like radiation in the high field side high density (HFSHD) region, X-Point radiation or radiation in the divertor legs during detachment, will be investigated in the next ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) operation campaign 2015. To obtain accurately the absolute divertor radiation out of these measurements, the AUG foil bolometer diagnostic system in the divertor region has been enhanced; two new cameras have been designed and manufactured. One will be mounted below the roof baffle and contains 28 lines of sight (LOS), which will observe the mentioned regions of particular physical interest. The second camera consists of 4 LOS and will be mounted at the high field side above the inner divertor nose. It will observe radiation arising from the X-Point region and from the outer divertor. The data will be analysed with a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to localize and quantify the divertor radiation.

  20. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P A; Blank, H; Geiger, B; Mank, K; Martinov, S; Ryter, F; Weiland, M; Weller, A

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  1. Adjoint Monte Carlo Simulation of Fusion Product Activation Probe Experiment in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Tardini, Giovanni; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The activation probe is a robust tool to measure flux of fusion products from a magnetically confined plasma. A carefully chosen solid sample is exposed to the flux, and the impinging ions transmute the material makig it radioactive. Ultra-low level gamma-ray spectroscopy is used post mortem to measure the activity and, thus, the number of fusion products. This contribution presents the numerical analysis of the first measurement in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, which was also the first experiment to measure a single discharge. The ASCOT suite of codes was used to perform adjoint/reverse Monte-Carlo calculations of the fusion products. The analysis facilitated, for the first time, a comparison of numerical and experimental values for absolutely calibrated flux. The results agree to within 40%, which can be considered remarkable considering the fact that all features of the plasma cannot be accounted in the simulations. Also an alternative probe orientation was studied. The results suggest that a better optimized...

  2. Estimation of sheath potentials in front of ASDEX upgrade ICRF antenna with SSWICH asymptotic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivská, A.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Milanesio, D.; Ochoukov, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-megawatt Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating became problematic in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak after coating of ICRF antenna limiters and other plasma facing components by tungsten. Strong impurity influx was indeed produced at levels of injected power markedly lower than in the previous experiments. It is assumed that the impurity production is mainly driven by parallel component of Radio-Frequency (RF) antenna electric near-field E// that is rectified in sheaths. In this contribution we estimate poloidal distribution of sheath Direct Current (DC) potential in front of the ICRF antenna and simulate its relative variations over the parametric scans performed during experiments, trying to reproduce some of the experimental observations. In addition, relative comparison between two types of AUG ICRF antenna configurations, used for experiments in 2014, has been performed. For this purpose we use the Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna (TOPICA) code and asymptotic version of the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating (SSWICH) code. Further, we investigate correlation between amplitudes of the calculated oscillating sheath voltages and the E// fields computed at the lateral side of the antenna box, in relation with a heuristic antenna design strategy at IPP Garching to mitigate RF sheaths.

  3. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A.

    2015-07-01

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  4. Transport analysis of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casali L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Future fusion reactors, foreseen in the “European road map” such as DEMO, will operate under more demanding conditions compared to present devices. They will require high divertor and core radiation by impurity seeding to reduce heat loads on divertor target plates. In addition, DEMO will have to work at high core densities to reach adequate fusion performance. The performance of fusion reactors depends on three essential parameters: temperature, density and energy confinement time. The latter characterizes the loss rate due to both radiation and transport processes. The DEMO foreseen scenarios described above were not investigated so far, but are now addressed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. In this work we present the transport analysis of such scenarios. Plasma with high radiation by impurity seeding: transport analysis taking into account the radiation distribution shows no change in transport during impurity seeding. The observed confinement improvement is an effect of higher pedestal temperatures which extend to the core via stiffness. A non coronal radiation model was developed and compared to the bolometric measurements in order to provide a reliable radiation profile for transport calculations. High density plasmas with pellets: the analysis of kinetic profiles reveals a transient phase at the start of the pellet fuelling due to a slower density build up compared to the temperature decrease. The low particle diffusion can explain the confinement behaviour.

  5. Optical emission measurements of H 2 and D 2 molecules in the divertor region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Behringer, K.; Gafert, J.; Coster, D.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    A spectroscopic method has been developed for measuring molecular influxes and particle densities in fusion edge plasmas, which is based on the H 2 and D 2 Fulcher emission bands around 600 nm wavelength. A first application to the ASDEX Upgrade divertor plasma is described. The influx of hydrogen molecules was determined from the population of the upper Fulcher state using the theoretical number of ionization and dissociation events per Fulcher photon ( Seff + Deff)/XB Ful, as calculated by a collisional-radiative model. These results were compared with expectations on the basis of the atomic hydrogen fluxes and a typical molecule/atom ratio. Measurements and calculations agree in their time dependence, but the experimental values are somewhat lower, which may be within the error margin or of more significance. The Fulcher radiation was also compared directly to B2-EIRENE predictions, resulting in a higher discrepancy. In addition, the vibrational population of the ground state molecules was determined from that of the excited state using a method based on Franck-Condon factors. It can be characterized by a Tvib between 3000 and 9000 K, inversely correlated with electron temperature. This variation is predicted by the collisional-radiative code and even allows an estimate of Te. Vibrational excitation increases ionization and dissociation rate coefficients, as clearly demonstrated by the code calculations. It is therefore very likely that the observed discrepancy in molecular intensity is mainly caused by the omission of vibrational excitation in the present version of B2-EIRENE. The described flux measurements are expected to be accurate above Te=5 eV, but are more difficult at lower temperatures due to the strong Te dependence of ( Seff + Deff)/XB Ful in that region.

  6. Toroidal modelling of RMP response in ASDEX Upgrade: coil phase scan, q 95 dependence, and toroidal torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Ryan, D.; Kirk, A.; Li, Li; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, J. C.; Kurzan, B.; Piovesan, P.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-05-01

    The plasma response to the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields, produced by the ELM control coils in ASDEX Upgrade experiments, is computationally modelled using the MARS-F/K codes (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681, Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503). A systematic investigation is carried out, considering various plasma and coil configurations as in the ELM control experiments. The low q plasmas, with {{q}95}˜ 3.8 (q 95 is the safety factor q value at 95% of the equilibrium poloidal flux), responding to low n (n is the toroidal mode number) field perturbations from each single row of the ELM coils, generates a core kink amplification effect. Combining two rows, with different toroidal phasing, thus leads to either cancellation or reinforcement of the core kink response, which in turn determines the poloidal location of the peak plasma surface displacement. The core kink response is typically weak for the n  =  4 coil configuration at low q, and for the n  =  2 configuration but only at high q ({{q}95}˜ 5.5 ). A phase shift of around 60 degrees for low q plasmas, and around 90 degrees for high q plasmas, is found in the coil phasing, between the plasma response field and the vacuum RMP field, that maximizes the edge resonant field component. This leads to an optimal coil phasing of about 100 (-100) degrees for low (high) q plasmas, that maximizes both the edge resonant field component and the plasma surface displacement near the X-point of the separatrix. This optimal phasing closely corresponds to the best ELM mitigation observed in experiments. A strong parallel sound wave damping moderately reduces the core kink response but has minor effect on the edge peeling response. For low q plasmas, modelling shows that both the resonant electromagnetic torque and the neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque (due to the presence of 3D magnetic field perturbations) contribute to the toroidal flow damping, in particular near the

  7. Results of high heat flux tests and structural analysis of the new solid tungsten divertor tile for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaksic, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.jaksic@ipp.mpg.de; Greuner, Henri; Herrmann, Albrecht; Böswirth, Bernd; Vorbrugg, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The main motivation for the HHF investigation of tungsten tiles was an untypical deformation of some specimens under thermal loading, observed during the previous tests in GLADIS test facility. • A nonlinear finite element (FE) model for simulations of the GLADIS tests has been built. • The unexpected plastic deformations are mainly caused by internal stresses due to the manufacturing process. The small discrepancies among the FEA investigated and measured plastic deformations are most likely caused, beside of the practical difficulties by measuring of low items, also by tile internal stresses. • The influences of the residual stresses caused by special production processes have to be taken into account by design of the structural part made of solid tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten as plasma-facing material for fusion devices is currently the most favorable candidate. In general solid tungsten is used for shielding the plasma chamber interior against the high heat generated from the plasma. For the purposes of implementation at ASDEX Upgrade and as a contribution to ITER the thermal performance of tungsten tiles has been extensively tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS during the development phase and beyond. These tests have been performed on full scale tungsten tile prototypes including their clamping and cooling structure. Simulating the adiabatically thermal loading due to plasma operation in ASDEX Upgrade, the tungsten tiles have been subjected to a thermal load with central heat flux of 10–24 MW/m{sup 2} and absorbed energy between 370 and 680 kJ. This loading results in maximum surface temperatures between 1300 °C and 2800 °C. The tests in GLADIS have been accompanied by intensive numerical investigations using FEA methods. For this purpose a multiple nonlinear finite element model has been set up. This paper discusses the main results of the high heat flux final tests and their numerical simulation. Moreover, first

  8. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  9. Numerical and experimental study of the redistribution of energetic and impurity ions by sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaulmes, F.; Geiger, B.; Odstrčil, T.; Weiland, M.; Salewski, M.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Nielsen, S. K.; Westerhof, E.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-11-01

    In the non-linear phase of a sawtooth, the complete reconnection of field lines around the q  =  1 flux surface often occurs resulting in a radial displacement of the plasma core. A complete time-dependent electromagnetic model of this type of reconnection has been developed and implemented in the EBdyna_go code. This contribution aims at studying the behaviour of ions, both impurity and fast particles, in the pattern of reconnecting field lines during sawtoothing plasma experiments in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak by using the newly developed numerical framework. Simulations of full reconnection with tungsten impurity that include the centrifugal force are achieved and recover the soft x-ray measurements. Based on this full-reconnection description of the sawtooth, a simple tool dedicated to estimate the duration of the reconnection is introduced. This work then studies the redistribution of fast ions during several experimentally observed sawteeth. In some cases of sawteeth at ASDEX Upgrade, full reconnection is not always observed or expected so the code gives an upper estimate of the actual experimental redistribution. The results of detailed simulations of the crashes are compared with measurements from various diagnostics such as collective Thomson scattering and fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy, including FIDA tomography. A convincing qualitative agreement is found in different parts of velocity space.

  10. Characterization of type-I ELM induced filaments in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Andreas

    2008-03-18

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of filaments and their propagation in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The aim is to provide experimental measurements for understanding the filament formation process and their temporal evolution, and to provide a comprehensive database for an extrapolation to future fusion devices. For this purpose, a new magnetically driven probe for filament measurements has been developed and installed in ASDEX Upgrade. The probe carries several Langmuir probes and a magnetic coil in between. The Langmuir probes allow for measurements of the radial and poloidal/toroidal propagation of filaments as well as for measurements of filament size, density, and their radial (or temporal) evolution. The magnetic coil on the filament probe allows for measurements of currents in the filaments. A set of 7 coils, measuring 3 field components at different positions along the filament, has been used to measure the magnetic signature during an ELM. The aim was, on the one hand, to study which role filaments play for the magnetic structure, and on the other hand if the parallel currents predicted by the sheath damped model could be verified. Filament temperatures have been derived and the corresponding heat transport mechanisms have been studied. (orig.)

  11. Radial transport in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade during L-mode and ELMy H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, C.; Naulin, Volker; Mehlmann, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial turbulent particle flux and the Reynolds stress in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade were investigated for two limited L-mode (low confinement) and one ELMy H-mode (high confinement) discharge. A fast reciprocating probe was used with a probe head containing five Langmuir pro...

  12. Modelling of the ICRF induced E  ×  B convection in the scrape-off-layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, Y.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bobkov, V.; Colas, L.; Coster, D.; Lunt, T.; Bilato, R.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Van Eester, D.; Křivská, A.; Jacquet, P.; Guimarais, L.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-09-01

    In magnetic controlled fusion devices, plasma heating with radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequency relies on the electric field of the fast wave to heat the plasma. However, the slow wave can be generated parasitically. The electric field of the slow wave can induce large biased plasma potential (DC potential) through sheath rectification. The rapid variation of the rectified potential across the equilibrium magnetic field can cause significant convective transport (E  ×  B drifts) in the scrape-off layer (SOL). In order to understand this phenomenon and reproduce the experiments, 3D realistic simulations are carried out with the 3D edge plasma fluid and kinetic neutral code EMC3-Eirene in ASDEX Upgrade. For this, we have added the prescribed drift terms to the EMC3 equations and verified the 3D code results against the analytical ones in cylindrical geometry. The edge plasma potential derived from the experiments is used to calculate the drift velocities, which are then treated as input fields in the code to obtain the final density distributions. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  13. The enhanced pellet centrifuge launcher at ASDEX Upgrade: Advanced operation and application as technology test facility for ITER and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeckl, B., E-mail: bernhard.ploeckl@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Chr. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lamalle, Ph. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lang, P.T.; Rohde, V.; Viezzer, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The pellet centrifuge at ASDEX Upgrade has served for more than 20 years as a powerful tool for plasma control. Its recently enhanced control system provides more thorough control over parameters and a detailed view of all measured values. A study has recently been initiated on the conceptual design of an optimized DEMO core particle fuelling system. For this approach, first technical tests aimed on an optimized pellet transfer with respect to the preparation of the solid fuel and the transfer systems have been performed. An investigation of the temperature dependence of transfer efficiency (mass loss due to erosion and broken pellets) has revealed a weak dependence. For ITER, in which it is intended to operate a heating scheme with ICRF minority heating of He-3, test injections are performed using D{sub 2}-pellets as carriers for He-4. Admixing of N{sub 2} was investigated as well.

  14. A fast framing camera system for observation of acceleration and ablation of cryogenic hydrogen pellet in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, G.; Kálvin, S.; Veres, G.; Cierpka, P.; Lang, P. T.; Neuhauser, J.; Wittman, C.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2004-11-01

    An observation system using fast digital cameras was developed to measure a cryogenic hydrogen pellet's cloud structure, trajectory, and velocity changes during its ablation in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas. In this article the system, the applied numerical methods, and the results are presented. The three-dimensional pellet trajectory and velocity components were reconstructed from images of observations from two different directions. Pellet acceleration both in the radial and toroidal directions was detected. The pellet cloud distribution was measured with high spatio-temporal resolution. The cloud surrounding the pellet was found to be elongated along the magnetic field lines. Its typical size is 5-7 cm along the field lines and 2 cm in the perpendicular directions. A cloud extension in the poloidal direction was also observed which may be related to the drift of the detached part of the cloud.

  15. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Wojeński, A.; Vezinet, D.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Herrmann, A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2016-11-01

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  16. Sawtooth control using electron cyclotron current drive in the presence of energetic particles in high performance ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, I T; Maraschek, M; McCarthy, P J; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Sawtooth control using steerable electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been demonstrated in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with a significant population of energetic ions in the plasma core and long uncontrolled sawtooth periods. The sawtooth period is found to be minimised when the ECCD resonance is swept to just inside the q = 1 surface. By utilising ECCD inside q = 1 for sawtooth control, it is possible to avoid the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, even at significnatly higher pressure than anticipated in the ITER baseline scenario. Operation at 25% higher normalised pressure has been achieved when only modest ECCD power is used for sawtooth control compared to identical discharges without sawtooth control when neo-classical tearing modes are triggered by the sawteeth. Modelling suggests that the destabilisation arising from the change in the local magnetic shear caused by the ECCD is able to compete with the stabilising influence of the energetic particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  17. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-07-20

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2{pi} when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has

  18. 2-dimensional mapping of ICRF-induced scrape-off layer modifications with a retarding field analyser on ASDEX-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, L.; Bobkov, V.; Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H. W.; Manz, P.; Kubič, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    Using a reciprocating Retarding Field Analyser (RFA), Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) modifications were investigated on ASDEX-Upgrade during heating with waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF), suspected for enhanced impurity production in this all-metal machine. Two quantities involved in the sputtering were measured: the current Islit on a saturated slit plate, proportional to the parallel ion flux and the mean parallel energy t of collected ions, averaged over many RF cycles. Combining multiple RFA reciprocations over a scan of q95 provided 2D poloidal/radial resolution. In the outer SOL a localized RF-perturbed zone was evidenced on the RFA side magnetically connected to an active ICRF antenna. A flat 2D Islit pattern surrounded by steep gradients was observed, correlatively with t exceeding 150eV. The centre of the zone is connected radially slightly behind the leading edge of antenna side limiters, with a radial extension up to ±2cm. The zone is broadest and t is largest near the bottom of the active antenna. This is interpreted as a zone of local plasma biasing via sheath rectification, creating density convection around it. The Islit pattern is qualitatively consistent with simple considerations about E×B particle convection.

  19. Localized Scrape-Off Layer density modifications by Ion Cyclotron near fields in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade L-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, L., E-mail: laurent.colas@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquet, Ph. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Brix, M.; Meneses, L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marsen, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Silva, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Crombé, K.; Křivska, A. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Rimini, F.G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Combining Lithium beam emission spectroscopy and edge reflectometry, localized Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) density modifications by Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) near fields were characterized in JET L-mode plasmas. When using the ICRF wave launchers connected magnetically to the Li-beam chord, the density decreased more steeply 2–3 cm outside the last closed flux surface (mapped onto the outer mid-plane) and its value at the outer limiter radial position was half the ohmic value. The depletion depends on the ICRF power and on the phasing between adjacent radiating straps. Convection due to ponderomotive effects and/or E × B{sub 0} drifts is suspected: during ICRF-heated H-mode discharges in 2013, DC potentials up to 70 V were measured locally in the outer SOL by a floating reciprocating probe, located toroidally several metres from the active antennas. These observations are compared with probe measurements on ASDEX-Upgrade. Their implications for wave coupling, heat loads and impurity production are discussed.

  20. Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELM mitigation coils

    CERN Document Server

    Asunta, Otto; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Koskela, Tuomas; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Garcia-Muñoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ELM mitigation coils on fast ion wall loads was studied with the fast particle following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Neutral beam injected (NBI) particles were simulated in two AUG discharges both in the presence and in the absence of the magnetic field perturbation induced by the eight newly installed in-vessel coils. In one of the discharges (#26476) beams were applied individually, making it a useful basis for investigating the effect of the coils on different beams. However, no ELM mitigation was observed in #26476, probably due to the low plasma density. Therefore, another discharge (#26895) demonstrating clear ELM mitigation was also studied. The magnetic perturbation due to the in-vessel coils has a significant effect on the fast particle confinement, but only when total magnetic field, $B_{tot}$, is low. When $B_{tot}$ was high, the perturbation did not increase the losses, but merely resulted in redistribution of the wall power loads. Hence, it seems to be possible to ac...

  1. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L., E-mail: Louis.Giannone@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cerna, M. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Cole, R.; Fitzek, M. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); McCarthy, P.J. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association EURATOM-DCU, Cork (Ireland); Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  2. Non-boronized compared with boronized operation of ASDEX Upgrade with full-tungsten plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T.; Bobkov, V.; Fuchs, J. C.; Eich, T.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Horton, L. D.; Maggi, C. F.; Meister, H.; Müller, H. W.; Rohde, V.; Sips, A.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-04-01

    After completion of the tungsten coating of all plasma facing components, ASDEX Upgrade has been operated without boronization for 1 1/2 experimental campaigns. This has allowed the study of fuel retention under conditions of relatively low D co-deposition with low-Z impurities as well as the operational space of a full-tungsten device for the unfavourable condition of a relatively high intrinsic impurity level. Restrictions in operation were caused by the central accumulation of tungsten in combination with density peaking, resulting in H-L backtransitions induced by too low separatrix power flux. Most important control parameters have been found to be the central heating power, as delivered predominantly by ECRH, and the ELM frequency, most easily controlled by gas puffing. Generally, ELMs exhibit a positive impact, with the effect of impurity flushing out of the pedestal region overbalancing the ELM-induced W source. The restrictions of plasma operation in the unboronized W machine occurred predominantly under low or medium power conditions. Under medium-high power conditions, stable operation with virtually no difference between boronized and unboronized discharges was achieved. Due to the reduced intrinsic radiation with boronization and the limited power handling capability of VPS coated divertor tiles (≈10 MW m-2), boronized operation at high heating powers was possible only with radiative cooling. To enable this, a previously developed feedback system using (thermo-)electric current measurements as approximate sensor for the divertor power flux was introduced into the standard AUG operation. To avoid the problems with reduced ELM frequency due to core plasma radiation, nitrogen was selected as radiating species since its radiative characteristic peaks at lower electron temperatures in comparison with Ne and Ar, favouring SOL and divertor radiative losses. Nitrogen seeding resulted not only in the desired divertor power load reduction but also in improved

  3. High frequency magnetic fluctuations correlated with the inter-ELM pedestal evolution in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, F. M.; Wolfrum, E.; Cavedon, M.; Mink, F.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M. G.; Manz, P.; Doerk, H.; Birkenmeier, G.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Aumayr, F.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that determine the structure of the high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal, the evolution of the plasma edge electron density and temperature profiles between edge localised modes (ELMs) is investigated. The onset of radial magnetic fluctuations with frequencies above 200 kHz is found to correlate with the stagnation of the electron temperature pedestal gradient. During the presence of these magnetic fluctuations the gradients of the edge electron density and temperature are clamped and stable against the ELM onset. The detected magnetic fluctuation frequency is analysed for a variety of plasma discharges with different electron pressure pedestals. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuation frequency scales with the neoclassically estimated \\text{E} × \\text{B} velocity at the plasma edge. This points to a location of the underlying instability in the gradient region. Furthermore, the magnetic signature of these fluctuations indicates a global mode structure with toroidal mode numbers of approximately 10. The fluctuations are also observed on the high field side with significant amplitude, indicating a mode structure that is symmetric on the low field side and high field side. The associated fluctuations in the current on the high field side might be attributed to either a strong peeling part or the presence of non-adiabatic electron response.

