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Sample records for ascomycota

  1. A new Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Cheek, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters.......A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters....

  2. Researches on wood-destroying fungi division Ascomycota, classis Ascomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlidis Teoharis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchards aging and agrotechnical cares reduction have led to suitable development conditions of a large number of wood-destroying fungi that had never been a problem for the intensive fruit growing. This caused the necessity of their study in the main orchard regions of our country. The research was conducted from 2003 to 2005 on the basis of expeditionary-geographical method. Twelve species of wood destroying Ascomycota fungi have been identified. Both their parasitic activity degree and phylogenetic and ontogenetic specialization level have been defined. Species with mutual hosts - fruit or forest trees have been found. That fact makes possible the infection accumulation and transfer from forest to agricultural ecosystems which is of considerable importance for the mountain fruit growing.

  3. Ascomycota has a faster evolutionary rate and higher species diversity than Basidiomycota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lumbsch; H.; THORSTEN

    2010-01-01

    Differences in rates of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions among major groups of organisms are repeatedly found and well documented. A growing body of evidence suggests a link between the rate of neutral molecular change within populations and the evolution of species diversity. More than 98% of terrestrial fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. The former is considerably richer in number of species than the latter. We obtained DNA sequences of 21 protein-coding genes from the lichenized fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and used them together with sequences from GenBank for subsequent analyses. Three datasets were used to test rate discrepancies between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and that within Ascomycota: (i) 13 taxa including 105 protein-coding genes, (ii) nine taxa including 21 protein-coding genes, and (iii) nuclear LSU rDNA of 299 fungal species. Based on analyses of the 105 protein-coding genes and nuclear LSU rDNA datasets, we found that the evolutionary rate was higher in Ascomycota than in Basidiomycota. The differences in substitution rates between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were significant. Within Ascomycota, the species-rich Sordariomycetes has the fastest evolutionary rate, while Leotiomycetes has the slowest. Our results indicate that the main contribution to the higher substitution rates in Ascomycota does not come from mutualism, ecological conditions, sterility, metabolic rate or shorter generation time, but is possibly caused by the founder effect. This is another example of the correlation between species number and evolutionary rates, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the founder effect is responsible for accelerated substitution rates in diverse clades.

  4. Extracellular polysaccharides from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota: production conditions, biochemical characteristics, and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Szałapata, Katarzyna; Nowak, Artur; Jaszek, Magdalena; Ozimek, Ewa; Majewska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Fungal polysaccharides (PSs) are the subject of research in many fields of science and industry. Many properties of PSs have already been confirmed and the list of postulated functions continues to grow. Fungal PSs are classified into different groups according to systematic affinity, structure (linear and branched), sugar composition (homo- and heteropolysaccharides), type of bonds between the monomers (β-(1 → 3), β-(1 → 6), and α-(1 → 3)) and their location in the cell (cell wall PSs, exoPSs, and endoPSs). Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are most frequently studied fungal PSs but their definition, classification, and origin are still not clear and should be explained. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi producing EPS have different ecological positions (saprotrophic and endophytic, pathogenic or symbiotic-mycorrhizae fungi); therefore, EPSs play different biological functions, for example in the protection against environmental stress factors and in interactions with other organisms. EPSs obtained from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal cultures are known for their antioxidant, immunostimulating, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. The major objective of the presented review article was to provide a detailed description of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the effectiveness of EPS production by filamentous and yeast Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi and techniques of derivation of EPSs, their biochemical characteristics, and biological properties allowing comprehensive analysis as well as indication of similarities and differences between these fungal groups. Understanding the role of EPSs in a variety of processes and their application in food or pharmaceutical industries requires improvement of the techniques of their derivation, purification, and characterization. The detailed analyses of data concerning the derivation and application of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota EPSs can facilitate development and trace the direction of application of these EPSs

  5. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  6. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  7. Isolation of Endohyphal Bacteria from Foliar Ascomycota and In Vitro Establishment of Their Symbiotic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Kayla R; Hockett, Kevin L; Araldi-Brondolo, Sarah J; Baltrus, David A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-05-15

    Endohyphal bacteria (EHB) can influence fungal phenotypes and shape the outcomes of plant-fungal interactions. Previous work has suggested that EHB form facultative associations with many foliar fungi in the Ascomycota. These bacteria can be isolated in culture, and fungi can be cured of EHB using antibiotics. Here, we present methods for successfully introducing EHB into axenic mycelia of strains representing two classes of Ascomycota. We first establish in vitro conditions favoring reintroduction of two strains of EHB (Luteibacter sp.) into axenic cultures of their original fungal hosts, focusing on fungi isolated from healthy plant tissue as endophytes: Microdiplodia sp. (Dothideomycetes) and Pestalotiopsis sp. (Sordariomycetes). We then demonstrate that these EHB can be introduced into a novel fungal host under the same conditions, successfully transferring EHB between fungi representing different classes. Finally, we manipulate conditions to optimize reintroduction in a focal EHB-fungal association. We show that EHB infections were initiated and maintained more often under low-nutrient culture conditions and when EHB and fungal hyphae were washed with MgCl2 prior to reassociation. Our study provides new methods for experimental assessment of the effects of EHB on fungal phenotypes and shows how the identity of the fungal host and growth conditions can define the establishment of these widespread and important symbioses. PMID:26969692

  8. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  9. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  10. Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, M Isabel; Ferreira, Elsa; Delgado, Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto, using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during summer. Aspergillus and Penicillium highest values were registered from late winter to early spring. Additionally, the Andersen sampler allowed the culture and isolation of the collected viable spores subsequently used for different identification approaches. The internal-transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit sequences of airborne Ascomycetes fungi isolates revealed 11 taxonomically related fungal species. Among the identified taxa, Penicillum and Aspergillus presented the highest diversity, while only one species of Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively, were identified. All selected fungal spore taxa possessed phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase and beta-glucosidase enzymatic activity, while none had lipase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin or beta-glucuronidase activity. The association between the spore cell wall morphology, DNA-based techniques and enzymatic activity approaches allowed a more reliable identification procedure of the airborne Ascomycota fungal spores. PMID:20143229

  11. The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2012-10-01

    The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. PMID:23063189

  12. Rickia wasmannii increases the need for water in Myrmica scabrinodis (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales; Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báthori, Ferenc; Csata, Enikő; Tartally, András

    2015-03-01

    The order Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) is a little-studied group of microscopic ectoparasites of invertebrates, mostly insects. The effects of Laboulbeniales species on their hosts are mostly unknown. Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 is a common Laboulbeniales fungus occurring in Europe and is currently known to be a parasite of at least eight Myrmica ant species. R.wasmannii serves as a good model organism for Laboulbeniales-host interactions, as this species covers the host in a very high density, and infected host individuals can be easily collected in high numbers. The effect of R. wasmannii on the survival rate of its most common host species, Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander 1846, was therefore investigated in a laboratory experiment on an individual level. To enhance the results, environmental stresses were simulated by depriving infected and uninfected workers of water and food. The survival of individuals was recorded hourly until the death of the last individual. Infected specimens were significantly more sensitive to the withdrawal of food and water than uninfected specimens. When we tested for water consumption, we found that infected ants spent more time consuming water than uninfected ants. Therefore, it is possible that infected ants must replace the loss of water. Based on these results, R. wasmannii substantially decreases the chances and time of survival of infected individuals, at least in resource-limited environments, which suggest that R. wasmannii has a negative effect on its host. PMID:25620725

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Cordyceps (Ascomycota:Clavicipitaceae) and its evolutionary implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua TIAN; Bo HU; Hui ZHOU; Wei-Ming ZHANG; Liang-Hu QU; Yue-Qin CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Cordyceps is an endoparasite ascomycetous genus containing approximately 450 species with a diversity of insect hosts,traditionally included in the family Clavicipitaceae of Ascomycota.Establishing the relationships among species with a varied range of morphologies and hosts is of importance to our understanding of the phylogeny and co-evolution of parasites and hosts in entomopathogenic ascomycetes.To this end,we used a combination of molecular index and morphological characters from 40 representative species to carry out comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analyses.Based on the phylogenetic tree,we used the program DISCRETE for inferring the rates of evolution and finding ancestral states of morphological character.The phylogenetic analyses revealed two important points.(i) Types of perithecia attached to stroma reflected an evolutionary trend in Cordyceps.The vertically immersed perithecia form was the ancestral state,superficial and obliquely immersed perithecia were derived characters,obliquely immersed was irreversible.Species with obliquely immersed perithecia were in a closely related group and were the derived group.(ii) A strong correlation between fungal relatedness and the microhabitat supported the hypothesis that the host jumps through commingling in soil microhabitats.Based on the results of these analyses,host switching explains the diversity of entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Cordyceps.

  14. Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Crespo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our

  15. Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota and Pleistocene population expansions

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    Leavitt Steven D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors promoting diversification in lichen symbioses remain largely unexplored. While Pleistocene events have been important for driving diversification and affecting distributions in many groups, recent estimates suggest that major radiations within some genera in the largest clade of macrolichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota vastly predate the Pleistocene. To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence times were estimated using both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches to assess the temporal context of major radiation events within Melanohalea. In order to complement our understanding of processes impacting genetic differentiation, we also evaluated the effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles on population demographics of distinct Melanohalea lineages, differing in reproductive strategies. Results We found that divergence estimates, from both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches, suggest that diversification within Melanohalea occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene, although estimated of divergence times differed by up to 8.3 million years between the two methods. These results indicate that, in some cases, taxonomically diagnostic characters may be maintained among divergent lineages for millions of years. In other cases, similar phenotypic characters among non-sister taxa, including reproductive strategies, suggest the potential for convergent evolution due to similar selective pressures among distinct lineages. Our analyses provide evidence of population expansions predating the last glacial maximum in the sampled lineages. These results suggest that Pleistocene glaciations were not inherently unfavorable or restrictive for some Melanohalea species, albeit

  16. First detection of the larval chalkbrood disease pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales in adult bumble bees.

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    Sarah A Maxfield-Taylor

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8% contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen.

  17. What an rRNA secondary structure tells about phylogeny of fungi in Ascomycota with emphasis on evolution of major types of ascus.

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    Wen-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA secondary structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. The higher order structure is fundamental in establishing important structure-function relationships. Nucleotide sequences from ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes have made a great contribution to our understanding of Ascomycota phylogeny. However, filling the gaps between molecular phylogeny and morphological assumptions based on ascus dehiscence modes and type of fruitbodies at the higher level classification of the phylum remains an unfulfilled task faced by mycologists. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected some major groups of Ascomycota to view their phylogenetic relationships based on analyses of rRNA secondary structure. Using rRNA secondary structural information, here, we converted nucleotide sequences into the structure ones over a 20-symbol code. Our structural analyses together with ancestral character state reconstruction produced reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes as opposed to the classic nucleotide analyses. Judging from the secondary structure analyses with consideration of mode of ascus dehiscence and the ability of forming fruitbodies, we draw a clear picture of a possible evolutionary route for fungal asci and some major groups of fungi in Ascomycota. The secondary structure trees show a more reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that asci lacking of any dehiscence mechanism represent the most primitive type. Passing through the operculate and Orbilia-type asci, bitunicate asci occurred. The evolution came to the most advanced inoperculate type. The ascus-producing fungi might be derived from groups lacking of the capacity to form fruitbodies, and then evolved multiple times. The apothecial type of fruitbodies represents the ancestral state, and the ostiolar type is advanced. The class Geoglossomycetes is closely related to Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes

  18. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  19. Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Amo de Paz

    Full Text Available There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these

  20. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove;

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal eVect of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) was evaluated against adults and larvae of the confused Xour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and larvae of the Mediterranean Xour...

  1. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

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    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  2. Daldinia eschscholtzii (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae isolated from the Brazilian Amazon: taxonomic features and mycelial growth conditions Daldinia eschscholzii (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae isolado na Amazônia brasileira: características taxonômicas e condições de crescimento micelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Tomoko Yuyama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon has a high diversity of fungi, including species of the genus Daldinia (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae, which produce secondary metabolites with recognized nematicidal and antimicrobial activity. The ecological role of Daldinia is important, as stromata serve as refuges to many insects and arthropodes, and the fungi contribute to the degradation of vegetable organic matter. The aim of this study was to analyze the taxonomic features and mycelial growth conditions in vitro of a Daldinia specimen collected in the Brazilian Amazon. Morphological and molecular studies of the fungus identified it as D. eschscholtzii. To evaluate mycelial growth, we cultivated the fungus at 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C in malt extract-peptone agar (MEPA, malt extract-peptone (MEP, potato dextrose (PD, and minimum medium (MM. The best mycelial growth occurred at 35 °C, although the greatest amount of biomass was obtained at 25 °C and 30 °C. PD proved to be the best medium for biomass production.A Amazônia apresenta alta diversidade de fungos, incluindo Daldinia (Ascomycota, Xylariaceae, cujas espécies produzem metabólitos secundários com reconhecida atividade antimicrobiana e nematicida. O papel ecológico é importante, visto que estromas servem de abrigo para muitos insetos e artrópodes, além de contribuir na degradação da matéria orgânica vegetal. O objetivo desse estudo foi analizar as características taxonômicas e as condições do crescimento micelial in vitro de um espécime de Daldinia coletado na Amazônia brasileira. Estudos morfológicos e moleculares do fungo o indetificaram como D. eschscholtzii. Para avaliação do crescimento micelial o fungo foi cultivado nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C e nos meios de cultura extrato de malte-peptona ágar (EMPA, extrato de malte-peptona (EMP, batata dextrose (BD e meio mínimo (MM. O melhor crescimento micelial ocorreu a 35 °C, entretanto, a maior quantidade de biomassa foi obtida a 25 e

  3. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

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    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal

  4. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

  5. Lecania cuprea and Micarea pycnidiophora (lichenized Ascomycota new to Poland

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    Paweł Czarnota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two lichenized fungi, Lecania cuprea and Micarea pycnidiophora, are reported for the first time from Poland. Lecania cuprea is also recorded as a new lichen species to the Western Beskidy Mts and the Pieniny Mts and M. pycnidiophora is new to the Carpathians. Illustrated descriptions, taxonomic notes, habitat requirements and known distributions for both species are provided.

  6. Altitudinal patterns of Stereocaulon (Lichenized Ascomycota) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Man-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Based on herbarium collections, the altitudinal distribution patterns of six species of the lichen genus Stereocaulon in China were analyzed. Species are elevation-dependent: normal distributions and corresponding empirical formulae were detected for the genus and S. japonicum and S. paschale, the species distributed in low elevation areas, and log-normal distributions detected for S. sorediiferum and S. tomentosum, the species in medium elevation areas, while S. pomiferum and S. myriocarpum, the species in high elevation areas, appear to be irregularly distributed according to altitude. Such formulae should prove valuable for biological conservation practices.

  7. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  8. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota.

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    Pradeep K Divakar

    Full Text Available Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  9. New records of Lobaria amplissima (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

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    Anna Zalewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge on the occurrence of Lobaria amplissima, a very rare old-growth forest lichen in Poland, is discussed. Both previous and new localities are presented. The Białowieża Forest, from which L. amplissima is reported, is a refuge site of L. amplissima in the lowland forests of Central Europe. The most important data on the ecology and the general distribution of the species are given. Diagnostic characters related to the morphology, anatomy and chemistry of L. amplissima differentiating it from similar species are described.

  10. Chemical variation in the lichen genus Letrouitia (Ascomycota, Letrouitiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Elix, J.A.;

    2005-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from 193 specimens belonging to 15 species of Letrouitia were analyzed by HPLC. Significant quantities of the anthraquinones parietin and fragilin were found in most species and occasionally minor quantities of emodin, 5-chloroemodin, 7-chloroemodin, 7-chloroteloschistin, 7...

  11. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

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    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  12. Cladonia diversa (Cladoniaceae, Lichenized Ascomycota - overlooked lichen in Poland

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on Cladonia diversa Asperges in Poland. Till the present this species was overlooked and usually included under the name C. coccifera. The study is based on revision of over a thousand of specimens of the genus Cladonia section Cocciferae deposited in Polish herbaria. The morphology, chemistry, habitat requirements and known distribution of the lichen in Poland are discussed. A taxonomical remarks concerning the species are also provided.

  13. Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota from Southern Brazil

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    ANA M. CHARNEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensisare described as new to science. These species were found between the altitudes of 900 to 1887 meters on the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus Neoerysiphe (Erysiphaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Havrylenko, Maria; Wolcan, Silvia M; Matsuda, Sanae; Niinomi, Seiko

    2008-06-01

    The genus Neoerysiphe belongs to the tribe Golovinomyceteae of the Erysiphaceae together with the genera Arthrocladiella and Golovinomyces. This is a relatively small genus, comprising only six species, and having ca 300 species from six plant families as hosts. To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS regions and the divergent domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA. The 30 ITS sequences from Neoerysiphe are divided into three monophyletic groups that are represented by their host families. Groups 1 and 3 consist of N. galeopsidis from Lamiaceae and N. galii from Rubiaceae, respectively, and the genetic diversity within each group is extremely low. Group 2 is represented by N. cumminsiana from Asteraceae. This group also includes Oidium baccharidis, O. maquii, and Oidium spp. from Galinsoga (Asteraceae) and Aloysia (Verbenaceae), and is further divided into four subgroups. N. galeopsidis is distributed worldwide, but is especially common in western Eurasia from Central Asia to Europe. N. galii is also common in western Eurasia. In contrast, the specimens of group 2 were all collected in the New World, except for one specimen that was collected in Japan; this may indicate a close relationship of group 2 with the New World. Molecular clock calibration demonstrated that Neoerysiphe split from other genera of the Erysiphaceae ca 35-45M years ago (Mya), and that the three groups of Neoerysiphe diverged between 10 and 15Mya, in the Miocene. Aloysia citriodora is a new host for the Erysiphaceae and the fungus on this plant is described as O. aloysiae sp. nov. PMID:18495450

  15. Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota

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    Blanco Oscar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of nucleotide substitutions is not constant across the Tree of Life, and departures from a molecular clock have been commonly reported. Within parmelioid lichens, the largest group of macrolichens, large discrepancies in branch lengths between clades were found in previous studies. Using an extended taxon sampling, we test for presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades and test our a priori hypothesis that such rate discrepancies may be explained by shifts in moisture regime or other environmental conditions. Results In this paper, the first statistical evidence for accelerated evolutionary rate in lichenized ascomycetes is presented. Our results give clear evidence for a faster rate of evolution in two Hypotrachyna clades that includes species occurring in tropical and oceanic habitats in comparison with clades consisting of species occurring in semi-arid and temperate habitats. Further we explore potential links between evolutionary rates and shifts in habitat by comparing alternative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Conclusion Although there was only weak support for a shift at the base of a second tropical clade, where the observed nucleotide substitution rate is high, overall support for a shift in environmental conditions at cladogenesis is very strong. This suggests that speciation in some lichen clades has proceeded by dispersal into a novel environment, followed by radiation within that environment. We found moderate support for a shift in moisture regime at the base of one tropical clade and a clade occurring in semi-arid regions and a shift in minimum temperature at the base of a boreal-temperate clade.

  16. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  17. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota La presencia de Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae sobre Pseudocyphellaria granulata (Ascomycota liquenizados

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    María Inés Messuti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The springtail species Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previously recorded in austral America inhabiting the surfaces of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst. bark, has been collected growing on the epiphytic lichen species Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. This is the first record of an arthropod-lichen association in the cool temperate forest of Argentina.El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  18. New records in the lichen family Verrucariaceae (Ascomycota from Argentina Nuevos registros en la familia de líquenes Verrucariaceae (Ascomycota de Argentina

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    M. Prieto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four interesting lichens belonging to Catapyrenium, Placidium and Placopyrenium genera (Verrucariaceae were collected for the first time in Argentina. Catapyrenium exaratum was only reported from Chile and Perú. Placidium acarosporoides was previously known from North America, Chile and South Africa. Placidium pilosellum, a widespread and common species, but little known in South America. Finally, Placopyrenium bucekii, a mediterranean-submediterranean lichen, represents a new record from South America. For these taxa we provide a brief description with emphasis on the ecological aspects and distribution maps.En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer cuatro especies liquénicas que constituyen novedades para Argentina. Catapyrenium exaratum, previamente recolectada en Chile y Perú. Placidium acarosporoides, conocida hasta el momento de Norte América, Chile y Sudáfrica. Placidium pilosellum, una especie común y ampliamente distribuida, pero poco conocida en Sudamérica. Finalmente, Placopyrenium bucekii, un liquen (sub-mediterráneo ha sido recolectado por primera vez en Sudamérica. Se añaden, para cada especie, una breve descripción morfo-anatómica y ecológica y un mapa de distribución geográfica.

  19. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  20. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Pablo; Cabero, Julio; Moreno, Gabriel; Bratek, Zoltán; van Vooren, Nicolas; Kaounas, Vasileios; Konstantinidis, Giorgos; Agnello, Carlo; Merényi, Zsolt; Smith, Matthew E; Vizzini, Alfredo; Trappe, James M

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results.

  1. The occurrence of Pachytullbergia scabra (Collembola: Pachytullbergiidae on Pseudocyphellaria granulata (lichenized Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés MESSUTI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El colémbolo Pachytullbergia scabra Bonet (Pachytullbergiidae, previamente registrada en América austral como habitante de la superficie de la corteza de Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb. Oerst., fue coleccionada sobre la especie liquénica Pseudocyphellaria granulata (C. Bab. Malme. Éste es el primer registro de una asociación artrópodo-líquen en los bosques templado-fríos de la Argentina.

  2. Upper cortex anatomy corroborates phylogenetic hypothesis in species of Physconia (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Amo De Paz, Guillermo; Del Prado, Ruth; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana

    2007-11-01

    A phylogenetic and taxonomic study of the Physconia distorta morphotype complex was undertaken using ITS nu-rDNA as a molecular marker to re-evaluate this group. The analysis incorporated several samples of European P. distorta and also of American and European populations, recently named as P. americana. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. distorta and the European population of P. americana form two monophyletic and partially sympatric species and that both are distinct from the American species P. americana. Because differences in upper cortex anatomy had been used in establishing P. americana as distinct from P. distorta, the anatomy of the upper cortex was restudied in all three of these taxa, and notable differences were revealed. Our study confirmed that the upper cortex of P. distorta is prosoplectenchymatous with thick hyphal cell walls and narrow lumina, and that American specimens of P. americana have a typical paraplectenchymatous upper cortex. The cortex anatomy of both of these looks essentially the same in both longitudinal and transverse sections. Conversely, the European specimens that have been called P. americana are different from both of these. The cells of the upper cortex are rather thin walled, and in transverse lobe sections the cortex closely resembles a paraplectenchyma. However, in longitudinal lobe sections these thin walled cells can be seen to be elongate and ramified, obviously hyphal in nature, and better meeting the criteria of a prosoplectenchyma. The results confirmed the evolutionary pattern and taxonomic assessment of the anatomy of the upper cortex in the genus Physconia and revealed a common undescribed species (P. thorstenii sp. nov.) that can be added to the North African and Southern Euro-Asiatic lichen flora. PMID:18023166

  3. An Integrative Approach for Understanding Diversity in the Punctelia rudecta Species Complex (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota.

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    David Alors

    Full Text Available High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae, with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks. Additionally, morphological, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were evaluated. Five major strongly supported monophyletic clades were recognized in the genus Punctelia, and each clade could be characterized by distinct patterns in medullary chemistry. Punctelia rudecta as currently circumscribed was shown to be polyphyletic. A variety of empirical species delimitation methods provide evidence for a minimum of four geographically isolated species within the nominal taxon Punctelia rudecta, including a newly described saxicolous species, P. guanchica, and three corticolous species. In order to facilitate reliable sample identification for biodiversity, conservation, and air quality bio-monitoring research, these three species have been epitypified, in addition to the description of a new species.

  4. An Integrative Approach for Understanding Diversity in the Punctelia rudecta Species Complex (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alors, David; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Leavitt, Steven D; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae), with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks. Additionally, morphological, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were evaluated. Five major strongly supported monophyletic clades were recognized in the genus Punctelia, and each clade could be characterized by distinct patterns in medullary chemistry. Punctelia rudecta as currently circumscribed was shown to be polyphyletic. A variety of empirical species delimitation methods provide evidence for a minimum of four geographically isolated species within the nominal taxon Punctelia rudecta, including a newly described saxicolous species, P. guanchica, and three corticolous species. In order to facilitate reliable sample identification for biodiversity, conservation, and air quality bio-monitoring research, these three species have been epitypified, in addition to the description of a new species. PMID:26863231

  5. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  6. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed bas...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

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    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  8. Notes on the Lichen Genus Leptogium (Collemataceae, Ascomycota) in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalal, Udeni; Jang, Seol Hwa; Yu, Nan Hee; Oh, Soon Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-01-01

    Leptogium (Ach.) Gray is distributed throughout South Korea; however, for nearly two decades no detailed taxonomic or revisionary research on this lichen genus has been conducted. This study examined the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and samples were identified using descriptions recently published in the scientific literature. In this revisionary study, a total of fourteen species of Leptogium were documented, including new records of Le...

  9. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Thelonectria discophora (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelonectria discophora (Thelonectria, Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) is a conspicuous group of saprobic fungi on decaying plant material, characterized by red perithecia each with a broad mammiform (nipple-like) apex. The anamorphic state is characterized by a cylindrocarpon-like morphology, with 3–5 se...

  10. Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

  11. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  12. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales, a pantropical insecticide-producing endophyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F Bills

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity.

  13. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  14. Ultrastructural examination of the pycnidia and conidia of the genus Opegrapha (Arthoniales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of examinations on the variation of pycnidia and conidia of the following Opegrapha species occurring in Poland: O. atra, O. calcarea, O. dolomitica, O. gyrocarpa, O. niveoatra, O. rupestris, O. varia, O. vermicellifera, O. viridis and O. vulgata.

  15. The lichen-forming fungi of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of Xanthoparmelia pulla group in Poland. The morphological and chemical analysis of herbarium materials confirmed the presence of four species of this group reported from Poland before. The study however, revealed considerable changes it the partiuclular species distribution. X. verruculifera, so far considered the most endangered species in the country, turned out to be the most frequent taxon. X. loxodes, regarded as common, has much less known localities than previously thought. This species was usually confused with X. verruculifera. Xanthoparmelia pulla is the rarest species and should be considered critically endangered in Poland. Most specimens of X. pulla collected in the country belong to X. delisei, which so far had only two historical records in Poland. All these taxa are characterized in terms of morphology, the content of secondary metabolites, ecology and distribution.

  16. Sharpening the species boundaries in the Cladonia mediterranea complex (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino-Bodas, R.; Pérez-Vargas, I.; Stenroos, S.; Ahti, T.; Burgaz, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The complex Cladonia mediterranea belongs to the section Impexae and is formed by C. azorica, C. macaronesica and C. mediterranea. These species are basically distributed in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian Regions. In the present work the limits between the species of this complex are re-examined

  17. SOME BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr. Fr. (Ascomycota MUSHROOM AS PRODUCER OF MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Mykchaylova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the study on growth and morphological peculiarities of valuable medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris from the culture collection of mushrooms of Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are given. Using the method of scanning electron microscopy, the micro-morphological structures specific to this species were studied. This allows identifying this species in pure culture. Culture-morphological studies were performed on four agar nutrient media. Glucosepeptone-yeast agar medium, malt agar extract and incubation temperature of 16 °C were the most favorable for the vegetative growth of all the tested strains. Temperature of 36 °C is critical. Maximal growth of C. militaris was observed at pH 6.0?6.5. The optimal sources of carbon for vegetative mycelium growth were glucose, lactose and sucrose, whereas peptone and yeast extract were the best sources of nitrogen. Light irradiation of different nature stimulated the radial growth in agar media and accumulation of their biomass in liquid ones.

  18. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the lichen-forming fungus Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsak, Tetiana; Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Greshake, Bastian; Dal Grande, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ingo; Ott, Sieglinde; Printzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. Methods and Results: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0.40 to 0.73 over four populations. The amplification rates of 10 markers (CA01–CA10) in populations of C. aculeata exceeded 85%. The markers also amplified across a range of closely related species, except for locus CA05, which did not amplify in C. australiensis and C. “panamericana,” and locus CA10 which did not amplify in C. australiensis. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be used to study the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure in populations of C. aculeata in western Eurasia. PMID:27672520

  19. Camillea (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota), including two new species, along a trans-Andean altitude gradient in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Læssøe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Two new species of Camillea are described from localities on an east-west transect through Ecuador between the latitudes 1 degrees 00'N and 1 degrees 00'S. Camillea ovalispora was collected in San Vicente de Huaticocha, an area characterized as humid lowland rainforest and premontane cloud forest...

  20. A note on the lichen genus ramalina (ramalinaceae, ascomycota) in the hengduan mountains in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soon-Ok; Wang, Xin Yu; Wang, Li Song; Liu, Pei Gui; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-09-01

    On the basis of extensive field investigation and a series of herbarium specimen identifications, we present and discuss the descriptions and distribution of 22 species of Ramalina found in the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China. In this revisionary study, representatives of the Ramalina genus, including R. americana, R. confirmata, R. dendriscoides, R. obtusata, R. pacifica, R. pentecostii, R. peruviana, R. shinanoana, and R. subcomplanata are found for the first time in this area. In addition, R. holstii is reported for the first time China. Finally, a newly described species identified as Ramalina hengduanshanensis S. O. Oh & L. S. Wang is reported. It is characterized as growing from a narrow holdfast, solid, sparsely or richly and irregularly dichotomously branched, palmate and flattened lobes with distinctly dorsiventral appearance, surface rugose to reticulate, surface rugosely cracked, dense chondroid tissue, helmet shaped soralia at the tip. The species grows on rock and tree at the highest elevations in this area. Although very few lichen species belonging to the genus Ramalina have been collected above 4,000 m, this new species is found at this elevation. We present detailed morphological, anatomical, and chemical descriptions of this species along with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. PMID:25346599

  1. Two new species of Lecanora sensu stricto (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota from east Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kirika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The new sorediate species Lecanora kenyana from Mount Kenya and L. orientoafricana from the Rift Valley in Kenya are described. L. kenyana has red-brown apothecia with a constricted base, a melacarpella–type amphithecium, pulicaris–type epihymenium, a hyaline hypothecium, and contains usnic acid as major constituent. L. orientoafricana is characterized bya dark hypothecium, pulicaris-type amphithecium, chlarotera-epihymenium, and contains atranorin and gangaleoidin. A phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and a Bayesian approach based on DNA sequence data of mtSSU and ITS rDNA support that both new species belong to Lecanora sensu stricto and cluster with species containing usnic acid ora dark hypothecium, respectively.