  4. High power ECRH and ECCD in moderately collisional ASDEX Upgrade Hmodes and status of EC system upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stober J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with H-modes with significant heat exchange between electrons and ions, but which can still show large differences between electron and ion-temperatures especially inside half minor radius. These conditions are referred to as moderately collisional. A systematic study shows that an increasing fraction of electron heating increases the transport in the ion channel mainly due to the dependence of the ITG dominated ion transport on the ratio Te/Ti in agreement with modeling. The rotational shear in the plasmas under study was so small that it hardly influences ITG stability, such that variations of the rotation profile due to a change of the heating method were of minor importance. These findings connect to studies of advanced tokamak scenarios using ECCD as a tool to modify the q-profile. The electron heating connected to the ECCD tends to increase the transport in the ion channel quite in contrast to the goal to operate at reduced current but with increased confinement. The confinement only increases as the fraction of ion heating is increased by adding more NBI. An ITER case was modeled as well. Due to the larger value of νei ・ τE the ratio Te/Ti is only moderately reduced even with strong electron heating and the confinement reduction is small even for the hypothetic case of using only ECRH as additional heating. Finally the paper discusses the ongoing upgrade of the AUG ECRH-system.

  5. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. K.; Stejner, M.; Rasmussen, J.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Maraschek, M.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, M.; Schubert, M.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Wagner, D.

    2015-03-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) can provide measurements of the confined fast-ion distribution function resolved in space, time and 1D velocity space. On ASDEX Upgrade, the measured spectra include an additional signal which previously has hampered data interpretation. A new set-up using two independent heterodyne receiver systems enables subtraction of the additional part from the total spectrum, revealing the resulting CTS spectrum. Here we present CTS measurements from the plasma centre obtained in L-mode and H-mode plasmas with and without neutral beam injection (NBI). For the first time, the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration, since CTS is presently the only diagnostic to measure the confined alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions.

  6. Development of a flexible Doppler reflectometry system and its application to turbulence characterization in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troester, Carolin Helma

    2008-04-15

    An essential challenge in present fusion plasma research is the study of plasma turbulence. The turbulence behavior is investigated experimentally on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak using Doppler reflectometry, a diagnostic technique sensitive to density fluctuations at a specific wavenumber k {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. This microwave radar diagnostic utilizes localized Bragg backscattering of the launched beam (k{sub 0}) by the density fluctuations at the plasma cutoff layer. The incident angle {theta} selects the probed k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} via the Bragg condition k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {approx} 2k{sub 0}sin{theta}. The measured Doppler shifted frequency spectrum allows the determination of the perpendicular plasma rotation velocity, u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} =v{sub E} {sub x} {sub B}+v{sub turb}, directly from the Doppler frequency shift(f{sub D} = u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} /2{pi}), and the turbulence amplitude from the backscattered power level. This thesis work presents a survey of u {sub perpendicular} {sub to} radial profiles and k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} spectrum measurements for a variety of plasma conditions obtained by scanning the antenna tilt angle. This was achieved by extending the existing V-band Doppler reflectometry system (50 - 75 GHz) with a new W-band system (75 - 110 GHz), which was especially designed for measuring the k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} spectrum and additionally expands the radial coverage into the plasma core region. It consists of a remote steerable antenna with an adjustable line of sight allowing for dynamic wavenumber selection up to 25 cm {sup -1} and a reflectometer with a 'phase locked loop' stabilized transmitter allowing for the precise determination of the instrument response function. The proper system functionality was demonstrated by laboratory testing and benckmarking against the V-band system. The new profile measurements obtained show a

  7. Investigation of inter-ELM ion heat transport in the H-mode pedestal of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Fable, E.; Cavedon, M.; Angioni, C.; Dux, R.; Laggner, F. M.; Bernert, M.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The ion heat transport in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is investigated in various H-mode discharges with different pedestal ion collisionalities. Interpretive modelling suggests that in all analyzed discharges the ion heat diffusivity coefficient, {χ\\text{i}} , in the pedestal is close to the neoclassical prediction within the experimental uncertainties. The impact of changing the deposition location of the electron cyclotron resonance heating on the ion heat transport has been studied. The effect on the background profiles is small. The pre-ELM (edge localized modes) edge profiles as well as the behaviour of the electron temperature and density, ion temperature and impurity toroidal rotation during the ELM cycle are very similar in discharges with on- and off-axis ECRH heating. No significant deviation of {χ\\text{i}} from neoclassics is observed when changing the ECRH deposition location to the plasma edge.

  8. Upgrade to the Gas Puff Imaging Diagnostic that Views Alcator C-Mod's Inboard Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We describe an upgrade of Alcator C-Mod's Gas Puff Imaging system which views the inboard plasma edge and SOL along lines-of-sight that are approximately parallel to the local magnetic field. The views are arranged in a 2D (R,Z) array with ˜2.8 cm radial coverage and ˜2.4 cm poloidal coverage. 23 of 54 available views were coupled via fibers to individual interference filters and PIN photodiode detectors. We are in the process of upgrading the system in order to increase the sensitivity of the system by replacing the PIN photodiodes with a 4x8 array of Avalanche Photo-Diodes (APD). Light from 30 views is coupled to the single-chip APD array through a single interference filter. We expect an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of more than 10x. The frequency response of the system will increase from ˜400 kHz to 1MHz. The dynamic range of the new system is manipulated by changing the high-voltages on the APDs. Test results of the detectors' channel-to-channel cross-talk, frequency response, and gain curves will be presented, along with schematics of the experimental setup. The upgraded system allows for more study of inboard edge fluctuations, including whether the quasi-coherent fluctuations observed in the outboard edge also exist inboard.

  9. Pixel Sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieri, Caterina [Fermilab; Bolla, Gino [Fermilab; Rivera, Ryan [Fermilab; Uplegger, Lorenzo [Fermilab; Zoi, Irene [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2x1015 neq/cm2 fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  10. Pixel sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, Caterina; Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC experiments. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2×1015 neq/cm2 fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  11. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  12. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  13. Edge-mounting locking mechanics for barrel strip staves for the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the development of an edge-mounting mechanism for the interface between a stave and its support cylinder for the barrel strip staves of the phase II ATLAS upgrade. As a direct product of the prototyping programme undertaken, we have also developed the tooling required to precisely mount the components of the mechanism to their respective structures. The design has been conceived to be compatible with tilt angles as low as 10° for the nominal module envelope, and meet the positioning and stability requirements whilst having an acceptably small contribution to the total material in the tracker volume. In order to reach these goals, the tooling for stave insertion was designed to be completely removable and respects the clearances of pre-installed staves.

  14. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  15. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  16. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  17. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  18. Complexity of Reducing the Delay between Two Nodes by Node-based and Edge-based Upgrading Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-guang Yang; Jian-zhong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    For a pair of nodes s, t in an undirected graph G =(V,A) and a given level U of allowable delay, we would like to modify the network by node-based or edge-based upgrading strategies to make the delay between s and t not greater than U. In this paper, we present some NP-hard results for the delay improvement problems.

  19. 基于GSM900M升级的EDGE++应用及评估%Application and Evaluation of EDGE++ Based on GSM900M Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治炼

    2014-01-01

    EDGE++的本质是FDD-LTE技术,可以通过升级农村的GSM900M且在共用现网TD-LTE的核心网、PTN传输网基础上改造完成。硬件上,将GSM900M的RRU替换为EDGE++的RRU,BBU侧增加EDGE++的基带处理板和主控板,GSM900M的天馈资源无需替换。软件上,通过Refarming GSM工具清理出农村的空闲频率5M,升级EDGE++的eNodeB的软件版本,修改GSM900M的BTS的相关模式,联调EDGE++的eNodeB,打通EDGE++的eNodeB到EPC之间的PTN传输通道,完成eNodeB站点业务调测。最后,将EDGE++信号通过支持EDGE++的MiFi或CPE终端转换成Wi-Fi信号,在农村提供Wi-Fi热点。%The essence of EDGE++ is the FDD-LTE technology which can be implemented through the upgrade of GSM900M in the rural areas based on the reforms of both the current TD-LTE core network and PTN transmission network. When it comes to hardware, the RRU of GSM900M being replaced by EDGE++ RRU, EDGE++ baseband processing board and control board should be added in the BBU side, while antenna feed of GSM900M remains unchanged. When it comes to software, on one hand, the 5M idle frequency is released using Refarming GSM tool, software version of EDGE++ eNodeB should be updated and the related modes to BTS of GSM900M should be revised. On the other hand, in order to open the transmission channel between EDGE++ eNodeB and EPC, eNodeB should be joint debugged to test eNodeB site service. Finally, EDGE++ signal is converted into Wi-Fi signal through MiFi supporting EDGE++or CPE terminal to provide Wi-Fi hotspot to rural areas.

  20. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  1. Testing sTGC with small angle wire edges for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Itamar; Duchovni, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    The LHC upgrade scheduled for 2018 is expected to significantly increase the accelerator's luminosity, and as a result the radiation background rates in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer will increase too. Some of its components will have to be replaced in order to cope with these high rates. Newly designed small-strip Thin Gap chambers (sTGC) will replace them at the small wheel region. One of the differences between the sTGC and the currently used TGC is the alignment of the wires along the azimuthal direction. As a result, the outermost wires approach the detector's edge with a small angle. Such a configuration may be a cause for various problems. Two small dedicated chambers were built and tested in order to study possible edge effects that may arise from the new configuration. The sTGC appears to be stable and no spark have been observed, yet some differences in the detector response near the edge is seen and further studies should be carried out.

  2. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; Nisius, R.; Paschen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 $\\mu$m, produced at CiS, and 100-200 $\\mu$m thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The perfo...

  3. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. T. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, N.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  4. Viewgraphs presented at the ASDEX/DOE workshop on disruptions in divertor tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granetz, R.; Gruber, O.; Zohm, H. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The emphasis of this year`s ASDEX/DOE workshop was on disruptions in diverted tokamaks. The meeting was held here at MIT on 14--15 March. It is particularly appropriate that MIT hosted the workshop this year, since Alcator C-Mod had just recently completed its very first run campaign, and disruptions are one of the key areas of research in our program. There were a total of 14 speakers, with participants from IPP (Garching), CRPP (Lausanne), Culham, General Atomics, PPPL, Sandia, ORNL, the ITER JCT, and MIT. The subjects addressed included statistical analysis of disruption probabilities in ASDEX, modelling of the vertical axisymmetric plasma motion in DIII-D, impact of disruptions on the design of the ITER divertors, modelling of runaway electrons, and TSC calculations of disruption-induced currents and forces in TPX, etc. One item of particular interest to us was the experimental correlation of halo current magnitude with plasma current on ASDEX-Upgrade. The data indicates at least a linear, and possibly even a quadractic dependence. This has important implications for Alcator C-Mod, since it would predict halo currents of order 1 MA or more at full performance. At the conclusion of the talks, an informal discussion of disruption databases was held, primarily for the purpose of helping us develop a useful one for C-Mod.

  5. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association Euratom-KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]|[Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)]|[FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen Associatie FOM-EURATOM, Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Recent ASDEX Upgrade research in support of ITER and DEMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2015-01-01

    to be the decisive element for the L–H power threshold. A physics based scaling of the density at which the minimum PLH occurs indicates that ITER could take advantage of it to initiate H-mode at lower density than that of the final Q = 10 operational point. Core density fluctuation measurements resolved in radius...

  7. Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, M. G.; Frassinetti, L.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Cavedon, M.; Fietz, S.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Kurzan, B.; Laggner, F.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R. M.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; The EUROfusion MST1 Team; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is also shown that the confinement increase is driven through the temperature pedestal at the three heating power levels studied. In a triangularity scan, an orthogonal effect of shaping and seeding is observed, where increased plasma triangularity increases the pedestal density, while impurity seeding (carbon and nitrogen) increases the pedestal temperature in addition to this effect. Modelling of these effects was also undertaken, with interpretive and predictive models being employed. The interpretive analysis shows a general agreement of the experimental pedestals in separate power, shaping, and seeding scans with peeling-ballooning theory. Predictive analysis was used to isolate the individual effects, showing that the trends of additional heating power and increased triangularity can be recoverd. However, a simple change of the effective charge in the plasma cannot explain the observed levels of confinement improvement in the present models.

  8. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR-94)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; R. Jaspers,; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H. R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P. E.; Van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R. R.; Wolf, G. H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; KramerFlecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; PostZwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M. Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [Proceedings of die 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p.

  9. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenninger, Ronald

    2013-01-09

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  10. Development of the gas puff charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (GP-CXRS) technique for ion measurements in the plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. M.; Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: Alcator C-Mod Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2013-09-15

    A novel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic method is presented, which uses a simple thermal gas puff for its donor neutral source, instead of the typical high-energy neutral beam. This diagnostic, named gas puff CXRS (GP-CXRS), is used to measure ion density, velocity, and temperature in the tokamak edge/pedestal region with excellent signal-background ratios, and has a number of advantages to conventional beam-based CXRS systems. Here we develop the physics basis for GP-CXRS, including the neutral transport, the charge-exchange process at low energies, and effects of energy-dependent rate coefficients on the measurements. The GP-CXRS hardware setup is described on two separate tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measured spectra and profiles are also presented. Profile comparisons of GP-CXRS and a beam based CXRS system show good agreement. Emphasis is given throughout to describing guiding principles for users interested in applying the GP-CXRS diagnostic technique.

  11. Consistency between real and synthetic fast-ion measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner

    2015-01-01

    by comparing fast-ion measurements from collective Thomson scattering, fast-ion spectroscopy, and neutron rate detectors with numerical predictions from the TRANSP/NUBEAM transport code. We also study the sensitivity of the theoretical predictions to uncertainties in the plasma kinetic profiles. We find...... the fast-ion distribution function in 2D velocity space....

  12. Fast-ion transport and neutral beam current drive in ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou;

    2015-01-01

    during on-axis injection and outwards shifted profiles during off-axis injection. Due to this change of the fast-ion population, a clear modification of the plasma current profile is predicted but not observed by a motional Stark effect diagnostic. The fast-ion transport caused by MHD activity has been...... studied in low collisionality discharges that exhibit strong (1, 1) modes. In particular due to sawtooth crashes, significant radial redistribution of co-rotating fast-ions is observed which can very well be described by the Kadomtsev model. In addition, first tomographic reconstructions of the central 2D...

  13. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.;

    2012-01-01

    with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG....

  14. Arc erosion of full metal plasma facing components at the inner baffle region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rohde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At the inner baffle of the AUG divertor massive polished inserts of tungsten and P92 steel were installed to measure the erosion by arcing. For tungsten most of the traces are less than 0.4µm deep and a similar amount of tungsten is deposited close to the traces. Few craters up to 4µm resulting in an average erosion rate of 2×1013 at cm−2s−1 are observed. The behaviour for P92 steel is quite different: most of the traces are 4µm deep, up to 80µm were observed. An average erosion rate of 400×1013 at cm−2s−1, i.e. more than a factor of hundred higher compared to tungsten, is found. Therefore, erosion by arcing has to be taken into account to determine the optimal material mix for future fusion devices.

  15. Resolving the bulk ion region of millimeter-wave collective Thomson scattering spectra at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou;

    2014-01-01

    resolution in the range of 1 MHz are then obtained through direct digitization and Fourier analysis of the CTS signal. We here describe the design, calibration, and operation of the fast receiver system and give examples of measured bulk ion CTS spectra showing the effects of changing ion temperature...

  16. Fast Ion Dynamics in ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR Measured by Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, Dmitry

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  17. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner;

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion device...

  18. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits...

  19. Trends of W behavior in ICRF assisted discharges in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, A.; Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Sertoli, M.

    2015-08-01

    During Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) operation with metallic plasma facing components, plasma wall interaction processes are modified, which needs to be understood in order to reduce the ICRF-related rise in impurity concentration and maximize ICRF coupling. This contribution is focused on gathering and analyzing a database on W-behavior during ICRF spanning a multi-parameter space. The gas puff dependence is investigated in selected pulses that feature the injection of deuterium (D2) main gas, with impurity gas nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr). CW was found to decrease with the total gas injection rate, which was also correlated with the changes of electron density in the location of the CW measurements. Although the addition of N2, Ar and Kr impacted on the increase in sputtering, to achieve a similar CW level with mixed puffing, one needs to inject considerably more gas. Moreover, CW is shown to change after implementation of boron coatings on the ICRF antenna limiters.

  20. Convective and Diffusive Energetic Particle Losses Induced by Shear Alfven Waves in the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Hicks, N.; van Voornveld, R.; Classen, I.G.J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Igochine, V.; Jaemsae, S.; Maraschek, M.; Sassenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the first phase-space characterization of convective and diffusive energetic particle losses induced by shear Alfven waves in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. While single toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and Alfven cascades (AC) eject resonant fast ions in a convective process

  1. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  2. On the asymmetries of ELM divertor power deposition in JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eich, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Fundamenski, W.

    2009-01-01

    . The paper discusses a comparable simple extension of the model by introducing a non-zero characteristic velocity of the Maxwellian distributed particles. This way the experimentally observed temporal evolution as well as the in/out energy imbalance can be described. The extended model named free......An analytical expression was derived for describing the divertor target power during ELMs based on the model discussed in [W. Fundamenski, R.A. Pitts, Plasma Phys. Control. Fus. 48 (2006) 109] where the power load arises from a Maxwellian distribution of particles released into the SOL region...

  3. ATLAS UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for ...

  4. The Pegasus-Upgrade Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Frerichs, H. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schmitz, O.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tokamak operation at near-unity aspect ratio provides access to advanced tokamak physics at modest parameters. High plasma current is accessible at very low toroidal field. This offers H-mode performance at Te levels that allow use of electrostatic and magnetic probe arrays through the edge pedestal region into the plasma core. An upgrade to the Pegasus ST is planned to exploit these features and pursue unique studies in three areas: local measurements of pedestal and ELM dynamics at Alfvenic timescales; direct measurement of the local plasma response to application of 3D magnetic perturbations with high spectral flexibility; and extension of Local Helicity Injection for nonsolenoidal startup to NSTX-U-relevant confinement and stability regimes. Significant but relatively low-cost upgrades to the facility are proposed: a new centerstack with larger solenoid and 2x the number of toroidal field conductors; a new TF power supply and conversion of the 200 MVA OH power supply to a cascaded multilevel inverter configuration; and installation of an extensive 3D-magnetic perturbation coil system for ELM mitigation and suppression studies. The upgraded facility will provide 0.3 MA plasmas with pulse lengths of 50-100 msec flattop, aspect ratio <1.25, and toroidal field up to 0.4 T. These research activities will be integrated into related efforts on DIII-D and NSTX-U. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  5. On optimal strategies for upgrading networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Ravi, R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Graduate School of Industrial Administration; Sundaram, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-07-02

    We study {ital budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems}. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. Given an edge weighted graph {ital G(V,E)}, in the {ital edge based upgrading model}, it is assumed that each edge {ital e} of the given network has an associated function {ital c(e)} that specifies for each edge {ital e} the amount by which the length {ital l(e)} is to be reduced. In the {ital node based upgrading model} a node {ital v} can be upgraded at an expense of cost {ital (v)}. Such an upgrade reduces the cost of each edge incident on {ital v} by a fixed factor {rho}, where 0 < {rho} < 1. For a given budget, {ital B}, the goal is to find an improvement strategy such that the total cost of reduction is a most the given budget {ital B} and the cost of a subgraph (e.g. minimum spanning tree) under the modified edge lengths is the best over all possible strategies which obey the budget constraint. Define an ({alpha},{beta})-approximation algorithm as a polynomial-time algorithm that produces a solution within {alpha} times the optimal function value, violating the budget constraint by a factor of at most {Beta}. The results obtained in this paper include the following 1. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above is {bold NP}-hard. 2. In the node based model, we show how to devise a near optimal strategy for improving the bottleneck spanning tree. The algorithms have a performance guarantee of (2 ln {ital n}, 1). 3. for the edge based improvement problems we present improved (in terms of performance and time) approximation algorithms. 4. We also present pseudo-polynomial time algorithms (extendible to polynomial time approximation schemes) for a number of edge/node based improvement problems when restricted to the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  6. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    the k products in T that can be upgraded to not be dominated by any products in P at the lowest cost. This problem is non-trivial due to not only the large data set sizes, but also to the many possibilities for upgrading a product. We identify and provide solutions for the different options...... by the join approach to prune upgrade candidates with uncompetitive upgrade costs. Empirical studies with synthetic and real data show that the join approach is efficient and scalable....