  2. First Report of Heterodermia squamulosa (Lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2008-01-01

    Heterodermia squamulosa (Degel.) W.L. Culb. was found in the mountain of Gariwang, Gangwon province, in 2008. It is characterized by numerous squamules along the margin, decorticate and white lower surface, rhizines along the margin, black and densely squarrosely branched, usually forming a dense mat under the thallus. Apothecia margins densely squamulose, ascospores 12~15 × 25~30 µm. Atranorin and zeorin contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in South Korea.

  3. First Report of Heterodermia squamulosa (Lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2008-09-01

    Heterodermia squamulosa (Degel.) W.L. Culb. was found in the mountain of Gariwang, Gangwon province, in 2008. It is characterized by numerous squamules along the margin, decorticate and white lower surface, rhizines along the margin, black and densely squarrosely branched, usually forming a dense mat under the thallus. Apothecia margins densely squamulose, ascospores 12~15 × 25~30 µm. Atranorin and zeorin contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in South Korea. PMID:23997623

  4. Implementing a cumulative supermatrix approach for a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Teloschistales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaya, Ester; Högnabba, Filip; Holguin, Ángela;

    2012-01-01

    – the Megalosporaceae – which is sister to the mainly rock-inhabiting, cosmopolitan, and species rich Teloschistaceae, with a diversity of growth habits ranging from crustose to fruticose. Our results confirm the use of a cumulative supermatrix approach as a viable method to generate comprehensive phylogenies...

  5. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the lichen-forming fungus Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsak, Tetiana; Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Greshake, Bastian; Dal Grande, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ingo; Ott, Sieglinde; Printzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. Methods and Results: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0.40 to 0.73 over four populations. The amplification rates of 10 markers (CA01–CA10) in populations of C. aculeata exceeded 85%. The markers also amplified across a range of closely related species, except for locus CA05, which did not amplify in C. australiensis and C. “panamericana,” and locus CA10 which did not amplify in C. australiensis. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be used to study the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure in populations of C. aculeata in western Eurasia.

  6. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lorentsen, Line Balschmidt; Arup, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    23 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard are described and/or discussed. The descriptions are natural language descriptions based on characters for each species coded into LIAS (Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes). A total of 37 Caloplaca species...

  7. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fernández y en regiones costeras al sur de los 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica y M. tenuis son más frecuentes en las zonas más australes de Chile; también se han encontrado en hábitats de altura y bajas latitudes. Se incluyen, además, M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens y M. wandae. Varias especies sorediosas crecen como pioneras en sustratos jóvenes. Los patrones de distribución a lo largo de gradientes de humedad y de luz son variables. Se presentan mapas de distribución y clave de las especies.

  8. Fungi of Raffaelea genus (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales associated to Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae in Portugal Fungos do género Raffaelea (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales associados a Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lurdes Inácio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the study of the fungi associated to Platypus cylindrus, several fungi were isolated from the insect and its galleries in cork oak, among which three species of Raffaelea. Morphological and cultural characteristics, sensitivity to cycloheximide and genetic variability had been evaluated in a set of isolates of this genus. On this basis R. ambrosiae and R. montetyi were identified and a third taxon segregated witch differs in morphological and molecular characteristics from the previous ones. In this work we present and discuss the parameters that allow the identification of specimens of the three taxa. The role that those ambrosia fungi can have in the cork oak decline is also discussed taking into account that Ophiostomatales fungi are pathogens of great importance in trees, namely in species of the genus Quercus.No estudo dos fungos associados ao insecto xilomicetófago Platypus cylindrus foram isolados, a partir do insecto e das suas galerias no sobreiro, diversos fungos, entre os quais três espécies de Raffaelea. Avaliaram-se características morfológicas e culturais, sensibilidade à ciclohexamida e variabilidade genética num conjunto de isolados do género. Foram identificados R. ambrosiae e R. montetyi e segregou-se um terceiro táxone que difere em características morfológicas e moleculares dos dois anteriores. No presente trabalho são apresentados e discutidos os parâmetros que permitem identificar espécimes dos três táxones. É ainda discutido o papel que estes fungos ambrósia podem ter no declínio do sobreiro, sabido que fungos Ophiostomatales são patogénios de grande importância em plantas lenhosas, nomeadamente em espécies do género Quercus.

  9. Acanthothecis sarcographoides (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae), a morphologically unique, new lichen species in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres; Robert Lücking

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Acanthothecis is described in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Unlike any other species in the genus, it has distinctly pseudo-stromatic ascomata that resemble those of the genus Sarcographa. However, its apically spinulose paraphyses, I-negative ascospores with thin endospore closely resemble those of other Acanthothecis species. A previous molecular phylogenetic analysis places the new species close to the type species of Acanthothecis, A. hololeucoides. The disc...

  10. Four Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales: Helvellaceae species from the Cold Desert of Leh, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dorjey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with four Helvella species namely Helvella acetabulum, H.corium, H.queletii and H.macropus from Leh district in Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Of these, the first three species are new fungus records for India while H.macropus constitutes first authentic record from Ladakh.

  11. Genetic diversity within lichen photobionts of the Lecanora varia group (Lichenes, Ascomycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Ortega, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Printzen, C.

    partner of the symbiosis. Meanwhile, knowledge about photobiont diversity and the degree of photobiont selectivity of the fungus have been lacking behind. The Lecanora varia group is a set of species within the genus Lecanora defined by the presence of an amphitecial cortex along with the presence...... of usnic acid as secondary metabolite. We have focused on a small group of three species, namely L. varia, L. burgaziae, and L. densa which share very similar anatomical and morphological characters and an identical chemistry, with psoromic and 2-O-demethylpsoromic acids in addition to usnic acid. We have...

  12. Remototrachyna, a newly recognized tropical lineage of lichens in the Hypotrachyna clade (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota), originated in the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Ferencova, Zuzana; Del Prado, Ruth; Crespo, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Biogeographical studies of lichens used to be complicated because of the large distribution ranges of many species. Molecular systematics has revitalized lichen biogeography by improving species delimitation and providing better information about species range limitations. This study focuses on the major clade of tropical parmelioid lichens, which share a chemical feature, the presence of isolichenan in the cell wall, and a morphological feature, microscopic pores in the uppermost layer. Our previous phylogenetic studies revealed that the largest genus in this clade, Hypotrachyna, is polyphyletic with a clade mainly distributed in South and East Asia clustering distant from the core of the genus. To divide the Hypotrachyna clade into monophyletic groups and to reevaluate morphological and chemical characters in a phylogenetic context, we sampled ITS, nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA sequences from 77 species. We are erecting the new genus Remototrachyna for a core group of 15 former Hypotrachyna species. The segregation of Remototrachyna from Hypotrachyna receives support from morphological and chemical data, as well from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the DNA. We used a likelihood approach to study the geographic range evolution of Remototrachyna and Bulbothrix, which are sister groups. This analysis suggests that the ancestral range of Remototrachyna was restricted to India and that subsequent long-distance dispersal is responsible for the pantropical occurrence of two species of Remototrachyna. PMID:21622420

  13. Genetic distances within and among species in monophyletic lineages of Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) as a tool for taxon delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Prado, Ruth; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Blanco, Oscar; de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Molina, M Carmen; Crespo, Ana

    2010-07-01

    The species delimitation in fungi is currently in flux. A growing body of evidence shows that the morphology-based species circumscription underestimates the number of existing species. The large and ever growing number of DNA sequence data of fungi makes it possible to use these to identify potential cases of hidden species, which then need to be studied with extensive taxon samplings. We used Parmeliaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi as a model. Intra- and interspecific distances derived from maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees inferred from 491 nuclear ITS rDNA sequences were examined for five major clades of parmelioid lichens. The intra- and interspecific distances were well separated in most cases allowing the calculation of a threshold, with exceptions of highly deviating distances in a few cases. These situations are shown to be taxa in which the current delimitation needs revision. Thus the analysis of the distance distributions is shown to be a powerful tool for identifying species complexes. PMID:20399873

  14. The sister-group relationships of the largest family of lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Divakar, Pradeep K; Dal Grande, Francesco; Otte, Jürgen; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Wedin, Mats; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-10-01

    Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi. In spite of its importance for fungal diversity, its relationships with other families in Lecanorales remain poorly known. To better understand the evolutionary history of the diversification of lineages and species richness in Parmeliaceae it is important to know the phylogenetic relationships of the closest relatives of the family. A recent study based on two molecular loci suggested that either Protoparmelia s. str. or a group consisting of Gypsoplaca and Protoparmelia s. str. were the possible sister-group candidates of Parmeliaceae, but that study could not distinguish between these two alternatives. Here, we used a four-locus phylogeny (nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7) to reveal relationships of Parmeliaceae with other potential relatives in Lecanorales. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Protoparmelia is polyphyletic, with Protoparmelia s. str. (including Protoparmelia badia and Protoparmelia picea) being most closely related to Parmeliaceae s. str., while the Protoparmelia atriseda-group formed the sister-group to Miriquidica. Gypsoplaca formed the sister-group to the Parmeliaceae s. str. + Protoparmelia s. str. clade. Monophyly of Protoparmelia as currently circumscribed, and Gypsoplaca as sister-group to Parmeliaceae s. str. were both significantly rejected by alternative hypothesis testing. PMID:24119410

  15. First record of the genus Everniastrum Sipman (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota for the state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Everniastrum is a pantropical genus that has been recorded for the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. In this work, we present the first records of E. cirrhatum and E. vexans for the Brazilian state of Paraná. Comments and illustrations are provided.

  16. First record of the genus Everniastrum Sipman (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) for the state of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach; Emerson Luiz Gumboski; Sionara Eliasaro

    2013-01-01

    Everniastrum is a pantropical genus that has been recorded for the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. In this work, we present the first records of E. cirrhatum and E. vexans for the Brazilian state of Paraná. Comments and illustrations are provided.

  17. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  18. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4 degreeC or 12 degreeC. In accordance with the results on colony diameters, the fungus revealed an ability to degrade casein, chitin derivatives, Tween 20, and urea as evidenced by the appearance of a halo around the fungal colony. Because of its origin and temperature tolerance, this Argentine strain has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent for insect pest control in cold and temperate environments. PMID:23894949

  19. Laboratory Bioassay of Iranian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales against two Species of Storage Pest

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    Adel Khashaveh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available M-B 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The susceptibility of adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae to three Iranian Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion under laboratory conditions. For each isolates, five aqueous suspensions were prepared in a logarithmic series in Tween 80 (0.05% v/v. Results showed that adult of both species were susceptible to all isolates of M. anisopliae. For all three isolates, mortality percentage of the two species increased with increasing conidial concentration and significant difference was observed between concentrations. The corrected cumulative mortality of adult of O. surinamensis 10 days after immersion ranged from 12.38 to 85.84%, 18.6 to 62.83% and 10.63 to 77.87% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. These amounts for T. castaneum varied from 31.07 to 74.78%, 26.02 to 75.61% and 23.33 to 89.99% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. The parameters of probit analysis demonstrated non-overlap of 95% confidence limits of LC50 and LC95 and significant difference was observed among three isolates tested against each insect. The lowest and the highest LC50 and LC95 values were observed in the isolates DEMI001 for O. surinamensis (3/1×105 and 1/5×108 and IRAN 715C for T. castaneum (6.2×108 and 6.9×1014, respectively. This observation highlights the importance and need of screening for more virulent isolates against storage pests for use in the management of these pests.

  20. Laboratory Bioassay of Iranian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales against two Species of Storage Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sakenin Chelav

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae to three Iranian Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion under laboratory conditions. For each isolates, five aqueous suspensions were prepared in a logarithmic series in Tween 80 (0.05% v/v. Results showed that adult of both species were susceptible to all isolates of M. anisopliae. For all three isolates, mortality percentage of the two species increased with increasing conidial concentration and significant difference was observed between concentrations. The corrected cumulative mortality of adult of O. surinamensis 10 days after immersion ranged from 12.38 to 85.84%, 18.6 to 62.83% and 10.63 to 77.87% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. These amounts for T. castaneum varied from 31.07 to 74.78%, 26.02 to 75.61% and 23.33 to 89.99% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. The parameters of probit analysis demonstrated non-overlap of 95% confidence limits of LC50 and LC95 and significant difference was observed among three isolates tested against each insect. The lowest and the highest LC50 and LC95 values were observed in the isolates DEMI001 for O. surinamensis (3/1×105 and 1/5×108 and IRAN 715C for T. castaneum (6.2×108 and 6.9×1014, respectively. This observation highlights the importance and need of screening for more virulent isolates against storage pests for use in the management of these pests.

  1. Modeling the potential distribution of three lichens of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Central Europe

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    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models of potential geographical distribution of Xanthoparmelia delisei, X. loxodes, and X. verruculifera in Central Europe. The models were developed with MaxEnt (maximum entropy algorithm based on 224 collection localities and bioclimatic variables. The applied method enabled to identify the areas where climatic conditions are the most suitable for modeled species outside their known localities. According to obtained model, high potential distribution of the X. delisei and X. loxodes was found in the northern and northeastern Poland, when areas most suitable for X. verruculifera were placed in the south, especially in the Carpathians. Model also suggests that potential distribution of X. delisei could be wider than known data on its occurrence and extend to Lithuania, Belarus and the Czech Republic. MaxEnt modeling of X. loxodes showed the widest potential distribution for this species in Central Europe with the best regions in Lithuania. Potential distribution in all models was strongly influenced by precipitation-related variables. All the modelled species prefer areas where precipitation in the coldest quarter is very low.

  2. Distribution of the myrmecoparasitic fungus Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) across colonies, individuals, and body parts of Myrmica scabrinodis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Bálint; Csata, Enikő; Erős, Katalin; Német, Enikő; Czekes, Zsolt; Rózsa, Lajos

    2016-05-01

    The ant species Myrmica scabrinodis plays a markedly important ecological role through much of the humid grasslands of Eurasia. It hosts a species-rich community of pathogens and parasites, including Rickia wasmannii, an enigmatic member of entomoparasitic laboulbenialean fungi. This study provides a descriptive ecology of R. wasmannii by characterizing its prevalence and distribution across several hierarchical levels: colonies, individuals, and anatomic body parts. Infections were restricted to a single ant species, M. scabrinodis, and infected colonies occurred predominantly in wet habitats. Infections tended to be highly prevalent within infected colonies, often reaching 100% sample prevalence among workers. Individual infections exhibited an aggregated distribution typical to host-parasite systems. Workers from the aboveground part of nests (presumably older ones acting as foragers) were more infected than those from the belowground part. Fungal thalli could be found all over the body of the hosts, the head and the abdomen being the most infected parts of the body. The fungi's distribution among host body parts statistically differed between low versus high-intensity infections: the initial dominance of the head decreased with advancing infection. These findings may provide baseline data for future comparative or monitoring studies. PMID:26970261

  3. (2289) Proposal to conserve the name Morchella semilibera against Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus (Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    True morels (Morchella) are among the most highly prized and easily recognized edible mushrooms collected during spring throughout the Northern Hemisphere. To help ensure that commercial harvests are sustainable and species diversity is preserved, management practices and conservation policies need...

  4. Infectious intimacy and contaminated caves—three new species of ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) from blaniulid millipedes (Diplopoda: Julida) and inferences about their transmittal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Santamaria, S.

    2015-01-01

    Laboulbeniales is an order of more than 2000 species of small ascomycete fungi which are ectoparasites of insects, millipedes and mites. They are often highly hostspecific and often are also highly specific with regard to which body parts they infect. Laboulbeniales from millipedes are particularly...

  5. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  6. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singh

    Full Text Available Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence.

  7. Testing the use of ITS rDNA and protein-coding genes in the generic and species delimitation of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Camille; Divakar, Pradeep K; Yahr, Rebecca; Crespo, Ana; Clerc, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    In lichen-forming fungi, traditional taxonomical concepts are frequently in conflict with molecular data, and identifying appropriate taxonomic characters to describe phylogenetic clades remains challenging in many groups. The selection of suitable markers for the reconstruction of solid phylogenetic hypotheses is therefore fundamental. The lichen genus Usnea is highly diverse, with more than 350 estimated species, distributed in polar, temperate and tropical regions. The phylogeny and classification of Usnea have been a matter of debate, given the lack of phenotypic characters to describe phylogenetic clades and the low degree of resolution of phylogenetic trees. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of 52 Usnea species from across the genus, based on ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and two protein-coding genes RPB1 and MCM7. ITS comprised several highly variable regions, containing substantial genetic signal, but also susceptible to causing bias in the generation of the alignment. We compared several methods of alignment of ITS and found that a simultaneous optimization of alignment and phylogeny (using BAli-phy) improved significantly both the topology and the resolution of the phylogenetic tree. However the resolution was even better when using protein-coding genes, especially RPB1 although it is less variable. The phylogeny based on the concatenated dataset revealed that the genus Usnea is subdivided into four highly-supported clades, corresponding to the traditionally circumscribed subgenera Eumitria, Dolichousnea, Neuropogon and Usnea. However, characters that have been used to describe these clades are often homoplasious within the phylogeny and their parallel evolution is suggested. On the other hand, most of the species were reconstructed as monophyletic, indicating that combinations of phenotypic characters are suitable discriminators for delimitating species, but are inadequate to describe generic subdivisions. PMID:23603312

  8. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study. PMID:26073165

  9. Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Erysiphales), a new species of Neoerysiphe on native and introduced species of Senecio (Asteraceae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Vyrna; Cunnington, James H; Pascoe, Ian G

    2010-04-01

    Anamorphic powdery mildew fungi on introduced taxa of Senecio and Pericallis × hybrida in Australia have previously been identified as Neoerysiphe cumminsiana on the basis of a combination of Euoidium-type conidiophores and lobed mycelial and germ tube appressoria. But, two specimens with chasmothecia on the indigenous Senecio glossanthus did not agree with published descriptions of N. cumminsiana. The teleomorph of the S. glossanthus mildew differed from that of N. cumminsiana in the morphology of its peridial cells, the pigmentation of its appendages, and the morphology and pigmentation of some secondary hyphae. Ribosomal DNA ITS sequences from the two S. glossanthus mildew specimens and five other specimens of Senecio mildews from south-eastern Australia demonstrated that all Australian Senecio mildews are conspecific and distinct from the northern hemisphere Senecio mildew (N. cumminsiana) and from other Neoerysiphe taxa. Based on morphological characters and rDNA sequence data, the Australian Senecio mildew is described as a new species, Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis. This is the first native teleomorphic powdery mildew described from Australia. PMID:20943143

  10. Identificación de Yarrowia lipolytica (Ascomycota: Hemiascomycetes como contaminante en la obtención de amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos

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    Jenny Chirinos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifica una secuencia de DNA no esperada proveniente de los amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos terrestres. Las extracciones de DNA se realizaron del tejido del pie de caracoles terrestres por el método del CTAB modificado. Las PCRs fueron llevadas a cabo con primers universales para el gen COI e iniciadores diseñados para moluscos, para el marcador 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA y la región ITS-2. Los tamaños aproximados de las bandas de los amplificados de moluscos fueron de 706 pb para el COI, 330 pb para el 16S rRNA, 900 pb para el ITS-2 y 583 pb para el 28S rRNA; un amplificado del último marcador fue de una longitud inesperada, ~340 pb. Las secuencias de DNA fueron comparadas con la base de datos del GenBank mediante el programa BLASTn y la muestra con la banda de tamaño inesperado resultó en un 100% de identidad y cobertura del 99% con el gen 26S rRNA de la levadura Yarrowia lipolytica. El análisis filogenético con Neighbour-Joining y los valores de divergencia confirmaron la identificación, proporcionando resultados que apoyan la ubicación taxonómica de la especie dentro del clado de los Hemiascomycetes.

  11. Proposal to conserve the name Phomopsis citri H.S. Fawc. (Diaporthe citri), with a conserved type, against Phomopsis citri (Sacc.) Traverso & Spessa (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name Diaporthe citri applies to a fungus that causes a disease on Citrus known as melanose or stem end rot of mature fruit after harvest and occurs widely in North America and Asia. Initially described as the illegitimate Phomopsis citri H.S. Fawc. 1912, non P. citri (Sacc.) Traverso & Spessa 19...

  12. Fungi on white-nose infected bats (Myotis spp.) in Eastern Canada show no decline in diversity associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Ascomycota: Pseudeurotiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwolf, Karen J.; David Malloch; McAlpine, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) to North America has stimulated research on the poorly known mycology of caves. It is possible that the introduction of Pd reduces the diversity of fungi associated with bats hibernating in caves. To test this hypothesis we examined the fungal assemblages associated with hibernating bats (Myotis spp.) pre- and post- white-nose syndrome (WNS) infection in eastern Canada using culture-dependent methods. We found the mean ...

  13. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, P.; Liu, M.; Hodge, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF 1-α), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. PMID:18490956

  14. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. PMID:21443956

  15. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  16. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota : Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-01-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s se

  17. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory.

  18. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  19. Altitudinal patterns of the lichen genus Cladonia (Lichenized Ascomycota) in China%中国石蕊属地衣的垂直分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭守玉; 邓红; 毕海燕; 夏晓飞; 黄满荣

    2013-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns of the lichen genus Cladonia and 18 species in the genus were investigated based on herbarium collections.Species in the genus are inclined to grow at high elevation.Normal and lognormal probability patterns are ubiquitous for vertical distribution of these species,and vertical patterns are somewhat elevation-dependent.The altitudinal ranges of the species were found to decrease with increase of altitude.These evidences suggest an immediate threat from global warming to some species growing at higher elevation in the genus.Ecological evidence also confirms C.bacillaris and C.macilenta are conspecific.%基于标本馆馆藏标本的信息,研究了中国石蕊属Cladonia地衣及其18个种的垂直分布规律,并确认了本属倾向于分布在高海拔地区的特点.物种随海拔梯度的变化在统计学上呈正态分布或偏正态分布是非常普遍的现象,但是它们的分布规律与其所处的海拔位置相关:物种分布范围随着海拔的增加而缩小.因此,全球变暖会对高海拔地区的物种构成更直接的威胁.粉杆石蕊C.bacillaris和瘦柄红石蕊C.macilenta具有相同的海拔分布规律和分布范围,从生态学的角度支持了它们为同种的观点.

  20. Fungi on white-nose infected bats (Myotis spp. in Eastern Canada show no decline in diversity associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Ascomycota: Pseudeurotiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Vanderwolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd to North America has stimulated research on the poorly known mycology of caves. It is possible that the introduction of Pd reduces the diversity of fungi associated with bats hibernating in caves. To test this hypothesis we examined the fungal assemblages associated with hibernating bats (Myotis spp. pre- and post- white-nose syndrome (WNS infection in eastern Canada using culture-dependent methods. We found the mean number of fungal taxa isolated from bats/hibernaculum was not significantly different between pre-infection (29.6 ± 6.1SD and post-infection with WNS (32.4 ± 4.3. Although the number of fungal taxa per bat was significantly higher on Myotis lucifugus vs. M. septentrionalis, evidence suggests that this is a reflection of environmental features of individual hibernacula, rather than any biological difference between bat species. The composition and number of the most common and widespread fungal taxa on hibernating Myotis spp. did not change with the introduction of Pd to hibernacula. We found no evidence to suggest that Pd interacts with other fungi on the external surface of bats in hibernacula, even among fungal species of the same genus. However, our data do suggest that environmental characteristics of individual caves can have a significant influence on the fungal assemblages cultured from hibernating bats at specific hibernacula. Following the mortality of thousands of WNS-infected Myotis spp. in one hibernacula, we found that those fungal taxa growing on dead bats were cultured with increased frequency from live bats. This suggests that fungal assemblages on live bats may be sensitive to sporadic introductions of new fungal substrates to hibernacula.

  1. Contribución al conocimiento del género Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales en México: descripción de especies poco conocidas Contribution to the study of the genus Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales in Mexico: description of poorly known species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mayela Vite-Garín

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión taxonómica de los ejemplares del género Helvella depositados en el Herbario FCME (UNAM, a partir de la cual se determinaron 14 especies. Se amplía el conocimiento de este género para los estados de Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Querétaro y Tlaxcala. Se proporciona una clave sinóptica para las especies de México y la descripción morfológica de algunas poco estudiadas.A taxonomic review of the specimens of the genus Helvella housed at FCME (UNAM Herbarium was carried out; 14 species were determined. The knowledge of this genus in the states of Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Estado de Mexico, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Querétaro and Tlaxcala is widened. A sinoptical key is provided for the species cited from Mexico, as well as the morphological description of selected taxa.

  2. Espécies de Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota dos Supergrupos Cocciferae, Crustaceae e Perviae em restingas e costões rochosos dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, Brasil Species of Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota, of Supergroup Cocciferae, Crustaceae and Perviae, from restinga vegetation and rocky shores of Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Luiz Gumboski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se conhece das espécies de Cladonia que ocorrem nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Informações sobre a ocorrência de liquens em restingas são muito escassas e não há qualquer registro para costões rochosos. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar um levantamento intensivo das espécies de Cladonia presentes em áreas de restingas e costões rochosos presentes nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foram encontradas nove espécies pertencentes aos Supergrupos Cocciferae, Crustaceae e Perviae, sendo que Cladonia squamosa é nova citação para o Paraná e C. palmicola para Santa Catarina. Todas as espécies encontradas ocorrem em restingas e sete delas também em costões rochosos. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.Little is known about the species of Cladonia that occur in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. Information about the occurrence of lichens in restinga (a type of coastal vegetation in Brazil is very scarce and there are no records from rocky shores. The main goal of the present work was to make an intensive survey of Cladonia species that grow in restinga and on the rocky shores of this region. Nine species belonging to Supergroups Cocciferae, Crustaceae and Perviae were found, and two of them were new records: Cladonia squamosa for Paraná and C. palmicola for Santa Catarina. All of the species recorded occur in restinga and seven of them are also found along rocky shores. An identification key, descriptions, comments and illustrations are provided.

  3. Iodophanus carneus and I. testaceus (Ascomycota-Pezizales: Independent taxonomic identity or synonymy? A study of their morphology and isozymes Iodophanus carneus e I. testaceus (ASCOMYCOTA-PEZIZALES: ¿Identidades taxonómicas independientes o sinonimia? Estudio morfológico e isoenzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E. Cinto

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to delimit two Iodophanus species: I. carneus and I. testaceus , based on morphological characteristics and electrophoretic patterns of their intracellular isozymes. Twenty monosporic strains were used, including five belonging to I. granulipolaris as a control. Fourteen isozyme systems were tested, and the five having the best resolution selected: aspartate aminotransferase, esterases, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. These analyses confirmed the similarity between I. carneus and I. testaceus , since they both produced the same band patterns, which were in turn different from the band pattern of I. granulipolaris. So, as we couldn´t find any character wich permit us to classify the isolated studied during this work in defferent species, we believe that I. testaceus shoul be consider as a synonym of I. carneus .El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la delimitación taxonómica de dos especies del género Iodophanus : I. carneus e I. testaceus a partir de caracteres morfológicos y de los patrones electroforéticos de isoenzimas intracelulares. Para ello se utilizaron veinte cepas monospóricas, cinco de las cuales pertenecientes a I. granulipolaris que fueron utilizadas como control. Se probaron catorce sistemas isoenzimáticos y se eligieron los cinco con mejor resolución: aspartato amino transferasa, esterasa, fosfatasa alcalina, glutamato dehidrogenasa y superóxido dismutasa. El análisis de los patrones isoenzimáticos corroboró la silimitud existente entre I. carneus e I. testaceus , ya que los patrones de bandas obtenidas para estas dos especies fueron iguales y diferentes de I. granulipolaris. Entonces, al no encontrar ningún caracter que nos permita separar a los aislamientos estudiados en este trabajo en dos especies distintas, proponemos a I. testaceus como un sinónimo de I. carneus.

  4. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  5. 梭绒盘菌(子囊菌门:锤舌菌纲)对寄主植物Medeola virginiana的系统性侵染%Systemic infection of Medeola virginiana (Liliaceae) by the fungus Medeolaria farlowii (Ascomycota: Leotiomycetes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald H.Pfister; Katherine F.LoBuglio

    2013-01-01

    设计了用于扩增梭绒盘菌ITS rDNA片段的特异性引物.研究发现,梭绒盘菌不仅存在于被侵染植物的茎部病斑中,而且存在于寄主Medeola virginiana未被感染的叶片、茎及根部.由于寄主植物通过克隆繁殖,因此病害发生与营养体的系统性侵染有关.文中评述了寄主植物的生长模式以及该菌在其寄主群体中长期生存的状况.%Primers were designed to specifically amplify ITS rDNA regions of the fungus Medeolariafarlowii.The fungus was shown to be present not only in stem lesions but in apparently uninfected leaves,stems and rhizomes of the host plant,Medeola virginiana.Since the plant reproduces clonally it is likely that the infection is carried in populations of the host plant through systemic infection of vegetative plant parts.The growth patterns of the plant are reviewed and examples are given of long-term perpetuation of the fungus in populations of the plant.

  6. THE HPLC ANALYSIS OF THE LICHEN SUBSTANCES IN FIVE SPECIES OF XANTHORIA (ASCOMYCOTA)%五种石黄衣中次生代谢产物的高压液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英; 李红梅; 石楠; 魏江春

    2003-01-01

    对于五种石黄衣Xanthoria中的次生代谢产物进行了高压液相色谱(HPLC)分析.它们是刺盘石黄衣Xanthoria alfredi、拟石黄衣X.fallax、丽石黄衣X.elegans、粉芽石黄衣X.sorediata和中国石黄衣X.mandschurica.分析结果表明,按照石黄酮(parietin)对拟石黄醛(fallacinal)与黄枝醇(teloschistin)在石黄衣中的相对含量百分比之商将五种石黄衣划分为E组(Q>14)和F组(Q<1.20).其中丽石黄衣和粉芽石黄衣属于E组,裂片通常较狭窄,无假根;刺盘石黄衣和拟石黄衣属于F组,裂片通常较宽,具有假根.中国石黄衣中既有E组个体,又有F组个体.对于中国石黄衣的特殊现象仍需要进一步研究.此外,一份拟石黄衣标本的HPLC图谱亦显示了种内化学多样性.

  7. A lichen genus Diorygma(Graphidaceae,Ascomycota)in China%中国霜盘衣属(文字衣科,子囊菌门)地衣的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆峰; 魏江春

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a short sketch of the genus Diorygma.Six species of the genus from China are reported,and four of them,D.hieroglyphicum,D.macgregorii,D.pachygraphum and D.pruinosum are new to China.A description for each of the four species is given,and a working key to the Chinese species is also provided.

  8. 中国大陆的梅衣科地衣V.球针叶属和球针黄叶属%Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) Lichens from China's Mainland V. The genera Bulbothrix and Relicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健斌; 徐蕾; John A.ELIX

    2009-01-01

    球针叶属Bulbothrix和球针黄叶属Relicina地衣区别于其它梅衣的主要特征是裂片边缘具有膨大似葱头状的缘毛.球针叶属地衣的上表面灰色,含有黑茶渍素(atranorin),而球针黄叶属地衣的上表面为黄绿色含有松萝酸(usnic acid).经过形态学与化学研究,承认中国大陆有球针叶属地衣5种和球针黄叶属地衣2种.其中戈氏球叶B.goebelii,烟草球针叶B. tabacina,玄球针黄叶R.abstrusa和悉尼球针黄叶R.sydneyensis等4种为中国大陆首次记载.云南球针叶B.yunnana为中国特有种.本文报道的7个种均出现在中国长江以南地区,这与球针叶属和球针黄叶属地衣呈热带,亚热带的世界分布格局相吻合.%Five species of Bulbothrix and two species of Relicina are recognized for mainland China. Of these Bulbothrix goebelli, B. tabacina, Relicina abstrusa and R. sydneyensis are reported from China's mainland for the fast time, although they have been previously recorded in Hong Kong and/or Taiwan I. Bulbothrix yunnana is endemic to China.

  9. Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) lichens from China's mainland Ⅵ.Eight species new to China in parmelioid lichens%中国大陆的梅衣科Ⅵ.每衣类地衣中的八个中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健斌

    2011-01-01

    Parmelioid genera comprise about 40 genera. Some of these genera recently have been combined based on morphological and/or molecular evidence. The 33 genera are currently used with more than 1,500 species. Of which 20 genera with ca. 200 species were recorded in mainland China. Eight species new to China in parmelioid lichens, Arctoparmelia separata, Everniastrum lipidiferum, Everniastrum mexicanum, Flavoparmelia baltimorensis, Myelochroa hayachinensis, Parmelia marmorophylla, Parmelia pseudolaevior and Parmotrema pustulatum are reported in the paper.%迄今为止,从广义梅衣属分出属名多达40个左右,称之为梅衣类属群(parmelioid genera).形态学和/或分子生物学研究已将其中某些属合并.目前使用的属名约为33个,它们包括的地衣称之为梅衣类地衣(parmelioid lichens),有1,500余种.中国有梅衣类地衣20个属近200种.报道其中的8个中国新记录种.它们是:平坦北极梅Arctoparmelia separata,美洲条衣Everniastrum lipidiferum,墨西哥条衣Everniastrum mexicanum,裂芽皱梅Flavoparmelia baltimorensis,东亚黄髓梅Myelochroa hayachinensis,宽蛇纹梅衣Parmelia marmorophylla,小裂片梅衣Parmelia pseudolaevior,疱突大叶梅Parmotremapustulatum.

  10. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from seven herbaceous medicinal plants of Malnad region, Western Ghats, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Shankar Naik; M. Krishnappa; Y. L. Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3611 fungal isolates were recovered from 4200 leaf segments incubated from 7 medicinal herbs during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. These fungal isolates belonged to teleomorphic Asco-mycota (23.5%), anamorphic Ascomycota producing conidiomata (17.4%), anamorphic Ascomycota without conidiomata (46.9%), Zygo-mycota (1.42%) and sterile forms (10.6%). Chaetomium globosum, As-pergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Trichoderma viridae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, were frequently isolated from more than one host plant. The number of endophytic isolates was higher in winter than in monsoon and summer seasons.

  11. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  12. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large...

  13. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  14. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Sato

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    fungi (20 Ascomycota, 1 Basidiomycota, 12 Mitosporic fungi) and 8 wood-borers (7 Teredinids and 1 Pholad) were recorded. A wide gamut of distribution patterns of fungi and wood-borers was found. A high frequency of occurrence (greater than 20%) and a...

  16. New primers for promising single-copy genes in fungal phylogenetics and systematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, I.; Crespo, A.; Divakar, P.K.; Fankhauser, J.D.; Herman-Sackett, E.; Kalb, K.; Nelsen, M.P.; Nelson, N.A.; Rivas-Plata, E.; Shimp, A.D.; Widhelm, T.; Lumbsch, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Developing powerful phylogenetic markers is a key concern in fungal phylogenetics. Here we report degenerate primers that amplify the single-copy genes Mcm7 (MS456) and Tsr1 (MS277) across a wide range of Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analyses of 59 taxa belonging to the Eurotiomycetes,

  17. Cyberlindnera xylolytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the la...

  18. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Atanasova, L.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Gams, W.; Komon-Zelazowska, M.; Theelen, B.; Muller, W.H.; Boekhout, T.; Druzhinina, I.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (

  19. Community Structure and Succession Regulation of Fungal Consortia in the Lignocellulose-Degrading Process on Natural Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate fungal community structures and dynamic changes in forest soil lignocellulose-degrading process. rRNA gene clone libraries for the samples collected in different stages of lignocellulose degradation process were constructed and analyzed. A total of 26 representative RFLP types were obtained from original soil clone library, including Mucoromycotina (29.5%, unclassified Zygomycetes (33.5%, Ascomycota (32.4%, and Basidiomycota (4.6%. When soil accumulated with natural lignocellulose, 16 RFLP types were identified from 8-day clone library, including Basidiomycota (62.5%, Ascomycota (36.1%, and Fungi incertae sedis (1.4%. After enrichment for 15 days, identified 11 RFLP types were placed in 3 fungal groups: Basidiomycota (86.9%, Ascomycota (11.5%, and Fungi incertae sedis (1.6%. The results showed richer, more diversity and abundance fungal groups in original forest soil. With the degradation of lignocellulose, fungal groups Mucoromycotina and Ascomycota decreased gradually, and wood-rotting fungi Basidiomycota increased and replaced the opportunist fungi to become predominant group. Most of the fungal clones identified in sample were related to the reported lignocellulose-decomposing strains. Understanding of the microbial community structure and dynamic change during natural lignocellulose-degrading process will provide us with an idea and a basis to construct available commercial lignocellulosic enzymes or microbial complex.

  20. What is Scirrhia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Minnis, A.M.; Pereira, O.L.; Alfenas, A.C.; Alfenas, R.F.; Rossman, A.Y.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum {Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species o

  1. What is Scirrhia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Minnis, A.M.; Pereira, O.L.; Alfenas, A.C.; Alfenas, R.F.; Rossman, A.Y.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species o

  2. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so

  3. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  4. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can influence the outcome of grass–insect interactions. For example, the expression of endophyte-mediated resistance to insects depends on the insect species involved. The behavior...

  5. Species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 38 species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest. 24 taxa of lichenized Ascomycota and 14 taxa of lichenicolous and saprobic fungi are the result of the analysis of collected materials as well as additional field studies.

  6. Manglicolous fungi from Chorao mangroves, Goa, West coast of India: Diversity and frequency of occurrence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raghukumar, S.

    were recorded from 166 wood and prop root samples: 31 species belonging to Ascomycota, 2 to Basidiomycota and 12 to the asexual fungi. Aigialus grandis (15.3%) was found to be the most frequently occurring fungus followed by Trichocladium achrasporum (8...

  7. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D.G.; Kovács, G.M.; Zajta, E.; Groenwald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages b

  8. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages

  9. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  10. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  11. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  12. Cryopreservation of filamentous micromycetes and yeasts using perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, L; Lisá, L; Kubatová, A; Valqová, M; Janderová, B; Nerud, F

    2007-01-01

    The viability, growth and morphology of 48 strains of Ascomycota (including 17 yeasts) and 20 strains of Zygomycota were determined after a 2-d and then after 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen using a new cryopreservation method with perlite as a particulate solid carrier. In case of Ascomycota, 45 strains (94 %) out of 48 survived both 2-d and 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen, respectively. In case of Zygomycota, all 20 strains survived both storage. In addition, 3 strains of Basidiomycota counted among yeasts were tested and all survived the 1 year storage. In all surviving cultures no negative effects of cryopreservation by this method have been observed after 1-year of storage in liquid nitrogen. The results indicate that the perlite protocol can be successfully used for cryopreservation of taxonomically different groups of fungi and also for fungi which failed to survive other routinely used preservation procedures.

  13. Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

  14. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Shrestha; Eiji Tanaka; Min Woo Hyun; Jae-Gu Han; Chang Sun Kim; Jong Won Jo; Sang-Kuk Han; Junsang Oh; Gi-Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available info...

  15. Adiciones y correcciones al catálogo micológico de Madeira (Portugal).

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F.D.; Menezes de Sequeira, M.

    2007-01-01

    [EN] From the 164 col1ections of fungi obtained during our 2007 forays in Madeira, more than 30 species seem to be new to the previous catalogue. Among them we could mentíon the fol1owing ones: Bisporella citrina, Scutellinia setosa, Tuber puberulum, within the Ascomycota and Amanita aff. eliae, Chroogomphus fulmineus, Crepidotus applanatus, Galerina hypnorum, Gymnopilus picreus, Hygrocybe insipida, Hypholoma capnoides, Inocybe brunnea, Melanoleuca decembris, Phellinus ferruginosus, Pisolithu...

  16. Comparative effects of two species of floricolous Metschnikowia yeasts on nectar

    OpenAIRE

    Canto, Azucena; Carlos M Herrera; García, Isabel M.; GARCÍA, MARINA; Bazaga, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Nectar yeast communities in southern Spain are dominated by two closely-related species, Metschnikowia reukaufii Pitt & M.W. Mill. and M. gruessii Gim.-Jurado (Ascomycota, Saccharomycetales), although they tend to be distributed differentially across different host plants. We explore here the possibility that the two yeasts play different functional roles in floral nectar by differing in their impact on sugar concentration and composition of nectar. Experiments were undertaken under controlle...

  17. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  18. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known specie...

  19. Illumina MiSeq investigations on the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense infected soil during and after reductive soil disinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-12-01

    Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after RSD remains poorly understood. MiSeq pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) infected soil during RSD and at the simulative banana cultivation after RSD. The results showed that RSD significantly increased soil microbial populations and a different microbial community with the pathogenic soil was established after RSD. Specifically, the number of Firmicutes mainly containing Ruminococcus and Coprococcus followed by a small part of Clostridium which were the dominant bacterial genera significantly increased during RSD. In contrast, Symbiobacterium and Flavisolibacter were the dominant genera in the flooding soil. When the soils were recovered under aerobic condition, the relative abundances of the bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes increased as alternatives to the reducing Firmicutes. For fungi, the population of F. oxysporum significantly decreased during RSD accompanied with the pH decline, which resulted in the significant decrease of relative abundance in the phylum Ascomycota. Alternatively, the relative abundances of some other fungal species increased, such as Chaetomium spp. and Penicillium spp. belonging to Ascomycota and the family Clavulinaceae belonging to Basidiomycota. Then, the relative abundance of Ascomycota re-increased after RSD with Podospora and Zopfiella as dominant genera, whereas the relative abundance of Fusarium further decreased. Overall, the microbial populations and community re-established by RSD made the soil more disease-suppressive and beneficial to the soil nutrient cycling and plant growth compared with the previous pathogenic soil. PMID:26640050

  20. Molecular diversity of fungi from marine oxygen-deficient environments (ODEs)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Forster, D.; Kauff, F.; Stoeck, T.

    have been identified from various habitats such as the deep-sea regions (Lai et al. 2007), anoxic basins (Dawson and Pace 2002; Alexander et al. 2009; Jebaraj et al. 2010) and hydrothermal vent regions (López-García et al. 2007). The life style... based on the ITS region may also have some disadvantages as in some instances members belonging to only to phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were amplified (Lai et al. 2007). These 12 discrepancies may arise because not all of the fungal...

  1. Macromicetos del Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, municipio de Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, México Macrofungi from Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, Municipality of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Chanona-Gómez; René H. Andrade-Gallegos; Jorge Castellanos-Albores; José E Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos contribuir al conocimiento de los macromicetos que crecen en el Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica (PELB), en Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas y determinar el índice de diversidad de Simpson y similitud de Sorensen de la micobiota existente en los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Se realizaron 24 exploraciones micológicas durante un año, encontrándose 144 especies (24 Ascomycota y 120 Basidiomycota). El índice de diversidad, mostró que la vegetación con la...

  2. Degradation of oil by fungi isolated from Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, R L; Poutasse, C M; Thurston, A M; Reeve, J L; Baker, M C; White, H K

    2015-11-15

    Fungi of the Ascomycota phylum were isolated from oil-soaked sand patties collected from beaches following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To examine their ability to degrade oil, fungal isolates were grown on oiled quartz at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. Consistent trends in oil degradation were not related to fungal species or temperature and all isolates degraded variable quantities of oil (32-65%). Fungal isolates preferentially degraded short (oil in the coastal marine environment.

  3. Analysis of the microbial diversity in faecal material of the endangered blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guass, Olivia; Haapanen, Lisa Meier; Dowd, Scot E; Širović, Ana; McLaughlin, Richard William

    2016-07-01

    Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the faecal material of two blue whales living in the wild off the coast of California was investigated. In both samples the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes with Clostridium spp. being the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota with Metschnikowia spp. being the most dominant. In this study, we also preliminarily characterised the culturable anaerobic bacteria from the faecal material, using traditional culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. In total, three bacterial species belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were identified. PMID:27108139

  4. Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.

  5. Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengping; Han, Ping; Liu, Pengfei; Si, Naiguo; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

    2014-01-01

    In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140 μg/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100 μg/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013 μg/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007 μg/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota. PMID:25253681

  6. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Mhuantong

    Full Text Available The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  8. Application of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Compare the Cell Materials of Wood Decay Fungi with Wood Mould Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Shankar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fungi create vast damage among standing trees and all types of wood materials. The objectives of this study are to (a characterize the cell materials of two major wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota, namely, Trametes versicolor and Postia placenta, and (b compare the cell materials of decay fungi with four wood mould fungi (Ascomycota, namely, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Ulocladium atrum. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is used to characterize the microbial cellular materials. The results showed that the IR bands for the fatty acid at ∼2900 cm−1 were different for the two-decay-fungi genre. Postia placenta shows more absorbance peaks at the fatty acid region. Band ratio indices for amide I and amide II from protein amino acids were higher for the mould fungi (Ascomycota than the decay fungi (Basidiomycota. Similarly, the band ratio index calculated for the protein end methyl group was found to be higher for the mould fungi than the decay fungi. Mould fungi along with the decay fungi demonstrated a positive correlation (R2=0.75 between amide I and amide II indices. The three-component multivariate, principal component analysis showed a strong correlation of amide and protein band indices.

  9. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  10. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Womack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughout DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces, suggesting that inputs of fungi to the atmosphere are from local, rather than distant, sources. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  11. Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces.

  12. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity.

  13. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  14. Calcineurin Orchestrates Hyphal Growth, Septation, Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus: Where Do We Go from Here?

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    Praveen R Juvvadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fungal pathogens belonging to the ascomycota phylum are critical given the ubiquity and frequency with which these fungi cause infections in humans. Among these species, Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Fundamental to A. fumigatus pathogenesis is hyphal growth. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hyphal growth and virulence are poorly understood. Over the past 10 years, our research towards the identification of molecular targets responsible for hyphal growth, drug resistance and virulence led to the elucidation of calcineurin as a key signaling molecule governing these processes. In this review, we summarize our salient findings on the significance of calcineurin for hyphal growth and septation in A. fumigatus and propose future perspectives on exploiting this pathway for designing new fungal-specific therapeutics.

  15. New primers for promising single-copy genes in fungal phylogenetics and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, I; Crespo, A; Divakar, P K; Fankhauser, J D; Herman-Sackett, E; Kalb, K; Nelsen, M P; Nelson, N A; Rivas-Plata, E; Shimp, A D; Widhelm, T; Lumbsch, H T

    2009-12-01

    Developing powerful phylogenetic markers is a key concern in fungal phylogenetics. Here we report degenerate primers that amplify the single-copy genes Mcm7 (MS456) and Tsr1 (MS277) across a wide range of Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analyses of 59 taxa belonging to the Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Lichinomycetes and Sordariomycetes, indicate the utility of these loci for fungal phylogenetics at taxonomic levels ranging from genus to class. We also tested the new primers in silico using sequences of Saccharomycotina, Taphrinomycotina and Basidiomycota to predict their potential of amplifying widely across the Fungi. The analyses suggest that the new primers will need no, or only minor sequence modifications to amplify Saccharomycotina, Taphrinomycotina and Basidiomycota. PMID:20198159

  16. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

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    Bhushan Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  17. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal biodiversity in Tuber macrosporum productive sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Csorbai, Andrea Gógán; Donnini, Domizia

    2014-05-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is a truffle with superb organoleptic properties, whose cultivation is still in its infancy. For the first time we have aimed to provide information on ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated T. macrosporum sites. Ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identified using ITS nrDNA sequencing and sorted into molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU). We detected 16 MOTUs in the T. macrosporum cultivated plantation. Ascomycota were the most abundant (86.4%) with Helvellaceae, Pyronemataceae and Pezizaceae the most common. Twenty-two MOTUs were collected in the natural T. macrosporum site. Basidiomycota morphotypes were plentiful (70.6%) and Thelephoraceae dominated. Each site had different taxa belowground with only T. macrosporum in common, being more abundant in the natural (18.2%) than in the cultivated (14.4%) site. Species richness, Simpson and Shannon diversity indices, taxonomic diversity, distinctness and variation of taxonomic distinctness were lower in the cultivated than in the natural site. PMID:24232503

  18. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Valéria M; Lopes-Oliveira, Patrícia F; Passarini, Michel R Z; Menezes, Claudia B A; Oliveira, Walter R C; Rocha, Adriano J; Sette, Lara D

    2011-04-01

    Microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers was investigated using molecular methods. Ribosomal DNA fragments were used to assemble gene libraries. Sequence analysis indicated 10 bacterial genera within the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In the two libraries generated from corroded screw-derived samples, the genus Acinetobacter was the most abundant. Acinetobacter and Clostridium spp. dominated, with similar percentages, in the libraries derived from corrosion scrapings. Fungal clones were affiliated with 14 genera belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; of these, Capnobotryella and Fellomyces were the most abundant fungi observed. Several of the microorganisms had not previously been associated with biofilms and corrosion, reinforcing the need to use molecular techniques to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of microbial diversity in environmental samples. PMID:21563009

  19. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  20. Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland and its status in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

  1. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  2. Mycological and palynological studies of early medieval cultural layers from strongholds in Pszczew and Santok (western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural layers from early medieval strongholds in Pszczew and Santok have been examined for the presence of pollen grains and spores as well as residues of fungi. The presence of the following remains has been recorded: fossil hyphopodia of Gaeumannomyces, teliospores of Puccinia, spores of Bipolaris, Thecaphora and Tilletia, teliospores of the genus Urocystis, Ustilago and Uromyces, ascocarps (perithecium of the Ascomycota or the pycnidium of Sphaeropsidales. A greater diversity and abundance of fungi spores sensu lato was recorded in Santok, as compared to Pszczew. Both early medieval sites recorded a significant proportion of cereal pollen, including Secale cereale. It remains an undisputed fact that the grains and other plants collected in both strongholds were strongly infected with fungi. The analysis of the cultural layers for the presence of fungi remains provides significant data on the presence of certain species of plants and their growth conditions in natural environments and in agriculture.

  3. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  4. Phylogenetic affiliation of the desert truffles Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbissi, Imed; Neffati, Mohamed; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Murat, Claude; Gtari, Maher

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogeny and comparative morphological studies reported here provide evidence for the recognition of the genus Picoa, an hypogeous desert truffle, in the family Pyronemataceae (Ascomycota, Pezizales). Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei were reassigned to the genus Picoa based on large subunit (LSU) sequence (28S) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA (including the partial 18S, ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S gene, and partial 28S of the nuclear rDNA) data. Morphological studies of spores, asci, perida, and gleba revealed high similarities between P. lefebvrei and P. juniperi, thereby confirming the membership of both species in the genus Picoa. These two species were primarily distinguishable based on ascospore ornamentation. PMID:20559873

  5. DNA barcoding in Mexico: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Gutiérrez, M; León-Regagnon, V

    2013-11-01

    DNA barcoding has become an important current scientific trend to the understanding of the world biodiversity. In the case of mega-diverse hot spots like Mexico, this technique represents an important tool for taxonomists, allowing them to concentrate in highlighted species by the barcodes instead of analyzing entire sets of specimens. This tendency resulted in the creation of a national network named Mexican Barcode of Life (MEXBOL) which main goals are to train students, and to promote the interaction and collective work among researchers interested in this topic. As a result, the number of records in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for some groups, such as the Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Polychaeta, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Maxillopoda, Nematoda, Pinophyta, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota place Mexico among the top ten countries in the generation of these data. This special number presents only few of the many interesting findings in this region of the world, after the use of this technique and its integration with other methodologies.

  6. Preliminary study of endophytic fungi in timothy (Phleum pratense in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triin Varvas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Timothy (Phleum pratense L. is an important agricultural grass in Europe and North America, but there is little research into the occurrence and abundance of fungal endophyte species associated with this grass. The aim of this study was to identify fungal endophytes living within P. pratense and to determine if additional moisture applied during the growing season increases the diversity of endophytic fungi. We studied 58 isolates obtained from surface-sterilised blades of 60 P. pratense plants collected from Rõka Free Air Humidity Manipulation experimental plots (FAHM, Estonia. Morphological and molecular methods were used for isolate identification. As a result, 45 strains from 10 different taxa were identified, all belonging to Ascomycota. Five species were found to be new to P. pratense.

  7. Subaerial biofilms on granitic historic buildings: microbial diversity and development of phototrophic multi-species cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nion, D; Rodríguez-Castro, J; López-Rodríguez, M C; Fernández-Silva, I; Prieto, B

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities of natural subaerial biofilms developed on granitic historic buildings of a World Heritage Site (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain) were characterized and cultured in liquid BG11 medium. Environmental barcoding through next-generation sequencing (Pacific Biosciences) revealed that the biofilms were mainly composed of species of Chlorophyta (green algae) and Ascomycota (fungi) commonly associated with rock substrata. Richness and diversity were higher for the fungal than for the algal assemblages and fungi showed higher heterogeneity among samples. Cultures derived from natural biofilms showed the establishment of stable microbial communities mainly composed of Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. Although most taxa found in these cultures were not common in the original biofilms, they are likely common pioneer colonizers of building stone surfaces, including granite. Stable phototrophic multi-species cultures of known microbial diversity were thus obtained and their reliability to emulate natural colonization on granite should be confirmed in further experiments. PMID:27192622

  8. High-throughput Sequencing of Trace Quantities of Soil Provides Reproducible and Discriminative Fungal DNA Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) offers improved resolution between forensic soil samples by characterizing individual taxa present; however, the heterogeneous distribution of taxa in soils, and limited quantity of material available, may hinder the reliability of HTS in casework. Using HTS of the internal transcribed spacer, we examined the effect of soil mass (50, 150, and 250 mg) on fungal DNA profiles, focusing on reproducibility and discriminatory power between close proximity soils, and samples with similar textural classification. The results show that reduced soil mass had no significant effect on sample differentiation and that 150 mg soil provides the most reproducible DNA profiles across different soil types. In addition, Ascomycota was identified as a robust fungal target for forensic intelligence as this phylum was detected consistently across all samples regardless of sample quantity. Overall, this study highlights the value of trace quantities of soil for use in forensic casework. PMID:27404621

  9. Diversity and Antibacterial Activities of Fungi Derived from the Gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka from the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of symbiotic fungi associated with the gorgonian coral Echinogorgia rebekka from the Weizhou coral reef in the South China Sea was investigated. Combined with morphologic traits, ITS-rDNA sequences revealed 18 fungal strains from this gorgonian. All of the 18 fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and were distributed among seven genera in five orders: Eurotiales (Aspergillus and Penicillium, Pleosporales (Alternaria, Capnodiales (Cladosporium, Trichosphaeriales (Nigrospora and Hypocreales (Hypocrea and Nectria. Antibacterial activities of these fungal strains were investigated with five pathogenic bacteria. All of the 18 fungal strains displayed different levels of antibacterial activities, most of which exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activities to the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus tetragenus, and showed relatively low bioactivities to other three pathogenic bacteria. Several fungal strains in the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium with strong antibacterial activities provide potential for further research on isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  10. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we found that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the evolution of microbial ecology and for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  11. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we find that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  12. The effects of various land reclamation scenarios on the succession of soil Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi over the short and long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration of mining areas has mainly focused on the succession dynamics of vegetation and the fate of microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined changes in soil characteristics and plant and microbial communities with increasing reclamation period in an open coal mine. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were assessed by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Ascomycota had the highest detected relative abundance within bacteria, archaea, and fungi, respectively. Partial regressions and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that vegetation played a major role in bacterial and archaeal diversity and assemblies, and soil characteristics, especially nitrogen, were important for fungal diversity and assemblies. Spearman rank correlation indicated that bacterial and archaeal communities showed synergistic succession with plants; whereas, fungal communities showed no such pattern. Overall, our data suggest that there are different drivers of bacterial, archaeal and fungal succession during secondary succession in a reclaimed open mine.

  13. The spectrum of allergic fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Caruthers, Carrie; Azmeh, Roua; Dykewicz, Mark S; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Fungi cause a wide spectrum of fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways. There are three main phyla involved in allergic fungal disease: (1) Ascomycota (2) Basidiomycota (3) Zygomycota. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) causes chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms and is caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus in India and Bipolaris in the United States. The recommended treatment approach for AFRS is surgical intervention and systemic steroids. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) is most commonly diagnosed in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Long term systemic steroids are the mainstay treatment option for ABPA with the addition of an antifungal medication. Fungal sensitization or exposure increases a patient's risk of developing severe asthma and has been termed severe asthma associated with fungal sensitivity (SAFS). Investigating for triggers and causes of a patient's asthma should be sought to decrease worsening progression of the disease. PMID:26776889

  14. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: A keystone species for unraveling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

    2011-09-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus-characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally-can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated.

  15. The old 3-oxoadipate pathway revisited: new insights in the catabolism of aromatics in the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago M; Hartmann, Diego O; Planchon, Sébastien; Martins, Isabel; Renaut, Jenny; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Aspergilli play major roles in the natural turnover of elements, especially through the decomposition of plant litter, but the end catabolism of lignin aromatic hydrocarbons remains largely unresolved. The 3-oxoadipate pathway of their degradation combines the catechol and the protocatechuate branches, each using a set of specific genes. However, annotation for most of these genes is lacking or attributed to poorly- or un-characterised families. Aspergillus nidulans can utilise as sole carbon/energy source either benzoate or salicylate (upstream aromatic metabolites of the protocatechuate and the catechol branches, respectively). Using this cultivation strategy and combined analyses of comparative proteomics, gene mining, gene expression and characterisation of particular gene-replacement mutants, we precisely assigned most of the steps of the 3-oxoadipate pathway to specific genes in this fungus. Our findings disclose the genetically encoded potential of saprophytic Ascomycota fungi to utilise this pathway and provide means to untie associated regulatory networks, which are vital to heightening their ecological significance.

  16. Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes forming fruit bodies in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okane, Izumi; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Toyama, Kyoko;

    2008-01-01

    A study of the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of endophytic Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) was carried out. In this study, we obtained isolates of Xylariaceae from healthy, attached leaves and teleomorphic stromata on decayed plant materials in a permanent plot at Khao Yai National Park (Thailand......). In addition, strains deposited beforehand were selected in which both endophytic strains isolated from living plant tissues and saprobic strains from fruit bodies were included. Consequently, 405 strains of Xylariaceae (273 endophytic and 132 saprobic strains, including identified strains) were studied...... to reveal the diversity and taxonomy of endophytes and the relationships between those endophytes and saprobic Xylariaceae in Thailand that have been recorded according to fruit-body formation on decayed plant materials. Analysis of 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences revealed 21 xylariaceous species inhabiting...

  17. Liquid Culture Production of Fungal Microsclerotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Fungal microsclerotia ("small" sclerotia) are compact hyphal aggregates, typically 50-600 μm in diameter, that are formed under unfavorable nutritional and/or environmental conditions. These structures are often melanized and desiccated to some degree containing endogenous nutritional reserves for use when favorable conditions return. Many fungi, mostly plant pathogens, produce microsclerotia as a survival structure. Liquid culture methods have been developed for producing microsclerotia of the Ascomycota Metarhizium spp, Colletotrichum truncatum, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, and Trichoderma spp. While these fungi have varying culture conditions that optimize microsclerotia production, all share common nutritional and environmental requirements for microsclerotia formation. Described are the general liquid culture techniques, media components, and harvesting and drying methods necessary to produce stable microsclerotial granules of these fungi. PMID:27565493

  18. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SOME LICHENIZED FUNGI SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÎNDARU DIANA-MIHAELA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, lichenized fungi are used in biomonitoring studies of air quality, being good receptors in the climate change. This paper aims to investigate surface micromorphology of Xanthoria parietina and Phaeophyscia orbicularis species (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota. The study also includes the investigation of selected chemical parameters as pH and conductivity of the lichenized fungi samples collected from various locations in the Iaşi County (Romania. Measurements of the pH provide information on the degree of pollution in the location of interest. Bark trees pH was also investigated in order to see if our matrix substrate influences the pH of the interest lichenized fungi samples.

  19. Isolation and Identification of the Pathogen of Leaf Blight of Alpinia officinarun Hance%高良姜叶枯病病原菌的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭玉; 甘炳春; 冯锦东

    2014-01-01

    [目的]明确高良姜叶枯病病原菌.[方法]病原菌从高良姜感病组织上分离并依据柯赫氏法则进行致病性测定,病原菌的鉴定主要通过形态鉴定和ITS序列分析.[结果]高良姜叶枯病病原菌确定为可可毛色二孢(Lasiodiplodia theobromae),属子囊菌门(Ascomycota),座囊菌纲(Dothideomycetes),葡萄座腔菌目(Botryosphaeriales),葡萄座腔菌科(Botryosphaeriaceae),毛色二孢属(Lasiodiplodia).[结论]首次报道高良姜叶枯病病原菌为可可毛色二孢.