  7. The D0 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  8. Numerical and experimental study of the redistribution of energetic and impurity ions by sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaulmes, F.; Geiger, B.; Odstrčil, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the non-linear phase of a sawtooth, the complete reconnection of field lines around the q = 1 flux surface often occurs resulting in a radial displacement of the plasma core. A complete time-dependent electromagnetic model of this type of reconnection has been developed and implemented in the ...

  9. Quantification of the impact of large and small-scale instabilities on the fast-ion confinement in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, B.; Weiland, M.; Mlynek, A.;

    2015-01-01

    with the theoretical predictions based on the Kadomtsev model. Between the sawtooth crashes, the fishbone modes are excited which, however, do not cause measurable changes in the global fast-ion population. During experiments with on- and off-axis NBI and without strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes, the fast......-ion measurements agree very well with the neo-classical predictions. This shows that the MHD-induced (large-scale), as well as a possible turbulence-induced (small-scale) fast-ion transport is negligible under these conditions. However, in discharges performed to study the off-axis NBI current drive efficiency...

  10. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on low collisionality discharges in MAST and a comparison with ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Liu, Yueqiang; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Eich, T; Fuchs, C; Ham, C; Harrison, J R; Jakubowski, M W; Pamela, S; Peterka, M; Ryan, D; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J; Valovic, M; Sieglin, B; Orte, L Barrera; Willensdorfer, M; Kurzan, B; Fischer, R; Upgrade, ASDEX

    2014-01-01

    Sustained ELM mitigation has been achieved on MAST and AUG using RMPs with a range of toroidal mode numbers over a wide region of low to medium collisionality discharges. The ELM energy loss and peak heat loads at the divertor targets have been reduced. The ELM mitigation phase is typically associated with a drop in plasma density and overall stored energy. In one particular scenario on MAST, by carefully adjusting the fuelling it has been possible to counteract the drop in density and to produce plasmas with mitigated ELMs, reduced peak divertor heat flux and with minimal degradation in pedestal height and confined energy. While the applied resonant magnetic perturbation field can be a good indicator for the onset of ELM mitigation on MAST and AUG there are some cases where this is not the case and which clearly emphasise the need to take into account the plasma response to the applied perturbations. The plasma response calculations show that the increase in ELM frequency is correlated with the size of the e...

  11. Fast ion measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade and proposal for the ITER CTS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran;

    Moving towards the era of burning fusion plasmas, a better knowledge of the physics of highly energetic particles, such as fusion born alpha particles, becomes essential. Diagnosing the fast ions in a fusion plasma is a challenging task, but the technique of collective Thomson scattering (CTS......) provides the possibility of revealing the velocity distribution of the confined fast ions along a given direction – resolved both in time and space. Recently, the ITER baseline design has been expanded to include the enabling of the front end of a fast ion CTS diagnostic system resolving dynamics...... perpendicular to the magnetic field. The feasibility study and conceptual design of this diagnostic was provided by the CTS group at Risø DTU. The development of the ITER CTS diagnostic builds on the experiences and expertise gained from the construction and current operation of the CTS diagnostic systems...

  12. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  13. LEP is upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency cavity is installed on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. This upgrade, known as LEP-2, allowed the accelerator to reach new, higher energies and so investigate new areas of physics.

  14. Trajectory for Industrial Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ordered the closure of outdated production lines in 18 industries as part of the country's plan to upgrade its industrial structure and move up the value chain.

  15. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  16. LHC Upgrade Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    The EU CARE-HHH and US-LARP studies for an LHC luminosity upgrade aim at increasing the peak luminosity by a factor of 10, to 1035 cm-2s-1. The luminosity can be raised by rebuilding the interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. In addition to advanced low-beta quadrupoles, the upgraded IRs may accommodate other new elements such as slim s.c. dipoles or quadrupoles embedded deep inside the detectors, global low-angle crab cavities, and wire compensators of long-range beam-beam effects. Important constraints on the upgrade path are the maximum acceptable number of detector pile-up events, favoring many closely spaced bunches, and the heat load on the cold-magnet beam screens, pointing towards fewer and more intense bunches. In order to translate the increased peak luminosity into a correspondingly higher integrated luminosity, the upgrade of the LHC ring should be complemented by an upgrade of the injector complex. I will present preferred upgrade scenarios for the L...

  17. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H- source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, B.; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-01

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called "Large Area Grid" (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  18. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, P; Poikela, T; Crossley, M; Kucharczyk, M; Whitehead, M; Dumps, R; Mountain, R; Artuso, M; Rodrigues, E; Tlustos, L; Papadelis, A; Buytaert, J; Blusk, S; Parkes, C; Xing, Z; Eklund, L; Coco, V; Michel, T; Campbell, M; Bowcock, T J V; Wang, J C; Akiba, K; Gligorov, V; Huse, T; Llin, L F; Gandelman, M; Plackett, R; Esperante, D; Maneuski, D; Bayer, F; Llopart, X; Alexander, M; Gallas, A; Nichols, M; van Beuzekom, M G; John, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC plans to massively increase its data taking capabilities by running at a higher luminosity with a fully upgraded detector around 2016. This scheme is independent of (but compatible with) the plans for the SLHC upgrades. The silicon detector will be upgraded to provide a 40 MHz readout and to be able to cope with the increased radiation environment. This paper describes the options currently under consideration. A highlight of the R\\&D so far undertaken is a beam test during summer 2009 using the Timepix chip to track charged particles. Preliminary results are presented, including a measurement of the resolution achieved by the 55 mu m pitch pixel array of better than 9.5 mu m for perpendicular tracks and 55 mu m for angled tracks. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  20. HIRFL Operation and Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoHongwei; WangYifang; ZhanWenlong; WeiBaowen; HIRFLTeam

    2003-01-01

    After almost one year shutdown for upgrading the vacuum chamber of the iniector SFC,SFC has been in operation separately since May 2003. The SFC operation statistics and accelerated heams from May to December 2003 are shown in Table 1 and 2. The main cyclotron SSC has beenfor still shut down in 2003 for upgrading the SSC power supply system, control and diagnostic system, and themain experimental area, LECR3, an ECR ion source dedicated for atomic physics and surface physics research, has provided 2488 hours beams for experiments of atomic physics research.

  1. The UKIRT Upgrades Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

    Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

  2. ATLAS/CMS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00370685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Precision studies of the Standard Model (SM) and the searches of the physics beyond the SM are ongoing at the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A luminosity upgrade of LHC is planned, which provides a significant challenge for the experiments. In this report, the plans of the ATLAS and CMS upgrades are introduced. Physics prospects for selected topics, including Higgs coupling measurements, Bs,d -> mumu decays, and top quark decays through flavor changing neutral current, are also shown.

  3. Characterization and scaling of the tokamak edge transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Philip Adrian

    2012-04-24

    The high confinement regime (H-mode) in a tokamak plasma displays a remarkable edge region. On a small spatial scale of 1-2 cm the properties of the plasma change significantly. Certain parameters vary 1-2 orders of magnitude in this region, called the pedestal. Currently, there is no complete understanding of how the pedestal forms or how it is sustained. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the pedestal and provide scalings towards larger machines, like ITER and DEMO. A pedestal database was built with data from different tokamaks: ASDEX Upgrade, DIIID and JET. The pedestal was characterized with the same method for all three machines. This gives the maximum value, gradient and width of the pedestal in n{sub e}, T{sub e} and T{sub i}. These quantities were analysed along with quantities derived from them, such as the pressure or the confinement time. For this purpose two parameter sets were used: normalized parameters (pressure {beta}, time {nu}{sub *}, length {rho}{sub *}, shape f{sub q}) and machine parameters (size a, magnetic field B{sub t}, plasma current I{sub p}, heating P). All results are dependent on the choice of the coordinate system: normalized poloidal flux {Psi}{sub N} and real space r/a. The most significant result, which was obtained with both parameter sets, shows a different scaling of the pedestal width for the electron temperature and the electron density. The presented scalings predict that in ITER and DEMO the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. The pedestal top scaling for the pressure reveals differences between the electron and the ion pressure. In extrapolations this results in values for T{sub e,ped} of 4 keV (ITER) and 10 keV (DEMO), but significantly lower values for the ion temperature. A two-term method was applied to use the pedestal pressure to determine the pedestal contribution to the global confinement time {tau}{sub E}. The dependencies in the

  4. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    of the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous borders...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion....

  5. VELO aperture considerations for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Giovannozzi, M; Holzer, B; Neat, M

    2012-01-01

    In Long Shutdown 2 the VELO detectors will be replaced by new modules compatible with the LHCb Upgrade 40 MHz read-out system. A smaller inner radius of the VELO RF foil and of the silicon sensor active area will allow LHCb to considerably improve the impact parameter resolution. Here, a limit of the minimum VELO aperture during physics (Stable Beams) is discussed. A value of 3.5 mm for the nominal radius of the inner edge fo the RF foil seems acceptable.

  6. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  7. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  8. Aligning component upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Cosmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  9. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  10. Nonlinear excitation of low-n harmonics in reduced MHD simulations of edge-localized modes

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Isabel; Lackner, Karl; Guenter, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear simulations of the early ELMphase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n = 1 has a rigidly growing structur...

  11. The VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Jans, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    A significant upgrade of the LHCb detector is scheduled to be installed in 2018-2019. Afterwards all sub-detectors will be read out at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and the trigger will be fully implemented in software. The silicon strip vertex detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector. In these proceedings the following items are discussed: frontend ASIC, data rates, data transmission, cooling, radiation hard sensors, module design and simulated performance.

  12. CMS upgrades for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the impact of the LHC luminosity upgrade on CMS detector. While most of the CMS can possibly cope with the increased luminosity, the Tracker must undergo a major redesign in technology both in terms of detector substrates as well as in the data transfer links. I will show the impact on CMS of reduced bunch length and machine elements close to the interaction point.

  13. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  14. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  15. Silicon sensor technologies for ATLAS IBL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    New pixel sensors are currently under development for ATLAS Upgrades. The first upgrade stage will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer that will be installed in the detector during the 2013 LHC shutdown. The new layer (Insertable-B-Layer, IBL) will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and the beam pipe at a radius of 3.2cm. The expected high radiation levels require the use of radiation hard technology for both the front-end chip and the sensor. Two different pixel sensor technologies are envisaged for the IBL. The sensor choice will occur in July 2011. One option is developed by the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) Collaboration and is based on classical n-in-n planar silicon sensors which have been used for the ATLAS Pixel detector. For the IBL, two changes were required: The thickness was reduced from 250 um to 200 um to improve the radiation hardness. In addition, so-called "slim edges" were designed to reduce the inactive edge of the sensors from 1100 um to o...

  16. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  17. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    When separating the meaning of dwelling to ‘home’ and ‘house’, ‘home’ has no clear boundaries, organizational types, physical features, and experiences (Chapman, 1999) - while ‘house’ does. The house is a physical container of dwelling activities. Since early days, the essential purpose of this c......When separating the meaning of dwelling to ‘home’ and ‘house’, ‘home’ has no clear boundaries, organizational types, physical features, and experiences (Chapman, 1999) - while ‘house’ does. The house is a physical container of dwelling activities. Since early days, the essential purpose...... of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...

  18. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  19. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred f b −1 expected for LHC running to 3000 f b −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ext...

  20. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  1. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  2. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    van Beuzekom, Martin; Ketel, Tjeerd; Gershon, Timothy; Parkes, Christopher; Reid, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus for allowing precision measurements in hadronic physics. It provides not only superb impact parameter resolutions but also excellent momentum resolution, both important discriminating tools for precision high energy physics. This poster focuses on the R&D going into the future LHCb VELO detector. At present there are two proposed options for the upgrade; pixel chips or strip detectors. The LHCb upgrade is designed with higher luminosities and increased yields in mind. In order to get more out of the LHCb detector changes to the front end electronics will have to be made. At present, the first level hardware trigger is sets a limiting factor on the maximum efficiency for hadronic channels. As the VELO is positioned so close the proton-proton interaction region, whatever the choice of sensor, we will require efficient cooling and some proposed solutions are outlined. The LHCb TimePix telescope has had a very successful years running, with various devic...

  3. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  4. LHCb: The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Borghi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the LHC. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of ~1 fb$^{–1}$ of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. We therefore plan for an upgraded spectrometer by 2018 with a 40 MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency, especially in the hadronic channels

  5. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  6. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  7. Superhilac upgrade project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-05-01

    This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10/sup 7/ to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U/sup 90 +/ and U/sup 91 +/ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown.

  8. The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, A

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. In the next years, LHCb will measure a large number of interesting channels in heavy flavor decays. However, the limit of 1 fb−1 of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. An upgraded spectrometer with a 40MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency specially in the hadronic channels, widening our physics scope beyond that of heavy flavor. Here, the different possibilities under study for the different detectors are reviewed as well as the ongoing R&D activiti...

  9. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  10. ATLAS Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  11. Altair performance and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  12. Upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Daniel; Garczarczyk, Markus; Giavitto, Gianluca; Sitarek, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) located on the Canary island of La Palma. With 17m diameter mirror dishes and ultra-fast electronics, they provide an energy threshold as low as 50 GeV for observations at low zenith angles. The first MAGIC telescope was taken in operation in 2004 whereas the second one joined in 2009. In 2011 we started a major upgrade program to improve and to unify the stereoscopic system of the two similar but at that time different telescopes. Here we report on the upgrade of the readout electronics and digital trigger of the two telescopes, the upgrade of the camera of the MAGIC I telescope as well as the commissioning of the system after this major upgrade.

  13. D0 Upgrade for RUN II

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, P

    1999-01-01

    The D0 detector at The Fermilab Tevatron is undergoing a major upgrade to prepare for data taking with luminosities reaching 2 x 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. The upgrade includes a new central tracking array, new muon detector components and electronic upgrades to many subsystems. The D0 upgraded detector will be operational for RUN II in spring 2000.

  14. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2011-11-12

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand control of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.

  15. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H{sup −} source development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, B., E-mail: bernd.heinemann@ipp.mpg.de; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called “Large Area Grid” (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  16. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  17. Hangout with CERN: Upgrading with TALENT (S03E08)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The world's largest particle accelerator, CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is preparing to run at higher energies. With collisions on hold, engineers and physicists are busy consolidating and upgrading the accelerator, the experiments and more.In this week's hangout, researchers from the TALENT project give us an insight into their work to help upgrade the ATLAS detector. Find out how cutting-edge engineering, software and physics analysis are working together to make a gigantic detector even greater!Host ATLAS physicist Steven Goldfarb is joined by fellow ATLAS physicist Mar Capeans Garrido, as well as TALENT project Marie Curie fellows: software engineer Rafael Tedin Alvarez from Atostek Oy and physicists Laura Franconi from the University of Oslo and Arno E. Kompatscher from CiS, with Marzena Lapka from the CMS Experiment monitoring social media.TALENT is an Initial Training Network funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, with 17 researchers at the start of their careers working...

  18. The edges of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.

  19. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Rasmussen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    , the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration......, since CTS is presently the only diagnostic to measure the confined alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions....

  20. First studies of ITER-diagnostic mirrors in a tokamak with an all-metal interior: results of the first mirror test in ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litnovsky, A.; Matveeva, M.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; Mayer, M.; Sugiyama, K.; Krieger, K.; Voitsenya, V.; Vayakis, G.; Costley, A. E.; Reichle, R.; De Temmerman, G.; Richter, S.; Breuer, U.; Buzi, L.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; Wienhold, P.

    2013-01-01

    In ITER, mirrors will be used as plasma-viewing elements in all optical and laser diagnostics. In the harsh environment, mirror performance will degrade hampering the operation of associated diagnostics. The most adverse effect on mirror performance is caused by the deposition of impurities. It is e

  1. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  2. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Meloni, Simone; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Williams, Mark Richard James

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a proposed selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to maximise the output of useful physics events, and a range of possible signal efficiencies are presented as a function of the available bandwidth.

  3. LHCb DAQ network upgrade tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    My project concerned the evaluation of new technologies for the DAQ network upgrade of LHCb. The first part consisted in developing and Open Flow-based Clos network. This new technology is very interesting and powerful but, as shown by the results, it still needs further improvements. The second part consisted in testing and benchmarking 40GbE network equipment: Mellanox MT27500, Chelsio T580 and Huawei Cloud Engine 12804. An event-building simulation is currently been performed in order to check the feasibility of the DAQ network upgrade in LS2. The first results are promising.

  4. ATLAS Detector : Performance and Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Describe the ATLAS detector and summarize most relevant and recent information about the detector performance in 2016 with LHC colliding bunches at sqrt(s)=13 TeV with luminosity above the nominal value. Describe the different upgrade phases previewed for the detector and main activities already ongoing.

  5. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  6. Comparison between 2D turbulence model ESEL and experimental data from AUG and COMPASS tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ondac, Peter; Horacek, Jan; Seidl, Jakub;

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained...

  7. Gains from the upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER-II reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, M.D., E-mail: duc.le@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Quintero-Castro, D.L.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Groitl, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Skoulatos, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rule, K.C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); The Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Kirrawee DC NSW 2234 (Australia); Habicht, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    The upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX is described. We discuss the characterisation of the gains from the new primary spectrometer, including a larger guide and double focussing monochromator, and present measurements of the energy and momentum resolution and of the neutron flux of the instrument. We found an order of magnitude gain in intensity (at the cost of coarser momentum resolution), and that the incoherent elastic energy widths are measurably narrower than before the upgrade. The much improved count rate should allow the use of smaller single crystals samples and thus enable the upgraded FLEXX spectrometer to continue making leading edge measurements.

  8. ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1

    CERN Document Server

    Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...

  9. Take control of upgrading to Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Start on the right foot with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard! Little is more exciting and unnerving than a major operating system upgrade for your Mac, but thousands of people have upgraded to Panther and Tiger calmly and successfully with the advice in Joe Kissell's previous hit Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's expert guidance, developed over innumerable test installations, walks you through the six steps necessary before upgrading, which of Leopard's three installation options is right for you, how to perform the actual upgrade, and post-installation checking and cleanup.

  10. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wolbers, Stephen; Barker, B; Bledsoe, S; Boes, T; Bowden, Mark; Cancelo, Gugstavo I; Dürling, G; Forster, B; Haynes, B; Hendricks, B; Kasza, T; Kutschke, Robert K; Mahlum, R; Martens, Michael A; Mengel, M; Olsen, M; Pavlicek, V; Pham, T; Piccoli, Luciano; Steimel, Jim; Treptow, K; Votava, Margaret; Webber, Robert C; West, B; Zhang, D

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980s, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  11. The ALICE pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The ALICE collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus to be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2019-2020. A key element of the ALICE upgrade is the new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System. With respect to the current detector, the new Inner Tracking System will significantly enhance the pointing resolution, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities. This will be obtained by seven concentric detector layers based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with a pixel pitch of about 30×30 μm2. A key feature of the new Inner Tracking System, which is optimised for high tracking accuracy at low transverse momenta, is the very low mass of the three innermost layers, which feature a material budget of 0.3% X0 per layer. This contribution presents the design goals and layout of the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System, summarises the R&D activities focussing on the technical implementation of the main detector components, and the projected detector performance.

  12. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  13. Edge physics Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Q. Xu; C.S. Chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The plasma edge includes the pedestal, scrape-off, and divertor regions. A complete edge physics should deal with the plasma, atomic, and the plasma-wall interaction phenomena. The edge provides the source of plasma through ionization of the incoming neutral particles and source of impurity through the wall sputtering. Edge plasma sets a boundary condition for the core confinement physics. Importance of the edge plasma has been elevated to the top list of the ITER physics research needs due to the necessity of the self-organized plasma pedestal and its destruction by edge localized mode activities. Extrapolation of the present tokamak data base predicts that a sufficient pedestal height is a necessary condition for the success of ITER.