  20. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  1. Illumina sequencing of fungi associated with manganese oxide deposits in cave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, B. T.; Santelli, C. M.; Carmichael, S. K.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Roble, L.; Carmichael, M.; Bräuer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The environmental cycling of manganese (Mn) remains relatively poorly characterized when compared with other metals such as iron. However, fungi have been observed to produce Mn(III/IV) oxides resembling buserite, birnessite, and todorokite on the periphery of vegetative hyphae, hyphal branching points and at the base of fruiting bodies. Recent studies indicate that some of these oxides may be generated by a two-stage reaction with soluble Mn(II) and biogenic reactive oxygen species for some groups of fungi, in particular the Ascomycota. These oxides can provide a versatile protective barrier or aid in the capture of trace metals in the environment, although the exact evolutionary function and trigger is unclear. In this study, two caves in the southern Appalachians, a pristine cave and an anthropogenically impacted cave, were compared by analyzing fungal community assemblages in manganese oxide rich deposits. Quantitative PCR data indicated that fungi are present in a low abundance (18S rDNA clone library, over 88% were representative of the phylum Basidiomycota (predominantly Agaricomycetes), 2.74% of Ascomycota, 2.28% of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, 0.46% of Zygomycota, and 3.65% of Eukarya or Fungi incertae sedis. Using Illumina's MiSeq to sequence amplicons of the fungal ITS1 gene has yielded roughly 100,000-200,000 paired-end reads per sample. These data are currently being analyzed to compare fungal communities before and after induced Mn oxidation in the field. In addition, sites within the pristine cave are being compared with analogous sites in the impacted cave. Culturing efforts have thus far yielded Mn oxide producing members of the orders Glomerales and Pleosporales as well as two Genus incertae sedis (Fungal sp. YECT1, and Fungal sp. YECT3, growing on discarded electrical tape) that do not appear to be closely related to any other known Mn oxidizing fungi.

  2. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eSohlberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 m to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  3. Evaluation of the functional roles of fungal endophytes of Phragmites australis from high saline and low saline habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Hai-Yan; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, Marshall; Torres, Monica S.; White, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native Phragmites australis decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands in North America. We surveyed the endophyte communities in the stems, leaves and roots of collections of P. australis obtained from two sites with a low and high salt concentration to determine differences in endophyte composition and assess differences in functional roles of microbes in plants from both sites. We found differences in the abundance, richness and diversity of endophytes between the low saline collections (18 species distributed in phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Stramenopiles (Oomycota); from orders Dothideales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Eurotiales, Cantharellales and Pythiales; Shannon H = 2.639; Fisher alpha = 7.335) and high saline collections (15 species from phylum Ascomycota; belonging to orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Diaporthales, Xylariales and Dothideales; Shannon H = 2.289; Fisher alpha = 4.181). Peyronellaea glomerata, Phoma macrostoma and Alternaria tenuissima were species obtained from both sites. The high salt endophyte community showed higher resistance to zinc, mercury and salt stress compared to fungal species from the low salt site. These endophytes also showed a greater propensity for growth promotion of rice seedlings (a model species) under salt stress. The results of this study are consistent with the ‘habitat-adapted symbiosis hypothesis’ that holds that endophytic microbes may help plants adapt to extreme habitats. The capacity of P. australis to establish symbiotic relationships with diverse endophytic microbes that enhance its tolerance to abiotic stresses could be a factor that contributes to its invasiveness in saline environments. Targeting the symbiotic associates of P. australis could lead to more sustainable control of non-native P. australis.

  4. Response of Soil Fungi Community Structure to Salt Vegetation Succession in the Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yun; Guo, Du-Fa

    2016-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the composition and distribution of fungal community structure in the Yellow River Delta under bare land and four kinds of halophyte vegetation (saline seepweed, Angiospermae, Imperata and Apocynum venetum [A. venetum]). The results showed that the soil quality continuously improved with the succession of salt vegetation types. The soil fungi richness of mild-salt communities (Imperata and A. venetum) was relatively higher, with Shannon index values of 5.21 and 5.84, respectively. The soil fungi richness of severe-salt-tolerant communities (saline seepweed, Angiospermae) was relatively lower, with Shannon index values of 4.64 and 4.66, respectively. The UniFrac metric values ranged from 0.48 to 0.67 when the vegetation was in different succession stages. A total of 60,174 valid sequences were obtained for the five vegetation types, and they were classified into Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. Ascomycota had the greatest advantage among plant communities of Imperata and A. venetum, as indicated by relative abundances of 2.69 and 69.97 %, respectively. Basidiomycota had the greatest advantage among mild-salt communities of saline seepweed and Angiospermae, with relative abundances of 9.43 and 6.64 %, respectively. Soil physical and chemical properties were correlated with the distribution of the fungi, and Mucor was significantly correlated with soil moisture (r = 0.985; P < 0.01). Soil quality, salt vegetation and soil fungi were influenced by each other. PMID:27449214

  5. Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, D. I.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Poschl, U.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2014-08-26

    Ice nucleation on fungal spores may affect the frequency and properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilagomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are cosmopolitan all over the globe. Ustilagomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes since they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated were found to cause freezing of water droplets at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -36 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilagomycetes > Agaricomycetes ≅ Eurotiomycetes. We show that at temperatures below -20 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98 % of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the atmospheric

  6. Extended studies on the diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in Austria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies on diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in selected habitats in Austria and Poland carried out in the years 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 are discussed. In total 47 species of entomopathogenic fungi were found as pathogens of different arthropods in Austria. Twenty six entomophthoralean species from different insects and one species from mites were identified and 16 of them are recorded as new to Austria. From among 21 species of anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota affecting arthropods in Austria, 13 species so far have not been known from this country. In total 51 species of fungi affecting different arthropods in Poland were recorded, among them 28 species of Entomophthorales and 23 anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota were separated. The most frequent species of the entomopathogenic fungi both in agricultural and afforested areas in Austria were the common and usually worldwide distributed cordycipitaceous anamorphs Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and in areas of this study less numerous I. farinosa. The most frequent pathogens occurring in mite communities on plants and in wood infested by insects were Hirsutella species. Several entomophthoralean species developed epizootics that caused high reduction in host populations of different arthropods in both countries. Especially interesting is the first record of mycoses (up to 60% mortality, caused by Zoophthora spp. on Phyllobius beetles in a mixed forest near Białowieża. During our joint research, we found the first time in Poland and Europe, the presence of the fungus Furia cf. shandongensis on earwigs and Hirsutella entomophila on Ips typographus adults in forest habitats. From the feeding sites of the latter bark beetle and other subcortical species in oak bark (mostly Dryocoetes villosus and D. alni in black alder over a dozen of various Lecanicillium strains - including few of the features not allowing to classify them to any of so far known species – were

  7. 三种保守蛋白系统树支持卡氏肺孢子虫作为古子囊菌的分类地位%Phylogenetic trees of three conservative proteins support placement of Pneumocystis carinii in archiascomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕安; 潘淼; 李颖

    2005-01-01

    目的卡氏肺孢子虫作为肺炎的病原物,其分类地位一直存在争议.近二十年来,关于卡氏肺孢子虫的分子生物学证据多支持其为真菌的观点,但卡氏肺孢子虫在真菌内部的分类地位需要确定.方法本研究在swissprot数据库中搜集真菌和卡氏肺孢子虫中的肌动蛋白、α微管蛋白和钙调素这三种保守蛋白的氨基酸序列,使用phylip3.6a软件中的邻接法构建三种保守蛋白的系统树,从而探讨卡氏肺孢子虫的分类地位.结果三种蛋白的分子系统树都支持了将卡氏肺孢子虫作为子囊菌的早期分支古子囊菌的分类观点.结论古子囊菌可能并不是一个单起源群.%[Objective] Pneumocystis carinii has been the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS. As a eukaryotic pathogen, its phylogeny has been controversial for many years. Molecular evidence accumulated in recent 20 years supported the placement of Pneumocystis carinii as a fungus, however, its phylogenic place within fungi is still unclear. [Methods] Molecular phylogeny of three conservative proteins is constructed to elucidate the phylogeny of Pneumocystis carinii in fungi. Amino acid sequences of actin, αtubulin and calmodulin in fungi are collected from the swissprot database and phylogenic trees are constructed using neighbor-jioning method in phylip3.6a software. [Results] From the phylogenetic tree of acitns in fungi Pneumocystis carinii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are in an early branch of Ascomycota. In the phylogenetic tree of calmoduins in fungi, Pneumocystis carinii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are early branches of Ascomycota called Archiascomycetes. Theαtubulin tree also supports the placement of Pneumocystis carinii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in Archiascomycetes and the polyphyletic origin of this lineage. [Conclusion] The phylogenic trees of the three proteins support the placement of Pneumoeystis carinii in Archiascomycetes and

  8. DNA分子标记技术在真菌系统学研究中的应用及影响%DNA molecular marker techniques: application to and influence on fungal systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余知和; 曾昭清

    2013-01-01

    DNA分子标记技术为真菌系统进化研究提供了许多新的方法,真菌分子系统学已成为一门成熟的学科.简述了真菌分子系统学的发展简史和代表性的研究方法以及对真菌系统学的主要贡献,包括将广义的真菌划分为3个类群,粘菌和卵菌不再属于真菌界成员.真菌生命之树项目的研究结果对真菌界高阶分类系统作出重大调整,将先前的4个门(壶菌门、接合菌门、子囊菌门和担子菌门)变为7个门(微孢子虫门、壶菌门、新丽鞭毛菌门、芽枝霉门、球囊菌门、子囊菌门和担子菌门)和4个亚门,并对真菌各类群概念作出修订.此外,DNA分子标记技术对真菌种概念的认识、有性型-无性型关联及分子生态学等研究领域产生了重要影响.%DNA molecular markers technique has been introduced as new approaches to study fungal phylogeny and evolution. Nowadays, fungal molecular systematics is a mature discipline, and the history of development and representative research approaches of fungal molecular systematics and the main attributions of these approaches to fungal systematics are discussed in this paper. The organisms studied by mycologists, fungi, are divided into three different groups. The slime moulds and oomycetes do not belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The recent milestone is the AFTOL (Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life) project, in which a higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi is proposed. The kingdom Fungi traditionally consisted of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota, but more recent classifications of the fungal kingdom now include Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Microsporidia and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Zoopagomycotina. The concept of the different taxa in fungi has also been revised. Furthermore, the

  9. A Preliminary Study on Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Wild Dendrobium of ficinale under Different Habitats%不同生境下野生铁皮石斛内生真菌多样性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛益婷; 代晓宇; 马荣

    2011-01-01

    采集湖南省新宁县崀山世界自然遗产风景名胜区和广西省乐业县雅长兰科植物自然保护区这两个生境中处于生长期的铁皮石斛(Dendrobium officinale)的营养根,并进行分离培养.通过对分离所得的41个菌株进行形态观察和ITS序列测定相结合的鉴定,共获得内生真菌34种.对担子菌和子囊菌分别进行了系统发育树构建结果显示,子囊菌为优势种类(31种),以炭角菌目(Xylariales)和肉座菌目(Hypocreales)的种类为主,担子菌则以胶膜菌科(Tulasnellaceae)为主.Simpson多样性指数分析结果表明,不同生境下野生铁皮石斛内生真菌的多样性都很高,且雅长的高于崀山的.%The nutrition roots of D. officinale in growth period collected from two different habitats : Lang mountain natural heritage scenic area of Xinning county, Hunan province and Orchid resources gene garden of Yachang orchid nature reserve of Leye county,Guangxi province as site of collection of wild D. officinale. The endophytic fungi was isolated in tissue blocks cultivation,and identified by using morphological and molecular techniques. In this study,34 fungi species were isolated from the 41 representative fungi strains. The diversity of endophytic fungi with the phylogenetic diversity of fungi isolate were investigated. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the fungi mainly belonged to Xylariales and Hypocreales of Ascomycota, and Tulasnellaceae of Basidiomycota. The Ascomycota was dominant, containing 31 species. The analysis results of Simpson diversity index indicated that the diversity of endophytic fungi from D. officinale exhibited high diversity,the diversity of Yachang were higher than of Lang mountain.

  10. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  11. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Maria L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  12. Contribución a la identificación de esporas del Reino Fungi en la atmósfera de La Plata, Argentina

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    Daniela S. Nitiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis del registro aeromicológico de la ciudad de La Plata se propone la definición de Grupos Morfológicos de esporas del Reino Fungi. Este estudio constituye un aporte metodológico a la identificación y recuento de una fracción de la micobiota atmosférica. Para la definición de los grupos, se han tenido en cuenta los criterios de Saccardo (1886 y reformulado los agrupamientos de Díaz et al. (1998 y Aira et al. (2005. Se han creando 4 nuevos grupos y se han incorporando otros tipos esporales a las clasificaciones previas. Cada grupo, incluye entre 2 y 6 tipos de esporas pertenecientes a los Phylum Zygomycota, Basidiomycota y Ascomycota y sus anamorfos, que han sido asignados a nivel genérico. Los caracteres que definen dichas asociaciones son: Grupo Absidia, amerosporas hialinas; Grupo Cortinarius, amerosporas pigmentadas amigdaliformes; Grupo Didymella, didimosporas hialinas o levemente coloreadas; Grupo Didymosphaeria, didimosporas y didimoconidios pigmentados; Grupo Lepthosphaeria, fragmosporas septadas hialinas a pigmentadas y Grupo Helminthosporium, fragmosporas distoseptadas hialinas a pigmentadas. Esta investigación aspira a proporcionar una herramienta que facilite el procesamiento de datos y aporte nuevos elementos cualitativos a las clasificaciones previas, contribuyendo en la compleja problemática de identificación de las esporas fúngicas.Based on the aeromycological analysis of La Plata city, artificial Morphological Groups of fungal spores were defined. This study is a methodological contribution to the identification and counting of a fraction of the atmospheric micobiota. For the definition of groups, the criteria of Saccardo (1886 were taken into account and the groupings created by Díaz et al. (1998 and Aira et al. (2005 have been reformulated. Four new groups have been created and other sporal types have been incorporated to previous classifications. Each of them includes 2 to 6 spore types

  13. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Timothy Y

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32 into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi

  14. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  15. Fungal spore content of the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja (southern Spain): diversity and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Silvia; Trigo, M Mar; Recio, Marta; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2011-01-15

    Fungal spores are of great interest in aerobiology and allergy due to their high incidence in both outdoor and indoor environments and their widely recognized ability to cause respiratory diseases and other pathologies. In this work, we study the spore content of the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja, a karstic cavity and an important tourist attraction situated on the eastern coast of Malaga (southern Spain), which receives more than half a million visitors every year. This study was carried out over an uninterrupted period of 4 years (2002-2005) with the aid of two Hirst-type volumetric pollen traps (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) situated in different halls of the cave. In the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja, 72 different spore types were detected during the studied period and daily mean concentrations of up to 282,195 spores/m(3) were reached. Thirty-five of the spore types detected are included within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (19 and 16 types, respectively). Of the remaining spore types, 32 were categorized within the group of so-called imperfect fungi, while Oomycota and Myxomycota were represented by 2 and 3 spore types, respectively. Aspergillus/Penicillium was the most abundant spore type with a yearly mean percentage that represented 50% of the total, followed by Cladosporium. Finally, the origin of the fungal spores found inside the cave is discussed on the basis of the indoor/outdoor concentrations and the seasonal behaviour observed. PMID:21138779

  16. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  17. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-04-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

  18. Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2011-08-01

    Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

  19. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: A keystone species for unraveling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

    2011-09-01

    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus-characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally-can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated. PMID:22046474

  20. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busk, Peter K; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo; Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls. PMID:25461894

  1. Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Wedin, Mats; Leavitt, Steven D; Hawksworth, David L; Myllys, Leena; McCune, Bruce; Randlane, Tiina; Bjerke, Jarle W; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Schmitt, Imke; Boluda, Carlos G; Alors, David; Roca-Valiente, Beatriz; Del-Prado, Ruth; Ruibal, Constantino; Buaruang, Kawinnat; Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rico, Víctor J; Molina, M Carmen; Elix, John A; Esslinger, Theodore L; Tronstad, Inger Kristin K; Lindgren, Hanna; Ertz, Damien; Gueidan, Cécile; Saag, Lauri; Mark, Kristiina; Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Beck, Andreas; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Blanchon, Dan; Candan, Mehmet; Clerc, Philippe; Goward, Trevor; Grube, Martin; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Kirika, Paul M; Lendemer, James; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Messuti, María Inés; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Nelsen, Matthew; Ohlson, Jan I; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Saag, Andres; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Thell, Arne; Thor, Göran; Truong, Camille; Yahr, Rebecca; Upreti, Dalip K; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes. PMID:26299211

  2. Molecular characterization of microbial communities in bioaerosols of a coal mine by 454 pyrosequencing and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Yu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongxun

    2015-04-01

    Microbial diversity and abundance in bioaerosols of a coal mine were analyzed based on 454 pyrosequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 37,191 high quality sequences were obtained and could be classified into 531, 1730 and 448 operational taxonomic units respectively for archaea, bacteria and fungi at 97% sequence similarity. The Shannon diversity index for archaea, bacteria and fungi was respectively 4.71, 6.29 and 3.86, indicating a high diversity in coal mine bioaerosols. Crenarchaeota, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the dominant phyla for archaea, bacteria and fungi, respectively. The concentrations of total archaea, bacteria and fungi were 1.44×10(8), 1.02×10(8) and 9.60×10(4) cells/m3, respectively. Methanotrophs observed in bioaerosols suggested possible methane oxidation in the coal mine. The identified potential pathogens to coal miners, such as Acinetobacter schindleri, Aeromonas cavernicola, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus penicillioides, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium brevicompactum were also observed. This was the first investigation of microbial diversity and abundance in coal mine bioaerosols. The investigation of microbial communities would be favorable in promoting the progress of methane control based on microbial technique and concern on coal miners' health. PMID:25872733

  3. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S

    2009-05-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations.

  4. Molecular Detection of Verticillium albo-atrum by PCR Based on Its Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We developed one species-specific PCR assays for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic fungi Verticilliumalbo-atrum in diseased plant tissues and soil. Based on differences in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences ofVerticilliun spp., a pair of species-specific primers, Vaa1/Vaa2, was synthesized. After screening 17 isolates of V. albo-atrum, 121 isolates from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota, and Oomycota, the Vaa1/Vaa2 primers amplifiedonly a single PCR band of approximately 330 bp from V. albo-atrum. The detection sensitivity with primers Vaa1/Vaa2 was10 fg of genomic DNA. Using ITS1/ITS4 as the first-round primers, combined with Vaa1/Vaa2, the nested PCR procedureswere developed, and the detection sensitivity increased 1 000-fold to 10 ag. The detection sensitivity for the soil pathogenswas 100-conidiag-1 soil. The PCR-based methods developed here could simplify both plant disease diagnosis and pathogen monitoring as well as guide plant disease management.

  5. Familiar Stranger: Ecological Genomics of the Model Saprotroph and Industrial Enzyme Producer Trichoderma reesei Breaks the Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, I S; Kubicek, C P

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) has properties of an efficient cell factory for protein production that is exploited by the enzyme industry, particularly with respect to cellulase and hemicellulase formation. Under conditions of industrial fermentations it yields more than 100g secreted protein L(-1). Consequently, T. reesei has been intensively studied in the 20th century. Most of these investigations focused on the biochemical characteristics of its cellulases and hemicellulases, on the improvement of their properties by protein engineering, and on enhanced enzyme production by recombinant strategies. However, as the fungus is rare in nature, its ecology remained unknown. The breakthrough in the understanding of the fundamental biology of T. reesei only happened during 2000s-2010s. In this review, we compile the current knowledge on T. reesei ecology, physiology, and genomics to present a holistic view on the natural behavior of the organism. This is not only critical for science-driven further improvement of the biotechnological applications of this fungus, but also renders T. reesei as an attractive model of filamentous fungi with superior saprotrophic abilities. PMID:27261782

  6. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Quintero, Carlos A; Atanasova, Lea; Franco-Molano, A Esperanza; Gams, Walter; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Theelen, Bart; Müller, Wally H; Boekhout, Teun; Druzhinina, Irina

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution.

  7. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-21

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.

  8. Fungal communities in barren forest soil after amendment with different wood substrates and their possible effects on trees’, pathogens, insects and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers had been spread over the surface of barren forest soil before planting with Scots pine. The effects of the Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers on the abundance and diversity of culturable fungi were investigated. The amendments were aimed at increasing the soil suppressiveness to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. The classical soil-dilution method was chosen for qualitative and quantitative analyses of fungal communities in soils because of its proven reliability and consistency. The soil was inhabited by saprotrophic fungi from Ascomycota and Zygomycota, including species known to be potential antagonists of Armillaria or H. annosum (i.e. Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., Penicillium commune, P. daleae, P. janczewskii or stimulants of Armillaria (i.e. Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Trichocladium opacum. Eleven years after treatment, the abundance and diversity of fungi, the abundance of P. commune, and locally the abundance of P. janczewskii increased, while Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., and locally, P. daleae and T. opacum decreased. Amending the barren soil with organic matter does not guarantee effective, long-term suppressiveness of the sandy loam soil to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. Increased abundance of entomopathogenic and nematophagous species, 11 years after treatment, does suggest the long-term possibility of insect or nematode control in soil.

  9. The active microbial diversity drives ecosystem multifunctionality and is physiologically related to carbon availability in Mediterranean semi-arid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Felipe; Torres, Irene F; Moreno, José L; Baldrian, Petr; Ondoño, Sara; Ruiz-Navarro, Antonio; Hernández, Teresa; Richnow, Hans H; Starke, Robert; García, Carlos; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-09-01

    Biogeochemical processes and ecosystemic functions are mostly driven by soil microbial communities. However, most methods focus on evaluating the total microbial community and fail to discriminate its active fraction which is linked to soil functionality. Precisely, the activity of the microbial community is strongly limited by the availability of organic carbon (C) in soils under arid and semi-arid climate. Here, we provide a complementary genomic and metaproteomic approach to investigate the relationships between the diversity of the total community, the active diversity and ecosystem functionality across a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) gradient in southeast Spain. DOC correlated with the ecosystem multifunctionality index composed by soil respiration, enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase) and microbial biomass (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). This study highlights that the active diversity (determined by metaprotoemics) but not the diversity of the whole microbial community (evaluated by amplicon gene sequencing) is related to the availability of organic C and it is also connected to the ecosystem multifunctionality index. We reveal that DOC shapes the activities of bacterial and fungal populations in Mediterranean semi-arid soils and determines the compartmentalization of functional niches. For instance, Rhizobales thrived at high-DOC sites probably fuelled by metabolism of one-C compounds. Moreover, the analysis of proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota occupied different nutritional niches. The functional mechanisms for niche specialization were not constant across the DOC gradient.

  10. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10-40 yrs; Medium: 40-80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

  11. Tasting soil fungal diversity with earth tongues: phylogenetic test of SATe alignments for environmental ITS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes, a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit.

  12. Large and variable genome size unrelated to serpentine adaptation but supportive of cryptic sexuality in Cenococcum geophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Elizabeth C; Mina, Diogo; Gonçalves, Susana C; Loureiro, João; Freitas, Helena; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of genome size and its variation can provide valuable information regarding the genetic diversity of organisms and their adaptation potential to heterogeneous environments. We used flow cytometry to characterize the variation in genome size among 40 isolates of Cenococcum geophilum, an ectomycorrhizal fungus with a wide ecological and geographical distribution, obtained from two serpentine and two non-serpentine sites in Portugal. Besides determining the genome size and its intraspecies variation, we wanted to assess whether a relationship exists between genome size and the edaphic background of the C. geophilum isolates. Our results reveal C. geophilum to have one of the largest genome sizes so far measured in the Ascomycota, with a mean haploid genome size estimate of 0.208 pg (203 Mbp). However, no relationship was found between genome size and the edaphic background of the sampled isolates, indicating genetic and demographic processes to be more important for shaping the genome size variation in this species than environmental selection. The detection of variation in ploidy level among our isolates, including a single individual with both presumed haploid and diploid nuclei, provides supportive evidence for a possible cryptic sexual or parasexual cycle in C. geophilum (although other mechanisms may have caused this variation). The existence of such a cycle would have wide significance, explaining the high levels of genetic diversity and likelihood of recombination previously reported in this species, and adds to the increasing number of studies suggesting sexual cycles in previously assumed asexual fungi. PMID:23754539

  13. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  14. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

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    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  15. Unearthing microbial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere via MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing and isolate characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Song, Si Meng; Mu, Jun; Hu, Wen Li; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2016-04-01

    The species variability and potential environmental functions of Taxus rhizosphere microbial community were studied by comparative analyses of 15 16S rRNA and 15 ITS MiSeq sequencing libraries from Taxus rhizospheres in subtropical and temperate regions of China, as well as by isolating laccase-producing strains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strains. Total reads could be assigned to 2,141 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 31 bacteria phyla and 2,904 OTUs of at least seven fungi phyla. The abundance of Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi was higher in T. cuspidata var. nana and T. × media rhizospheres than in T. mairei rhizosphere (NF), while Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and unclassified bacteria were more abundant in the latter. Ascomycota and Zygomycota were predominant in NF, while two temperate Taxus rhizospheres had more unclassified fungi, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The bacterial/fungal community richness and diversity were lower in NF than in other two. Three dye decolorizing fungal isolates were shown to be highly efficient in removing three classes of reactive dye, while two PAH-degrading fungi were able to degrade recalcitrant benzo[a]pyrene. The present studies extend the knowledge pedigree of the microbial diversity populating rhizospheres, and exemplify the method shift in research and development of resource plant rhizosphere.

  16. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

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    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-01

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing. PMID:26796580

  17. Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae

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    Jaejin Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple transcription factors (TFs have been characterized via mutagenesis to understand their roles in controlling pathogenicity and infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, if and how forkhead-box (FOX TFs contribute to these processes remain to be characterized. Four putative FOX TF genes were identified in the genome of M. oryzae, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that two of them (MoFKH1 and MoHCM1 correspond to Ascomycota-specific members of the FOX TF family while the others (MoFOX1 and MoFOX2 are Pezizomycotina-specific members. Deletion of MoFKH1 (ΔMofkh1 resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly, ΔMohcm1 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. Conidia of ΔMofkh1 and ΔMohcm1 were more sensitive to one or both of the cell cycle inhibitors hydroxyurea and benomyl, suggesting their role in cell cycle control. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (ΔMofox1 did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and Mo-HCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Fungal Diversity on Strawberry Plants and the Effect of Management Practices on the Fungal Community Structure of Aerial Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2016-01-01

    An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with different strawberry organs (leaves, flowers, immature and mature fruits), grown on a farm using management practices that entailed the routine use of various chemical pesticides. ITS2 sequences clustered into 316 OTUs and Ascomycota was the dominant phyla (95.6%) followed by Basidiomycota (3.9%). Strawberry plants supported a high diversity of microbial organisms, but two genera, Botrytis and Cladosporium, were the most abundant, representing 70–99% of the relative abundance (RA) of all detected sequences. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, strawberry organs displayed significantly different fungal communities with leaves having the most diverse fungal community, followed by flowers, and fruit. The interruption of chemical treatments for one month resulted in a significant modification in the structure of the fungal community of leaves and flowers while immature and mature fruit were not significantly affected. Several plant pathogens of other plant species, that would not be intuitively expected to be present on strawberry plants such as Erysiphe, were detected, while some common strawberry pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia, were less evident or absent. PMID:27490110

  19. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

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    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts in the phyllosphere of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L.

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    Pei-Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

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    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  2. Marine Drugs from Sponge-Microbe Association—A Review

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    Tresa Remya A. Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this review is the biodiversity of marine sponges and associated microbes which have been reported to produce therapeutically important compounds, along with the contextual information on their geographic distribution. Class Demospongiae and the orders Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida and Dictyoceratida are the richest sources of these compounds. Among the microbial associates, members of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal division Ascomycota have been identified to be the dominant producers of therapeutics. Though the number of bacterial associates outnumber the fungal associates, the documented potential of fungi to produce clinically active compounds is currently more important than that of bacteria. Interestingly, production of a few identical compounds by entirely different host-microbial associations has been detected in both terrestrial and marine environments. In the Demospongiae, microbial association is highly specific and so to the production of compounds. Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only a few studies have covered these dimensions. The need to augment production of these compounds through tissue culture and mariculture has also been stressed. The reviewed database of these compounds is available at www.niobioinformatics.in/drug.php.

  3. Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.

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    Hee Kuk Park

    Full Text Available The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp. was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp. was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

  4. Characterization of the Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome in Fecal Samples from Dogs

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    M. Lauren Foster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and phylogenetic description of fungal organisms and their role as part of the intestinal ecosystem have not yet been studied extensively in dogs. This study evaluated the fungal microbiome of 19 dogs (12 healthy dogs and 7 dogs with acute diarrhea using fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. Five distinct fungal phyla were identified, with Ascomycota (medians: 97.9% of obtained sequences in healthy dogs and 98.2% in diseased dogs and Basidiomycota (median 1.0% in healthy dogs and median 0.5% in diseased dogs being the most abundant fungal phyla. A total of 219 fungal genera were identified across all 19 dogs with a median (range of 28 (4–69 genera per sample. Candida was the most abundant genus found in both the diseased dogs (median: 1.9%, range: 0.2%–38.5% of sequences and healthy dogs (median: 5.2%, range: 0.0%–63.1% of sequences. Candida natalensis was the most frequently identified species. No significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of fungal communities between healthy and diseased dogs. In conclusion, fecal samples of healthy dogs and dogs with acute diarrhea harbor various fungal genera, and their role in gastrointestinal health and disease warrants further studies.

  5. Relationship between phylogenetic distribution and genomic features in Neurospora crassa.

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    Takao Kasuga

    Full Text Available In the post-genome era, insufficient functional annotation of predicted genes greatly restricts the potential of mining genome data. We demonstrate that an evolutionary approach, which is independent of functional annotation, has great potential as a tool for genome analysis. We chose the genome of a model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa as an example. Phylogenetic distribution of each predicted protein coding gene (PCG in the N. crassa genome was used to classify genes into six mutually exclusive lineage specificity (LS groups, i.e. Eukaryote/Prokaryote-core, Dikarya-core, Ascomycota-core, Pezizomycotina-specific, N. crassa-orphans and Others. Functional category analysis revealed that only approximately 23% of PCGs in the two most highly lineage-specific grouping, Pezizomycotina-specific and N. crassa-orphans, have functional annotation. In contrast, approximately 76% of PCGs in the remaining four LS groups have functional annotation. Analysis of chromosomal localization of N. crassa-orphan PCGs and genes encoding for secreted proteins showed enrichment in subtelomeric regions. The origin of N. crassa-orphans is not known. We found that 11% of N. crassa-orphans have paralogous N. crassa-orphan genes. Of the paralogous N. crassa-orphan gene pairs, 33% were tandemly located in the genome, implying a duplication origin of N. crassa-orphan PCGs in the past. LS grouping is thus a useful tool to explore and understand genome organization, evolution and gene function in fungi.

  6. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  7. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques

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    Urbano, R.; Palenik, B.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms can impact atmospheric chemistry through metabolic reactions and can potentially influence physical processes by participating in ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Microbial roles in atmospheric processes are thought to be species-specific and potentially dependent on cell viability. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform, culture-dependent (i.e. agar plates) and culture-independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters) approaches were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to obtain insight into the local atmospheric microbial composition. From 13 microbial isolates and 42 DNA library clones, a total of 55 sequences were obtained representing four independent sampling events. Sequence analysis revealed that in these coastal samples two fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture-dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture-independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not typically found. The abundance of terrestrial and marine sediment-associated microorganisms suggests a potential importance for bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

  8. Superimposed pristine limestone aquifers with marked hydrochemical differences exhibit distinct fungal communities

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    Ali eNawaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE. We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Archaeorhizomyces borealis sp. nov. and a sequence-based classification of related soil fungal species.

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    Menkis, Audrius; Urbina, Hector; James, Timothy Y; Rosling, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The class Archaeorhizomycetes (Taphrinomycotina, Ascomycota) was introduced to accommodate an ancient lineage of soil-inhabiting fungi found in association with plant roots. Based on environmental sequencing data Archaeorhizomycetes may comprise a significant proportion of the total fungal community in soils. Yet the only species described and cultivated in this class is Archaeorhizomyces finlayi. In this paper, we describe a second species from a pure culture, Archaeorhizomyces borealis NS99-600(T) (=CBS138755(ExT)) based on morphological, physiological, and multi-locus molecular characterization. Archaeorhizomyces borealis was isolated from a root tip of a Pinus sylvestris seedling grown in a forest nursery in Lithuania. Analysis of Archaeorhizomycete species from environmental samples shows that it has a Eurasian distribution and is the most commonly observed species. Archaeorhizomyces borealis shows slow growth in culture and forms yellowish creamy colonies, characteristics that distinguish A. borealis from its closest relative A. finlayi. Here we also propose a sequence-based taxonomic classification of Archaeorhizomycetes and predict that approximately 500 species in this class remain to be isolated and described. PMID:25457942

  10. A putative transcription factor MYT1 is required for female fertility in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

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    Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae.

  11. Efficacy of water- and oil-in-water-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus eggs and eclosing larvae.

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    Luz, Christian; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton Kort Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were assessed against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Arachnida: Ixodidae) eggs under laboratory conditions. Clusters of 25 eggs were applied either directly with the fungal conidial formulations or set on previously fungus-treated filter paper. Treatments consisted of conidia formulated in water or an oil-in-water emulsion at final concentrations of 3.3 × 10(3), 10(4), 3.3 × 10(4), 10(5), or 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/cm(2). The development of mycelium and new conidia on egg clusters incubated at 25 °C and humidity close to saturation depended on conidial concentration, formulation, and application technique. No larvae eclosed from eggs after direct applications of conidia regardless of the formulation. The eclosion and survival of larvae from indirectly treated egg clusters depended on the type of formulation and conidial concentration applied. Oil-in-water formulations of conidia demonstrated the highest activity against eggs of R. sanguineus.

  12. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

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    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  13. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far.

  14. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

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    Cátia Pinto

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  15. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  16. Characterization of early microbial communities on volcanic deposits along a vegetation gradient on the island of Miyake, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-won; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The 2000 eruption of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima) created a unique opportunity to study the early ecosystem development on newly exposed terrestrial substrates. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities on 9- and 11-year-old volcanic deposits at poorly to fully vegetation-recovered sites in Miyake-jima, Japan, were characterized by conventional culture-based methods and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Despite the differences in the vegetation cover, the upper volcanic deposit layer samples displayed low among-site variation for chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) and microbial population densities (total direct count and culturable count). Statistical analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the microbial communities of volcanic deposit samples were phylogenetically diverse, in spite of very low-carbon environmental conditions, and their diversity was comparable to that in the lower soil layer (buried soil) samples. Comparing with the microbial communities in buried soil, the volcanic deposit communities were characterized by the presence of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the main bacterial class, Deinococcus- Thermus as the minor bacterial phyla, and Ascomycota as the major fungal phyla. Multivariate analysis revealed that several bacterial families and fungal classes correlated positively or negatively with plant species. PMID:24463576

  17. Diversity, ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of marine fungi associated to the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Luigi; Bruno, Maurizio; Voyron, Samuele; Anastasi, Antonella; Gnavi, Giorgio; Miserere, Luca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment is characterized by high salinity and exerts a strong selective pressure on the biota, favouring the development of halo-tolerant microorganisms. Part of this microbial diversity is made up of fungi, important organisms from ecological and biotechnological points of view. In this study, for the first time, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora associated to leaves, rhizomes, roots and matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was estimated. A total of 88 fungal taxa, mainly belonging to Ascomycota, were identified by morphological and molecular methods. The most represented genera were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Acremonium. Most of the species (70) were selectively associated with one district; only two species (Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum and P. janczewskii) were isolated from all the districts. Moreover the capability to produce laccases, peroxidases and tannases by 107 fungal isolated by the different districts of P. oceanica was carried out. These results show that the mycoflora associated to P. oceanica is very rich and characterized by fungi able to produce ligninolytic enzymes and tannases useful to degrade and detoxify lignocellulose residues in presence of high salt concentrations. These fungi, hence, may play important ecological roles in marine environments but can also be very useful in different biotechnological areas. PMID:23410985

  18. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  19. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  20. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  2. Phylogenomic analysis uncovers the evolutionary history of nutrition and infection mode in rice blast fungus and other Magnaporthales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Qiu, Huan; Cai, Guohong; Wagner, Nicole E; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The order Magnaporthales (Ascomycota, Fungi) includes devastating pathogens of cereals, such as the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, which is a model in host-pathogen interaction studies. Magnaporthales also includes saprotrophic species associated with grass roots and submerged wood. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the phylogenetic position of Magnaporthales within Sordariomycetes and the interrelationships of its constituent taxa, remain controversial. In this study, we generated novel transcriptome data from 21 taxa that represent key Magnaporthales lineages of different infection and nutrition modes and phenotypes. Phylogenomic analysis of >200 conserved genes allowed the reconstruction of a robust Sordariomycetes tree of life that placed the monophyletic group of Magnaporthales sister to Ophiostomatales. Among Magnaporthales, three major clades were recognized: 1) an early diverging clade A comprised of saprotrophs associated with submerged woods; 2) clade B that includes the rice blast fungus and other pathogens that cause blast diseases of monocot plants. These species infect the above-ground tissues of host plants using the penetration structure, appressorium; and 3) clade C comprised primarily of root-associated species that penetrate the root tissue with hyphopodia. The well-supported phylogenies provide a robust framework for elucidating evolution of pathogenesis, nutrition modes, and phenotypic characters in Magnaporthales. PMID:25819715

  3. Plant Tissue Preparation for the Detection of an Endophytic Fungus In Planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Aimee C

    2016-01-01

    The identification of fungal endophytes often relies on culturing isolates from surface-sterilized plant tissue. However, molecular techniques have enabled the rapid detection and identification of targeted endophyte species, and next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to obtain comprehensive information on endophytic communities, directly from plant tissue. In order to achieve accurate detection from internal tissues, surface microbes and associated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be eliminated, with particular consideration for the type of plant tissue and the efficacy of the surface sterilization procedure used. The methodology described later was developed specifically for detection of DNA from the entomopathogenic fungal endophyte Beauveria bassiana (Vuillemin) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) in various tissues of Zea mays (L.). However, the protocol may be easily applied to other fungi and bacterial endophytes. Included is a stringent sodium hypochlorite-based surface sterilization protocol for plant material in preparation for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect target DNA within plant tissue. Included are a treatment for dealing with surface DNA contamination and a novel procedure for assessing the efficacy of surface sterilization using PCR. PMID:27565499

  4. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  5. Novel chytrid lineages dominate fungal sequences in diverse marine and freshwater habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M.; Vincent, Warwick F.; Bernier, Louis; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-07-01

    In aquatic environments, fungal communities remain little studied despite their taxonomic and functional diversity. To extend the ecological coverage of this group, we conducted an in-depth analysis of fungal sequences within our collection of 3.6 million V4 18S rRNA pyrosequences originating from 319 individual marine (including sea-ice) and freshwater samples from libraries generated within diverse projects studying Arctic and temperate biomes in the past decade. Among the ~1.7 million post-filtered reads of highest taxonomic and phylogenetic quality, 23,263 fungal sequences were identified. The overall mean proportion was 1.35%, but with large variability; for example, from 0.01 to 59% of total sequences for Arctic seawater samples. Almost all sample types were dominated by Chytridiomycota-like sequences, followed by moderate-to-minor contributions of Ascomycota, Cryptomycota and Basidiomycota. Species and/or strain richness was high, with many novel sequences and high niche separation. The affinity of the most common reads to phytoplankton parasites suggests that aquatic fungi deserve renewed attention for their role in algal succession and carbon cycling.

  6. Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2013-02-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies.

  7. Dust Rains Deliver Diverse Assemblages of Microorganisms to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Ghida Nouhad; Smith, Colin Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Dust rains may be particularly effective at delivering microorganisms, yet their biodiversities have been seldom examined. During 2011 and 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon, 16 of 21 collected rainfalls appeared dusty. Trajectory modelling of air mass origins was consistent with North African sources and at least one Southwest Asian source. As much as ~4 g particulate matter, ~20 μg DNA, and 50 million colony forming units were found deposited per square meter during rainfalls each lasting less than one day. Sequencing of 93 bacteria and 25 fungi cultured from rain samples revealed diverse bacterial phyla, both Gram positive and negative, and Ascomycota fungi. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA of 13 rains revealed distinct and diverse assemblages of bacteria. Dust rain 16S libraries yielded 131 sequences matching, in decreasing order of abundance, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. Clean rain 16S libraries yielded 33 sequences matching only Betaproteobacteria family Oxalobacteraceae. Microbial composition varied between dust rains, and more diverse and different microbes were found in dust rains than clean rains. These results show that dust rains deliver diverse communities of microorganisms that may be complex products of revived desert soil species and fertilized cloud species.

  8. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halary, Sébastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  9. Phylogeny of the Zygomycota based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Merlin M; James, Timothy Y; O'Donnell, Kerry; Cafaro, Matías J; Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Sugiyama, Junta

    2006-01-01

    The Zygomycota is an ecologically heterogenous assemblage of nonzoosporic fungi comprising two classes, Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the phylum is polyphyletic; two of four orders of Trichomycetes are related to the Mesomycetozoa (protists) that diverged near the fungal/animal split. Current circumscription of the Zygomycota includes only orders with representatives that produce zygospores. We present a molecular-based phylogeny including recognized representatives of the Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes with a combined dataset for nuclear rRNA 18S (SSU), 5.8S and 28S (LSU) genes. Tree reconstruction by Bayesian analyses suggests the Zygomycota is paraphyletic. Although 12 clades were identified only some of these correspond to the nine orders of Zygomycota currently recognized. A large superordinal clade, comprising the Dimargaritales, Harpellales, Kickxellales and Zoopagales, grouping together many symbiotic fungi, also is identified in part by a unique septal structure. Although Harpellales and Kickxellales are not monophyletic, these lineages are distinct from the Mucorales, Endogonales and Mortierellales, which appear more closely related to the Ascomycota + Basidiomycota + Glomeromycota. The final major group, the insect-associated Entomophthorales, appears to be polyphyletic. In the present analyses Basidiobolus and Neozygites group within Zygomycota but not with the Entomophthorales. Clades are discussed with special reference to traditional classifications, mapping morphological characters and ecology, where possible, as a snapshot of our current phylogenetic perspective of the Zygomycota.

  10. BasicS oli Physicochemical Properties and Soil Fungal Diversti y under Different Forest Ty pes of Urban Forest%城市森林不同林型下土壤基本理化特性及土壤真菌多样性1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微微; 康颖; 卢宏; 王秋玉

    2016-01-01

    .mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis, Picea koraiensis, and forest edge grassland as control to de-termine the main soil physicochemical properties including soil pH , relative water content and electrical conductivity , and detected the soil fungal metagenomics diversity .There were significant variation among different soil samples in three soil basic properties, such as 4.597-7.393 for pH value,4.11%-10.90%for relative water content, 953.000-3 443.333μs· cm-1 for soil electrical conductivity .The pH value and soil electrical conductivity were highest for soil of Juglans mandshu-rica plantation, and the lowest for Larix gmelinii plantation.There were great difference in soil fungal metagenomics among eight soil samples.Total of 362 species, 211 genera, 124 families, 63 orders and 24 classes, 8 eumycota were in all soil samples.There were clear changes in the level of Eumycophyta and Eumycetes , including Ascomycota , Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota , Zygomycota , and Glomeromycota .An ancient mycorrhizal fungi of Ascomycota newly discovered in recent years was found in the forest soil of Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, while Agaricostibomycete fungi of pucciniomycoti-na, Basidiomycota were detected in the control samples and Glomeromycota fungi in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica and Fraxinus mandshurica, Exobasidiomycete fungi of Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were only detected in the forest soil of Picea koraiensis and control. The dominant species were the fungi of Ascomycota phylum in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica, and Basidiomycota fungi in the forest soil of Betula platyphylla, Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, Picea koraiensis in Eumycophyta level .The dominate spe-cies in Eumycetes level were mainly Agaricomycetes fungi , in which sordariomycetes fungi of Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota as the dominate species were only found in the soil sample of Fraxinus mandshurica.

  11. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Halary

    Full Text Available The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  12. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands.

  13. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, quantitative PCR (qPCR and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community’s shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05. Significant amounts of the variations (31.1% were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities’ changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination.

  14. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

    2013-12-01

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the Δumv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with Δumv1 dikaryons revealed that the Δumv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The Δumv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The Δumv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the Δumv1 and Δumv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings.

  15. Conserved and Distinct Functions of the “Stunted” (StuA)-Homolog Ust1 During Cell Differentiation in the Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Montañez, Lourdes; Gold, Scott E; Espeso, Eduardo A; García-Pedrajas, María D

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. Previously, we showed that Ust1, the first APSES (Asm1p, Phd1p, Sok2p, Efg1p, and StuAp) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum Basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. Here, we further analyzed Ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) Ust1 activity was able to partially reverse stuA− conidiophore defects in Aspergillus nidulans; ii) in U. maydis, normal development and virulence were strongly dependent on precise induction or repression of Ust1 activity; iii) consistent with its role as a transcription factor regulating multiple processes, Ust1 accumulated in the nucleus at various stages of the life cycle; iv) however, it was undetectable at specific stages of pathogenic growth, indicating that Ust1 repression is part of normal development in planta; v) StuA response elements upstream of the ust1 open reading frame exhibited affinity for U. maydis DNA-binding proteins; vi) however, loss of regulated ust1 transcription had minor phenotypic effects; and vii) Ust1 was subject to post-translational phosphorylation but is not a target of cAMP signaling. Thus, the broad functional conservation between Ust1 and Ascomycota APSES proteins does not extend to the mechanisms regulating their activity.

  16. Mycorrhizal status of several Quercus species in Romania (Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur and the optimization perspective of growth conditions for in vitro propagated plants transplanted in the field

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    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest for important tree species conservation in the context of climate change, anthropogenic pressure and invasion of alien tree species. A key factor in the survival of trees is represented by the mycorrhizal association. The success of micropropagated trees also depends on the acquisition of mycorrhizal mutualists. Ectomycorrhizal roots samples from several Quercus species (Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur were examined for mycorrhizal morphotypes’ characterization. The samples were collected during the vegetation season from stands located in Southern and North-Western Romania. 30 morphotypes of active mycorrhizae were identified with Cenococcum geophilumFr. (Ascomycota as dominating morphotype. Previous studies on somatic embryogenesis in Q. roburand Q. frainetto demonstrated the utility of in vitro techniques in obtaining plants from these recalcitrant seed producing species, considered at risk in various areas of the country, due to increasingly stressful conditions. The success rate of the acclimatization process depends on the mycorrhization performed either artificially, in the laboratory, either naturally, in the field. Ex situ mycorrhization solutions are considered as less costly, yet efficient alternative to improve the ex vitro survival of micropropagated plants or endangered tree species or for those with economic importance, in vitro propagation is an important conservation tool combined with the acquisition of appropriate mycorrhizal mutualists. 

  17. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica.

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    Del Olmo-Ruiz, Mariana; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are an ancient and diverse lineage of vascular plants that differ morphologically, chemically and in growth habits from the angiosperms with which they co-occur. We used a culture-based approach coupled with phylogenetic analyses to characterize the incidence, diversity and composition of fungal endophyte assemblages in ferns, with a focus on healthy aboveground tissues of seven species of eupolypods at La Selva, Costa Rica. Endophytes were isolated from every individual plant and were similarly abundant and diverse in frond blades and stalks, in different vegetation types, in epiphytic vs. terrestrial species, and between sampling years. However, abundance, diversity and community structure differed significantly among fern species, and composition differed markedly between sampling years. Phylogenetic classification using separate and combined datasets revealed that as for many Neotropical angiosperms, the majority (95%) of endophyte taxa were Ascomycota, with particular dominance by Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes. However, our data suggest higher phylogenetic richness and stronger host affinities in fern associated endophytes relative to those studied in angiosperms thus far. PMID:24459121

  18. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

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    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  19. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats. PMID:27348421

  20. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

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    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment. PMID:26840453

  1. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

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    Julia Moll

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit, occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  2. Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from the Marine Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces cejpii with NF-κB Inhibitory Potential

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    Henrik Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ascomycota Dichotomomyces cejpii was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. C. flammea. A new gliotoxin derivative, 6-acetylmonodethiogliotoxin (1 was obtained from fungal extracts. Compounds 2 and 3, methylthio-gliotoxin derivatives were formerly only known as semi-synthetic compounds and are here described as natural products. Additionally the polyketide heveadride (4 was isolated. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 dose-dependently down-regulated TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells with IC50s of 38.5 ± 1.2 µM, 65.7 ± 2.0 µM and 82.7 ± 11.3 µM, respectively. The molecular mechanism was studied with the most potent compound 1 and results indicate downstream inhibitory effects targeting binding of NF-κB to DNA. Compound 1 thus demonstrates potential of epimonothiodiketopiperazine-derived compounds for the development of NF-κB inhibitors.

  3. Destructuring plant biomass: Focus on fungal and extremophilic cell wall hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ertan, Haluk; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant biomass as feedstock for biomaterial and biofuel production is relevant in the current bio-based economy scenario of valorizing renewable resources. Fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, secrete different enzymes that hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides. The present review discusses the current research trends on fungal, as well as extremophilic cell wall hydrolases that can withstand extreme physico-chemical conditions required in efficient industrial processes. Secretomes of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Neocalli-mastigomycota are presented along with metabolic cues (nutrient sensing, coordination of carbon and nitrogen metabolism) affecting their composition. We conclude the review by suggesting further research avenues focused on the one hand on a comprehensive analysis of the physiology and epigenetics underlying cell wall degrading enzyme production in fungi and on the other hand on the analysis of proteins with unknown function and metagenomics of extremophilic consortia. The current advances in consolidated bioprocessing, altered secretory pathways and creation of designer plants are also examined. Furthermore, recent developments in enhancing the activity, stability and reusability of enzymes based on synergistic, proximity and entropic effects, fusion enzymes, structure-guided recombination between homologous enzymes and magnetic enzymes are considered with a view to improving saccharification. PMID:25804821

  4. A preliminary checklist of macrofungi of Guatemala, with notes on edibility and traditional knowledge

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    Flores Arzú R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its biological wealth, current knowledge on the macromycetes inhabiting Guatemala is scant, in part because of the prolonged civil war that has prevented exploration of many ecological niches. We provide a preliminary literature–based checklist of the macrofungi occuring in the various ecological regions of Guatemala, supplemented with original observations reported here for the first time. Three hundred and fifty species, 163 genera, and 20 orders in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have been reported from Guatemala. Many of the entries pertain to ectomycorrhizal fungal species that live in symbiosis with the several Pinus and Quercus species that form the extensive pine and mixed forests of the highlands (up to 3600 m a.s.l.. As part of an ongoing study of the ethnomycology of the Maya populations in the Guatemalan highlands, we also report on the traditional knowledge about macrofungi and their uses among native people. These preliminary data confirm the impression that Guatemala hosts a macrofungal diversity that is by no means smaller than that recorded in better studied neighboring Mesoamerican areas, such as Mexico and Costa Rica.

  5. Microscopic fungi on Nymphaeaceae plants of the Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park (NW Poland

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    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of micromycetes associated with disease symptoms on the leaves and flowers of three plant species, Nymphaea alba (NA, Nymphaea candida (NC, and Nuphar lutea (NL, forming nympheid phytocoenoses on Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park during the years 2009 to 2012. From all collected plant specimens, an overall number of 38 distinct taxa of fungi and chromistan fungal analogues was isolated. The largest diversity of taxa was found on NL (37 taxa, the lowest was on NC (4 taxa, and NA contained 12 taxa. Each year, anamorphic forms of Ascomycota were dominant in the taxonomic structure. For the first time in Poland, Septoria nupharis (NA, NL, NC and Colletotrichum nymphaeae (NL, NC were found on their spotted leaves. For both of the mentioned pathogens, Nymphaea candida is a new host plant in Poland. Botrytis cinerea, Elongisporangium undulatum (= Pythium undulatum, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium incarnatum (= F. semitectum, and Gibberella avenacea (= Fusarium avenaceum were found each year in the studied phytocoenoses. The confirmation of NA and NL flower infections by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to gangrene, is an important aspect of the gray mold epidemiology. Until now, the occurrence of smut fungi on nympheids in Drawa National Park was not observed. The taxonomic structure and the predomination of asexual stages of fungi, as well as the similarity coefficients, suggest that the seasonal decomposition of nympheids run naturally and contribute to maintaining the stability of the lake ecosystem.

  6. 不同引物扩增对东海陆架沉积物真核微型生物多样性的影响%EFFECTS OF AMPLIFICATION WITH DIFFERENT PRIMERS ON MICROEUKARYOTIC DIVERSITY IN THE SURFACE LAYER SEDIMENTS OF THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞凯成; 王健鑫; 陶诗; 刘明华; 蒋然; 刘雪珠; 黄备

    2014-01-01

    采用三对通用引物(ITS1/ITS4,EF3/EF4,NS1/NS4)检测其对东海陆架DH-13站点表层沉积物真核微型生物的扩增特异性和多样性差异.对323个有效克隆子进行OTU分型和多样性分析,结果表明,NS1/NS4引物扩增所获得的文库多样性最高,EF3/EF4其次,ITS 1/ITS4最后.通过NCBI比对和分类学研究,发现优势种群主要为原生生物界,包括丝足虫门(Cercozoa,占所有OTU的36.4%)、横裂甲藻纲(Dinophyceae,占14.2%)、不等鞭毛门(Stramenopiles,占7.4%)和纤毛虫门(Ciliophora,占6.3%);另含部分真菌界如子囊菌门(Ascomycota,占7.4%)和壶菌门(Chytridiomycota,占6.3%).原生生物方面,NS1/NS4引物表现的多样性最高,适合于扩增丝足虫门、横裂甲藻纲和不等鞭毛门,并扩增到独有的眼虫门(Euglenozoa)、隐藻门(Cryptophyta)和顶复门(Apicomplexa);ITS1/ITS4适合于扩增甲藻和纤毛虫门;EF3/EF4则适合于丝足虫门.真菌方面,ITS1/ITS4适合于扩增子囊菌门;EF3/EF4适合于子囊菌门和壶菌门,而NS1/NS4适合于壶菌门.系统发育分析表明,三对引物的原生生物系统树中的相似序列多来自海洋环境样品,真菌序列则分别来自陆地土壤真菌和海洋真菌,说明三对引物更适合于海洋沉积环境微型原生生物的分子生态分析.%Three pairs of universal primer (ITS1/ITS4,EF3/EF4 and NS1/NS4) were applied to determine the amplification specificity and diversity difference in microeukaryotes isolated from surface sediment at station DH-13,on the East China Sea shelf.After the OTU classification and diversity analysis on 323 valid clones,we demonstrate that the library generated by the amplification of primer NS1/NS4 obtains the highest diversity,followed by the EF3/EF4,and then the ITS 1/ITS4.Through comparison with NCBI and taxonomical study,we found that the dominant species mainly belong to the Protista,which includes Cercozoa (accounting for 36.4% of the total OTU),Dinophyceae (14

  7. Distribution of introns in fungal histone genes.

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    Choong-Soo Yun

    Full Text Available Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

  8. Screening Brazilian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José C

    2012-03-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipases. Hydrolase detection and growth rate determination were done on citric pectin, gelatin, casein, soluble starch, and olive oil as substrates. Ten isolates were found to be active on all substrates tested. The most commonly detected enzymes were pectinases, amylases, and lipases. The growth rate on pectin was significantly higher (P olive oil was followed for 4 days by measuring the activity in the cultivation broth. The specific lipolytic activity of isolate PEL was significantly higher at 96 h (130 mU mg protein(-1)). The broth was active at 37 °C, pH 8, indicating the potential utility of the lipases of this isolate in mild alkaline detergents. There was a strong and positive correlation (0.86) between radial growth rate and specific lipolytic activity.

  9. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

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    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  10. A quality control mechanism linking meiotic success to release of ascospores.

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    Haiyan Guo

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic organisms employ a variety of mechanisms during meiosis to assess and ensure the quality of their gametes. Defects or delays in successful meiotic recombination activate conserved mechanisms to delay the meiotic divisions, but many multicellular eukaryotes also induce cell death programs to eliminate gametes deemed to have failed during meiosis. It is generally thought that yeasts lack such mechanisms. Here, we show that in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, defects in meiotic recombination lead to the activation of a checkpoint that is linked to ascus wall endolysis--the process by which spores are released in response to nutritional cues for subsequent germination. Defects in meiotic recombination are sensed as unrepaired DNA damage through the canonical ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases, and this information is communicated to the machinery that stimulates ascus wall breakdown. Viability of spores that undergo endolysis spontaneously is significantly higher than that seen upon chemical endolysis, demonstrating that this checkpoint contributes to a selective mechanism for the germination of high quality progeny. These results provide the first evidence for the existence of a checkpoint linking germination to meiosis and suggest that analysis solely based on artificial, enzymatic endolysis bypasses an important quality control mechanism in this organism and potentially other ascomycota, which are models widely used to study meiosis.

  11. Indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts in the phyllosphere of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei-Feng; Fang, Wei-Ta; Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

  12. Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Communities Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Alpine Forest Soils: What Are the Driving Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Shifts in soil microbial communities over altitudinal gradients and the driving factors are poorly studied. Their elucidation is indispensable to gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of ecosystems to global climate change. Here, we investigated soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities at four Alpine forest sites representing a climosequence, over an altitudinal gradient from 545 to 2000 m above sea level (asl), regarding abundance and diversity by using qPCR and Illumina sequencing, respectively. Archaeal community was dominated by Thaumarchaeota, and no significant shifts were detected in abundance or community composition with altitude. The relative bacterial abundance increased at higher altitudes, which was related to increasing levels of soil organic matter and nutrients with altitude. Shifts in bacterial richness and diversity as well as community structure (comprised basically of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) significantly correlated with several environmental and soil chemical factors, especially soil pH. The site at the lowest altitude harbored the highest bacterial richness and diversity, although richness/diversity community properties did not show a monotonic decrease along the gradient. The relative size of fungal community also increased with altitude and its composition comprised Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. Changes in fungal richness/diversity and community structure were mainly governed by pH and C/N, respectively. The variation of the predominant bacterial and fungal classes over the altitudinal gradient was the result of the environmental and soil chemical factors prevailing at each site. PMID:26961712

  13. Novel chytrid lineages dominate fungal sequences in diverse marine and freshwater habitats.

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    Comeau, André M; Vincent, Warwick F; Bernier, Louis; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    In aquatic environments, fungal communities remain little studied despite their taxonomic and functional diversity. To extend the ecological coverage of this group, we conducted an in-depth analysis of fungal sequences within our collection of 3.6 million V4 18S rRNA pyrosequences originating from 319 individual marine (including sea-ice) and freshwater samples from libraries generated within diverse projects studying Arctic and temperate biomes in the past decade. Among the ~1.7 million post-filtered reads of highest taxonomic and phylogenetic quality, 23,263 fungal sequences were identified. The overall mean proportion was 1.35%, but with large variability; for example, from 0.01 to 59% of total sequences for Arctic seawater samples. Almost all sample types were dominated by Chytridiomycota-like sequences, followed by moderate-to-minor contributions of Ascomycota, Cryptomycota and Basidiomycota. Species and/or strain richness was high, with many novel sequences and high niche separation. The affinity of the most common reads to phytoplankton parasites suggests that aquatic fungi deserve renewed attention for their role in algal succession and carbon cycling. PMID:27444055

  14. Amplicon pyrosequencing reveals the soil microbial diversity associated with invasive Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, V C; Pelletreau, K N; Rumpho, M E

    2014-03-01

    The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of the root. Upon introduction and establishment, invasive plants modify the soil microbial communities and soil biochemistry affecting bioremediation efforts and future plant communities. Here, we used tag-encoded FLX amplicon 454 pyrosequencing (TEFAP) to characterize the bacterial and fungal community diversity in the rhizosphere of Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) from invasive stands in coastal Maine to investigate effects of soil type, soil chemistry and surrounding plant cover on the soil microbial community structure. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant bacterial phyla, whereas fungal communities were comprised mostly of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla members, including Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Bulk soil chemistry had more effect on the bacterial community structure than the fungal community. An effect of geographic location was apparent in the rhizosphere microbial communities, yet it was less significant than the effect of surrounding plant cover. These data demonstrate a high degree of spatial variation in the rhizosphere microbial communities of Japanese barberry with apparent effects of soil chemistry, location and canopy cover on the microbial community structure. PMID:24118303

  15. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature.