  14. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  15. H-1 Upgrades (4BW/4BN) (H-1 Upgrades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Nautical Miles R&M - Reliability and Maintainability RM - Reference Model TV-1 - Technical Standards Profile Univ . - Universal H-1 Upgrades December 2015...Speed (kts) 165 165 135 139 139 Payload (Hot Day) (lbs) 3500 lbs 3500 lbs 2500 lbs 6 Wing Stations 4 Universal Under Wing Stations 3429 3429 Weapon...Stations Universal Mounts 6 6 4 4 4 Precision Guided Munitions 16 16 12 16 16 Maneuverability/Agility (G’s) -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to

  16. Advanced Accelerator Magnets for Upgrading the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; de Rijk, G; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is working at about half its design value, limited by the defective splices of the magnet interconnections. While the full energy will be attained after the splice consolidation in 2014, CERN is preparing a plan for a Luminosity upgrade (High Luminosity LHC) around 2020 and has launched a pre-study for exploring an Energy upgrade (High Energy LHC) around 2030. Both upgrades strongly rely on advanced accelerator magnet technology, requiring dipoles and quadrupoles of accelerator quality and operating fields in the 11-13 T range for the luminosity upgrade and 16-20 T range for the energy upgrade. The paper will review the last ten year of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet R&D and compare it to the needs of the upgrades and will critically assess the results of the Nb3Sn and HTS technology and the planned R&D programs also based on the inputs of first year of LHC operation.

  17. Emission system upgrades for older vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.R.; Finkenbiner, K.; Sommerville, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    Thirteen 1975--1980 model year vehicles were equipped with a set of components to upgrade their emission control systems. Each vehicle was tested before maintenance (as-received), after tune-up and correction of original equipment emission system defects (baseline), and after installation of the emission upgrade system (upgrade). Average emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NHMC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with the emission upgrade system installed were reduced more than 60% from the baseline immediately after upgrade. Six of the vehicles accumulated 48,000 kilometers with the upgrade system. After 48,000 kilometers, average emissions of NMHC and NOx were still reduced approximately 50% compared to the baseline and average emissions of CO were reduced approximately 20%.

  18. Upgrade of the LHCb VELO detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm forward spectrometer optimised for performing heavy-flavour physics analyses, using proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC machine. A major upgrade of the LHCb experiment will take place prior to the start of Run 3 operations in 2021. The upgraded Vertex Locator (VELO) is an essential component of this upgrade. Its main role is to enable high precision track and vertex reconstruction, with data-driven readout to the software trigger at 40 MHz, in the higher-luminosity environment of Run 3. To achieve this goal, significant improvements are planned with respect to the current detector, including a switch from microstrips to pixels, upgraded electronics, and a new cooling system. I will briefly motiviate the need for an upgrade, describe the main aspects of the VELO upgrade design, and show highlights of recent sensor characterisation studies using the CERN SPS test beam.

  19. On Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    T. 0. "On boundary detection." A. I. Memo 183, MIT, 1980. Hildreth, E. C. "Implementation of a theory of edge detection ." A. /. Memo 579, MIT, 1980...Detection." IEEE Trans. PAMI, 6, 678-680, 1983. Marr, 0. C. and Hildreth, E. C, " Theory of edge detection ." Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 207, 187-217, 1980. Marr

  20. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  1. PF-AR upgrading project

    CERN Document Server

    Kasuga, T

    2002-01-01

    The upgrading project of the dedicated pulse X-ray source PF-AR has been completed by the end of the 2001 fiscal year. Machine commissioning exclusively using the injector linac was successfully accomplished in the beginning of January 2002. After fine tuning of the machine and cleaning of the vacuum system with the beams from the middle of January to the middle of March, routine operation for users has begun in April. The historical details, commissioning and results of the project are reported. (author)

  2. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kubinski, R; Kuchinsky, N; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Kwarciany, R; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Larwill, M; Laurens, P; Lavigne, B; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Le Meur, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leitner, R; Leonidopoulos, C; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Lindenmeyer, C; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Litmaath, M; Lizarazo, J; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Machado, E; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manakov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Markley, D; Markus, M; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M; Martin-Chassard, G; Mattingly, S E K; Matulik, M; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McKenna, M; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Mendes, A; Mendoza, D; Mendoza, L; Meng, X; Merekov, Y P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mikhailov, V; Miller, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mostafa, M; Moua, S; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagaraj, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimhan, V S; Narayanan, A; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neuenschwander, R T; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nozdrin, A; Nunnemann, T; Nurczyk, A; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Olis, D; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Olsen, J; Oshima, N; Oshinowo, B O; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Polosov, P; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Porokhovoy, S; Prado da Silva, W L; Pritchard, W; Prokhorov, I; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ramberg, E; Ramirez-Gomez, R; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rao, M V S; Rapidis, P A; Rapisarda, S; Raskowski, J; Ratoff, P N; Ray, R E; Reay, N W; Rechenmacher, R; Reddy, L V; Regan, T; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Roco, M T; Rotolo, C; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rucinski, R; Rud, V I; Rusakovich, N; Russo, P; Sabirov, B; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Satyanarayana, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shankar, H C; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Sheahan, P; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shishkin, A A; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, D E; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spartana, N; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stefanik, A; Steinberg, J L; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tentindo-Repond, S; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Terentyev, N K; Teterin, V; Thomas, E; Thompson, J; Thooris, B; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokmenin, V V; Tolian, C; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, D; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Touze, F; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Utes, M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; Van Gemmeren, P; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Vaz, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vigneault, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vishwanath, P R; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vorobyov, A; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Vysotsky, V S; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, L; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijnen, T A M; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilcer, N; Willutzki, H; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Wu, Z; Xie, Y; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yarema, R J; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Yoffe, F; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zanabria, M; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zmuda, T; Zutshi, V; Zviagintsev, S; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  3. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  4. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014

  5. Upgrading existing evaporators to reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist the evaporator engineer who will be performing the technical and economic analyses to determine the most suitable evaporator upgrading technique for his particular plant. Information is included on potentials for upgrading evaporators; correctable operating factors; heat recovery and other improvements in energy use with minor capital investments; upgrading through major capital investments; guidelines for formulating an upgrading program; and new technologies encompassing advanced designs, use of solar and low-grade heat sources, and heat transfer enhancement. A 36 item bibliography is included. (LCL)

  6. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  7. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  8. Upgrading of Boundary Dam spillway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhail, Gordon; MacMillan, Dave; Smith, Bert [KGS Group, Winnipeg, (Canada); Lacelle, Justin [SaskPower, Regina, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    An initial dam safety review was performed in 2005 and identified a number of concerns; the most critical were insufficient spillway capacity and deficiencies in the condition of the existing spillways. This paper described the challenges faced by the upgrading operation on the 50 year old Boundary Dam spillway started in 2008. SaskPower retained the KGS Group to increase the design spillway capacity to 1200 m3/s and remedy observed defects. The construction project involved maintaining the reservoir at full supply level while the 20m long spillway chute and stilling basin below were completely replaced. The difficulties came from the need to complete each year's construction such that the spillway could potentially pass spring flood flows. This paper showed that the upgrade measures selected for implementation were developed through close dialogue between the owner and the designer, with valuable input provided by a panel of external experts as well as from contractors participating in the design process.

  9. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  10. Achievements of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, C

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker to cope with the elevated occupancy. To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) was established comprising 19 institutes and more than 90 scientists. The paper provides an overview of the research and development project and highlights accomplishments, among them: beam test results with planar sensors up to innermost layer fluences (> 10^16 n_eq cm^2); measurements obtained with irradiated thin edgeless n-in-p pixel assemblies; recent studies of the SCP technique to obtain almost active edges by postprocessing already existing sensors based on scribing, cleaving and edge passivation; an update on prototyping efforts for large areas: sensor design improvements and concepts for low-cost hybridisation; comparison between Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results and TCAD simulations. Togethe...

  11. Casimir edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, H; Gies, Holger; Klingmuller, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We compute Casimir forces in open geometries with edges, involving parallel as well as perpendicular semi-infinite plates. We focus on Casimir configurations which are governed by a unique dimensional scaling law with a universal coefficient. With the aid of worldline numerics, we determine this coefficient for various geometries for the case of scalar-field fluctuations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our results facilitate an estimate of the systematic error induced by the edges of finite plates, for instance, in a standard parallel-plate experiment. The Casimir edge effects for this case can be reformulated as an increase of the effective area of the configuration.

  12. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  13. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  14. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  15. How Can China Achieve Industrial Upgrade?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建成; 毛蕴诗

    2008-01-01

    Traditional OEM enterprises are facing increasing upgrading pressure due to tighten export environment. This paper carries out a comparative case study on two bathroom hardware manufacturers,by analyzing enterprises upgrading process from OEM to ODM and OBM,this article will be a good reference for other Chinese OEM manufacturers who pursue an independent road of innovation.

  16. ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sankey, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This talk for ACES summarises the current status of the ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade, describing and comparing the two architectures under consideration, namely the two hardware level system described in the Phase-II Upgrade Scoping Document and the more recent single hardware level system.

  17. FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ► Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ► Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ► Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ► Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the

  18. Upgradable Software Product Customization by Code Query

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    of a subset of software systems that we call software products: software that needs special support for customization. Through customization, external companies can modify part of the original product to better t the needs of a niche market. Upon the release of a new version of the original software product......, external companies must port their customizations to the latest version of the base software product, a process called an upgrade. Companies typically consider upgrades as mandatory, and hence must bear their high cost on a regular basis. The objectives of customizability and upgradability are conicting...... this constitutes the upgrade problem. We study the upgrade problem in the eld of enterprise systems from a technical point of view, and consider the large spectrum of existing software engineering techniques for customization. We ground our work in an empirical study, that shows that customizations cannot...

  19. Biological upgrading of coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Culture screening and performance studies were performed with a variety of cultures in removing nitrogen compounds from coal liquid. Two cultures were shown to be effective in removing 17 and 26 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid as determined by elemental analysis. Experiments will continue in an effort to find additional cultures and isolates able to degrade nitrogen, as well as oxygen and sulfur as heteroatom compounds, from coal liquids. A biological process for upgrading of coal liquids would offer significant advantages, such as operation at ordinary temperature and pressure with better energy efficiency. Of greater importance is the fact that microorganisms do not require an external supply of hydrogen for heteroatom removal, obtaining required hydrogen from water. Furthermore, the biocatalysts are continuously regenerated by growth on the heteroatom compounds. Ring structures are degraded as the heteroatoms are removed. The heteroatoms are in an inocuous form, such as NH[sub 3], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  20. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  1. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  2. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  3. Improved edge charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Grierson, B. A.; Haskey, S. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Briesemeister, A.

    2016-11-01

    The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak has been upgraded with the addition of more high radial resolution view chords near the edge of the plasma (r/a > 0.8). The additional views are diagnosed with the same number of spectrometers by placing fiber optics side-by-side at the spectrometer entrance with a precise separation that avoids wavelength shifted crosstalk without the use of bandpass filters. The new views improve measurement of edge impurity parameters in steep gradient, H-mode plasmas with many different shapes. The number of edge view chords with 8 mm radial separation has increased from 16 to 38. New fused silica fibers have improved light throughput and clarify the observation of non-Gaussian spectra that suggest the ion distribution function can be non-Maxwellian in low collisionality plasmas.

  4. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  5. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  6. Extended Klein edges in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.

  7. ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AUSTIN, ME; LOHR, J

    2002-08-01

    OAK A271 ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer diagnostic on DIII-D has been upgraded with the addition of eight channels for a total of 40. The new, higher frequency channels allow measurements of electron temperature into the magnetic axis in discharges at maximum field, 2.15 T. The complete set now extends over the full usable range of second harmonic emission frequencies at 2.0 T covering radii from the outer edge inward to the location of third harmonic overlap on the high field side. Full coverage permits the measurement of heat pulses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations on both sides of the magnetic axis. In addition, the symmetric measurements are used to fix the location of the magnetic axis in tokamak magnetic equilibrium reconstructions. Also, the new higher frequency channels have been used to determine central T{sub e} with good time resolution in low field, high density discharges using third harmonic ECE in the optically gray and optically thick regimes.

  8. Micromegas R&D for ATLAS MUON PHASE II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Edoardo Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade, a proposal to extend the detector acceptance of the muon system to high η has been put forward (namely up to | η| ~ 4). Extension of the muon coverage has been demonstrated to enhance physics performance. The proposed location for the new detector is in between the end-cap calorimeter cryostat and the JD shielding; in this region there is no magnetic field applied, the aim of the new detector is therefore to only tag muons without performing any momentum measurement. The new η tagger should cope with extremely high particle rate, that has been calculated, by means of simulations, to be 9 MHz at R = 25 cm and 0.4 MHz at R = 60 cm for μ = 200, where μ stands for the number of pp collisions per bunch crossing. The required spatial resolution at the inner edge of the detector has been estimated in few hundreds micrometres. One of the most promising candidate technology for the new detector is the MicroMegaS one, which has already been adopted for the NSW upgrad...

  9. A New Edge-directed Subpixel Edge Localization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新瑞; 徐威; 王石刚; 李倩

    2004-01-01

    Localization of the inspected chip image is one of the key problems with machine vision aided surface mount devices (SMD) and other micro-electronic equipments. This paper presents a new edge-directed subpixel edge localization method. The image is divided into two regions, edge and non-edge, using edge detection to emphasize the edge feature. Since the edges of the chip image are straight, they have straight-line characteristics locally and globally. First,the line segments of the straight edge are located to subpixel precision, according to their local straight properties, in a 3 × 3 neighborhood of the edge region. Second, the subpixel midpoints of the line segments are computed. Finally, the straight edge is fitted using the midpoints and the least square method, according to its global straight property in the entire edge region. In this way, the edge is located to subpixel precision. While fitting the edge, the irregular points are eliminated by the angles of the line segments to improve the precision. We can also distinguish different edges and their intersections using the angles of the line segments and distances between the edge points, then give the vectorial result of the image edge with high precision.

  10. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2008-08-15

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  11. Simulation of tungsten sputtering with EDGE2D–EIRENE in low triangularity L-mode JET ITER like wall configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, D.; Groth, M.; Beurskens, M.; Boerner, P.; Brix, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Corrigan, G.; Lehnen, M.; Marsen, S.; van Rooij, G. J.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.

    2013-01-01

    The 2D edge plasma transport code EDGE2D-EIRENE has been upgraded to account for the actual material and geometric properties of the newly installed İTER\\} like wall (ILW) at JET. This includes the simulation of beryllium and tungsten impurities as well as a revised treatment of sputtering by main p

  12. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  13. High Speed Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  14. Upgrades to MINERVA control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maurice; Eastman, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) is an array of four robotic telescopes located on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona that will find and characterize rocky planets around our nearest stars. We discuss the latest upgrades to the MINERVA robotic control software. Previously, our robotic control software was only capable of taking radial velocities or photometry for the entire night, but not both. We have recently increased the speed and ease of transitioning between photometry and radial velocity (RV) observations. We can now arbitrarily assign a subset of the telescopes to either photometric or spectroscopic observations. This capability enables us to monitor stellar activity while measuring the star’s RV, gather photometry on one star while continuing our RV survey of other targets and provide education and public outreach opportunities where others can observe with one or more telescopes while we continue using the remaining telescopes for research. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 1144152.

  15. Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Tracker of the CMS experiment, comprising of a pixel and a strip detector, has so far been excellent, as reflected in the wealth of beautiful physics results from CMS. However, the foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. \\\\ In the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016/17 the pixel detector will be exchanged. The new device is designed for an instantaneous luminosity of $2\\cdot 10^{34}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and an integrated luminosity of 500\\,fb$^{-1}$. The number of layers will be increased from three to four in the barrel part and from two to three in the end caps, thus providing four-hit coverage over the full pseudorapidity range. A smaller beampipe allows the reduction of the radius of the innermost layer, improving the tracking performance. Further improvements include a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more effi...

  16. The upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, T

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is set for a significant upgrade, which will be ready for Run~3 of the LHC in 2020. This upgrade will allow LHCb to run at a significantly higher instantaneous luminosity and collect an integrated luminosity of $50\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ by the end of Run~4. In this process the Vertex locator (VELO) detector will be upgraded to a pixel-based silicon detector. The upgraded VELO will improve upon the current detector by being closer to the beam and having lower material modules with microchannel cooling and a thinner RF-foil. Simulations have shown that it will maintain its excellent performance, even after the radiation damage caused by collecting an integrated luminosity of $50\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$.

  17. Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb Experiment at the LHC is successfully performing precision measurements primarily in the area of flavour physics. The collaboration is preparing an upgrade that will start taking data in 2021 with a trigger-less readout at five times the current luminosity. The vertex locator has been crucial in the success of the experiment and will continue to be so for the upgrade. It will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector and this paper discusses the performance benchmarks of the upgraded detector. Despite the challenging experimental environment, the vertex locator will maintain or improve upon its benchmark figures compared to the current detector. Finally the long term plans for LHCb, beyond those of the upgrade currently in preparation, are discussed.

  18. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  19. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  20. Technology to Upgrade Magneto-Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CAS scientists have developed a new surface-coating technology to upgrade the product quality of China's permanent magnet materials. The success is appraised by an evaluation penal of the CAS Shenyang Branch in northeastern China' s Liaoning Province.

  1. Lower Hybrid System upgrade on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, B.; Beunas, A.; Bibet, P.; Kazarian, F.

    2003-12-01

    An upgrade of the heating systems is in progress on Tore Supra. It is focused on the manufacturing of a new coupler, using the PAM concept as foreseen for ITER launcher, and the upgrade of the existing transmitter by replacing the 16 existing 500 kW, 210 s klystrons with new 750 kW, 1000s klystrons. Main features of the launcher and klystron are presented.

  2. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  3. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-08-04

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

  4. Superpixel edges for boundary detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Mary M.; Koch, Mark W.

    2016-07-12

    Various embodiments presented herein relate to identifying one or more edges in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image comprising a plurality of superpixels. Superpixels sharing an edge (or boundary) can be identified and one or more properties of the shared superpixels can be compared to determine whether the superpixels form the same or two different features. Where the superpixels form the same feature the edge is identified as an internal edge. Where the superpixels form two different features, the edge is identified as an external edge. Based upon classification of the superpixels, the external edge can be further determined to form part of a roof, wall, etc. The superpixels can be formed from a speckle-reduced SAR image product formed from a registered stack of SAR images, which is further segmented into a plurality of superpixels. The edge identification process is applied to the SAR image comprising the superpixels and edges.

  5. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

  6. Edge detection by nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Yiu-fai

    1994-07-01

    We demonstrate how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, our scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step-edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  7. Graphene edges; localized edge state and electron wave interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoki Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of massless Dirac fermion in the graphene hexagonal bipartite is seriously modified by the presence of edges depending on the edge chirality. In the zigzag edge, strongly spin polarized nonbonding edge state is created as a consequence of broken symmetry of pseudo-spin. In the scattering at armchair edges, the K-K’ intervalley transition gives rise to electron wave interference. The presence of edge state in zigzag edges is observed in ultra-high vacuum STM/STS observations. The electron wave interference phenomenon in the armchair edge is observed in the Raman G-band and the honeycomb superlattice pattern with its fine structure in STM images.

  8. Edge turbulence in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedospasov, A. V.

    1992-12-01

    Edge turbulence is of decisive importance for the distribution of particle and energy fluxes to the walls of tokamaks. Despite the availability of extensive experimental data on the turbulence properties, its nature still remains a subject for discussion. This paper contains a review of the most recent theoretical and experimental studies in the field, including mainly the studies to which Wootton (A.J. Wooton, J. Nucl. Mater. 176 & 177 (1990) 77) referred to most in his review at PSI-9 and those published later. The available theoretical models of edge turbulence with volume dissipation due to collisions fail to fully interpret the entire combination of experimental facts. In the scrape-off layer of a tokamak the dissipation prevails due to the flow of current through potential shifts near the surface of limiters of divertor plates. The different origins of turbulence at the edge and in the core plasma due to such dissipation are discussed in this paper. Recent data on the electron temperature fluctuations enabled one to evaluate the electric probe measurements of turbulent flows of particles and heat critically. The latest data on the suppression of turbulence in the case of L-H transitions are given. In doing so, the possibility of exciting current instabilities in biasing experiments (rather than only to the suppression of existing turbulence) is given some attention. Possible objectives of further studies are also discussed.