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    Peter K Busk

    Full Text Available The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls.

  16. Cyberlindnera xylosilytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Santos, Renata O; Safar, Silvana V B; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Basso, Luiz C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to C. japonica, C. maesa and C. easanensis. Six isolates were obtained from different sources, including rotting wood, tree bark and sugar cane filter cake in Brazil, frass from white oak in the USA and decayed leaf in Taiwan. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. xylosilytica sp. nov. is NRRL YB-2097(T) ( = CBS 13984(T) = UFMG-CM-Y347(T)) and the allotype is UFMG-CM-Y409 ( = CBS 14083). The novel species is heterothallic and complementary mating types are represented by the type and allotype strains. The MycoBank number is MB 811428. PMID:26025941

  17. Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501

  18. Estudio micológico de El Canal y Los Tiles (La Palma, Islas Canarias. V. Datos adicionales

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    Leal, Julio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated catalogue of 66 taxa, collected in the early MAB Reserve El Canal y Los Tiles is presented. Among these taxa, 11 species are new for La Palma island and 5 are recorded for the first time in the Canary Islands. Taxonomic comments on some critical species and information about the distribution in the Macaronesian bioregion of all the studied taxa are given. Based on our previous publications, global data on biodiversity, substrates and distribution of the mycobiota in the different plant communities present in the sampled area are analyzed.

    Se presenta un estudio sobre 66 especies, pertenecientes a las divisiones Myxomycota (21, Ascomycota (29 y Basidiomycota (16, encontradas en la antigua Reserva de la Biosfera El Canal y Los Tiles. De ellas 11 se citan por primera vez para la isla de La Palma, siendo 5 de éstas nuevas para Canarias. Se hacen comentarios taxonómicos sobre algunos táxones conflictivos, además de amplia información sobre su distribución en la Región Macaronésica. En base a publicaciones propias anteriores, se aportan datos globales sobre biodiversidad, sustratos y distribución de la micobiota en las diferentes unidades ambientales presentes en el área de estudio.

  19. Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina

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    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN. So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological – in particular, fungal – IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at −5 to −6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina. By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

  20. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques

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    R. Urbano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms can impact atmospheric chemistry through metabolic reactions and can potentially influence physical processes by participating in ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Microbial roles in atmospheric processes are thought to be species-specific and potentially dependent on cell viability. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform, culture-dependent (i.e. agar plates and culture-independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters approaches were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to obtain insight into the local atmospheric microbial composition. From 13 microbial isolates and 42 DNA library clones, a total of 55 sequences were obtained representing four independent sampling events. Sequence analysis revealed that in these coastal samples two fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture-dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture-independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not typically found. The abundance of terrestrial and marine sediment-associated microorganisms suggests a potential importance for bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

  1. Archaea and fungi of the human gut microbiome: correlations with diet and bacterial residents.

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    Christian Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Diet influences health as a source of nutrients and toxins, and by shaping the composition of resident microbial populations. Previous studies have begun to map out associations between diet and the bacteria and viruses of the human gut microbiome. Here we investigate associations of diet with fungal and archaeal populations, taking advantage of samples from 98 well-characterized individuals. Diet was quantified using inventories scoring both long-term and recent diet, and archaea and fungi were characterized by deep sequencing of marker genes in DNA purified from stool. For fungi, we found 66 genera, with generally mutually exclusive presence of either the phyla Ascomycota or Basiodiomycota. For archaea, Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus, present in 30% of samples. Several other archaeal genera were detected in lower abundance and frequency. Myriad associations were detected for fungi and archaea with diet, with each other, and with bacterial lineages. Methanobrevibacter and Candida were positively associated with diets high in carbohydrates, but negatively with diets high in amino acids, protein, and fatty acids. A previous study emphasized that bacterial population structure was associated primarily with long-term diet, but high Candida abundance was most strongly associated with the recent consumption of carbohydrates. Methobrevibacter abundance was associated with both long term and recent consumption of carbohydrates. These results confirm earlier targeted studies and provide a host of new associations to consider in modeling the effects of diet on the gut microbiome and human health.

  2. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in the biocontrol species Aneurinibacillus migulanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Faizah N; Rekik, Imen; Bełka, Marta; Ibrahim, Abrar F; Luptakova, Lenka; Jaspars, Marcel; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus strains Nagano and NCTC 7096 show potential in biocontrol against fungal and fungus-like plant pathogens, including a wide range of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Oomycetes. Differences in terms of the range of pathogens that each strain inhibits, however, suggested that production of a single antibiotic cyclic peptide, gramicidin S (GS), by the two strains, is not the sole mechanism of inhibition. The availability of four sequenced genomes of Aneurinibacillus prompted us to apply genome mining techniques to identify the bioactive potential of A. migulanus and to provide insights into the secondary metabolite arsenal of the genus Aneurinibacillus. Up to eleven secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were present in the three Aneurinibacillus species. Biosynthetic gene clusters specifying bacteriocins, microcins, non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, terpenes, phosphonates, lasso peptides and linaridins were identified. Chitinolytic potential and iron metabolism regulation were also investigated. With increasing numbers of biocontrol bacterial genomes being sequenced and mined, the use of approaches similar to those described in this paper will lead to an increase in the numbers of environmentally friendly natural products available to use against plant diseases. PMID:26686620

  3. Effects of silvicultural techniques on the diversity of microorganisms in forest soil and their possible participation in biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different pre-planting soil preparations and post-harvest wood debris applications in a clear-cut Scots pine plantation, on the abundance, diversity, and activity of culturable microorganisms were investigated. The investigation was done 9 years after the re-plantings had been done. This formed part of an investigation of silvicultural practices for conservation and the biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion in northern temperate forests (Poland. The treatments being compared, were expected to have altered the soil’s physical and chemical properties, and consequently, its biological properties. Only soft-rot microfungi from the Ascomycota and Zygomycota were detected in the soil. Fungi, including those antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion, were more abundant after shallow ploughing than after deep ploughing or ridging, and where chipped rather than coarse wood debris was left on the soil surface or incorporated. Scots pine trees had the most biomass and the least mortality after ridging and leaving coarse wood debris on the surface (associated with only a relatively moderate abundance of fungi.

  4. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

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    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  5. Assembly, Annotation, and Analysis of Multiple Mycorrhizal Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Initiative Consortium, Mycorrhizal Genomics; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2013-03-08

    Mycorrhizal fungi play critical roles in host plant health, soil community structure and chemistry, and carbon and nutrient cycling, all areas of intense interest to the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To this end we are building on our earlier sequencing of the Laccaria bicolor genome by partnering with INRA-Nancy and the mycorrhizal research community in the MGI to sequence and analyze dozens of mycorrhizal genomes of all Basidiomycota and Ascomycota orders and multiple ecological types (ericoid, orchid, and ectomycorrhizal). JGI has developed and deployed high-throughput sequencing techniques, and Assembly, RNASeq, and Annotation Pipelines. In 2012 alone we sequenced, assembled, and annotated 12 draft or improved genomes of mycorrhizae, and predicted ~;;232831 genes and ~;;15011 multigene families, All of this data is publicly available on JGI MycoCosm (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi/), which provides access to both the genome data and tools with which to analyze the data. Preliminary comparisons of the current total of 14 public mycorrhizal genomes suggest that 1) short secreted proteins potentially involved in symbiosis are more enriched in some orders than in others amongst the mycorrhizal Agaricomycetes, 2) there are wide ranges of numbers of genes involved in certain functional categories, such as signal transduction and post-translational modification, and 3) novel gene families are specific to some ecological types.

  6. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  7. The first record of Litargus tetraspilotus (Coleoptera, Mycetophagidae in Brazil, with biological notes and complementary description of the species

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    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Litargus tetraspilotus LeConte, 1856 was collected feeding on Oidium sp. (Fungi, Ascomycota, Erysiphaceae associated with fruit trees. This is the first time L. tetraspilotus is recorded in Brazil, totaling three species of Mycetophagidae for this country. This study aims to provide a complementary description of this species based on new characters and to present information on its life cycle under laboratory conditions and fluctuation in population in the field. During the period of inventories between July 2004 and August 2006, about every fifteen days, a total of 565 specimens of L. tetraspilotus were collected, with the highest abundance found on citrus plants, with values differing significantly between the two years. The population levels differed between the seasons; spring had the greatest abundance and autumn the least. There was a significant positive correlation of L. tetraspilotus abundance with rainfall and relative humidity. Mycetophagidae, as well as other mycophagous families of Brazilian coleopterans, are barely studied, warranting further future studies of their bioecology and systematics.

  8. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  9. Blackpatch of clover, cause of slobbers syndrome: a review of the disease and the pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

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    Isabelle Ann Kagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and E.S. Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.. This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota, morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals, and their biosynthetic pathways, have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested.

  10. Putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Mitochondrial Plasmid of Paramecium caudatum Stock GT704

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    Trina Ekawati Tallei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of Paramecium caudatum stock GT704 has a set of four kinds of linear plasmids with sizes of 8.2, 4.1, 2.8 and 1.4 kb. The plasmids of 8.2 and 2.8 kb exist as dimers consisting of 4.1- and 1.4-kb monomers, respectively. The plasmid 2.8 kb, designated as pGT704-2.8, contains an open reading frame encodes for putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP. This study reveals that this RNAP belongs to superfamily of DNA/RNA polymerase and family of T7/T3 single chain RNA polymerase and those of mitochondrial plasmid of fungi belonging to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. It is suggested that RNAP of pGT704-2.8 can perform transcription without transcription factor as promoter recognition. Given that only two motifs were found, it could not be ascertained whether this RNAP has a full function independently or integrated with mtDNA in carrying out its function.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis reveals the new genus Hemisphaericaspora of the family Debaryomycetaceae.

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    Fengli Hui

    Full Text Available Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota. DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T ( = CICC 33021 = NYNU 13717. Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.

  12. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands. PMID:26992401

  13. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  14. Metagenomic analysis of soil fungal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Jong; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands that experience a characteristic marine climate, influenced by warm currents. The richness and diversity of the plant species, particularly vascular plants, are higher on Ulleungdo than on Dokdo. In contrast to the native plant life, little is known about the diversity of soil fungi living in the rhizosphere of these two islands. In this study, we utilized the barcoded pyrosequencing method to analyze rhizosphere soil fungi on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. In total, 768 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were analyzed from the Ulleungdo samples, while 640 OTUs and 382 OTUs were analyzed from the Dongdo and Seodo (islets of Dokdo) samples, respectively. Species richness was considerably higher in the Ulleungdo samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, while there was little difference in species diversity between the samples. The taxonomic composition analyses demonstrated that members of the phylum Basidiomycota dominated the Ulleungdo samples, whereas members of the phylum Ascomycota were predominant in the Dokdo samples. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, in particular, were more abundant in the Ulleungdo samples. This finding suggests that the difference in the abundance of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheres of Ulleungdo and Dokdo may have been affected by species richness and diversity of the vascular plants. Our study is the first detailed report of the composition of soil fungal communities on the Ulleungdo and Dokdo islands. In addition, our findings provide a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between plants and fungi. PMID:26227909

  15. Microfungal-community diversity in Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia root zones in the northern Negev Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Grishkan, Isabella; Steinberger, Yosef

    2013-04-01

    The soil dilution plate method was used to determine the influences of perennial shrubs on the species diversity and density of cultivable microfungal communities inhabiting the root zones of two perennial shrubs, Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia, in the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of shrubs and the open spaces between them (serving as control) from five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) during the wet and dry seasons of 2010. Fifty-one species belonging to 31 genera were identified from Zygomycota, teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycota, including Coelomycetes. During the wet and dry seasons, 4-10 and 2-6 species were identified at different soil depths beneath perennial shrubs and in the open spaces, while the corresponding colony-forming units (CFUs) varied from 3071 to 27687 and from 3201 to 15247 g(-1) dry soil. More diverse microfungal communities were collected in the vicinity of perennial shrubs compared to the open spaces during the wet season, while a reverse trend was observed during the dry season. Further study is needed to provide insights into the correlation between compounds of litter and root exudates of perennial shrubs and microfungal-community structure by a combination of molecular and physiological tools. PMID:22736431

  16. Woody plant encroachment, and its removal, impact bacterial and fungal communities across stream and terrestrial habitats in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Allison M; Dodds, Walter K; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Woody plant encroachment has become a global threat to grasslands and has caused declines in aboveground richness and changes in ecosystem function; yet we have a limited understanding on the effects of these phenomena on belowground microbial communities. We completed riparian woody plant removals at Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas and collected soils spanning land-water interfaces in removal and woody vegetation impacted areas. We measured stream sediments and soils for edaphic variables (C and N pools, soil water content, pH) and bacterial (16S rRNA genes) and fungal (ITS2 rRNA gene repeat) communities using Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with distance from streams. Fungal richness decreased with distance from the stream in wooded areas, but was similar across landscape position while Planctomycetes and Basidiomycota relative abundance was lower in removal areas. Cyanobacteria, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota relative abundance was greater in removal areas. Ordination analyses indicated that bacterial community composition shifted more across land-water interfaces than fungi yet both were marginally influenced by treatment. This study highlights the impacts of woody encroachment restoration on grassland bacterial and fungal communities which likely subsequently affects belowground processes and plant health in this ecosystem. PMID:26347079

  17. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non‐culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non‐invasive and micro‐invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus E urotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of A cremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  18. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host. PMID:19465522

  19. Microbial communities associated with Antarctic snow pack and their biogeochemical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Runa; Sanyal, Aritri; Kapse, Neelam; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Thamban, Meloth; Nair, Shanta

    2016-11-01

    Snow ecosystems represent a large part of the Earth's biosphere and harbour diverse microbial communities. Despite our increased knowledge of snow microbial communities, the question remains as to their functional potential, particularly with respect to their role in adapting to and modifying the specific snow environment. In this work, we investigated the diversity and functional capabilities of microorganisms from 3 regions of East Antarctica, with respect to compounds present in snow and tested whether their functional signature reflected the snow environment. A diverse assemblage of bacteria (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia), archaea (Euryarchaeota), and eukarya (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Cryptomycota and Rhizaria) were detected through culture-dependent and -independent methods. Although microbial communities observed in the three snow samples were distinctly different, all isolates tested produced one or more of the following enzymes: lipase, protease, amylase, β-galactosidase, cellulase, and/or lignin modifying enzyme. This indicates that the snow pack microbes have the capacity to degrade organic compounds found in Antarctic snow (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, lignin), thus highlighting their potential to be involved in snow chemistry. PMID:27664737

  20. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  1. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere. PMID:27725815

  2. Fungi Sailing the Arctic Ocean: Speciose Communities in North Atlantic Driftwood as Revealed by High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämä, Teppo; Davey, Marie L; Nordén, Jenni; Halvorsen, Rune; Blaalid, Rakel; Mathiassen, Geir H; Alsos, Inger G; Kauserud, Håvard

    2016-08-01

    High amounts of driftwood sail across the oceans and provide habitat for organisms tolerating the rough and saline environment. Fungi have adapted to the extremely cold and saline conditions which driftwood faces in the high north. For the first time, we applied high-throughput sequencing to fungi residing in driftwood to reveal their taxonomic richness, community composition, and ecology in the North Atlantic. Using pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons obtained from 49 marine logs, we found 807 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97 % sequence similarity cut-off level. The phylum Ascomycota comprised 74 % of the OTUs and 20 % belonged to Basidiomycota. The richness of basidiomycetes decreased with prolonged submersion in the sea, supporting the general view of ascomycetes being more extremotolerant. However, more than one fourth of the fungal OTUs remained unassigned to any fungal class, emphasising the need for better DNA reference data from the marine habitat. Different fungal communities were detected in coniferous and deciduous logs. Our results highlight that driftwood hosts a considerably higher fungal diversity than currently known. The driftwood fungal community is not a terrestrial relic but a speciose assemblage of fungi adapted to the stressful marine environment and different kinds of wooden substrates found in it. PMID:27147245

  3. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

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    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  4. Variaciones en la estacionalidad de polen y esporas fúngicas en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata (Argentina Seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere of Plata city (Argentina

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    Daniela S Nitiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre variaciones estacionales de polen y esporas fúngicas en su conjunto en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata durante julio 2000 / junio 2001. El total de bioaerosoles fue de 201889.15 de los cuales el 15% correspondió a 54 tipos polínicos y el 85% a 79 tipos esporales. El Índice Polínico estuvo dado en un 74% por Polen Arbóreo (PA y en un 26% por Polen Herbáceo (PNA. La máxima concentración de PA tuvo lugar en septiembre con granos provenientes de Platanus y Fraxinus. El PNA presentó dos picos, el primero en diciembre procedente de Poaceae y el segundo en marzo debido a Ambrosia. Con respecto al componente fúngico, se identificaron esporas de Oomycota, Zygomycota, Myxomycota, Ascomycota y Basidiomycota. Estos bioaerosoles estuvieron presentes durante todo el año y en altas concentraciones siendo más abundantes en verano - otoño Las mitosporas de Hongos Imperfectos dominan la nube superando el 44% del total del Índice Esporal. El máximo aporte se registró en febrero dado por las esporas de Cladosporium. Se identificaron dos períodos estacionales en los cuales se hallan simultáneamente altas concentraciones de polen y esporas fúngicas. El primero se desarrolla en primavera y está integrado por Platanus, Fraxinus y Aspergillus / Penicillium y el segundo es estival e involucra a Ambrosia, Alternaria y Cladosporium.We present the first data on representativeness and seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores as a whole in the atmosphere of the city of La Plata during july 2000 / june 2001. Total was 201889.15 bioaerosols, 15% of which was contributed by 54 pollen types and 85% by 79 spore types. The Pollinic Index came from arboreal pollen (PA in 74% and herbaceous pollen (PNA in 26%. The PA maximum concentration took place in september due to Platanus and Fraxinus. The PNA presented two peaks, one in december due to Poaceae, and the other one in march from Ambrosia. In regard to the

  5. Characteristics of the eukaryotic community structure in acid mine drainage lake in Anhui Province, China%安徽某铁矿酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 郝春博; 王丽华; 李思远; 冯传平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构特征以及群落结构与环境因子之间的关系.[方法]利用分子生物学方法,通过构建18S rRNA基因克隆文库进行系统发育分析;利用典范对应分析(CCA)方法解析环境因子对真核生物群落结构的影响.[结果]系统发育分析表明:子囊菌门(Ascomycota)普遍存在于4个样品中,并在样品1和样品3中占统治地位,而绿藻门(Chlorophyta)和担子菌门(Basidiomycota)分别为样品2和样品4的优势类群.该酸性矿山废水中的克隆与许多已知的耐酸耐重金属真核生物亲缘关系较近,如Sarcinomyces petricola、Penicillium janthinellum、Coniochaeta velutina、Trichoderma viride、Chlorella protothecoides var.acidicola、Ochromonas sp.等.此外,样品中还存在大量的已知人类病原菌,如Lecythophora hoffmannii、Cryptococcus neoformans.CCA分析表明:TN、SO24-、Fe2+、Eh是影响真核生物群落空间分布的主要因素.[结论]所研究的酸性矿山废水中真核生物的群落结构在时间和空间上均有较大差异,这可能与水体的理化性质有关;高含量人类致病菌的存在是之前研究所未发现的;酸性环境中真核生物的生态学研究有助于开发高效处理酸性矿山废水的方法.%[Objective] We characterized eukaryotic community structure and the relationship between the community structure and environmental factors in acidic mine drainage (AMD) lake of a sulfide mine in Anhui Province, China. [Methods] The 18S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed by using molecular biology techniques to analyze the eukaryotic phylogenetic relationships, and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the relationship between the community structure and environmental factors. [Results] The phylogenetic analysis shows that Ascomycota is widespread in the four samples and dominated in the AMD-1 and AMD-3 clone libraries, whereas Chlorophyta and

  6. Macromicetos del Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, municipio de Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, México Macrofungi from Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, Municipality of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, Mexico

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    Freddy Chanona-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos contribuir al conocimiento de los macromicetos que crecen en el Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica (PELB, en Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas y determinar el índice de diversidad de Simpson y similitud de Sorensen de la micobiota existente en los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Se realizaron 24 exploraciones micológicas durante un año, encontrándose 144 especies (24 Ascomycota y 120 Basidiomycota. El índice de diversidad, mostró que la vegetación con la micobiota más diversa fue la del bosque de Quercus elliptica (D= 0.9678 la cual presentó mayor similitud con el bosque de Liquidambar stracyflua (Is= 83 %. El sustrato más frecuente fue la madera en descomposición (57.63 %. Se determinaron las especies de macromicetos potencialmente utilizables para el consumo humano (22 especies, lo que determinó el valor micológico del área de estudio en 15.27 %. Del total de especies determinadas 22 son nuevos registros para el estado de Chiapas; 4 Ascomicetos Scutellinia scutellata, Xylaria amphitele, X. persicaria, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, y 18 Basidiomicetos Amanita pantherina, Geastrum striatum, Hydnum repandum, Hygrocybe miniata, Scleroderma verrucosum, Cotylidia diaphana, Lactarius indigo, Phlogiotis helvelloides, Hydnochaete olivaceae, Phellinus ferruginosus, P. contiguus, P.rufitinctus, Thelephora terrestris, T. cervicornis, Perenniporia ohiensis, Diplomitoporus lenis, Schizopora paradoxa y Tremella fuciformis.The objectives of this study were to contribute to the knowledge of macro fungi growing in the "Parque Educativo Laguna Belgica" (PELB, in Chiapas, Mexico and to determine the diversity and similarity indexes for its mycobiota in each type of vegetation. Twenty four mycological explorations were made during a year, resulting in the identification of 144 species (24 Ascomycota and 120 Basidiomycota. The diversity of fungal species was determined through the index of Simpson and the similarity

  7. DESCRIBIENDO ESPECIES: UN PANORAMA DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD COLOMBIANA EN EL ÁMBITO MUNDIAL Describing Species: A Standpoint of Colombian Biodiversity in the Global Setting

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    ENRIQUE ARBELÁEZ CORTÉS¹

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La descripción formal de especies ha sido el método básico, durante 250 años, para documentar la biodiversidad del planeta. El análisis de los patrones de la descripción de especies permite identificar tendencias y vacios del conocimiento taxonómico. Aquí, presento un análisis de las especies nuevas descritas para Colombia durante 20002009. Los datos los obtuve mediante una búsqueda en una base de datos bibliográfica de acuerdo a ciertas palabras y seguida por una clasificación de cada registro donde se describió una especie nueva para Colombia. Mis resultados los comparo con la información existente para el planeta. Durante la década del 2000 se describieron 1272 especies nuevas para Colombia que corresponden al 0,72 % de las especies nuevas del planeta. Algunos taxones tales como Ascomycota y Proteobacteria estuvieron pobremente representados para Colombia mostrando menos del 0,14 % de las especies descritas en esos grupos para el planeta. Por su parte las plantas y los vertebrados descritos como nuevos para el país representan entre el 1,2 y el 10 % de las especies nuevas de esos grupos. Dado que Colombia es un país megadiverso el descubrimiento y la descripción de las especies desconocidas en su territorio tendrá un gran efecto en el conocimiento de la biodiversidad global, no obstante, es necesario aumentar el apoyo a la investigación taxonómica e intensificar el trabajo en ciertos taxones (e.g., Insecta.The formal description of new species has been the basic method, during 250 years, of documenting the Planet's biodiversity. Analysis of species description patterns identifies trends and gaps in taxonomic knowledge. Here, I present an analysis of Colombian new species described during 20002009. I constructed a dataset by bibliographic database searching with specific key words, and then classified each record where a new species was described for Colombia. I compared my results against information for the entire Planet

  8. Comparative effects of two species of floricolous Metschnikowia yeasts on nectar

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    Canto, Azucena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nectar yeast communities in southern Spain are dominated by two closely-related species, Metschnikowia reukaufii Pitt & M.W. Mill. and M. gruessii Gim.-Jurado (Ascomycota, Saccharomycetales, although they tend to be distributed differentially across different host plants. We explore here the possibility that the two yeasts play different functional roles in floral nectar by differing in their impact on sugar concentration and composition of nectar. Experiments were undertaken under controlled conditions using bumblebees caught foraging on the flowers of two different host plants each of which is known to harbor predominantly one of the two yeasts. Bumblebees were used as sources of inocula to obtain two groups of samples from the nectar of Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae: nectar samples inoculated with M. gruessii and samples inoculated with M. reukaufii. Metschnikowia gruessii was poorly represented in nectar samples, while M. reukaufii was by far the most common and had the highest cell density. Although the two yeasts caused relatively similar changes in nectar sugar composition, which involved increasing fructose and decreasing sucrose proportions, they marginally differed in their quantitative impact on total nectar sugar concentration. Results suggest that differential yeast occurrence across host plants may lead to yeast specialization and modify the outcomes of the plant-pollinator interface.Las comunidades de levaduras asociadas al néctar en el sur de España son dominadas por dos especies, Metschnikowia reukaufii Pitt & M.W. Mill. y M. gruessii Gim.-Jurado (Ascomycota, Saccharomycetales. Ambas levaduras son especies muy cercanas entre sí, pero se distribuyen diferencialmente entre las especies de plantas cuyo néctar las hospeda. En este trabajo se explora la posibilidad de que las levaduras tengan funciones distintas impactando diferencialmente la concentración y composición del néctar. Para esto se realizaron experimentos

  9. Microorganismos asociados a la rizosfera de jitomate en un agroecosistema del valle de Guasave, Sinaloa, México Rhizosphere microorganisms associated to tomato in an agroecosystem from Guasave Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico

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    Jesús Damián Cordero-Ramírez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de los microorganismos asociados a la rizosfera de diferentes especies vegetales en los suelos, en México se ha estudiado poco y se ha abordado de manera convencional, con técnicas microbiológicas limitadas debido al elevado porcentaje de microorganismos no-cultivables (95-99%. En el presente trabajo se empleó el análisis por secuenciación del ADN ribosomal (ADNr para evitar esa limitante y explorar mejor la diversidad de los microorganismos cultivables y no-cultivables asociados al jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en un agroecosistema en Sinaloa. Se empleó ADN genómico extraído del suelo rizosférico para amplificar una región hipervariable en el ADNr empleando oligonucleótidos universales para ADNr procariota y eucariota. El an��lisis de 194 y 384 secuencias de ADNr de origen procariota y eucariota, respectivamente, mostró que los phyla eucariotes más abundantes fueron Ascomycota (59%, Chlorophyta (21% y Basidiomycota (12%, y los más abundantes de origen procariote fueron Firmicutes (45%, Proteobacteria (14.7% y Gemmatimonadetes (13.1%. El presente trabajo representa a la fecha la caracterización más completa de la diversidad de microorganismos de la rizosfera del jitomate. Se discute el papel que especies identificadas en este trabajo, pertenecientes a géneros procariotas (Bacillus y Paenibacillus y eucariotas (Alternaría, pudieran desempeñar en la rizosfera del jitomate y en el control biológico de fitopatogénos en esta especie.Rhizosphere microorganism diversity associated to different plant species in Mexican soils has been understudied. Most of those studies have been done using conventional microbiological techniques, which present an important limitation due to their incapacity to detect unculturable microorganisms, which represent 95-99% of the total microorganisms in soils. The present work employs ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequencing to overcome this limitation and to improve exploration of the

  10. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes.

  11. Spatial and compositional variation in the fungal communities of organic and conventionally grown apple fruit at the consumer point-of-purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple. PMID:27766161

  12. Extensive intra-kingdom horizontal gene transfer converging on a fungal fructose transporter gene.

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    Marco A Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics revealed in the last decade a scenario of rampant horizontal gene transfer (HGT among prokaryotes, but for fungi a clearly dominant pattern of vertical inheritance still stands, punctuated however by an increasing number of exceptions. In the present work, we studied the phylogenetic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a fungal gene encoding a fructose transporter (FSY1 with unique substrate selectivity. 109 FSY1 homologues were identified in two sub-phyla of the Ascomycota, in a survey that included 241 available fungal genomes. At least 10 independent inter-species instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT involving FSY1 were identified, supported by strong phylogenetic evidence and synteny analyses. The acquisition of FSY1 through HGT was sometimes suggestive of xenolog gene displacement, but several cases of pseudoparalogy were also uncovered. Moreover, evidence was found for successive HGT events, possibly including those responsible for transmission of the gene among yeast lineages. These occurrences do not seem to be driven by functional diversification of the Fsy1 proteins because Fsy1 homologues from widely distant lineages, including at least one acquired by HGT, appear to have similar biochemical properties. In summary, retracing the evolutionary path of the FSY1 gene brought to light an unparalleled number of independent HGT events involving a single fungal gene. We propose that the turbulent evolutionary history of the gene may be linked to the unique biochemical properties of the encoded transporter, whose predictable effect on fitness may be highly variable. In general, our results support the most recent views suggesting that inter-species HGT may have contributed much more substantially to shape fungal genomes than heretofore assumed.

  13. Biological low pH Mn(II) oxidation in a manganese deposit influenced by metal-rich groundwater

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    Bohu, Tsing; Akob, Denise M.; Abratis, Michael; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms, key organisms, and geochemical significance of biological low-pH Mn(II) oxidation are largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the structure of indigenous Mn(II)-oxidizing microbial communities in a secondary subsurface Mn oxide deposit influenced by acidic (pH 4.8) metal-rich groundwater in a former uranium mining area. Microbial diversity was highest in the Mn deposit compared to the adjacent soil layers and included the majority of known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and two genera of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (MOF). Electron X-ray microanalysis showed that romanechite [(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10] was conspicuously enriched in the deposit. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that certain fungal, bacterial, and archaeal groups were firmly associated with the autochthonous Mn oxides. Eight MOB within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and one MOF strain belonging to Ascomycota were isolated at pH 5.5 or 7.2 from the acidic Mn deposit. Soil-groundwater microcosms demonstrated 2.5-fold-faster Mn(II) depletion in the Mn deposit than adjacent soil layers. No depletion was observed in the abiotic controls, suggesting that biological contribution is the main driver for Mn(II) oxidation at low pH. The composition and species specificity of the native low-pH Mn(II) oxidizers were highly adapted to in situ conditions, and these organisms may play a central role in the fundamental biogeochemical processes (e.g., metal natural attenuation) occurring in the acidic, oligotrophic, and metalliferous subsoil ecosystems.