  9. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  10. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  11. Thes - Website for Thermal Shields Upgrade Management

    CERN Document Server

    Micula, Adina

    2013-01-01

    There are a total of 1695 thermal shields (TS) in the interconnections between the superconducting magnets. During LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) all of these TS are being upgraded with a new fixation design. This procedure involves the transport of all the TS from LHC to a workshop on the surface where they are being modified and the subsequent transport of the upgraded TS back to the tunnel where they are laid on the cryostats and await the closure of the interconnection. These operations have to be carefully coordinated in order to ensure that there are always enough modified TS to satisfy the demand in the tunnel and respect the time constraint imposed by the schedule of LS1. As part of my summer project, I developed a database driven website whose aim is to enable the TS upgrade monitoring.

  12. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  13. Tracking triggers for the upgraded DOe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Bloom, P. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Mani, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Pellett, D. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Costa, J. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreira, L. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baumbaugh, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Blazey, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Borcherding, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Wilcox, J. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The high luminosity environment of the upgraded Tevatron will require not only the upgrade of various DOe subdetectors, but the trigger system as well. With respect to the present system, the upgraded trigger system must operate faster and provide a higher degree of background rejection while extending the physics acceptance beyond that of the current system. This will be accomplished in part by incorporating the scintillating fiber tracker and the preshower detector into the Level 1 trigger. Track logic, implemented in commercial FPGAs, will be used to identify tracks in the scintillating fiber tracker with P{sub T}>1.5 GeV/c and electron candidates in the preshower detector. Integration of the trigger logic and readout electronics permits the identification of all tracks in a few hundred nanoseconds. Here, preliminary designs for the readout and trigger electronics are presented along with simulation results for trigger efficiencies and rejection factors. (orig.).

  14. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Iouri

    2016-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is built to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. With the upgrade of its Inner Tracking System (ITS), the ALICE experiment is going to increase the rate of data taking by almost two orders of magnitude. At the same time, the precision of secondary vertex reconstruction will become by at least a factor 3 better than it currently is. In this talk, we briefly show some selected physics results motivating the upgrade of the ITS, describe the design goals and the layout of the new detector, and highlight a few important measurements that will be realized after the completion of this upgrade.

  15. Topological Number of Edge States

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We show that the edge states of the four-dimensional class A system can have topological charges, which are characterized by Abelian/non-Abelian monopoles. The edge topological charges are a new feature of relations among theories with different dimensions. From this novel viewpoint, we provide a non-Abelian analogue of the TKNN number as an edge topological charge, which is defined by an SU(2) 't Hooft-Polyakov BPS monopole through an equivalence to Nahm construction. Furthermore, putting a constant magnetic field yields an edge monopole in a non-commutative momentum space, where D-brane methods in string theory facilitate study of edge fermions.

  16. The upstream tracker for the LHCb upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, Olaf, E-mail: olafs@physik.uzh.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb collaboration is planning a comprehensive upgrade of the experiment for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2019/20. As part of this upgrade, the tracking station in front of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by a new planar four-layer silicon micro-strip detector with 40 MHz readout and silicon sensors with finer granularity and improved radiation hardness. Key design aspects of this new Upstream Tracker are described and a brief overview of the status of the project is given.

  17. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  18. CMS DT Upgrade The Sector Collector Relocation

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro Tobar, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Sector Collector relocation is the first stage of the upgrade program for the Drift Tubes subdetector of the CMS experiment. It was accomplished during Long Shutdown 2013-2014, and consisted in the relocation of the second-level trigger and readout electronics from the experimental to the service cavern, relieving the environmental constraints and improving accessibility for maintenance and upgrade. Extending the electrical links would degrade reliability, so the information is converted to optical with a custom system capable of dealing with the DC-unbalanced data. Initially, present electronics are used, so optical-to-copper conversion has also been installed.

  19. Electrochemistry of folded graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous interest in the investigation of electron transfer rates at the edges of graphene due to possible energy storage and sensing applications. While electrochemistry at the edges and the basal plane of graphene has been studied in the past, the new frontier is the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges. Here we describe the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges and compare it to that of open graphene edges. The materials were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. We found that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate is significantly lower on folded graphene edges compared to open edge sites for ferro/ferricyanide, and that electrochemical properties of open edges offer lower potential detection of biomarkers than the folded ones. It is apparent, therefore, that for sensing and biosensing applications the folded edges are less active than open edges, which should then be preferred for such applications. As folded edges are the product of thermal treatment of multilayer graphene, such thermal procedures should be avoided when fabricating graphene for electrochemical applications.

  20. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  1. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  2. Upgrade of the CERN telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between 8.00 p.m. and 10.00 p.m. on Monday 9 October. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this time. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  3. UPGRADES TO Monteburns, VERSION 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trellue, Holly R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Monteburns VERSION 3.0 is an upgrade of the existing Monteburns code available through RSICC. The new version includes modern programming style, increased parallel computing, more accurate capture gamma calculations and an automated input generator. This capability was demonstrated through a small PWR core simulation.

  4. Hardware upgrade for A2 data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrick, Michael; Gradl, Wolfgang; Otte, Peter-Bernd; Neiser, Andreas; Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Koerner, Tito [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The A2 Collaboration uses an energy tagged photon beam which is produced via bremsstrahlung off the MAMI electron beam. The detector system consists of Crystal Ball and TAPS and covers almost the whole solid angle. A frozen-spin polarized target allows to perform high precision measurements of polarization observables in meson photo-production. During the last summer, a major upgrade of the data acquisition system was performed, both on the hardware and the software side. The goal of this upgrade was increased reliability of the system and an improvement in the data rate to disk. By doubling the number of readout CPUs and employing special VME crates with a split backplane, the number of bus accesses per readout cycle and crate was cut by a factor of two, giving almost a factor of two gain in the readout rate. In the course of the upgrade, we also switched most of the detector control system to using the distributed control system EPICS. For the upgraded control system, some new tools were developed to make full use of the capabilities of this decentralised slow control and monitoring system. The poster presents some of the major contributions to this project.

  5. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  6. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  7. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...

  8. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  9. ATLAS Upgrades Towards the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cinca, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV in 2011 and 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly 10 years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The final goal is to extend the data set from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2030. Current planning in ATLAS also has significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades to accommodate running already beyond nominal luminosity this decade. The challenge of coping with HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for an all-new inner-tracker, significant upgrades in the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data a...

  10. PC Made Easy: Upgrading Computer Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Matt

    1997-01-01

    Provides guidelines for ordering the best computer books, geared to the library's size. Covers series, articles, subjects, and publishers most useful to a broad audience, as well as the best places to seek information on new titles and where to find reviews. Offers time savers for upgrading a computer book collection and discusses weeding…

  11. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.;

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin i...

  13. The JLAB 12 GeV Energy Upgrade of CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Leigh H. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    This presentation should describe the progress of the 12GeV Upgrade of CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The status of the upgrade should be presented as well as details on the construction, procurement, installation and commissioning of the magnet and SRF components of the upgrade.

  14. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  15. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  16. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of 1

  17. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-16

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  18. BICEP3 performance overview and planned Keck Array upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grayson, J A; Ahmed, Z; Alexander, K D; Amiri, M; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Boenish, H; Bowens-Rubin, R; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Kang, J; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Monticue, V; Namikawa, T; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sorensen, C; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wandui, A; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    BICEP3 is a 520 mm aperture, compact two-lens refractor designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz. Its focal plane consists of modularized tiles of antenna-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs), similar to those used in BICEP2 and the Keck Array. The increased per-receiver optical throughput compared to BICEP2/Keck Array, due to both its faster f/1.7 optics and the larger aperture, more than doubles the combined mapping speed of the BICEP/Keck program. The BICEP3 receiver was recently upgraded to a full complement of 20 tiles of detectors (2560 TESs) and is now beginning its second year of observation (and first science season) at the South Pole. We report on its current performance and observing plans. Given its high per-receiver throughput while maintaining the advantages of a compact design, BICEP3-class receivers are ideally suited as building blocks for a 3rd-generation CMB experiment, consisting of multiple receivers spanning 35 GHz to 270 GHz with total de...

  19. BICEP3 performance overview and planned Keck Array upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, J. A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Alexander, K. D.; Amiri, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Bock, J. J.; Boenish, H.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Buza, V.; Connors, J.; Filippini, J. P.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Harrison, S.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V. V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Kang, J.; Karkare, K. S.; Karpel, E.; Kefeli, S.; Kernasovskiy, S. A.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Megerian, K. G.; Monticue, V.; Namikawa, T.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Schwarz, R.; Sorenson, C.; Sheehy, C. D.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Steinbach, B.; Teply, G. P.; Thompson, K. L.; Tolan, J. E.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wandui, A.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Willmert, J.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    Bicep3 is a 520mm aperture, compact two-lens refractor designed to observe the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 95 GHz. Its focal plane consists of modularized tiles of antenna-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs), similar to those used in Bicep2 and the Keck Array. The increased per-receiver optical throughput compared to Bicep2/Keck Array, due to both its faster f=1:7 optics and the larger aperture, more than doubles the combined mapping speed of the Bicep/Keck program. The Bicep3 receiver was recently upgraded to a full complement of 20 tiles of detectors (2560 TESs) and is now beginning its second year of observation (and first science season) at the South Pole. We report on its current performance and observing plans. Given its high per-receiver throughput while maintaining the advantages of a compact design, Bicep3- class receivers are ideally suited as building blocks for a 3rd-generation CMB experiment, consisting of multiple receivers spanning 35 GHz to 270 GHz with total detector count in the tens of thousands. We present plans for such an array, the new "BICEP Array" that will replace the Keck Array at the South Pole, including design optimization, frequency coverage, and deployment/observing strategies.

  20. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  1. Improved Edge Performance in MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Aric; Jones, Andrew; Durnas, Paul; Tricard, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The fabrication of large segmented optics requires a polishing process that can correct the figure of a surface to within a short distance from its edges-typically, a few millimeters. The work here is to develop QED's Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) precision polishing process to minimize residual edge effects.

  2. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  3. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  4. An Upgrade Proposal from the PHENIX Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bandara, N; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Baron, O; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Benjamin, G; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Blackburn, J; Blau, D S; Bobrek, M; Bok, J; Boose, S; Boyle, K; Britton,, C L; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Bumazhnov, V; Butler, C; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Carollo, A; Chai, J -S; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Chollet, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossett, N; Csanád, M; D'Orazio, L; Dairaku, S; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Debraine, A; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Eberle, L; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; FingerJr., M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Gastaldi, F; Ge, H; Giannotti, P; Giordarno, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; Hayashi, S; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hoefferkamp, M; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hori, Y; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Hutchins, J R; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Ivanov, V; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kehayias, H -J; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kravtsov, P; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kuriyama, M; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Lefferts, R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Lipski, A; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Lynch, M; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; Masumoto, S; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKay, R; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Menegasso, R; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Ninomiya, K; Nishimura, S; Northacker, D; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nukariya, A; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; Ozawa, K; Pancake, C; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Popule, J; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Radhakrishnan, S; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Reynolds, R; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Roschin, E; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Shafto, E; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sicho, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sippach, F W; Skolnik, M; Snowball, M; Solano, S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Soumya, M; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stevens, L; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Tate, A; Tennant, E; Thorsland, E; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Torii, H; Towell, C; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Trofimov, V; Tserruya, I; Tsuji, T; Tullo, A; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Watson, T S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Whitaker, S; White, A S; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; Young, M; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zarndt, E; Zelenski, A; Zhang, L; Zhou, S; Zolin, L; Zou, L; Zumberge, C

    2015-01-01

    In this document the PHENIX collaboration proposes a major upgrade to the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This upgrade, sPHENIX, enables an extremely rich jet and beauty quarkonia physics program addressing fundamental questions about the nature of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), discovered experimentally at RHIC to be a perfect fluid. The startling dynamics of the QGP on fluid-like length scales is an emergent property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), seemingly implicit in the Lagrangian but stubbornly hidden from view. QCD is an asymptotically free theory, but how QCD manifests as a strongly coupled fluid with specific shear viscosity near $T_C$, as low as allowed by the uncertainty principle, is as fundamental an issue as that of how confinement itself arises.

  5. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2016-10-18

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  6. Primary Vertex Reconstruction for Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Wanczyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is the study of beauty and charm hadron decays with the main focus on CP violating phenomena and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through rare decays. At the present, the second data taking period is ongoing, which is called Run II. After 2018 during the long shutdown, the replacement of signicant parts of the LHCb detector is planned. One of main changes is upgrade of the present software and hardware trigger to a more rapid full software trigger. Primary Vertex (PV) is a basis for the further tracking and it is sensitive to the LHC running conditions, which are going to change for the Upgrade. In particular, the center-of-mass collision energy should reach the maximum value of 14 TeV. As a result the quality of the reconstruction has to be studied and the reconstruction algorithms have to be optimized.

  7. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2016-10-18

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  9. Phase 2 Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mersi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    An upgrade program is planned for the LHC which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above ${5\\times10^{34}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{-2}}\\mathrm{s^{-1}}}$ sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of ${3000\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}}$ at the end of that decade. In this ultimate scenario, called Phase-2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC), CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R\\&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R\\&D activities and expected detector performance.

  10. ECE Imaging Bandwidth Upgrade for TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, C. W.; Zhang, P.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; van de Pol, M. J.; Spakman, G. W.; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The 128 channel 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) Imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. This instrument was upgraded in February 2007 with new wideband ECE electronics which increased the instantaneous frequency coverage by >50% to 6.4 GHz with a corresponding increase in horizontal plasma coverage. Frequency extenders have been developed to combine modules together to double the instantaneous coverage to 12.8 GHz. Technical details regarding both the electronics upgrade and the frequency extenders as well as the preliminary physics results will be presented. Implementation of a similar but new ECEI instrument on the DIII-D tokamak will be extensively discussed.

  11. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  13. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  14. Upgrading hydro-electric generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulson, D.M.; Villalon, M.

    1987-11-01

    Approximately 1,720,000 kW of installed hydro-electric generating capacity is either owned directly by pulp and paper companies in Canada or is operated principally in their service. The 216 units involved were commissioned between 1902 and 1982. This paper suggests an approach to upgrading the generating units themselves as well as the related electrical and mechanical equipment and civil structures, giving approximate durations and costs. A complete system study is recommended. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Kicker pulsers for recycler NOVA upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Chris C

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the Recycler injection kicker system required a faster rise time pulser. This system required a field rise and fall time of < 57 ns and a field flattop of 1.6 {\\mu}s. This paper describes the variety of improvements made over the years that have resulted in this latest thyratron pulser. The effects of the trigger, the reservoir and the load impedance on delay and rise time will be discussed.

  16. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  17. Proposal to upgrade the MIPP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Isenhower, D; Towell, R; Watson, S; Peterson, R J; Baker, W; Carey, D; Christian, D; Demarteau, M; Jensen, D; Johnstone, C; Meyer, H; Raja, R; Ronzhin, A; Solomey, Nickolas; Wester, W; Gutbrod, H H; Peters, K; Feldman, G; Torun, Y; Messier, M D; Paley, J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Duru, F; Gülmez, E; Gunaydin, Y; Onel, Y; Penzo, Aldo L; Avdeichikov, V; Leitner, R; Manjavidze, J; Nikitin, V; Rufanov, I; Sisakian, A; Topuria, T; Manley, D M; Löhner, H; Messchendorpfl, J; Gustafson, H R; Longo, M; Nigmanov, T; Rajaram, D; Kruglov, S P; Lopatin, I V; Kozlenko, N G; Kulbardis, A A; Nowinsky, D V; Radkov, A K; Sumachev, V V; Bujak, A; Gutay, L; Godley, A; Mishra, S R; Rosenfeld, C; Dukes, C; Materniak, C; Nelson, K; Norman, A; Desiati, P; Halzen, F; Montaruli, T

    2006-01-01

    The upgraded MIPP physics results are needed for the support of NuMI projects, atmospheric cosmic ray and neutrino programs worldwide and will permit a systematic study of non-perturbative QCD interctions. The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and ~20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz. This will also enable us to measure the medium energy numi target to be used for the NOvA/MINERvA experiments. We outline the capabilities of the upgraded MIPP detector to obtain high statistics particle production data on a number of nuclei that will help towards the understanding and simulation of hadronic showers in matter. Measurements of nitrogen cross sections will permit a better understanding of cosmic ray shower systematic...

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  19. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  20. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  1. LHCb; DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2x 10$^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ . s$^{-1}$. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of HCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and (relative) cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ ...

  2. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  3. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ~ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  4. ATLAS Upgrades for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, I M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly fo...

  5. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be kept lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tr...

  6. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred \\ifb\\ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  8. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  9. Theory of Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, D.; Hildreth, E.

    1980-02-01

    A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of nabla 2G(x, y)* I(x, y) for image I, where G(x, y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and nabla 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially localized. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround nabla 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

  10. Hydrogen-free graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuang; Lee, Gun-Do; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-01-01

    Graphene edges and their functionalization influence the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoribbons. Theoretical calculations predict saturating graphene edges with hydrogen lower its energy and form a more stable structure. Despite the importance, experimental investigations of whether graphene edges are always hydrogen-terminated are limited. Here we study graphene edges produced by sputtering in vacuum and direct measurements of the C-C bond lengths at the edge show ~86% contraction relative to the bulk. Density functional theory reveals the contraction is attributed to the formation of a triple bond and the absence of hydrogen functionalization. Time-dependent images reveal temporary attachment of a single atom to the arm-chair C-C bond in a triangular configuration, causing expansion of the bond length, which then returns back to the contracted value once the extra atom moves on and the arm-chair edge is returned. Our results provide confirmation that non-functionalized graphene edges can exist in vacuum.

  11. Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) of the plasma edge on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Roddy; Taylor, Gary; Brunner, Jakob; Ellis, Bob; Thomas, David

    2016-10-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a unique phased-array microwave camera with a +/-40° field of view in both directions. It can image cut-off surfaces corresponding to frequencies in the range 10-34.5GHz; these surfaces are typically in the plasma edge. SAMI operates in two modes: either imaging thermal emission from the plasma (often modified by its interaction with the plasma edge e.g. via BXO mode conversion) or ``active probing'' i.e. injecting a broad beam at the plasma surface and imaging the reflected/back-scattered signal. SAMI was successfully pioneered on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. SAMI has now been installed and commissioned on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The firmware has been upgraded to include real-time digital filtering, which enables continuous acquisition of the Doppler back-scattered active probing data. In this poster we shall present SAMI's analysis of the plasma edge on NSTX-U including measurements of the edge pitch angle on NSTX-U using SAMI's unique 2-D Doppler-backscattering capability.

  12. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  13. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  14. CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Phase I Upgrade Status

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    The Hadron Forward Calorimeter of CMS is going through a complete Phase I upgrade. The current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being replaced with thinner window, higher quantum efficiency, four-anode photomultiplier tubes. The new PMTs will provide better light detection performance, a significantly reduced background and unique handles to recover the signal in the presence of background. This report will describe the nature of the essential upgrade elements with supporting beam test results and the status of the upgrade progression.

  15. Physics potential and the status of DOE upgrade at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Jaehoon, Yu

    2001-01-01

    The DOE experiment is one of the two collider experiments at Fermilab. The DOE detector is a multipurpose detector and took its data during Fermilab TeVatron collider run in 1992-1996. Both the DO detector and the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab are currently undergoing significant upgrade to extend the reach to new physics and to further probe Standard Model. In this paper, physics potential of the upgraded DOE detector and the upgrade status are discussed.

  16. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  17. CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Phase I Upgrade Status

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2014-01-01

    The Hadron Forward Calorimeter of CMS is going through a complete Phase I upgrade. The current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being replaced with thinner window, higher quantum efficiency, four-anode photomultiplier tubes. The new PMTs will provide better light detection performance, a significantly reduced background and unique handles to recover the signal in the presence of background. This report will describe the nature of the essential upgrade elements with supporting beam test results and the status of the upgrade progression.

  18. Status of the Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melconian, Dan

    2016-09-01

    The Texas A&M University Re-accelerated EXotics (T-REX) project, an upgrade to the Cyclotron Institute, will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams of a unique energy range and the ability to provide primary beams to two experiments concurrently. The upgrade is nearing completion of its three major tasks: re-commissioning of the existing K150 cyclotron; construction of light- and heavy-ion guide transport systems; and charge-boosting the K150 RIB for re-acceleration using the K500 cyclotron. The light-ion guide transport system will utilize the high intensity (>= 10 μ A) proton beam from the K150 to produce rare ions via fusion-evapouration reactions or proton-induced fission fragments. These ions will be transported to an ECR charge breeder prior to injection in the K500. The heavy-ion guide will use deep inelastic, transfer and fragmentation reactions using the up to 25 MeV/u primary beams from the K150. The products will be separated by a superconducting solenoid and collected in a large gas-catcher, after which a multi-RFQ system will transport the RIB to any of: the charge-breeder and K500; the TAMU Penning Trap beamline; or an MR-TOF for beam analysis. The status of the T-REX upgrade and an overview of its capabilities will be presented Supported by DOE Grant Number DE-FG03-93ER40773 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant Number H-A-0098.