  14. Microbial diversity of a Mediterranean soil and its changes after biotransformed dry olive residue amendment.

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    José A Siles

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot, about whose soil microbial diversity little is known. Intensive land use and aggressive management practices are degrading the soil, with a consequent loss of fertility. The use of organic amendments such as dry olive residue (DOR, a waste produced by a two-phase olive-oil extraction system, has been proposed as an effective way to improve soil properties. However, before its application to soil, DOR needs a pre-treatment, such as by a ligninolytic fungal transformation, e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa. The present study aimed to describe the bacterial and fungal diversity in a Mediterranean soil and to assess the impact of raw DOR (DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR (CORDOR on function and phylogeny of soil microbial communities after 0, 30 and 60 days. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that bacterial diversity was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, while 28S-rRNA gene data revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota accounted for the majority of phyla in the fungal community. A Biolog EcoPlate experiment showed that DOR and CORDOR amendments decreased functional diversity and altered microbial functional structures. These changes in soil functionality occurred in parallel with those in phylogenetic bacterial and fungal community structures. Some bacterial and fungal groups increased while others decreased depending on the relative abundance of beneficial and toxic substances incorporated with each amendment. In general, DOR was observed to be more disruptive than CORDOR.

  15. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales

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    Hubka, Vit; Thureborn, Olle; Lundberg, Johannes; Sallstedt, Therese; Wedin, Mats; Ivarsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota). They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role of fungi in the

  16. Interspecific variability of class II hydrophobin GEO1 in the genus Geosmithia.

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    Frascella, Arcangela; Bettini, Priscilla P; Kolařík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pazzagli, Luigia; Luti, Simone; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2014-11-01

    The genus Geosmithia Pitt (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) comprises cosmopolite fungi living in the galleries built by phloeophagous insects. Following the characterization in Geosmithia species 5 of the class II hydrophobin GEO1 and of the corresponding gene, the presence of the geo1 gene was investigated in 26 strains derived from different host plants and geographic locations and representing the whole phylogenetic diversity of the genus. The geo1 gene was detected in all the species tested where it maintained the general organization shown in Geosmithia species 5, comprising three exons and two introns. Size variations were found in both introns and in the first exon, the latter being due to the presence of an intragenic tandem repeat sequence corresponding to a stretch of glycine residues in the deduced proteins. At the amino acid level the deduced proteins had 44.6 % identity and no major differences in the biochemical parameters (pI, GRAVY index, hydropathy plots) were found. GEO1 release in the fungal culture medium was also assessed by turbidimetric assay and SDS-PAGE, and showed high variability between species. The phylogeny based on the geo1 sequences did not correspond to that generated from a neutral marker (ITS rDNA), suggesting that sequence similarities could be influenced by other factors than phylogenetic relatedness, such as the intimacy of the symbiosis with insect vectors. The hypothesis of a strong selection pressure on the geo1 gene was sustained by the low values (<1) of non synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions ratios (Ka/Ks), which suggest that purifying selection might act on this gene. These results are compatible with either a birth-and-death evolution scenario or horizontal transfer of the gene between Geosmithia species.

  17. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes.

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    Barnes, Christopher J; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's "hidden biodiversity." PMID:27630629

  18. Plant Invasions Associated with Change in Root-Zone Microbial Community Structure and Diversity.

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    Richard R Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The importance of plant-microbe associations for the invasion of plant species have not been often tested under field conditions. The research sought to determine patterns of change in microbial communities associated with the establishment of invasive plants with different taxonomic and phenetic traits. Three independent locations in Virginia, USA were selected. One site was invaded by a grass (Microstegium vimineum, another by a shrub (Rhamnus davurica, and the third by a tree (Ailanthus altissima. The native vegetation from these sites was used as reference. 16S rRNA and ITS regions were sequenced to study root-zone bacterial and fungal communities, respectively, in invaded and non-invaded samples and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME. Though root-zone microbial community structure initially differed across locations, plant invasion shifted communities in similar ways. Indicator species analysis revealed that Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs closely related to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota increased in abundance due to plant invasions. The Hyphomonadaceae family in the Rhodobacterales order and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospirae phylum showed greater relative abundance in the invaded root-zone soils. Hyphomicrobiaceae, another bacterial family within the phyla Proteobacteria increased as a result of plant invasion, but the effect associated most strongly with root-zones of M. vimineum and R. davurica. Functional analysis using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt showed bacteria responsible for nitrogen cycling in soil increased in relative abundance in association with plant invasion. In agreement with phylogenetic and functional analyses, greater turnover of ammonium and nitrate was associated with plant invasion. Overall, bacterial and fungal communities changed congruently across plant invaders, and support the hypothesis that

  19. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea--A Metagenomic Approach.

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    Simões, Marta Filipa; Antunes, André; Ottoni, Cristiane A; Amini, Mohammad Shoaib; Alam, Intikhab; Alzubaidy, Hanin; Mokhtar, Noor-Azlin; Archer, John A C; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    Covering a quarter of the world's tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%-85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%-24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported. PMID:26549842

  20. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

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    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  1. High diversity of the fungal community structure in naturally-occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

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    Yongjie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis, which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP, the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our

  2. Expanding Genomics of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

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    Alan eKuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant and soil health, and carbon and nutrient cycles. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphological types (e.g. arbuscular [AM], ectomycorrhizal [ECM] in multiple fungal clades (e.g. phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota. The accessibility and culturability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first 3 mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing 3 fungal phyla and 2 mycorrhizal types. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant-degrading enzymes (PDEs and expansion of lineage-specific gene families, including short secreted protein (SSP effectors and other symbiosis genes. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of gene families in contrast to Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other 2 fungi, the symbiosis can involve similar solutions as loss of PDEs and mycorrhiza-induced SSPs. The mycorrhizal community is building on these studies with 3 large-scale initiatives. The Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI is sequencing 35 genomes of multiple fungal clades and mycorrhizal types for phylogenomic and population analyses. 17 MGI species whose symbiosis is reconstitutable in vitro are targeted for comprehensive transcriptomics of mycorrhiza formation. MGI genomes are seeding a set of 50+ reference fungal genomes for annotating metatranscriptomes sampled from 7 diverse well-described soil sites. These 3 projects address fundamental questions about the nature and role of a

  3. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  4. Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic.

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    Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds. PMID:24689939

  5. Revisiting phylogenetic diversity and cryptic species of Cenococcum geophilum sensu lato.

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    Obase, Keisuke; Douhan, Greg W; Matsuda, Yosuke; Smith, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Cenococcum geophilum Fr. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most common ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal to temperate regions. A series of molecular studies has demonstrated that C. geophilum is monophyletic but a heterogeneous species or a species complex. Here, we revisit the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato from a regional to intercontinental scale by using new data from Florida (USA) along with existing data in GenBank from Japan, Europe, and North America. The combination of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene resolved six well-supported lineages (87-100 % bootstrap values) that are closely related to each other and a seventh lineage that is phylogenetically distinct. A multi-locus analysis (small subunit (SSU), large subunit (LSU), translational elongation factor (TEF), and the largest and second-largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2)) revealed that the divergent lineage is the sister group to all other known Cenococcum isolates. Isolates of the divergent lineage grow fast on nutrient media and do not form ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of several pine and oak species. Our results indicate that C. geophilum sensu lato includes more phylogenetically distinct cryptic species than have previously been reported. Furthermore, the divergent lineage appears to be a non-mycorrhizal sister group. We discuss the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato and argue in favor of species recognition based on phylogenetic and ecological information in addition to morphological characteristics. A new genus and species (Pseudocenococcum floridanum gen. et sp. nov.) is proposed to accommodate a divergent and putatively non-mycorrhizal lineage. PMID:26968743

  6. Study of primary biological aerosols to characterize their diversity in particulate matter over the Indian tropical region: assessment for climatic and health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada R, H.; Muthalagu, A.; R, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Desprès, V.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and can influence the biosphere, climate, and public health (Després et al., 2012).To study the importance of the PBAPs, it is important to have an understanding about their origin, seasonal abundance and diversity. The study of PBAPs over the Indian tropical region becomes important as it hosts ~ 18% of the world population and has a distinct climate with a systematic and cyclic monsoon season which is different from the continental climates in Europe and America. In this study, the PBAPs were characterized by the application of molecular genetic techniques involving DNA extraction, PCR amplifications, cloning and DNA sequencing. In addition, characterization of the fungal source emissions was performed to better understand the diversity, abundance, and relative contribution of the fungal aerosols. For the present study, DNA analysis was performed on a one-year air filter set of PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 mm) covering three distinct meteorological seasons, i.e. summer, monsoon, and winter. The results from DNA analysis revealed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the filter samples. The fungal source characterization performed by the DNA analysis revealed the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota to be 96:4, which is consistent with previously reported studies from airborne fungal communities in the European continental boundary layer air (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2009). In the study region, the highest species richness was found to be present in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.81%). Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae were dominant families in the study region and the families like Clavariaceae, Nectriaceae, Phanerochaetachae, Pleurotaceae and Strophariaceae were found to be rare. The results will next be compared with the diversity and types of the fungi found in ambient PM10. More details will be presented.

  7. Deacetylation of Fungal Exopolysaccharide Mediates Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

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    Mark J. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mold Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. Recently, galactosaminogalactan (GAG, an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, was identified as a virulence factor required for biofilm formation. The molecular mechanisms underlying GAG biosynthesis and GAG-mediated biofilm formation were unknown. We identified a cluster of five coregulated genes that were dysregulated in GAG-deficient mutants and whose gene products share functional similarity with proteins that mediate the synthesis of the bacterial biofilm exopolysaccharide poly-(β1-6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GAG cluster gene agd3 encodes a protein containing a deacetylase domain. Because deacetylation of N-acetylglucosamine residues is critical for the function of PNAG, we investigated the role of GAG deacetylation in fungal biofilm formation. Agd3 was found to mediate deacetylation of GalNAc residues within GAG and render the polysaccharide polycationic. As with PNAG, deacetylation is required for the adherence of GAG to hyphae and for biofilm formation. Growth of the Δagd3 mutant in the presence of culture supernatants of the GAG-deficient Δuge3 mutant rescued the biofilm defect of the Δagd3 mutant and restored the adhesive properties of GAG, suggesting that deacetylation is an extracellular process. The GAG biosynthetic gene cluster is present in the genomes of members of the Pezizomycotina subphylum of the Ascomycota including a number of plant-pathogenic fungi and a single basidiomycete species, Trichosporon asahii, likely a result of recent horizontal gene transfer. The current study demonstrates that the production of cationic, deacetylated exopolysaccharides is a strategy used by both fungi and bacteria for biofilm formation.

  8. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

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    Jan Klimaszewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  9. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure in the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees.

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    Migun Shakya

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings, host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers, season (Spring vs. Fall and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%. Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50% while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%. While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina and seasons (Spring vs. Fall. SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities

  10. Identification and functional analysis of the erh1(+ gene encoding enhancer of rudimentary homolog from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek K Krzyzanowski

    Full Text Available The ERH gene encodes a highly conserved small nuclear protein with a unique amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure but unknown function. The gene is present in animals, plants, and protists but to date has only been found in few fungi. Here we report that ERH homologs are also present in all four species from the genus Schizosaccharomyces, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus, which, however, are an exception in this respect among Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The ERH protein sequence is moderately conserved within the genus (58% identity between S. pombe and S.japonicus, but the intron-rich genes have almost identical intron-exon organizations in all four species. In S. pombe, erh1(+ is expressed at a roughly constant level during vegetative growth and adaptation to unfavorable conditions such as nutrient limitation and hyperosmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Erh1p localizes preferentially to the nucleus with the exception of the nucleolus, but is also present in the cytoplasm. Cells lacking erh1(+ have an aberrant cell morphology and a comma-like shape when cultured to the stationary phase, and exhibit a delayed recovery from this phase followed by slower growth. Loss of erh1(+ in an auxotrophic background results in enhanced arrest in the G1 phase following nutritional stress, and also leads to hypersensitivity to agents inducing hyperosmotic stress (sorbitol, inhibiting DNA replication (hydroxyurea, and destabilizing the plasma membrane (SDS; this hypersensitivity can be abolished by expression of S. pombe erh1(+ and, to a lesser extent, S. japonicus erh1(+ or human ERH. Erh1p fails to interact with the human Ciz1 and PDIP46/SKAR proteins, known molecular partners of human ERH. Our data suggest that in Schizosaccharomyces sp. erh1(+ is non-essential for normal growth and Erh1p could play a role in response to adverse environmental conditions and in cell cycle regulation.

  11. PCR primers to study the diversity of expressed fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes in soils using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, Florian; Bragalini, Claudia; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Dubost, Audrey; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation in soil is one of the key steps of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal saprotrophic communities play an essential role in this process by producing hydrolytic enzymes active on the main components of plant organic matter. Open questions in this field regard the diversity of the species involved, the major biochemical pathways implicated and how these are affected by external factors such as litter quality or climate changes. This can be tackled by environmental genomic approaches involving the systematic sequencing of key enzyme-coding gene families using soil-extracted RNA as material. Such an approach necessitates the design and evaluation of gene family-specific PCR primers producing sequence fragments compatible with high-throughput sequencing approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated PCR primers for the specific amplification of fungal CAZy Glycoside Hydrolase gene families GH5 (subfamily 5) and GH11 encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases and endo-β-1,4-xylanases respectively as well as Basidiomycota class II peroxidases, corresponding to the CAZy Auxiliary Activity family 2 (AA2), active on lignin. These primers were experimentally validated using DNA extracted from a wide range of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species including 27 with sequenced genomes. Along with the published primers for Glycoside Hydrolase GH7 encoding enzymes active on cellulose, the newly design primers were shown to be compatible with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from beech or spruce forest soils showed a high diversity and were uniformly distributed in gene trees featuring the global diversity of these gene families. This high-throughput sequencing approach using several degenerate primers constitutes a robust method, which allows the simultaneous characterization of the diversity of different fungal transcripts involved in plant organic matter degradation and may lead to the

  12. PCR primers to study the diversity of expressed fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes in soils using high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Barbi

    Full Text Available Plant biomass degradation in soil is one of the key steps of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal saprotrophic communities play an essential role in this process by producing hydrolytic enzymes active on the main components of plant organic matter. Open questions in this field regard the diversity of the species involved, the major biochemical pathways implicated and how these are affected by external factors such as litter quality or climate changes. This can be tackled by environmental genomic approaches involving the systematic sequencing of key enzyme-coding gene families using soil-extracted RNA as material. Such an approach necessitates the design and evaluation of gene family-specific PCR primers producing sequence fragments compatible with high-throughput sequencing approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated PCR primers for the specific amplification of fungal CAZy Glycoside Hydrolase gene families GH5 (subfamily 5 and GH11 encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases and endo-β-1,4-xylanases respectively as well as Basidiomycota class II peroxidases, corresponding to the CAZy Auxiliary Activity family 2 (AA2, active on lignin. These primers were experimentally validated using DNA extracted from a wide range of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species including 27 with sequenced genomes. Along with the published primers for Glycoside Hydrolase GH7 encoding enzymes active on cellulose, the newly design primers were shown to be compatible with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from beech or spruce forest soils showed a high diversity and were uniformly distributed in gene trees featuring the global diversity of these gene families. This high-throughput sequencing approach using several degenerate primers constitutes a robust method, which allows the simultaneous characterization of the diversity of different fungal transcripts involved in plant organic matter degradation and may

  13. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea--A Metagenomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta Filipa; Antunes, André; Ottoni, Cristiane A; Amini, Mohammad Shoaib; Alam, Intikhab; Alzubaidy, Hanin; Mokhtar, Noor-Azlin; Archer, John A C; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    Covering a quarter of the world's tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%-85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%-24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  14. Bleaching of leaf litter and associated microfungi in subboreal and subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hobara, Satoru; Mori, Akira S; Hirose, Dai; Osono, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Fungal decomposition of lignin leads to the whitening, or bleaching, of leaf litter, especially in temperate and tropical forests, but less is known about such bleaching in forests of cooler regions, such as boreal and subalpine forests. The purposes of the present study were to examine the extent of bleached area on the surface of leaf litter and its variation with environmental conditions in subboreal and subalpine forests in Japan and to examine the microfungi associated with the bleaching of leaf litter by isolating fungi from the bleached portions of the litter. Bleached area accounted for 21.7%-32.7% and 2.0%-10.0% of total leaf area of Quercus crispula and Betula ermanii, respectively, in subboreal forests, and for 6.3% and 18.6% of total leaf area of B. ermanii and Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis, respectively, in a subalpine forest. In subboreal forests, elevation, C/N ratio and pH of the FH layer, and slope aspect were selected as predictor variables for the bleached leaf area. Leaf mass per area and lignin content were consistently lower in the bleached area than in the nonbleached area of the same leaves, indicating that the selective decomposition of acid unhydrolyzable residue (recalcitrant compounds such as lignin, tannins, and cutins) enhanced the mass loss of leaf tissues in the bleached portions. Isolates of a total of 11 fungal species (6 species of Ascomycota and 5 of Basidiomycota) exhibited leaf-litter-bleaching activity under pure culture conditions. Two fungal species (Coccomyces sp. and Mycena sp.) occurred in both subboreal and subalpine forests, which were separated from each other by approximately 1100 km.

  15. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  16. Characterization of fungal spores in ambient particulate matter: A study from the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Attri, Arun K.

    2016-10-01

    Fungal spores as a constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM) is of concern; they not only display the physical traits of a particle, but are also potential allergens and health risk. An investigation over fourteen month was undertaken at a rural site located in the Western Himalayan region, to evaluate the PM associated fungal spores' concentration and diversity. The season-wise change in the fungal spores concentration in the Coarse Particulate Matter (CPM) fraction (aerodynamic diameter > 10 μm) varied from 500 to 3899 spores m-3. Their average concentration over 14 months was 1517 spores m-3. Significant diversity of fungal spores in the CPM samples was observed; 27 individual genera of fungal spores were identified, of which many were known allergens. Presence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal spores was dominant in the samples; ∼20% of the spores were un-characterized. The season-wise variability in fungal spores showed a statistically significant high correlation with CPM load. Maximum number concentration of the spores in CPM was recorded in the summer, while minimum in the winter. The high diversity of spores occurred during monsoon and post monsoon months. The meteorological factors played an important role in the fungal spores' distribution profile. The temporal profile of the spores showed significant correlation with the ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Strong correlation of WS with fungal spores and CPM, and wind back trajectories suggest that re-suspension and wind assisted transport of PM contributes to ambient CPM associated fungal spores.

  17. Species diversity and antibiological activities of endolichenic fungi from Zhejiang Mt.Qingliang%浙江清凉峰地衣内生菌物种多样性及活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 胡玲; 王海英; 赵遵田

    2013-01-01

    We directly selected medulla mycelium of the lichen to culture the endolichenic fungi from Zhejiang Mt. Qingliang. The ITS nrDNA and 28S nrDNA sequences based growth analysis indicates that 55 fungi belong to Ascomycota. We determined the bacteriostatic activity of secondary metabolite of these 55 endolichenic fungi by the method of paper disc. Results show that 14.55% of the total strains (8 strains) have highly antifungal activity. Maximum diameter of filter parer piece is 3 cm. Our research demonstrates that endolichenic fungi can produce abundant secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. They can be served as good resources to screen active substances for many pathogens. They form a potential and rich resource library of antimicrobial compounds.%采用挑取地衣体髓层菌丝法对浙江省清凉峰的地衣内生菌进行分离培养.基于ITS序列和28S序列的系统发育分析表明,选取的55株内生菌都属于子囊菌门且具高度的物种多样性.用滤纸片法检测该内生菌次生代谢产物的抗细菌、真菌活性,发现其中有8株具抗菌活性,占所测菌株的14.55%,抑菌圈的直径最大达到3 cm.研究表明地衣内生菌可产生丰富的具抑菌活性的次生代谢产物,可作为对多种病原物具有抑菌活性物质筛选的资源,是抑菌活性物质潜在的、丰富的资源库.

  18. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelfattah

    Full Text Available The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6% and Basidiomycota (2.8%. A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  19. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  20. Characterization of chlordecone-tolerant fungal populations isolated from long-term polluted tropical volcanic soil in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Chloé; Devers, Marion; Crouzet, Olivier; Heraud, Cécile; Steinberg, Christian; Mougin, Christian; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    The insecticide chlordecone is a contaminant found in most of the banana plantations in the French West Indies. This study aims to search for fungal populations able to grow on it. An Andosol heavily contaminated with chlordecone, perfused for 1 year in a soil-charcoal system, was used to conduct enrichment cultures. A total of 103 fungal strains able to grow on chlordecone-mineral salt medium were isolated, purified, and deposited in the MIAE collection (Microorganismes d'Intérêt Agro-Environnemental, UMR Agroécologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dijon, France). Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that all isolated strains belonged to the Ascomycota phylum and gathered in 11 genera: Metacordyceps, Cordyceps, Pochonia, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Ophiocordyceps, Purpureocillium, Bionectria, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. Among predominant species, only one isolate, Fusarium oxysporum MIAE01197, was able to grow in a liquid culture medium that contained chlordecone as sole carbon source. Chlordecone increased F. oxysporum MIAE01197 growth rate, attesting for its tolerance to this organochlorine. Moreover, F. oxysporum MIAE01197 exhibited a higher EC50 value than the reference strain F. oxysporum MIAE00047. This further suggests its adaptation to chlordecone tolerance up to 29.2 mg l(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that 40 % of chlordecone was dissipated in F. oxysporum MIAE01197 suspension culture. No chlordecone metabolite was detected by GC-MS. However, weak amount of (14)CO2 evolved from (14)C10-chlordecone and (14)C10-metabolites were observed. Sorption of (14)C10-chlordecone onto fungal biomass followed a linear relationship (r (2) = 0.99) suggesting that it may also account for chlordecone dissipation in F. oxysporum MIAE01197 culture. PMID:23872892

  1. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  2. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Grey Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea - A Metagenomic Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Simões, Marta Filipa

    2015-11-05

    Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from grey mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the grey mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  3. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  4. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  5. Multi-year assessment of coastal planktonic fungi reveals environmental drivers of diversity and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joe D; Cunliffe, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mycoplankton have so far been a neglected component of pelagic marine ecosystems, having been poorly studied relative to other plankton groups. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of how mycoplankton diversity changes through time, and the identity of controlling environmental drivers. Using Fungi-specific high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analysis of plankton DNA samples collected over 6 years from the coastal biodiversity time series site Station L4 situated off Plymouth (UK), we have assessed changes in the temporal variability of mycoplankton diversity and abundance in relation to co-occurring environmental variables. Mycoplankton diversity at Station L4 was dominated by Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota, with several orders within these phyla frequently abundant and dominant in multiple years. Repeating interannual mycoplankton blooms were linked to potential controlling environmental drivers, including nitrogen availability and temperature. Specific relationships between mycoplankton and other plankton groups were also identified, with seasonal chytrid blooms matching diatom blooms in consecutive years. Mycoplankton α-diversity was greatest during periods of reduced salinity at Station L4, indicative of riverine input to the ecosystem. Mycoplankton abundance also increased during periods of reduced salinity, and when potential substrate availability was increased, including particulate organic matter. This study has identified possible controlling environmental drivers of mycoplankton diversity and abundance in a coastal sea ecosystem, and therefore sheds new light on the biology and ecology of an enigmatic marine plankton group. Mycoplankton have several potential functional roles, including saprotrophs and parasites, that should now be considered within the consensus view of pelagic ecosystem functioning and services. PMID:26943623

  6. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of −0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's “hidden biodiversity.” PMID:27630629

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in the Roots of Maize Lines Contrasting for Al Tolerance Grown in Limed and Non-Limed Brazilian Oxisoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eliane A; Oliveira, Christiane A; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Noda, Roberto W; Marriel, Ivanildo E; de Souza, Francisco A

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the greatest limitations to agriculture in acid soils, particularly in tropical regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can supply plants with nutrients and give protection against Al toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil liming (i.e., reducing Al saturation) on the AMF community composition and structure in the roots of maize lines contrasting for Al tolerance. To this end, we constructed four 18S rDNA cloning libraries from L3 (Al tolerant) and L22 (Al sensitive) maize lines grown in limed and non-limed soils. A total of 790 clones were sequenced, 69% belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum. The remaining sequences were from Ascomycota, which were more prominent in the limed soil, mainly in the L3 line. The most abundant AM fungal clones were related to the family Glomeraceae represented by the genera uncultured Glomus followed by Rhizophagus and Funneliformis. However, the most abundant operational taxonomic units with 27% of the Glomeromycota clones was affiliated to genus Racocetra. This genus was present in all the four libraries, but it was predominant in the non-limed soils, suggesting that Racocetra is tolerant to Al toxicity. Similarly, Acaulospora and Rhizophagus were also present mostly in both lines in non-limed soils. The community richness of AMF in the non-limed soils was higher than the limed soil for both lines. The results suggest that the soil Al saturation was the parameter that mostly influences the AMF species composition in the soils in this study.

  8. MYT3, a Myb-like transcription factor, affects fungal development and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum.

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    Yongsoo Kim

    Full Text Available We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the Δmyt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the Δmyt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the Δmyt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the Δmyt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum.

  9. Transient endophytic colonizations of plants improve the outcome of foliar applications of mycoinsecticides against chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resquín-Romero, G; Garrido-Jurado, I; Delso, C; Ríos-Moreno, A; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2016-05-01

    The current work reports how spray application of entomopathogenic fungi on alfalfa, tomato and melon plants may cause an additional Spodoptera littoralis larvae mortality due to a temporal colonization of the leaves and subsequent ingestion of those leaves by the larvae. Most entomopathogenic fungi (EF) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) endophytes seem to colonize their host plants in a non-systemic pattern, in which case at least a transient endophytic establishment of the fungus should be expected in treated areas after spray application. In this work, all strains were able to endophytically colonize roots, stems and leaves during the first 96h after inoculation. Whilst the treatment of S. littoralis larvae with a 10(8)ml(-1) conidial suspension resulted in moderate to high mortality rates for the Metarhizium brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su (41.7-50.0%) and Beauveria bassiana EABb 01/33-Su (66.7-76.6%) strains, respectively, an additive effect was detected when these larvae were also fed endophytically colonized alfalfa, tomato, and melon leaves, with mortality rates varying from 25.0% to 46.7% as a function of the host plant and total mortality rates in the combined treatment of 75-80% and 33-60% for B. bassiana and M. brunneum, respectively. Fungal outgrowth was not detected in any of the dead larvae feeding on colonized leaves, whereas traces of destruxin A were detected in 11% of the insects fed tomato discs endophytically colonized by M. brunneum. The combined effects of the fungal spray with the mortality caused by the feeding of insects on transient EF-colonized leaves have to be considered to estimate the real acute impact of field sprays with entomopathogenic fungi on chewing insects. PMID:26945771

  10. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

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    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  11. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

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    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  12. Changes in the soil microbial community after reductive soil disinfestation and cucumber seedling cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhang, Jinbo; Wang, Fenghe; Cai, Zucong

    2016-06-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) has been proven to be an effective and environmentally friendly way to control many soilborne pathogens and diseases. In this study, the RSDs using ethanol (Et-RSD) and alfalfa (Al-RSD) as organic carbons were performed in a Rhizoctonia solani-infected soil, and the dissimilarities of microbial communities during the RSDs and after planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings in the RSDs-treated soil were respectively investigated by MiSeq pyrosequencing. The results showed that, as for bacteria, Coprococcus, Flavisolibacter, Rhodanobacter, Symbiobacterium, and UC-Ruminococcaceae became the dominant bacterial genera at the end of Al-RSD. In contrast, Et-RSD soil involved more bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, such as Sedimentibacter, UC-Gracilibacteraceae, and Desulfosporosinus. For fungi, Chaetomium significantly increased at the end of RSDs, while Rhizoctonia and Aspergillus significantly decreased. After planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings, those bacteria belonging to Firmicutes significantly decreased, but Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria as well as UC-Sordariales and Humicola belonging to Ascomycota alternatively increased in Al- and Et-RSD-treated soils. Besides, some nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes were apparently increased in the RSD-treated soils, but the effect was more profound in Al-RSD than Et-RSD. Overall, Et-RSD could induced more antagonists belonging to Firmicutes under anaerobic condition, whereas Al-RSD could continuously stimulate some functional microorganisms (Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter) and further improve nitrogen transformation activities in the soil at the coming cropping season. PMID:26875875

  13. Sloth hair as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial bioactivity.

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    Sarah Higginbotham

    Full Text Available The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths--arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama--carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus, Bradypodidae in Soberanía National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs, several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity in vitro. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Shiraia bambusicola to Investigate Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Hypocrellin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Lin, Xi; Qi, Shan-Shan; Luo, Zhi-Mei; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Yan, Shu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Shiraia bambusicola is a species of the monotypic genus Shiraia in the phylum Ascomycota. In China, it is known for its pharmacological properties that are used to treat rheumatic arthritis, sciatica, pertussis, tracheitis and so forth. Its major medicinal active metabolite is hypocrellin A, which exhibits excellent antiviral and antitumor properties. However, the genes involved in the hypocrellin A anabolic pathways were still unknown due to the lack of genomic information for this species. To investigate putative genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of hypocrellin A and determine the pathway, we performed transcriptome sequencing for Shiraia bambusicola S4201-W and the mutant S4201-D1 for the first time. S4201-W has excellent hypocrellin A production, while the mutant S4201-D1 does not. Then, we obtained 38,056,034 and 39,086,896 clean reads from S4201-W and S4201-D1, respectively. In all, 17,923 unigenes were de novo assembled, and the N50 length was 1970 bp. Based on the negative binomial distribution test, 716 unigenes were found to be upregulated, and 188 genes were downregulated in S4201-D1, compared with S4201-W. We have found seven unigenes involved in the biosynthesis of hypocrellin A and proposed a putative hypocrellin A biosynthetic pathway. These data will provide a valuable resource and theoretical basis for future molecular studies of hypocrellin A, help identify the genes involved in the biosynthesis of hypocrellin A and help facilitate functional studies for enhancing hypocrellin A production. PMID:26927096

  15. Stanley Corrsin Award Talk: Fluid Mechanics of Fungi and Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael

    2013-11-01

    There are interesting fluid mechanics problems everywhere, even in the most lowly and hidden corners of forest floors. Here I discuss some questions we have been working on in recent years involving fungi and slime. A critical issue for the ecology of fungi and slime is nutrient availability: nutrient sources are highly heterogeneous, and strategies are necessary to find food when it runs out. In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, spore dispersal is the primary mechanism for finding new food sources. The defining feature of this phylum is the ascus, a fluid filled sac from which spores are ejected, through a build up in osmotic pressure. We outline the (largely fluid mechanical) design constraints on this ejection strategy, and demonstrate how it provides strong constraints for the diverse morphologies of spores and asci found in nature. The core of the argument revisits a classical problem in elastohydrodynamic lubrication from a different perspective. A completely different strategy for finding new nutrient is found by slime molds and fungi that stretch out - as a single organism- over enormous areas (up to hectares) over forest floors. As a model problem we study the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which forages with a large network of connected tubes on the forest floors. Localized regions in the network find nutrient sources and then pump the nutrients throughout the entire organism. We discuss fluid mechanical mechanisms for coordinating this transport, which generalize peristalsis to pumping in a heterogeneous network. We give a preliminary discussion to how physarum can detect a nutrient source and pump the nutrient throughout the organism.