  19. Upgrade of the area II spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Bolduc, C.

    1995-08-01

    Because of the low beam energies required for experiments of astrophysical interest, the first test experiments with radioactive {sup 18}F beams can be performed in Area II. Because of the shorter distances between ion source and detector this also results in higher transmission efficiencies. The Enge split-pole spectrograph, which was not used during the last 8 years, was equipped with a new cryopump system, upgrades to the magnet power supply and the NMR system were performed. A rotating target system was built which should alleviate target deterioration effects that were observed in first test experiments.

  20. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  1. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...... countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  2. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  3. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  4. Upgrade and yields of the IGISOL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, P. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: Pasi.Karvonen@phys.jyu.fi; Penttilae, H.; Aystoe, J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Elomaa, V-V. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kessler, T.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Peraejaervi, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 (Finland); Rahaman, S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Sonoda, T. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); K. U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tordoff, B. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The front end of the Jyvaeskylae IGISOL facility was upgraded in 2003 by increasing its pumping capacity and by improving the radiation shielding. In late 2005, the skimmer electrode of the mass separator was replaced by a sextupole ion guide, which improved the mass separator efficiency up to an order of magnitude. The current design of the facility is described. The updated yield data, achieved with and without the additional JYFLTRAP purification, using both fusion evaporation reactions and particle induced fission is presented to give an overview of the capability of the facility. These data have been determined either by radioactivity measurements or by direct ion counting after the Penning trap system.

  5. DA{phi}NE Upgrade Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesini, David; Biagini, Maria Enrica; Biscari, Caterina; Boni, Roberto; Boscolo, Manuela; Bossi, Fabio; Buonomo, Bruno; Clozza, Alberto; Delle Monache, Giovanni; Demma, Theo; Di Pasquale, Enrico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Drago, Alessandro; Gallo, Alessandro; Ghigo, Andrea; Guiducci, Susanna; Ligi, Carlo; Marcellini, Fabio; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, Catia [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory at INFN-LNF has been upgraded in the second half of 2007 with the scope of testing a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, fabricated and installed to realize the new configuration. The ring injection systems have been also modified with the installation of new stripline fast injection kickers. Moreover the old bellows have been substituted by the new ones and all ion clearing electrodes in the electron ring have been removed. In the talk we describe the new layout as well as several experimental results obtained during the new run.

  6. Upgrading Longitudinal Beam Behavior In Ihep Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, A; Ivanov, S; Lebedev, O; Simonov, A; Sytov, S

    2004-01-01

    Operation of 1.5 GeV fast-cycling Booster proton syn chrotron of IHEP has been long hampered by unwanted oscillations in bunch length. To identify the reason of such beam behavior, a dedicated beam-dynamics research program has been initiated. The scope of this activity has covered a variety of the might-be mechanisms behind-coherent instabilities, malfunction of voltage amplitude feedbacks, quality of the voltage program, etc. Ultimately, phase loop encircling the VCO has been upgraded, which resulted in a noticeably suppressed scale of both, dipole and quadrupole oscillations of beam.

  7. HEAVY OIL UPGRADING WITH MINIMAL INVESTMENT COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By making best use of the low value by-products and maximum utilization of the existed processing units to minimize the investment cost,several heavy oil upgrading processes have been developed and put into practice in China.For domestic sweet crudes,RFCC combined with decanted oil coking or deasphalting has been selected.By RFCC-coking or deasphalting synergy,inferior quality feedstock can be accepted and needle coke and paving asphalt are produced.For imported sulfur crudes,high vacuum distillation combined with asphalt production and combined coking with the use of coke in cement industry and Fluidized Bed Combustion are recommend.

  8. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F; Sanchez, PDA; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, JP; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Wogsland, BJ; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article is the Preprint version of the final published article which can be accessed at the link below. The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e− collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking. This work has b...

  9. Orientation Relationships between Ferrite and Cementite by Edge-to-edge Matching Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhong; Xiaodong Wang; Zhenghong Guo; Yonghua Rong

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic features of pearlite were investigated by experiments and edge-to-edge matching principle. Two new orientation relationships between ferrite and cementite were determinated by selected area electron diffraction and then explained by our modified edge-to-edge matching method. The consistence of the experimental results with theoretical prediction confirms the practicability of the modified edge-to-edge matching model.

  10. Computation of Edge-Edge-Edge Events Based on Conicoid Theory for 3-D Object Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chenye; MA Huimin

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a good viewpoint space partition is crucial in three dimensional (3-D) object rec-ognition on the approach of aspect graph. There are two important events depicted by the aspect graph ap-proach, edge-edge-edge (EEE) events and edge-vertex (EV) events. This paper presents an algorithm to compute EEE events by characteristic analysis based on conicoid theory, in contrast to current algorithms that focus too much on EV events and often overlook the importance of EEE events. Also, the paper provides a standard flowchart for the viewpoint space partitioning based on aspect graph theory that makes it suitable for perspective models. The partitioning result best demonstrates the algorithm's efficiency with more valu-able viewpoints found with the help of EEE events, which can definitely help to achieve high recognition rate for 3-D object recognition.

  11. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  12. ATLAS Upgrade Instrumentation in the US

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00069444; Evans, Hal; Seiden, Abe

    2013-01-01

    Planned upgrades of the LHC over the next decade should allow the machine to operate at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV with instantaneous luminosities in the range 5--7e34 cm^-2 s^-1. With these parameters, ATLAS could collect 3,000 fb^-1 of data in approximately 10 years. However, the conditions under which this data would be acquired are much harsher than those currently encountered at the LHC. For example, the number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing will rise from the level of 20--30 per 50 ns crossing observed in 2012 to 140--200 every 25 ns. In order to deepen our understanding of the newly discovered Higgs boson and to extend our searches for physics beyond that new particle, the ATLAS detector, trigger, and readout will have to undergo significant upgrades. In this whitepaper we describe R&D necessary for ATLAS to continue to run effectively at the highest luminosities foreseen from the LHC. Emphasis is placed on those R&D efforts in which US institutions are playing a leadin...

  13. CEBAF Upgrade: Cryomodule Performance And Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Michael A.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; Hovater, J. Curt; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joe; Reece, Charles E.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

    2014-02-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the 12 GeV Upgrade is a doubling of the available beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due in large part to the addition of ten C100 cryomodules plus associated new RF in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver 100 MeV per installed cryomodule. Each C100 cryomodule is built around a string of eight seven-cell, electro-polished, superconducting RF cavities. While an average performance of 100MV per cryomodule is needed to achieve the overall 12 GeV beam energy goal, the actual performance goal for the cryomodules is an average energy gain of 108 MV to provide operational headroom. Cryomodule production started in December 2010. All ten of the C100 cryomodules are installed in the linac tunnels and are on schedule to complete commissioning by September 2013. Performance during Commissioning has ranged from 104 MV to 118 MV. In May, 2012 a test of an early C100 achieved 108 MV with full beam loading. This paper will discuss the performance of the C100 cryomodules along with operational challenges and lessons learned for future designs.

  14. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavour production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 $\\mu$m. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and a material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. %In particular, the properties of the two innermost layers define the ITS performance in measuring the displaced vertex of such short-lived particles. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavour detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detec...

  15. Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvala, N; Vrecko, D; Burica, O; Strazar, M; Levstek, M

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated based on data from ASP and MBBR pilot plants operating in parallel on the existing plant. Only two kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted to represent the real plant behaviour. Steady-state analyses have shown a similar efficiency of both processes in relation to carbon removal, but improved performance of MBBR in relation to nitrogen removal. Better performance of MBBR can be expected especially at low temperatures. Simulations have not confirmed the expected less volume required for the MBBR process. Finally, the MBBR was chosen for plant upgrading. The developed process model will be further used to evaluate the final plant configuration and to optimise the plant operating parameters.

  16. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00246160

    2015-01-01

    {During the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded detector will fully replace the current ITS having six layers by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity in LHC. The choice of MAPS has been driven by the specific requirements of ALICE as a heavy ion experiment dealing with rare probes at low $p_\\mathrm{T}$. This leads to stringent requirements on the material budget of 0.3$\\%~X/X_{0}$ per layer for the three innermost layers. Furthermore, the detector will see large hit densities of $\\sim 19~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}/\\mathrm{event}$ on average for minimum-bias events in the inner most layer and has to stand moderate radiation loads of 700 kRad TID and $1\\times 10^{13}$ 1 MeV n$_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ NIEL at maximum. The MAPS dete...

  17. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul

    2016-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of $1 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO$_{2}$ cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detect...

  18. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  19. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hovater, C; Guerra, A; Nelson, R; Terrel, R A; Wissmann, M

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to “kick” the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity’s transverse shunt impedance. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity originally. In addition the new RF system supports the proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. Currently we are halfway through the upgrade with two IOTs in operation and two more to be in...

  20. On the edge: haptic discrimination of edge sharpness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy L Skinner

    Full Text Available The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber's Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness.

  1. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  2. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Magnetic switching, final chapter, Book I: the ATA upgrade prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birx, D.; Cook, E.; Hawkins, S.; Poor, S.; Reginato, L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.W.

    1983-03-22

    Efforts directed at finding a 10 kHz switch to replace the current 1 kHz gas blown spark gap have culminated in a prototype for an upgrade of ATA. The design and performance of this prototype as well as possible options and recommendations concerning an eventual upgrade are described. 4 references, 9 figures.

  4. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  5. Towards Optimum Material Choices for HL-LHC Collimator Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Quaranta, E.; Biancacci, N.; Bruce, R.; Carra, F.; Métral, E.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, A.; Salvant, B.

    2016-01-01

    properties that address different limitations of the present collimation system, solutions have been found to fulfil various upgrade challenges. This paper describes the proposed staged approach to deploy new materials in the upgraded HL-LHC collimation system. Beam tests at the CERN HiRadMat facility were also performed to benchmark simulation methods and constitutive material models.

  6. Edge Ideals of Weighted Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulsen, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    We study weighted graphs and their "edge ideals" which are ideals in polynomial rings that are defined in terms of the graphs. We provide combinatorial descriptions of m-irreducible decompositions for the edge ideal of a weighted graph in terms of the combinatorics of "weighted vertex covers". We use these, for instance, to say when these ideals are m-unmixed. We explicitly describe which weighted cycles and trees are unmixed and which ones are Cohen-Macaulay, and we prove that all weighted complete graphs are Cohen-Macaulay.

  7. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner;

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  8. The 12 GeV Energy Upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Fulvia C.

    2012-09-01

    Two new cryomodules and an extensive upgrade of the bending magnets at Jefferson Lab has been recently completed in preparation for the full energy upgrade in about one year. Jefferson Laboratory has undertaken a major upgrade of its flagship facility, the CW re-circulating CEBAF linac, with the goal of doubling the linac energy to 12 GeV. I will discuss here the main scope and timeline of the upgrade and report on recent accomplishments and the present status. I will then discuss in more detail the core of the upgrade, the new additional C100 cryomodules, their production, tests and recent successful performance. I will then conclude by looking at the future plans of Jefferson Laboratory, from the commissioning and operations of the 12 GeV CEBAF to the design of the MEIC electron ion collider.

  9. Initital Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, DB; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) of the ATLAS experiment has been operating well since the start of LHC data taking and played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery. To face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC proton beam energy and luminosity, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo. This poster presents the L1Calo upgrade program for the initial upgrade phase in 2013-14. The program includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing. Two existing digital algorithm processor subsystems will receive hardware and firmware upgrades to increase the real-time data path bandwidth, allowing topological information to be processed at level-1. An entirely new subsystem, the L1 topological processor, will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1- muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies.

  10. The upgraded S18 neutron interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, G. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-11-01

    The instrument S18, the perfect-crystal neutron interferometer was reopened in October 1998. The instrument, which was dismantled during the reactor shutdown, has been set up again within the last two years. The upgraded version allows more advanced neutron optics experiments for fundamental, nuclear and condensed-matter physics. The instrument also takes advantage of the new super-mirror guide which provides considerably higher intensities. Several types of large perfect-crystal interferometers are available for different applications. A new multipurpose monochromator allows the use of a wide wavelength range and the configuration of the system as an advanced high-resolution Bonse-Hart small-angle scattering camera. Another instrument option is the use of completely polarised beams which are obtained using permanent magnetic prism deflection. An additional third analyser axis permits novel post-selection experiments concerning momentum distribution and polarisation analysis of the interfering beams. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs.

  11. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  12. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  13. Upgrade of the LHCb ECAL monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Guz, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb ECAL is a shashlik calorimeter of 6016 cells, covering 7.68 x 6.24 m$^2$ area. To monitor the readout chain of each ECAL cell, the LHCb ECAL is equipped with a LED based monitoring system. During the LHC Run I (2009-2012) it was found that the precision of the monitoring suffers from the radiation degradation of transparency of polystyrene clear fibers used to transport the LED light to the ECAL photomultipliers. In order to improve the performance of the monitoring system, and especially in view of significant increase of LHCb working luminosity foreseen after 2018, the present plastic fibers have been replaced by radiation hard quartzfi bers. The performance of the old LHCb ECAL monitoring system during LHC Run I and the design of the upgraded system are discussed here.

  14. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-05-09

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  15. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Akre, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx{reg_sign} ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  16. ATLAS Offline Data Quality System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS data quality software infrastructure provides tools for prompt investigation of and feedback on collected data and propagation of these results to analysis users. Both manual and automatic inputs are used in this system. In 2011, we upgraded our framework to record all issues affecting the quality of the data in a manner which allows users to extract as much information (of the data) for their particular analyses as possible. By improved recording of issues, we are allowed the ability to reassess the impact of the quality of the data on different physics measurements and adapt accordingly. We have gained significant experience with collision data operations and analysis; we have used this experience to improve the data quality system, particularly in areas of scaling and user interface. This document describes the experience gained in assessing and recording of the data quality of ATLAS and subsequent benefits to the analysis users.

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  18. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  19. Big advance towards the LHC upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is currently the world’s most powerful accelerator. With its technical achievements it has already set world records. However, big science looks very far ahead in time and is already preparing already for the LHC’s magnet upgrade, which should involve a 10-fold increase of the collision rates toward the end of the next decade. The new magnet technology involves the use of an advanced superconducting material that has just started to show its potential.   The first Long Quadrupole Shell (LQS01) model during assembly at Fermilab. The first important step in the qualification of the new technology for use in the LHC was achieved at the beginning of December when the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) – a consortium of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory founded by US Department Of Energy (DOE) in 2003 – successfully tested the first long focussing magnet th...

  20. LS1: electrical engineering upgrades and consolidation

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, F

    2012-01-01

    Compared to past shutdowns, the Engineering Department Electrical Engineering (EN-EL) Group's activity volume will be multiplied by about four during LS1. The Group is experienced in handling such situations and will cope with this by transferring manpower from studies to worksite supervision and thanks to its subcontractors who know how to increase their manpower in such a manner as to maintain a good level of professionalism. EN-EL is substantially increasing its resources to cope with this workload. This increase in resources is, however, limited by the management capacity of EN-EL's core staff. As a consequence, not all of the requested activities will be possible and prioritization will be necessary. This paper details the upgrades and the consolidation to be carried out during LS1 and the measures taken by EN-EL to cope with this heavy workload.

  1. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  2. Moscow Meson Factory DTL RF System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Esin, S K; Kvasha, A I; Serov, V L

    2004-01-01

    The last paper devoted to description of the first part (DTL) RF system of Moscow Meson Factory upgrade was published in the Proceedings of PAC95 Conference in Dallas. Since then some new works directed at improvement of reliability and efficiency of the RF system were carried out. Among them there are a new powerful pulse triode “Katran” installed in the output RF power amplifiers (PA) of three channels, modifications of the anode modulator control circuit and crow-bar system, a new additional RF channel for RF supply of RFQ and some alterations in placing of the anode modulator equipment decreasing a level of interference’s at crow-bar circuits. Some new checked at MMF RF channels ideas concerning of PA tuning are of interest for people working in this sphere of activity.

  3. LLRF System for the CEBAF Separator Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plawski, Tomasz E. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curt [JLAB; Seidman, David J. [JLAB; Wissmann, Mark J. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of four new 748.5 MHz normal conducting deflecting cavities in the 5th pass extraction region. This system will work together with the existing 499 MHz RF Separator in order to allow simultaneous delivery of the beam to four CEBAF experimental halls. The RF system employs two digital LLRF systems controlling four cavities in a vector sum. Cavity tune information of the individual cavities is also obtained using a multiplexing scheme of the forward and reflected RF signals. In this paper we will present detailed LLRF design and the current status of the CEBAF 748.5/499 MHz beam extraction system.

  4. Edge detection based on morphological amoebas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Won Yeol; Kim, Se Yun; Lim, Jae Young; Lim, Dong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Detecting the edges of objects within images is critical for quality image processing. We present an edge-detecting technique that uses morphological amoebas that adjust their shape based on variation in image contours. We evaluate the method both quantitatively and qualitatively for edge detection of images, and compare it to classic morphological methods. Our amoeba-based edge-detection system performed better than the classic edge detectors.

  5. C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2016-10-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (20 - 40 keV hydrogen, 4 MW total), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved plasma stability. Under such conditions, highly reproducible FRCs with a significant fast-ion population and total plasma temperature of about 1 keV were achieved. The FRC's were macroscopically stable and decayed on characteristic transport time scales of a few milliseconds. In order to sustain an FRC configuration, the C-2 device was upgraded with a new neutral beam injection (NBI) system, which can deliver a total of 10 + MW of hydrogen beam power, by far the largest ever used in a compact toroid plasma experiment. Compared to C-2, the beam energy was lowered to 15 keV and angled injection geometry was adopted to provide better beam coupling to the FRC. The upgraded neutral beams produce a dominant fast ion population that makes a dramatic beneficial impact on the overall plasma performance. Specifically: (1) high-performance, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (5 + ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without the beams, (2) the sustainment is fully correlated with neutral beam injection, (3) confinement of fast ions is close to the classical limit, and (4) new, benign collective fast ion effects were observed. Collectively, these accomplishments represent a dramatic advance towards the scientific validation of the FRC-based approach to fusion. This talk will provide a comprehensive overview of the C-2U device and recent experimental advances.

  6. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact.

  7. Failure During Sheared Edge Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, B. S.; van Tyne, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Failure during sheared edge stretching of sheet steels is a serious concern, especially in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) grades. The shearing process produces a shear face and a zone of deformation behind the shear face, which is the shear-affected zone (SAZ). A failure during sheared edge stretching depends on prior deformation in the sheet, the shearing process, and the subsequent strain path in the SAZ during stretching. Data from laboratory hole expansion tests and hole extrusion tests for multiple lots of fourteen grades of steel were analyzed. The forming limit curve (FLC), regression equations, measurement uncertainty calculations, and difference calculations were used in the analyses. From these analyses, an assessment of the primary factors that contribute to the fracture during sheared edge stretching was made. It was found that the forming limit strain with consideration of strain path in the SAZ is a major factor that contributes to the failure of a sheared edge during stretching. Although metallurgical factors are important, they appear to play a somewhat lesser role.

  8. On the Edge of Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    2016-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Malian migrants and migration brokers in Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and France, this article investigates life in exile on the edge of Europe. Zooming in on the experiences of interlocutors in Morocco and Algeria, the article will explore the experiential...

  9. Edge and Plasma -Wall Interaction Diagnostics in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Branas, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ortiz, P.

    2003-07-01

    The operation of the TJ-II stellarator, carried out under ECR heating conditions until now, the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important , has implieda careful control of partied e sources and the associated plasma-wall interaction processes. A clear coupling between the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important effort has been devoted to the development of dedicated diagnostics in both fields. Remarkable success has been attained in the development of atomic-beam based edge diagnostics, namely, thermal Li and supersonic He beams. In particular, fast (up to 200 Hz) sampling of temperature and density profiles has been made possible thorough an upgraded version of the pulsed, supersonic He beam diagnostic. In this paper, whorl devoted to the upgrading of these techniques is described. Also, preliminary experiments oriented to the validation of the collisional radiative models use din the beam-based diagnostic interpretaron as well as simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  11. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  12. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  13. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  14. Development of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and DISI, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni; Gemme, Claudia [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); La Rosa, Alessandro; Pernegger, Heinz [CERN-PH, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Piemonte, Claudio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Povoli, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and DISI, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Ronchin, Sabina [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and DISI, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-04-21

    We report on the development of n-on-p, 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel detectors fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. The considered fabrication technology is simpler than that required for full 3D detectors with active edge, but the detector efficiency and radiation hardness critically depend on the columnar electrode overlap and should be carefully evaluated. The first assemblies of these sensors (featuring 2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) with the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip have been tested in laboratory. Selected results from the electrical and functional characterization with radioactive sources are discussed here.

  15. Development of 3D-DDTC pixel detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Gemme, C; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Povoli, M; Ronchin, S; Zoboli, A; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of n-on-p, 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel detectors fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. The considered fabrication technology is simpler than that required for full 3D detectors with active edge, but the detector efficiency and radiation hardness critically depend on the columnar electrode overlap and should be carefully evaluated. The first assemblies of these sensors (featuring 2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) with the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip have been tested in laboratory. Selected results from the electrical and functional characterization with radioactive sources are here discussed.

  16. Upgrading multilayer zone plate technology for hard x-ray focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotomo, Toshiki; Konishi, Shigeki [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd (Japan); Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Sumida, Kazuhiro; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Koyama, Takahisa [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8) (Japan); Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); Takenaka, Hisataka [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); TOYAMA Corporation (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Multilayer zone plate (MZP) technology for hard X-ray focusing was upgraded and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV X-rays at the synchrotron beamline (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The MZP consists of MoSi{sub 2} and Si layers alternately deposited on a glass fiber by magnetron sputtering so that all zone boundaries satisfy the Fresnel zone configuration. The focused beam was evaluated using knife-edge scanning in which the measured intensity distribution is identical to the line spread function (LSF) in the focal plane. The focused beamsize of about 30 nm was estimated by oscillation peaks observed in the measured LSF according to Rayleigh’s criterion.

  17. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production.

  18. Edge detection based on directional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wei-qi; LI De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A new method for edge detection based on directional space is proposed.The principle is that:firstly,the directional differential space is set up in which the ridge edge pixels and valley edge pixels are abstracted with the help of the method of logical judgments along the direction of differential function,forming a directional roof edge map;secondly,step edge pixels are abstracted between the neighboring directional ridge edge and directional valley edge along the direction of differential function;finally,the ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map gained along different directions are combined into corresponding ridge edge map,valley edge map and step edge map.This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.The experiment of edge detection is made for the images of nature scenery,human body and accumulative raw material,whose result is compared with the one of classical algorithms and showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  20. Industrial Clusters and Social Upgrading in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    In this article, we explore the relationship between industrial clusters and social upgrading in developing countries. Our article focuses on the hitherto little-considered influence of the economic and regulatory environment on the social upgrading of a cluster and on its governance system....... In doing so, we develop an analytical framework that seeks to explain how the enabling environment and different actors in cluster governance can either facilitate and/or hinder the process of social upgrading in cluster settings in developing countries. Finally, the conclusion outlines our main findings...

  1. Kongiganak Wind Turbine Replacement and System Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonstra, Patrick [Intelligent Energy Systems, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Native Village of Kongiganak, Alaska was awarded a grant to upgrade the braking systems on five wind turbines and upgrade the monitoring and data collection unit to insure that enough energy is available to power the utility. The project manager for this award is Intelligent Energy Systems, LLC located in Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to accomplishing these upgrades, it was the intent for a local wind tech crew to be trained in Kongiganak so that routine maintenance and future repairs will be made by local workers.

  2. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  3. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Noonan, Daniel Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is upgrading the photo- detection and readout system of the forward hadronic calorimeter. The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeter requires the replacement of the current photomultiplier tubes, as well as the installation of a new front-end readout system. The new photomultiplier tubes contain a thinner window as well as multi-anode readout. The front-end electronics will use the QIE10 ASIC which combines signal digitization with timing information. The major components of the upgrade as well as the current status are described in this paper.

  4. LHCb: A new Readout Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and the first hardware implementation of a new Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade. The system is based on FPGAs and bi-directional links for the control of the entire readout architecture. First results on the validation of the system are also given.

  5. Final Report: ATLAS Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade Layout Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Hessey, N; Mättig, P; Styles, N; Wells, P; Burdin, S; Cornelissen, T; Todorov, T; Vankov, P; Watson, I; Wenig, S

    2012-01-01

    he mandate of the Upgrade Layout Task Force was to develop a benchmark layout proposal for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade Letter of Intent (LOI), due in late 2012. The work described in this note has evolved from simulation and design studies made using an earlier "UTOPIA" upgrade tracker layout, and experience gained from the current ATLAS Inner Detector during the first years of data taking. The layout described in this document, called the LoI-layout, will be used as a benchmark layout for the LoI and will be used for simulation and engineering studies described in the LoI.

  6. Saddle-node dynamics for edge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Y.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Computing Research

    1994-09-01

    The author demonstrates how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, this scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  7. Upgrade Opportunities for Buildings in City Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This proposal focus on the potential of the existing buildings upgrade process in achieving the 20-20-20 goals, as these are the biggest energy consumers, the most significant built area and the better placed buildings within our cities. These buildings frequently lack basic maintenance and need intervention, but include within themselves a vast amount of incorporated energy and centuries of construction knowledge. Beyond the advantages that may result from re-attracting people back into the city centre, upgrading these existing buildings can also have positive bounce-back effect on the reduction of the energy needs related to transportation, as demonstrated in studies that alert to the impact of the building sprawl in the total energy use. As “buildings account for 40 % of total energy consumption in the Union”, the better performance of this sector has a significant role, remembering that “these requirements shall take account of general indoor climate conditions, in order to avoid possible negative effects such as inadequate ventilation, as well as local conditions and the designated function and the age of the building” [1]. The importance of “upgrading” the existing buildings resides on the fact that new buildings represent only approximately 1 or 2% of the total usable area, an estimate that is bound to decrease due to the current construction crisis. While the recent buildings tend to be more efficient, the numerous existing buildings are important stakeholders due to their massive consumptions and incorporated energy. The ongoing Annex 56 on “Energy & Greenhouse Gas Optimized Building Renovation” assumes that “Current standards do not respond effectively to the numerous constraints imposed by existing buildings and in many cases, the requirements result in very expensive measures and complex procedures, seldom accepted by occupants, owners or developers. It is then urgent for the new standards to respond to these

  8. Edge effect in beam monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Cuperus, J H

    1977-01-01

    Quite often, particle-beam monitors have not the same cross-section as the beam pipe or vacuum chamber in which they are mounted. In that case, the electromagnetic field of the beam is distorted in the vicinity of the edges of the monitor. This field, at the junction of two rectangular beam pipes of different dimensions, is computed for a beam with constant charge along its length. Solutions which are less accurate but easier to apply are obtained with a first order approximation. The results are extended to intensity-modulated beams and circular or elliptical cross-sections. The errors, due to the edge effect, for the electrostatic pickup and the wall-current monitor are computed. The final formulas are simple and easy to apply to practical cases. (6 refs).

  9. Edge adaptive directional total variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The directional total variation (DTV model has been proposed very recently for image denoising. However, the DTV model works well when there is just one dominant direction in the image. In this Letter, the authors propose to make the DTV model adaptive to image edge direction so that the proposed model can handle images with several dominant directions. Experiment and comparison show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. EDGE-ORIENTED HEXAGONAL ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Yang; Jiachang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two new nonconforming hexagonal elements are presented, which are based on the trilinear function space Q(3)1 and are edge-oriented, analogical to the case of the rotated Q1 quadrilateral element. A priori error estimates are given to show that the new elements achieve first-order accuracy in the energy norm and second-order accuracy in the L2 norm. This theoretical result is confirmed by the numerical tests.

  11. Proposal of upgrade of the ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel-endcap transition region with RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a project for the upgrade of the Level-1 muon trigger in the barrel-endcap transition region (1.01) caused by charged particles originating from secondary interactions downstream of the interaction point. After the LHC upgrade forseen for 2018, the Level-1 muon trigger rate would saturate the allocated bandwidth unless new measures are adopted to improve the rejection of fake triggers. ATLAS is going to improve the trigger selectivity in the region |$\\eta$|>1.3 with the New Small Wheel detector upgrade. To obtain a similar trigger selectivity in the barrel-endcap transition region, it is proposed to add new RPC chambers at the edge of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer. These chambers will be based on a three layer structure with thinner gas gaps and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standard and a new low-profile light-weight mechanical structure that will allow the installation in the limited available space. New front-end electronics, integrating fast TDC capabilities w...

  12. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  13. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  14. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Panetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  15. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

  16. Upgrade to the Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin- Reyes; Parker, K; Wilson, J; Baca, M

    2015-01-01

    The Birmingham Irradiation Facility was developed in 2013 at the University of Birmingham using the Medical Physics MC40 cyclotron. It can achieve High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) fluences of 10^15 (1 MeV neutron equivalent (neq)) cm^-2 in 80 s with proton beam currents of 1 μA and so can evaluate effectively the performance and durability of detector technologies and new components to be used for the HL-LHC. Irradiations of silicon sensors and passive materials can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box which moves continuously through the homogenous beamspot. This movement is provided by a pre-configured XY-axis Cartesian robot scanning system. In 2014 the cooling system and cold box were upgraded from a recirculating glycol chiller system to a liquid nitrogen evaporative system. The new cooling system achieves a stable temperature of 50 1C in 30 min and aims to maintain sub-0 1C temperatures on the sensors during irradiations. This paper reviews the design, development, commissioning and perform...

  17. Upgrade Physics Prospects with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Victoria Jane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start in 2026 and aims to collect $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions by 2037. This enormous dataset will increase the discovery potential of the LHC and allow precision measurements of Standard Model processes. However, the very high instantaneous luminosity of $5-7 \\times 10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{-}2 s^{-1}}$ poses serious challenges in terms of high “pile-up” of 140 or 200 overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing inside the ATLAS detector. In this talk, I will summarise the planned ATLAS detector upgrades and the analysis techniques, including pile-up mitigation, for High Luminosity-LHC running. I will also present the physics prospects for the ATLAS experiment, including results for precision measurements of the $125\\;\\mathrm{GeV}$ Higgs boson and the top quark, for vector boson scattering and the physics reach for supersymmetric and other beyond-the-Standard-Models.

  18. Lebedev Physical Institute Racetrack Microtron Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kurakin, V G; Busygin, V P; Koltsov, A V; Kurakin, P V

    2004-01-01

    Lebedev Physical Institute racetrack microtron is in use since the mid of eightieth of the last century. Currently it serves as free electron laser driver at the Lebedev Physical Institute Radiation Complex. Flexibility of the design and high pulse intensity of accelerated beam are the features of this machine. The experience that had been acquired during long period of accelerator use has brought us to decision to upgrade the machine in order to bring it to modest level of operation with precise beam parameters and prepare it for new tasks as well. New configuration assembling will be combined with non steady beam dynamics exploration. The latter assumes also high current instabilities study, first of all beam intensity auto modulation. The project includes two stages. The final one assumes electron beam energy increase up to the level of 50 MeV, and this requires three additional orbits assembling. We plan to replace existing monitoring and control system with modern computer based system, and together with...

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  20. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  1. ATLAS Muon DCS Upgrades and Optimizations

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalis, Christos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Muon subsystem is comprised of four detector types: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) for trigger purposes, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Muon Drift Tubes (MDT) for muon track reconstruction. The MDTs cover a large area at the outer part of the detector. In total, there are over a 1’000 MDT chambers, which are made of about 350’000 tubes. The luminosity upgrade of the HL-LHC is expected to pose a serious challenge to the MDTs. The expected increase of particle flux will set new, higher standards regarding the operation and control of the chambers. A step towards optimizing the ATLAS Muon Detector Control System (DCS) was to develop several DCS tools, namely a High Luminosity vs Trip Limit panel with its accompanying scripts and managers. The ultimate goal of this tool is to protect the MDT chambers from the rising particle flux and its associated increase in chamber current. In addition to optimizing the ATLAS Muon DCS, several tasks to accommodate the newly installed B...

  2. Upgrade to the Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Wilson, J.; Baca, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Birmingham Irradiation Facility was developed in 2013 at the University of Birmingham using the Medical Physics MC40 cyclotron. It can achieve High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) fluences of 1015 (1 MeV neutron equivalent (neq)) cm-2 in 80 s with proton beam currents of 1 μA and so can evaluate effectively the performance and durability of detector technologies and new components to be used for the HL-LHC. Irradiations of silicon sensors and passive materials can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box which moves continuously through the homogenous beamspot. This movement is provided by a pre-configured XY-axis Cartesian robot scanning system. In 2014 the cooling system and cold box were upgraded from a recirculating glycol chiller system to a liquid nitrogen evaporative system. The new cooling system achieves a stable temperature of -50 °C in 30 min and aims to maintain sub-0 °C temperatures on the sensors during irradiations. This paper reviews the design, development, commissioning and performance of the new cooling system.

  3. LHCb : Tracking system of the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment will run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm^-2 s^-1 with a fully software based trigger, allowing to read out the detector at a rate of 40MHz. For this purpose, the full tracking system will be newly developed: the vertex locator (VELO) will be replaced by a pixel-based detector, withstanding the high radiation dose and providing an excellent track reconstruction with an efficiency of above 99% for all charged particles of interest. Upstream of the magnet, a silicon mico-strip detector with a high granularity and an improved acceptance coverage, called the Upstream Tracker (UT), will replace the current silicon strip tracker, and provide a rough momentum estimate. The tracking system downstream of the magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre tracker (SciFi), which will consist of 12 layers using 2.5m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photo-multipliers, providing a spatial resolution better than 100 micron and resulting in a total momentum reso...

  4. Optical Link ASICs for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Kass, R D; Moore, J R; Smith, D S

    2009-01-01

    We have designed three ASICs for possible applications in the optical links of a new layer of pixel detector in the ATLAS experiment for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for the VCSEL, a receiver/decoder to decode the signal received at the PIN diode to extract the data and clock, and a clock multiplier to produce a higher frequency clock to serialize the data for transmission. These ASICs were designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. We have characterized the fabricated ASICs and the submission has been mostly successful. We irradiated the ASICs with 24 GeV/c protons at CERN to a dosage of 70 Mrad. We observed no significant degradation except the driver circuit in the VCSEL driver fabricated using the thick oxide process in order to provide sufficient voltage to drive a VCSEL. The degradation is due to a large threshold shifts in the PMOS transistors used.

  5. Upgrade of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Caspers, F; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Jimenez, J M; Magnin, N; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Salvant, B; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    Two LHC injection kicker systems, each comprising 4 magnets per ring, produce a kick of 1.3 T·m with a rise-time of less than 900 ns and a flattop ripple of less than ±0.5%. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, to provide a path for the image current of the LHC beam and screen the ferrite yoke against wake fields. The screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The initially implemented beam screen ensured a low rate of electrical breakdowns and an adequately low beam coupling impedance. Operation with increasingly higher intensity beams, stable for many hours at a time, has resulted in substantial heating of the ferrite yoke, sometimes requiring cool-down over several hours before the LHC can be refilled. During the long shutdown in 2013/2014 all eight kicker magnets will be upgraded with an improved beam screen and an increased emissivity of the vacuum tank. In addition equipment adjacent to the injection kickers and various vacuum components will be modified to...

  6. The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2008-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

  7. COTS Analog Prototype for LHCb's Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan Beteta, Carlos; Herms i Berenguer, Atilà

    The objective of this thesis is to present a proposal for the analogue signal processing chain needed for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade improving the design used originally. The design contains several novelties: the system was designed with low noise in mind from the beginning, it is made to have good immunity to interferences stressing the fact that the board will be shared with large digital circuits, differential operational amplifiers are used in a non-standard way as a mean to obtain opposite polarity signals for the signal treatment and a way to increase the available signal in the front end electronics is proposed. The thesis starts with a brief introduction to the detector and its environment. This is followed by an explanation of the use of shapers in high energy physics detectors and the constraints that the shaper must address in the LHCb calorimeter. This leads to a chapter where the circuit design is explained starting from the analysis of the original circuit and its flaws. Once the original cir...

  8. The LHCb Upgrade Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Leverington, Blake D

    2014-01-01

    The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker is designed to replace the current downstream tracking detectors in the LHCb Upgrade during 2018 (CERN/LHCC 2014-001; LHCb TDR 15). The operation and the results obtained from the data collected 2011 and 2012 demonstrate that the current detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of O ( 1 fb-1) of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. This will be achieved using 25 ns bunch spacing with the average number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing n = 7 : 6. Collecting data at this luminosity will only be possible if the detector is improved by increasing the readout of the front-end electronics to 40MHz and implementing a more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency. The increase in interactions per bunch crossing will result in an increased occupancy in the tracking detectors and will exceed the operational occupancy for the Outer Tracker. Here we presen...

  9. ATLAS Upgrades for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  10. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  11. Diamond Detectors for the TOTEM Timing Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; The TOTEM collaboration; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.;; Bozzo, M.; Broulim, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Campanella, C.E.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kavspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kosinski, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lokajivcek, M.V.; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas-Rodriguez, F.; Lucsanyi, D.; Macri, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Novak, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Palocko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prochazka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Royon, C.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P; Zielinski, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of the timing detector developed by the TOTEM Collaboration for the Roman Pots (RPs) to measure the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) of the protons produced in central diffractive interactions at the LHC. The measurement of the TOF of the protons allows the determination of the longitudinal position of the proton interaction vertex and its association with one of the vertices reconstructed by the CMS detectors. The TOF detector is based on single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition (scCVD) diamond plates and is designed to measure the protons’ TOF with about 50 ps time precision. This upgrade to the TOTEM apparatus will be used in the LHC run 2 and will tag the central diffractive events up to an interaction pileup of about 1. A dedicated fast and low noise electronics for the signal amplification has been developed. The digitization of the diamond signal is performed sampling the waveform. After introducing the physics studies that will most profit from the addition of...

  12. Refining the art of coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.

    1993-10-01

    SGI International's Liquids from coal (LFC) Process converts low-rank coals into condensable hydrocarbons, or coal-derived liquid (CDL), a solid product, called process-derived fuels (PDF), non-condensable gases and pyrolysis water. This paper describes the process, which consists of three basic steps (drying, pyrolysis, and finishing or conditioning), the process control system and the characteristics of and markets for the two main coproducts, CDF and PDF. It also describes, the technical feasibility study that SGT International carries out when it wants to determine the applicability of the LFC Process to a particular sub-bituminous or lignite coal. The paper discusses the economics of coal upgrading in general and of the LFC Process in particular. A 1000 short ton-per-day demonstration plant has been completed at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The cost of construction (which was completed in late Spring 1992) and the first two years of operation are being partly funded through the USDOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. HAWC Upgrade with a Sparse Outrigger Array

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, A

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed on the slopes of the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 180 m$^3$ of ultra-purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m$^2$. It detects and reconstructs cosmic- and gamma-ray showers in the energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gammas reaches an effective area of 10$^5$ m$^2$ but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 200 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m$^3$ placed over an area four times larger than...

  14. A Track Matching Algorithm for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Esen, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    This document presents a description and performance estimate of the Track Matching algorithm for the LHCb Upgrade. The algorithm combines tracks reconstructed in the Vertex Locator and in the three stations of the Scintillating Fibre Tracker.

  15. Future of the CMS Muon System Upgrades and Aging

    CERN Document Server

    Pilot, Justin Robert

    2016-01-01

    The CMS detector currently includes three different muon detector types drift tubes (DT) in the central region, cathode strip chambers (CSC) in the forward regions, and resistive plate chambers (RPC) in both the forward and central regions. Several upgrade projects are planned to maintain high data-taking efficiency with the planned running conditions for the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC. These upgrades are designed to ensure detector longevity and increase redundancy, while mitigating rate increases and retaining sensitivity to phyics processes. This involves changes to electronics and infrastructure of existing detectors, and adding new detectors in the forward region of the CMS experiment. Plans for each of the muon subsystems are described here in the context of the Phase-II upgrade schedule of the CMS experiment.

  16. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  17. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  18. A focusing system control upgrade of MMF linac

    CERN Document Server

    Grekhov, O V; Kiselev, I V

    2001-01-01

    In this report the main principles of upgrade of focusing system control are given, new programs of focusing element power sources control are described, block diagrams of programs are submitted and algorithms of their functioning are represented.

  19. Upgrading-General Trend of Textile Industrial Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuzhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ The leitmotif of my speech today: Industrial Upgrading - General Trend of Develoment of Chinese Textile Industry. Centering on this general trend. I will elaborate on the following four viewpoints:

  20. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  1. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  2. Chemistry at the Edge of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellunato, Amedeo; Arjmandi Tash, Hadi; Cesa, Yanina; Schneider, Grégory F

    2016-03-16

    The selective functionalization of graphene edges is driven by the chemical reactivity of its carbon atoms. The chemical reactivity of an edge, as an interruption of the honeycomb lattice of graphene, differs from the relative inertness of the basal plane. In fact, the unsaturation of the pz orbitals and the break of the π conjugation on an edge increase the energy of the electrons at the edge sites, leading to specific chemical reactivity and electronic properties. Given the relevance of the chemistry at the edges in many aspects of graphene, the present Review investigates the processes and mechanisms that drive the chemical functionalization of graphene at the edges. Emphasis is given to the selective chemical functionalization of graphene edges from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with a particular focus on the characterization tools available to investigate the chemistry of graphene at the edge.

  3. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) Search Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  4. The LHC Luminosity Upgrade and Related ATLAS Detector Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hartjes, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    3rd draft of the proposed talk about Atlas Upgrade for MPGD2009 (Instrumentation conference on gaseous pixel detectors) on Friday June 12, 2009. I concentrated my presentation on the upgrade plans and schedule of the LHC and on detector technologies for the new Inner Tracker, putting less emphasis on other subdetectors. Compared to the 2nd draft I modified and clarified a few items about trigger, muon detection and calorimetry and did a number of cosmetic adaptions.

  5. Upgrading Structures for Host and Risk Area Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    reinforced concrete one-way floor slabs , flat plates, waffle slabs , and prestressed concrete hollow-core slabs . An extensive analytical investigation was...test was a typical slab section without upgrading, the second was upgraded with a wooden column system, and the third upgrszded with a steei beam column ...system. All three WES tests were conducted on identical one-way slabs . 7 " " An additional series of tests on flat plate and waffle slabs was

  6. Silicon sensor technologies for the ATLAS IBL upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P

    2012-01-01

    An overview of radiation hard planar and 3D pixel sensor technologies currently under development for ATLAS upgrades is presented. The first upgrade will be the installation in 2013 of an additional pixel layer inside the current inner detector, the Insertable B Layer (IBL). The two technologies are competing to equip the IBL. The IBL sensor qualification procedure is described. Beam test results of un-irradiated and irradiated planar and 3D sensors are presented.

  7. Equipment and performance upgrade of compact nuclear simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Chang; Kwon, Kee Choon; Cha, Hyung Ho; Park, Won Man; Song, Soon Ja; Seh, Kyung Won; Joo, Young Chang

    1998-12-01

    In this project, the techniques to upgrade obsolescent nuclear power plant simulation were developed: the simulation code operated in Macro-VAX II has been transplanted to the HP workstation: commercial equipment PLC was adopted for the interface system: the protection logic was developed in the prototype level: and the display system was strengthened. These techniques can be directly used to upgrade other obsolescent simulators.

  8. Evaluation of Slum Upgrading Programs: Literature Review and Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    José Brakarz; Laura Jaitman

    2013-01-01

    This technical note analyzes the methodologies used to evaluate neighborhood upgrading programs, describes their results, and suggests approaches for future evaluations. Local and central governments are increasingly utilizing slum or neighborhood upgrading programs to deal with the multiple problems of urban poverty. These programs employ a methodology of integral interventions, combining of both infrastructure works and social services targeted to specific neighborhoods. Due to this variety...

  9. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  10. Evaluation of edge detectors using avarage risk

    OpenAIRE

    Spreeuwers, L.J.; Heijden, van der, RW Rob

    1992-01-01

    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is context dependent. Therefore, the application of average risk to edge detection is non-trivial. The paper describes a method to estimate the probabilities on a number of different types of (context ...

  11. Initial upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, DB; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 calorimeter trigger~(L1Calo) of the ATLAS experiment has been operating well since the start of Large Hadron Collider~(LHC) data taking, and played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery. To face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC proton beam energy and luminosity, a series of upgrades is planned for the L1Calo. This paper presents the first L1Calo upgrade program for the initial upgrade phase in 2013-14. The program includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing. Two existing digital algorithm processor subsystems will receive substantial hardware and firmware upgrades, allowing topological information to be transmitted and processed. An entirely new subsystem, the L1 topological processor, will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and L1 muon trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topologies. The expected performance improvements are described together with the upgraded hardware and firmware imple...

  12. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2003-01-01

    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector...

  13. An edge detection algorithm for imaging ladar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang(王骐); Ziqin Li(李自勤); Qi Li(李琦); Jianfeng Sun(孙剑峰); Juncheng Fu(傅俊诚)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the morphological filter based on parametric edge detection is presented and applied toimaging ladar image with speckle noise. This algorithm and Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) operator arecompared on edge detection. The experimental results indicate the superior performance of this kind ofthe edge detection.

  14. A Regularized Solution to Edge Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Hildreth, E. C. "Implementation of a theory of edge detection ," AI-TR-579, MIT Al Lab, 1980. Lunscher, W. H. H. "The asymptotic optimal frequency domain...filter for edge detection," IEEE Trans. PAMI, 6, 678-680, 1983. Marr, D. C. and Hildreth, E. C. " Theory of edge detection ," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B

  15. Understanding and preventing the edge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Leborgne, Laurent; Waksman, Ron

    2003-02-01

    Edge stenosis, combining neointimal proliferation and negative remodeling, remains a serious limitation of vascular brachytherapy. This review comprehensively presents terminology, definitions, mechanisms, and treatment strategies to better understand the complexities of edge narrowing. The major contributors to this phenomenon are known; understanding the practical solutions will enable us to further minimize the problem of the edge effect.

  16. SXR-XUV Diagnostics for Edge and Core of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Dan [Johns Hopkins University

    2014-09-10

    The present report summarizes the results obtained during a one-year extension of DoE grant “SXR-XUV Diagnostics for Edge and Core of Magnetically Confined Plasmas”, at Johns Hopkins University, aimed at completing the development of a new type of magnetic fusion plasma diagnostic, the XUV Transmission Grating Imaging Radiometer (TGIR). The TGIR enables simultaneous spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of the XUV/VUV radiated power from impurities in fusion plasmas, with high speed. The instrument was successfully developed and qualified in the laboratory and in experiments on a tokamak. Its future applications will be diagnostic of the impurity content and transport in the divertor and edge of advanced magnetic fusion experiments, such as NSTX Upgrade.

  17. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  18. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  19. The ESO astronomical site monitor upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Sommer, Heiko; Sarazin, Marc; Bierwirth, Thomas; Dorigo, Dario; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio; Navarrete, Julio; Del Valle, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and prediction of astronomical observing conditions are essential for planning and optimizing observations. For this purpose, ESO, in the 90s, developed the concept of an Astronomical Site Monitor (ASM), as a facility fully integrated in the operations of the VLT observatory[1]. Identical systems were installed at Paranal and La Silla, providing comprehensive local weather information. By now, we had very good reasons for a major upgrade: • The need of introducing new features to satisfy the requirements of observing with the Adaptive Optics Facility and to benefit other Adaptive Optics systems. • Managing hardware and software obsolescence. • Making the system more maintainable and expandable by integrating off-the-shelf hardware solutions. The new ASM integrates: • A new Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) paired with a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) to measure the vertical distribution of turbulence in the high atmosphere and its characteristic velocity. • A new SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) telescope, for measuring the altitude and intensity of turbulent layers in the low atmosphere. • A water vapour radiometer to monitor the water vapour content of the atmosphere. • The old weather tower, which is being refurbished with new sensors. The telescopes and the devices integrated are commercial products and we have used as much as possible the control system from the vendors. The existing external interfaces, based on the VLT standards, have been maintained for full backward compatibility. All data produced by the system are directly fed in real time into a relational database. A completely new web-based display replaces the obsolete plots based on HP-UX RTAP. We analyse here the architectural and technological choices and discuss the motivations and trade-offs.

  20. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, P.

    2016-12-01

    During the long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2019-20 (LS2) the present Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment based on silicon pixel, silicon drift and silicon strip detectors, will be entirely replaced by a new tracker using novel monolithic silicon pixel chips. This new tracker will significantly enhance heavy flavour measurements, which are out of reach for the present system, e.g. charmed baryons, such as the ΛC, and will allow studying hadrons containing a beauty quark. The new tracker will provide an improved pointing resolution in rϕ and z, decreasing the present values by a factor 3 and 5, respectively, to about 40 μm for a pT of 500 MeV/c. Each of the seven layers will be constructed using 50 μm, respectively 100 μm thin silicon chips on a very light weight carbon fibre based support structure for the innermost and the outer layers. The material budget for the first three layers corresponds to 0.3% X0/layer while the four outer layers will have an average material budget of 1% X0/layer. The innermost layer will be placed at 23 mm radius, compared to presently 39 mm. Furthermore, the readout rate of the new ITS will increase from presently 1 kHz to 50 kHz for Pb-Pb collisions and 400 kHz for p-p collisions, thus matching the expected event rate for Pb-Pb collisions after LS2. This contribution will provide an overview of the upgrade of the ALICE ITS and the expected performance improvement and will present the actual status of the R&D.

  1. Instrumentation Upgrades to TITAN's Cooler Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Daniel; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The use of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) is critical to improving the precision of Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides with half-lives substantially less than 100 ms, but the process of charge breeding imparts an unacceptably high energy spread to the ion bunch sent to TITAN's precision Penning trap for mass measurement. TITAN's Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada was designed to cool HCIs with a plasma of simultaneously trapped electrons. CPET is currently undergoing commissioning offline at TRIUMF. In order to prepare CPET for full operation, several technical challenges associated with the use of electrons in a strong magnetic field had to be overcome. First among these was the detection of electrons outside of CPET. A novel, thin charge-collecting detector was successfully developed. Known as the mesh detector, it is charge-agnostic and can be made effectively transparent to allow for the passage of any charged particle at the user's request. The second challenge, moving CPET's electron source off the central beam axis was overcome by the creation of an electron source which would allow for electron injection into CPET and the passage of cooled ions out of CPET. CPET's 7 T solenoid generates a stray field far outside of the magnet's central bore that forced the design of a set of electron injection optics that bend, steer and focus the beam in three dimensions. Results from the successful installation of these upgrades as well as a report on future work will be discussed. This work was partially supported by NSERC, the CFI and the DFG.

  2. Image edge detection based on beamlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Huang Peikang; Wang Xiaohu; Pan Xudong

    2009-01-01

    Combining beamlet transform with steerable filters, a new edge detection method based on line gra-dient is proposed. Compared with operators based on point local properties, the edge-detection results with this method achieve higher SNR and position accuracy, and are quite helpful for image registration, object identification, etc. Some edge-detection experiments on optical and SAR images that demonstrate the significant improvement over classical edge operators are also presented. Moreover, the template matching result based on edge information of optical reference image and SAR image also proves the validity of this method.

  3. Evaluating Edge Detection through Boundary Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Song

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection has been widely used in computer vision and image processing. However, the performance evaluation of the edge-detection results is still a challenging problem. A major dilemma in edge-detection evaluation is the difficulty to balance the objectivity and generality: a general-purpose edge-detection evaluation independent of specific applications is usually not well defined, while an evaluation on a specific application has weak generality. Aiming at addressing this dilemma, this paper presents new evaluation methodology and a framework in which edge detection is evaluated through boundary detection, that is, the likelihood of retrieving the full object boundaries from this edge-detection output. Such a likelihood, we believe, reflects the performance of edge detection in many applications since boundary detection is the direct and natural goal of edge detection. In this framework, we use the newly developed ratio-contour algorithm to group the detected edges into closed boundaries. We also collect a large data set ( of real images with unambiguous ground-truth boundaries for evaluation. Five edge detectors (Sobel, LoG, Canny, Rothwell, and Edison are evaluated in this paper and we find that the current edge-detection performance still has scope for improvement by choosing appropriate detectors and detector parameters.

  4. Vlsi Implementation of Edge Detection for Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mahalakshmi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Edge is the boundary between the image and its background. Edge detection in general is defined as the local maxima obtained from high pass filters, but an optimized edge detector should mark the edges with respect to luminance or brightness changes. It is easy to obtain them in software implementation but for hardware implementation there is an issue with percentage of accuracy and processing time. This study discusses various edge detection algorithms and proposes an optimized edge detector which provides the solution for mentioned above issue. Since FPGA provides practical solutions for most of the image processing problems, the proposed architecture has been developed using Matlab System generator. Experimental results show the accuracy of edge detected using proposed architecture.

  5. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between......Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  6. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  7. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    the time of this reporting, there are still many tests to be performed that will validate system level performance, but on an individual level, the Cobra positioner demonstrates excellent performance and will enable the PFS instrument to make unprecedented measurements of the universe. What is unique about the upgrades made to the Cobra positioner is the improved performance due to the design changes in the hard stops and the ceramic end caps of the motors. Other changes were made to reduce the unit cost of a Cobra positioner without affecting the performance, since thousands of these devices will have to be built for the PFS instrument.

  8. Edge detection in microscopy images using curvelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumoutsakos Petros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant progress in imaging technologies, the efficient detection of edges and elongated features in images of intracellular and multicellular structures acquired using light or electron microscopy is a challenging and time consuming task in many laboratories. Results We present a novel method, based on the discrete curvelet transform, to extract a directional field from the image that indicates the location and direction of the edges. This directional field is then processed using the non-maximal suppression and thresholding steps of the Canny algorithm to trace along the edges and mark them. Optionally, the edges may then be extended along the directions given by the curvelets to provide a more connected edge map. We compare our scheme to the Canny edge detector and an edge detector based on Gabor filters, and show that our scheme performs better in detecting larger, elongated structures possibly composed of several step or ridge edges. Conclusion The proposed curvelet based edge detection is a novel and competitive approach for imaging problems. We expect that the methodology and the accompanying software will facilitate and improve edge detection in images available using light or electron microscopy.

  9. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  10. Economic considerations for wastewater upgrading alternatives: an Israeli test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Halperin, Ramy; Hadas, Efrat

    2006-01-01

    Sewage effluent for land application is becoming an increasingly important source of irrigation water in many semi-arid regions of the world. Two main approaches to the use of sanitation to upgrade effluent for reuse in agriculture were analyzed: (i) sanitizing to the level required for each crop; or (ii) upgrading all effluent to the sanitary level mandated for unrestricted irrigation (<10 fecal coli/100mL). The first approach was authorized by the Israeli health authorities, who consider irrigation with secondary effluent to be complementary to the treatment process. The other approach was conceived mainly by the agricultural and environmental establishments, which debited the additional financial burden to the urban sector and/or the 'general public'. We show that upgrading all effluents in Israel to 'unrestricted irrigation quality' would cost $69 million each year for upgrading alone, in addition to the costs of treatment to the sanitary level required for each individual crop and of observing all the necessary additional precautions and boundaries. This difference in cost stems from the fact that most effluent is used for the irrigation of non-edible crops, for which partial pathogen removal is sufficient. Thus, upgrading to the sanitary level required by the most sensitive crops would be rather wasteful.

  11. Polarity control of h-BN nanoribbon edges by strain and edge termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2017-03-29

    We studied the polarity of h-BN nano-flakes in terms of their edge geometries, edge hydrogen termination, and uniaxial strain by evaluating their electrostatic potential using density functional theory. Our calculations have shown that the polarity of the nanoribbons is sensitive to their edge shape, edge termination, and uniaxial tensile strain. Polarity inversion of the ribbons can be induced by controlling the hydrogen concentration at the edges and the uniaxial tensile strain. The polarity inversion indicates that h-BN nanoribbons can exhibit non-polar properties at a particular edge hydrogen concentration and tensile strain, even though the nanoribbons essentially have polarity at the edge. We also found that the edge angle affects the polarity of nanoribbons with hydrogenated edges.

  12. Structure of complex networks: Quantifying edge-to-edge relations by failure-induced flow redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael T; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of complex networks has so far revolved mainly around the role of nodes and communities of nodes. However, the dynamics of interconnected systems is commonly focalised on edge processes, and a dual edge-centric perspective can often prove more natural. Here we present graph-theoretical measures to quantify edge-to-edge relations inspired by the notion of flow redistribution induced by edge failures. Our measures, which are related to the pseudo-inverse of the Laplacian of the network, are global and reveal the dynamical interplay between the edges of a network, including potentially non-local interactions. Our framework also allows us to define the embeddedness of an edge, a measure of how strongly an edge features in the weighted cuts of the network. We showcase the general applicability of our edge-centric framework through analyses of the Iberian Power grid, traffic flow in road networks, and the C. elegans neuronal network.

  13. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  14. Edge-Transitive Lexicographic and Cartesian Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrich Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this note connected, edge-transitive lexicographic and Cartesian products are characterized. For the lexicographic product G ◦ H of a connected graph G that is not complete by a graph H, we show that it is edge-transitive if and only if G is edge-transitive and H is edgeless. If the first factor of G ∘ H is non-trivial and complete, then G ∘ H is edge-transitive if and only if H is the lexicographic product of a complete graph by an edgeless graph. This fixes an error of Li, Wang, Xu, and Zhao [11]. For the Cartesian product it is shown that every connected Cartesian product of at least two non-trivial factors is edge-transitive if and only if it is the Cartesian power of a connected, edge- and vertex-transitive graph.

  15. Edge Magnon Excitation in Spin Dimer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masashige

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic excitation in a spin dimer system on a bilayer honeycomb lattice is investigated in the presence of a zigzag edge, where disordered and ordered phases can be controlled by a quantum phase transition. In analogy with the case of graphene with a zigzag edge, a flat edge magnon mode appears in the disordered phase. In an ordered phase, a finite magnetic moment generates a mean-field potential to the magnon. Since the potential is nonuniform on the edge and bulk sites, it affects the excitation, and the dispersion of the edge mode deviates from the flat shape. We investigate how the edge magnon mode evolves when the phase changes through the quantum phase transition and discuss the similarities to ordered spin systems on a monolayer honeycomb lattice.

  16. Soft- and Hardware Upgrade of the Mobile Coil Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, S.; Bubeck, K.; Kistner, A.; Trougnou, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Mobile Coil Facility (MCF) is a measurement facility for magnetic characterization. Within the ESA contract 4000103913 the MCF was upgraded in order to improve the measurement process as well as to extend the modelling capabilities. This paper summarizes the upgraded aspects of the facility with a focus on the new algorithms implemented for model fitting, including a Deterministic Optimization Method (DOM) based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, a Random Search Method (RSM) based on a particle swarm optimization and a RSM based on evolutionary strategy.The following section starts with a general overview of the facility, followed by a brief summary of the mechanical, electrical and general software upgrades. Afterwards the new fitting algorithms are presented and discussed, followed by a comparison of the algorithms for a simulated test case.

  17. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083994

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase~I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  18. How to upgrade a control system for a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenten, W. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Dohms, U. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Fuss, L. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Huppertz, H. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Lerch, J. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Mueller, K.D. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Reinhart, P. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany)); Rongen, F. (Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany))

    1994-12-15

    The TEXTOR tokamak for technology-oriented research in Juelich has been in operation since 1981. Its control system consists basically of a CAMAC computer system (PDP-11) for remote control and display, linked to programmable controllers (SIEMENS S3) for subsystem control via fibre optic cables. Due to several reasons, an upgrade of this well-established control system has become unavoidable. The main objective for this process is to provide better availability and reliability for another decade of operation and to reduce maintenance costs significantly. In this respect all CAMAC instrumentation had to be preserved completely. The paper describes in detail the background, design and layout of the new control system. Because upgrading an existing control system substantially differs from constructing a new system for a new device, special attention is given to the steps of achieving a smooth upgrade procedure that avoids unnecessary interferences with the TEXTOR operation. ((orig.))

  19. The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. There is a planned upgrade during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), expected in 2019, which will allow the detector to run at higher luminosities by transforming the entire readout to a trigger-less system. This will include a substantial upgrade of the Vertex Locator (VELO), the silicon tracker that surrounds the LHCb interaction region. The VELO is moving from silicon strip technology to hybrid pixel sensors, where silicon sensors are bonded to VeloPix ASICs. Sensor prototypes have undergone rigorous testing using the Timepix3 Telescope at the SPS, CERN. The main components of the upgrade are summarised and testbeam results presented.

  20. 3D vision upgrade kit for TALON robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Brian; Morris, James; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Chenault, David B.; Tchon, Joe; Barnidge, Tracy; Kaufman, Seth; Pettijohn, Brad

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision field upgrade kit for TALON robot consisting of a replacement flat panel stereoscopic display, and multiple stereo camera systems. An assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations was conducted. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a TALON IV Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that stock components could be electrically disconnected and removed, and upgrade components coupled directly to the mounting and electrical connections. A replacement display, replacement mast camera with zoom, auto-focus, and variable convergence, and a replacement gripper camera with fixed focus and zoom comprise the upgrade kit. The stereo mast camera allows for improved driving and situational awareness as well as scene survey. The stereo gripper camera allows for improved manipulation in typical TALON missions.