  16. Fungal diversity from deep marine subsurface sediments (IODP 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redou, V.; Arzur, D.; Burgaud, G.; Barbier, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest regarding micro-eukaryotic communities in extreme environments as a third microbial domain after Bacteria and Archaea. However, knowledge is still scarce and the diversity of micro-eukaryotes in such environments remains hidden and their ecological role unknown. Our research program is based on the deep sedimentary layers of the Canterbury Basin in New Zealand (IODP 317) from the subsurface to the record depth of 1884 meters below seafloor. The objectives of our study are (i) to assess the genetic diversity of fungi in deep-sea sediments and (ii) identify the functional part in order to better understand the origin and the ecological role of fungal communities in this extreme ecosystem. Fingerprinting-based methods using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography were used as a first step to raise our objectives. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification of ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) as a biomarker on 11 samples sediments from 3.76 to 1884 meters below seafloor. Fungal molecular signatures were detected throughout the sediment core. The phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were revealed with DNA as well as cDNA. Most of the phylotypes are affiliated to environmental sequences and some to common fungal cultured species. The discovery of a present and metabolically active fungal component in this unique ecosystem allows some interesting first hypotheses that will be further combined to culture-based methods and deeper molecular methods (454 pyrosequencing) to highlight essential informations regarding physiology and ecological role of fungal communities in deep marine sediments.

  17. Chitin Mixed in Potting Soil Alters Lettuce Growth, the Survival of Zoonotic Bacteria on the Leaves and Associated Rhizosphere Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Jane; De Tender, Caroline; Soltaninejad, Saman; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Haegeman, Annelies; Van der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is a promising soil amendment for improving soil quality, plant growth, and plant resilience. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, to study the effect of chitin mixed in potting soil on lettuce growth and on the survival of two zoonotic bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on the lettuce leaves. Second, to assess the related changes in the microbial lettuce rhizosphere, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and amplicon sequencing of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment and the fungal ITS2. As a result of chitin addition, lettuce fresh yield weight was significantly increased. S. enterica survival in the lettuce phyllosphere was significantly reduced. The E. coli O157:H7 survival was also lowered, but not significantly. Moreover, significant changes were observed in the bacterial and fungal community of the lettuce rhizosphere. PLFA analysis showed a significant increase in fungal and bacterial biomass. Amplicon sequencing showed no increase in fungal and bacterial biodiversity, but relative abundances of the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria and the fungal phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota were significantly changed. More specifically, a more than 10-fold increase was observed for operational taxonomic units belonging to the bacterial genera Cellvibrio, Pedobacter, Dyadobacter, and Streptomyces and to the fungal genera Lecanicillium and Mortierella. These genera include several species previously reported to be involved in biocontrol, plant growth promotion, the nitrogen cycle and chitin degradation. These results enhance the understanding of the response of the rhizosphere microbiome to chitin amendment. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the use of soil amendments to control the survival of S. enterica on plant leaves. PMID:27148242

  18. Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis.

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    Jin-Long Cui

    Full Text Available Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%, all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%, Basidiomycota (2.78%, Zygomycota (1.11%, and Glomeromycota (0.56%, which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33% were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57 were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2-•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

  19. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Capacity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Halophytic Plants from the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalmuratova, Irina; Kim, Hyun; Nam, Yoon-Jong; Oh, Yoosun; Jeong, Min-Ji; Choi, Hye-Rim; You, Young-Hyun; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-12-01

    Five halophytic plant species, Suaeda maritima, Limonium tetragonum, Suaeda australis, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda glauca Bunge, which are native to the Muan salt marsh of South Korea, were examined for fungal endophytes by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region containing ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2. In total, 160 endophytic fungal strains were isolated and identified from the roots of the 5 plant species. Taxonomically, all 160 strains belonged to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. The most dominant genus was Fusarium, followed by the genera Penicillium and Alternaria. Subsequently, using 5 statistical methods, the diversity indices of the endophytes were determined at genus level. Among these halophytic plants, P. australis was found to host the greatest diversity of endophytic fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-C rice seedlings for plant growth-promoting effects. The fungal strain Su-3-4-3 isolated from S. glauca Bunge provide the maximum plant length (20.1 cm) in comparison with wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi (19.6 cm). Consequently, chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Su-3-4-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1 (0.465 ng/mL), GA3 (1.808 ng/mL) along with other physiologically inactive GA9 (0.054 ng/mL) and GA24 (0.044 ng/mL). The fungal isolate Su-3-4-3 was identified as Talaromyces pinophilus. PMID:26839496

  20. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  1. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  2. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea-A Metagenomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Filipa Simoes; Andre Antunes; Cristiane A Ottoni; Mohammad Shoaib Amini; Intikhab Alam; Hanin Alzubaidy; Noor-Azlin Mokhtar; John AC Archer; Vladimir B Bajic

    2015-01-01

    Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threat-ened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray man-groves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal commu-nities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  3. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In soil microbiology, there is a ‘paradox’ of soil organic carbon (SOC mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences, followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia and uncultured Chytridiomycota were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9% and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively, which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation.

  4. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Migun [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be

  5. Edible Macrofungi of Çorum Province

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    Sinan Alkan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the scientists, the world's population by 2050 is estimated to exceed 9 billion, in order to meet the nutritional needs of people, it is expected that in the future to need more food production than today. Therefore in the world, food organizations, institutions and communities various action plans provide in the reports published. In these plans, diversification of the production, fast, quick and easy way to produce food, less harmful farming practices to the nature and the environment, and etc. topics are included. In line these plans with last years, the greater the number of species used as food and with ease of cultivation, mushrooms and mushroom cultivations are gaining importance. For this purpose, the determination of the diversity of edible mushrooms in nature and investigation that how can be taken to culture, it will also provide support to the production of different species of mushrooms. In the field studies performed between 2011 and 2013, after taking pictures on their habitats mushroom samples, collected within the Çorum province limits, were brought to the laboratory wrapped in aluminum foil properly. After measuring and studying on special structures under a microscope in the laboratory, they were identified according to the literature. Fungarium tag were prepared for identified mushrooms. These mushrooms, made into the Fungarium materials, were stored in Fungarium of the Directorate of Mushroom Application and Research Centre of Selçuk University. In conclusion, according to the literature four taxa belong to Ascomycota and 52 taxa belong to Basidiomycota, in totally of 56 taxa were found to be edible feature. These 56 taxa were represented by two divisio, four ordo and 14 families. The localities of identified species in the provincial boundaries are given. The names of species known among people with ethno mycological research, done during field studies, also were detected.

  6. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  7. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina from the Red Sea — A Metagenomic Approach

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    Marta Filipa Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%, while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%, yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  8. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  9. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

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    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  10. Illumina-based analysis of the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants grown in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianhan; Yang, Guo; Wang, Yun; Wu, Xiukun; Zhao, Xia; Hao, Haiting; Li, Yuyao; Xie, Zhongkui; Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Ruoyu

    2016-06-01

    Lanzhou lily (Liliumdavidii var. unicolor) is the best edible lily as well as a traditional medicinal plant in China. The microbes associated with plant roots play crucial roles in plant growth and health. However, little is known about the differences of rhizosphere microbes between healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants. The objective of this study was to compare the rhizosphere microbial community and functional diversity of healthy and wilted plants, and to identify potential biocontrol agents with significant effect. Paired end Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicons was employed to study the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of Lanzhou lily plants. BIOLOG technology was adopted to investigate the microbial functional diversity. Our results indicated that there were major differences in the rhizosphere microbial composition and functional diversity of wilted samples compared with healthy samples. Healthy Lanzhou lily plants exhibited lower rhizosphere-associated bacterial diversity than diseased plants, whereas fungi exhibited the opposite trend. The dominant phyla in both the healthy and wilted samples were Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, i.e., 34.45 and 64.01 %, respectively. The microbial functional diversity was suppressed in wilted soil samples. Besides Fusarium, the higher relative abundances of Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Penicillium, and Ilyonectria (Neonectria) in the wilted samples suggest they may pathogenetic root rot fungi. The high relative abundances of Bacillus in Firmicutes in healthy samples may have significant roles as biological control agents against soilborne pathogens. This is the first study to find evidence of major differences between the microbial communities in the rhizospheric soil of healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily, which may be linked to the health status of plants. PMID:27116961

  11. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajich Jason E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, most fungal phylogenies have been derived from single gene comparisons, or from concatenated alignments of a small number of genes. The increase in fungal genome sequencing presents an opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events using entire genomes. As a tool for future comparative, phylogenomic and phylogenetic studies, we used both supertrees and concatenated alignments to infer relationships between 42 species of fungi for which complete genome sequences are available. Results A dataset of 345,829 genes was extracted from 42 publicly available fungal genomes. Supertree methods were employed to derive phylogenies from 4,805 single gene families. We found that the average consensus supertree method may suffer from long-branch attraction artifacts, while matrix representation with parsimony (MRP appears to be immune from these. A genome phylogeny was also reconstructed from a concatenated alignment of 153 universally distributed orthologs. Our MRP supertree and concatenated phylogeny are highly congruent. Within the Ascomycota, the sub-phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina were resolved. Both phylogenies infer that the Leotiomycetes are the closest sister group to the Sordariomycetes. There is some ambiguity regarding the placement of Stagonospora nodurum, the sole member of the class Dothideomycetes present in the dataset. Within the Saccharomycotina, a monophyletic clade containing organisms that translate CTG as serine instead of leucine is evident. There is also strong support for two groups within the CTG clade, one containing the fully sexual species Candida lusitaniae, Candida guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii, and the second group containing Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus. The second major clade within the Saccharomycotina contains species whose genomes have undergone a whole genome duplication (WGD, and their close

  12. Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes during tertiary wastewater desalination: microbial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ashhab, Ashraf; Herzberg, Moshe; Gillor, Osnat

    2014-03-01

    Reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination is frequently used for the production of high-quality water from tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW). However, the RO desalination process is often hampered by biofouling, including membrane conditioning, microbial adhesion, and biofilm growth. The vast majority of biofilm exploration concentrated on the role of bacteria in biofouling neglecting additional microbial contributors, i.e., fungi and archaea. To better understand the RO biofouling process, bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity was characterized in a laboratory-scale RO desalination plant exploring the TTWW (RO feed), the RO membrane and the RO feed tube biofilms. We sequenced 77,400 fragments of the ribosome small subunit-encoding gene (16S and 18S rRNA) to identify the microbial community members in these matrices. Our results suggest that the bacterial, archaeal but not fungal community significantly differ from the RO membrane biofouling layer to the feedwater and tube biofilm (P < 0.01). Moreover, the RO membrane supported a more diverse community compared to the communities monitored in the feedwater and the biofilm attached to the RO feedwater tube. The tube biofilm was dominated by Actinobacteria (91.2 ± 4.6%), while the Proteobacteria phylum dominated the feedwater and RO membrane (at relative abundance of 92.3 ± 4.4% and 71.5 ± 8.3%, respectively), albeit comprising different members. The archaea communities were dominated by Crenarchaeota (53.0 ± 6.9%, 32.5 ± 7.2% and 69%, respectively) and Euryarchaeota (43.3 ± 6.3%, 23.2 ± 4.8% and 24%, respectively) in all three matrices, though the communities' composition differed. But the fungal communities composition was similar in all matrices, dominated by Ascomycota (97.6 ± 2.7%). Our results suggest that the RO membrane is a selective surface, supporting unique bacterial, and to a lesser extent archaeal communities, yet it does not select for a fungal community.

  13. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in the

  14. Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhäsalmi mine Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Sohlberg, Elina; Numminen, Mikko; Ahonen, Lasse; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine in central Finland provides an excellent opportunity to study microbial and geochemical processes in a deep subsurface crystalline rock environment through near-vertical drill holes that reach to a depth of more than two kilometers below the surface. However, microbial sampling was challenging in this high-pressure environment. Nucleic acid yields obtained were extremely low when compared to the cell counts detected (1.4 × 10(4) cells mL(-1)) in water. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60-130 bar) during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. No clear cells could be identified in water that went through high decompression. The high-pressure decompression may have damaged part of the cells and the nucleic acids escaped through the filter. The microbial diversity was analyzed from two drill holes by pyrosequencing amplicons of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and from the fungal ITS regions from both DNA and RNA fractions. The identified prokaryotic diversity was low, dominated by Firmicute, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species that are common in deep subsurface environments. The archaeal diversity consisted mainly of Methanobacteriales. Ascomycota dominated the fungal diversity and fungi were discovered to be active and to produce ribosomes in the deep oligotrophic biosphere. The deep fluids from the Pyhäsalmi mine shared several features with other deep Precambrian continental subsurface environments including saline, Ca-dominated water and stable isotope compositions positioning left from the meteoric water line. The dissolved gas phase was dominated by nitrogen but the gas composition clearly differed from that of atmospheric air. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was found in the drill

  15. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  16. Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly

  17. One fungus, which genes? Development and assessment of universal primers for potential secondary fungal DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stielow, J B; Lévesque, C A; Seifert, K A; Meyer, W; Iriny, L; Smits, D; Renfurm, R; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, M; Chaduli, D; Lomascolo, A; Welti, S; Lesage-Meessen, L; Favel, A; Al-Hatmi, A M S; Damm, U; Yilmaz, N; Houbraken, J; Lombard, L; Quaedvlieg, W; Binder, M; Vaas, L A I; Vu, D; Yurkov, A; Begerow, D; Roehl, O; Guerreiro, M; Fonseca, A; Samerpitak, K; van Diepeningen, A D; Dolatabadi, S; Moreno, L F; Casaregola, S; Mallet, S; Jacques, N; Roscini, L; Egidi, E; Bizet, C; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Martín, M P; Deng, S; Groenewald, J Z; Boekhout, T; de Beer, Z W; Barnes, I; Duong, T A; Wingfield, M J; de Hoog, G S; Crous, P W; Lewis, C T; Hambleton, S; Moussa, T A A; Al-Zahrani, H S; Almaghrabi, O A; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; McCormick, W; Omer, G; Dukik, K; Cardinali, G; Eberhardt, U; de Vries, M; Robert, V

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential candidate gene regions and corresponding universal primer pairs as secondary DNA barcodes for the fungal kingdom, additional to ITS rDNA as primary barcode. Amplification efficiencies of 14 (partially) universal primer pairs targeting eight genetic markers were tested across > 1 500 species (1 931 strains or specimens) and the outcomes of almost twenty thousand (19 577) polymerase chain reactions were evaluated. We tested several well-known primer pairs that amplify: i) sections of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene large subunit (D1-D2 domains of 26/28S); ii) the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1/2); iii) partial β -tubulin II (TUB2); iv) γ-actin (ACT); v) translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1α); and vi) the second largest subunit of RNA-polymerase II (partial RPB2, section 5-6). Their PCR efficiencies were compared with novel candidate primers corresponding to: i) the fungal-specific translation elongation factor 3 (TEF3); ii) a small ribosomal protein necessary for t-RNA docking; iii) the 60S L10 (L1) RP; iv) DNA topoisomerase I (TOPI); v) phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK); vi) hypothetical protein LNS2; and vii) alternative sections of TEF1α. Results showed that several gene sections are accessible to universal primers (or primers universal for phyla) yielding a single PCR-product. Barcode gap and multi-dimensional scaling analyses revealed that some of the tested candidate markers have universal properties providing adequate infra- and inter-specific variation that make them attractive barcodes for species identification. Among these gene sections, a novel high fidelity primer pair for TEF1α, already widely used as a phylogenetic marker in mycology, has potential as a supplementary DNA barcode with superior resolution to ITS. Both TOPI and PGK show promise for the Ascomycota, while TOPI and LNS2 are attractive for the Pucciniomycotina, for which universal primers for ribosomal subunits often fail

  18. Diversity and antibacterial activity of fungi associated with South China Sea sponges and corals%中国南海海绵和珊瑚共附生真菌多样性及其抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 蒋群; 李英新; 冯国芳; 孙伟; 张风丽; 李志勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 揭示中国南海海绵和珊瑚共附生真菌多样性及其抗菌活性.方法 采用9种不同的真菌培养基对海绵和珊瑚中的共生真菌进行分离培养和纯化,根据真菌18S rDNA对所分离的真菌进行鉴定,使用MEGA 5.2软件对所分离真菌进行系统发育分析.采用圆形滤纸片法进行抑菌活性筛选.结果 从采自南海的6种海绵与3种珊瑚中共分离得到106株真菌菌株,通过形态分析和序列分析排重得到41株独立真菌菌株.18S rDNA序列比对结果分析显示,分别属于子囊菌门(Ascomycota)的11个目和担子菌门(Basidiomycota)的4个目,共计26个属.其中子囊菌门所占比例最高为93.4%,剩下的6.6%为担子菌门.通过抑菌活性筛选显示部分真菌对革兰氏阳性细菌和革兰氏阴性细菌具有广谱抗菌活性.结论 本研究揭示了中国南海海绵和珊瑚共附生真菌丰富的种群多样性及部分真菌的抑菌活性,为进一步开发利用海绵和珊瑚共附生真菌及生产活性物质奠定了基础.

  19. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; α-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; β-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable

  20. Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhäsalmi mine Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eMiettinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyhäsalmi mine in central Finland provides an excellent opportunity to study microbial and geochemical processes in a deep subsurface crystalline rock environment through near-vertical drill holes that reach to a depth of more than two kilometers below the surface. However, microbial sampling was challenging in this high-pressure environment. Nucleic acid yields obtained were extremely low when compared to the cell counts detected (1.4 x 10^4 cells/mL in water. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60 to 130 bar during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. No clear cells could be identified in water that went through high decompression. The high-pressure decompression may have damaged part of the cells and the nucleic acids escaped through the filter. The microbial diversity was analyzed from two drill holes by pyrosequencing amplicons of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and from the fungal ITS regions from both DNA and RNA fractions. The identified prokaryotic diversity was low, dominated by Firmicute, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species that are common in deep subsurface environments. The archaeal diversity consisted mainly of Methanobacteriales. Ascomycota dominated the fungal diversity and fungi were discovered to be active and to produce ribosomes in the deep oligotrophic biosphere. The deep fluids from the Pyhäsalmi mine shared several features with other deep Precambrian continental subsurface environments including saline, Ca-dominated water and stable isotope compositions positioning left from the meteoric water line. The dissolved gas phase was dominated by nitrogen but the gas composition clearly differed from that of atmospheric air. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was

  1. Microfungal oasis in an oligotrophic desert: diversity patterns and community structure in three freshwater systems of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Rosique-Gil, Edmundo; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Espinosa-Asuar, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) comprises several oligotrophic aquatic ecosystems limited by phosphorus. These aquatic systems are dominated by a high prokaryotic diversity, shaped by the stress of low nutrient supplies and interspecific competition. Although fungi constitute a diverse and important component of microbial diversity, the microfungal diversity in the CCB remains to be unveiled. With the aim to explore microfungal diversity and ecological patterns in this area, we present the first investigation analyzing cultivable taxa from sediment and water, as well as lignocellulolytic taxa obtained from incubated submerged plant debris, and wood panels in three contrasting freshwater systems in the CCB: Churince, Becerra and Pozas Rojas. We chose a culture-based approach to analyze sediment and water samples in order to obtain fungal cultures, providing opportunities for a posteriori studies, and the possibility of ex situ preservation of the diversity. We evaluated sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer including the 5.8 rDNA region for 126 isolates, revealing 37 OTUs. These OTUs were phylogenetically affiliated to several genera in the fungal phyla: Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. We recorded two OTUs with saline affinity, agreeing with previous findings on the prokaryotic communities with ancestral marine resemblances. All the studied systems showed moderate diversity levels, however discrepancies among the diversity indexes were observed, due to the occurrence of abundant taxa in the samples. Our results indicated that lignocellulolytic microfungal communities are dominated by transient fungal taxa, as resident species were not recorded perhaps as a result of the long-term strong competition with the highly adapted prokaryotic community. Moreover, the obtained microfungal taxa occurred mostly on the resident plant debris, rather than submerged wood panels, perhaps as a result of the high adaptation to specific

  2. Mycogenic Mn(II) oxidation promotes remediation of acid mine drainage and other anthropogenically impacted environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Chaput, D.; Hansel, C. M.; Burgos, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Manganese is a pollutant in worldwide environments contaminated with metals and organics, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), freshwater ponds, and agricultural waste storage sites. Microorganisms contribute to the removal of dissolved Mn compounds in the environment by promoting Mn(II) oxidation reactions. The oxidation of Mn(II) results in the precipitation of sparingly soluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, effectively removing the metal from the aqueous milieu (e.g., groundwater or wastewater streams). In recent years, our research has identified a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi inhabiting these polluted environments, however their overall contribution to the remediation process in situ remains poorly understood. Here we present results of culture-based and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) studies in AMD treatment systems actively remediating Mn and other metals where we profile the bacterial, fungal, algal and archaeal communities to determine the overall community diversity and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. A variety of treatment systems with varying Mn-removal efficiencies were sampled to understand the relationship between remediation efficiency and microbial community composition and activity. Targeted-amplicon sequencing of DNA and RNA of the 16S rRNA genes (bacteria and archaea), 23S rRNA genes (algae) and ITS region (fungi) was performed using both 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina platforms. Results showed that only the fungal taxonomic profiles significantly differed between sites that removed the majority of influent Mn and those that did not. Specifically, Ascomycota (which include known Mn(II) oxidizers isolated from these treatment systems) dominated greater efficiency systems whereas less efficient systems were dominated by Basidiomycota. Furthermore, known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for only a minor proportion of bacterial sequences but a far greater proportion of fungal sequences. These culture-independent studies lend

  3. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    development of PAH-degrading bacteria holding Gram-negative PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase genes. Regarding the total community structure, bacteria closely related to Thiobacillus (β-Proteobacteria) and Steroidobacter (γ-Proteobacteria) genera were favoured by wood sawdust amendment. In both soils, plant rhizospheres induced the development of fungi belonging to Ascomycota and related to Alternaria and Fusarium genera. Bacteria closely related to Luteolibacter (Verrucomicrobia) and Microbacterium (Actinobacteria) were favoured in alfalfa and ryegrass rhizosphere.

  4. Liquens brasileiros: novas descobertas evidenciam a riqueza no Norte e Nordeste do país

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    Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das espécies não descritas de fungos é esperada em áreas pouco estudadas, como as florestas tropicais ou habitats pouco explorados como fungos que vivem em insetos, plantas, ou liquens. O Filo Ascomycota apresenta o maior número de espécies dentro do Reino Fungi, sendo que cerca da metade destas espécies são liquenizadas, ou seja, associam-se a algas e/ou cianobactérias e formam os liquens. Estes fungos liquenizados, de maneira geral, têm sido muito pouco estudados no Norte e Nordeste brasileiros, no que diz respeito à sua taxonomia e ecologia. Recentemente, estudos mais completos sobre a diversidade de liquens em remanescente de Mata Atlântica e em algumas áreas da Amazônia resultaram no registro de uma grande quantidade de espécies novas para a ciência, reforçando a importância de uma caracterização mais acurada da biodiversidade de uma área para favorecer à sua conservação. No âmbito do projeto Sisbiota, foi realizado um extenso inventário de espécies de liquens corticícolas crostosos e microfoliosos no estado de Rondônia, representando a Floresta Amazônia, e no estado de Sergipe, que apresenta apenas pequenos remanescentes de Mata Altântica. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a riqueza destas duas áreas, nas suas devidas proporções, visto que em ambas foi encontrado um número significativo de novas espécies para ciência, com 75 espécies publicadas para Rondônia, e 10 espécies novas para Sergipe. Com isso, atualmente, o número de espécies conhecidas para Rondônia passou de 31 para 502, sendo apresentados aqui 104 novos registros para o estado, sendo 10 novos registros para o Brasil e sete para o hemisfério sul.

  5. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  6. Evolution of the P-type II ATPase gene family in the fungi and presence of structural genomic changes among isolates of Glomus intraradices

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    Sanders Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-type II ATPase gene family encodes proteins with an important role in adaptation of the cell to variation in external K+, Ca2+ and Na2+ concentrations. The presence of P-type II gene subfamilies that are specific for certain kingdoms has been reported but was sometimes contradicted by discovery of previously unknown homologous sequences in newly sequenced genomes. Members of this gene family have been sampled in all of the fungal phyla except the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota, which are known to play a key-role in terrestrial ecosystems and to be genetically highly variable within populations. Here we used highly degenerate primers on AMF genomic DNA to increase the sampling of fungal P-Type II ATPases and to test previous predictions about their evolution. In parallel, homologous sequences of the P-type II ATPases have been used to determine the nature and amount of polymorphism that is present at these loci among isolates of Glomus intraradices harvested from the same field. Results In this study, four P-type II ATPase sub-families have been isolated from three AMF species. We show that, contrary to previous predictions, P-type IIC ATPases are present in all basal fungal taxa. Additionally, P-Type IIE ATPases should no longer be considered as exclusive to the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota, since we also demonstrate their presence in the Zygomycota. Finally, a comparison of homologous sequences encoding P-type IID ATPases showed unexpectedly that indel mutations among coding regions, as well as specific gene duplications occur among AMF individuals within the same field. Conclusion On the basis of these results we suggest that the diversification of P-Type IIC and E ATPases followed the diversification of the extant fungal phyla with independent events of gene gains and losses. Consistent with recent findings on the human genome, but at a much smaller geographic scale, we provided evidence

  7. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

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    Martin Vohník

    Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet

  8. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain

  9. 2个欧美杨品种树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化%Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Populus × euramericana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 贺伟; 常聚普; 王海明; 郭立民; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand predominant species,seasonal dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.‘74/76' and P.× euramericana cv.‘ Zhonglin46',fungal endophytes were isolated from the barks by tissue isolation method,and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and by morphological characteristics of microscopic observation.A total of 1 252 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 32 different fungal taxa belonging to 17 genera of Ascomycota.The predominant species included Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,Diaporthe spp.,among which A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks.The predominant fungal endophytes in the bark tissue varied in different seasons.%利用组织分离法从欧美杨2品种欧美杨107杨、中林46杨中(996块组织)分离内生真菌1 252株,107杨和中林46杨分别分离出645株和607株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为17个属、32个分类单元,包括担子菌2个分类单元,子囊菌30个分类单元均为子囊菌.在基于ITS构建的系统进代树上、2杨树品种内生菌均形成5个稳定的分支,包括在囊菌纲2个分支,包括散囊菌纲、类壳菌纲等.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢菌、间座壳菌等,其中链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群,2品种内生菌的优势种群会随季节变化而发生变化.

  10. Niche differentiation of two sympatric species of Microdochium colonizing the roots of common reed

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    Wirsel Stefan GR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal endophyte communities are often comprised of many species colonizing the same host. However, little is known about the causes of this diversity. On the one hand, the apparent coexistence of closely related species may be explained by the traditional niche differentiation hypothesis, which suggests that abiotic and/or biotic factors mediate partitioning. For endophytes, such factors are difficult to identify, and are therefore in most cases unknown. On the other hand, there is the neutral hypothesis, which suggests that stochastic factors may explain high species diversity. There is a need to investigate to what extent each of these hypotheses may apply to endophytes. Results The niche partitioning of two closely related fungal endophytes, Microdochium bolleyi and M. phragmitis, colonizing Phragmites australis, was investigated. The occurrences of each species were assessed using specific nested-PCR assays for 251 field samples of common reed from Lake Constance, Germany. These analyses revealed niche preferences for both fungi. From three niche factors assessed, i.e. host habitat, host organ and season, host habitat significantly differentiated the two species. M. bolleyi preferred dry habitats, whereas M. phragmitis prevailed in flooded habitats. In contrast, both species exhibited a significant preference for the same host organ, i.e. roots. Likewise the third factor, season, did not significantly distinguish the two species. Differences in carbon utilization and growth temperature could not conclusively explain the niches. The inclusion of three unrelated species of Ascomycota, which also colonize P. australis at the same locations, indicated spatio-temporal niche partitioning between all fungi. None of the species exhibited the same preferences for all three factors, i.e. host habitat, host organ, and time of the season. Conclusions The fungal species colonizing common reed investigated in this study seem to

  11. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

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    Aline Silva Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842 variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance. For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments. In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere. An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found

  12. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

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    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  13. Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhäsalmi mine Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Sohlberg, Elina; Numminen, Mikko; Ahonen, Lasse; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine in central Finland provides an excellent opportunity to study microbial and geochemical processes in a deep subsurface crystalline rock environment through near-vertical drill holes that reach to a depth of more than two kilometers below the surface. However, microbial sampling was challenging in this high-pressure environment. Nucleic acid yields obtained were extremely low when compared to the cell counts detected (1.4 × 104 cells mL−1) in water. The water for nucleic acid analysis went through high decompression (60–130 bar) during sampling, whereas water samples for detection of cell counts by microscopy could be collected with slow decompression. No clear cells could be identified in water that went through high decompression. The high-pressure decompression may have damaged part of the cells and the nucleic acids escaped through the filter. The microbial diversity was analyzed from two drill holes by pyrosequencing amplicons of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and from the fungal ITS regions from both DNA and RNA fractions. The identified prokaryotic diversity was low, dominated by Firmicute, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species that are common in deep subsurface environments. The archaeal diversity consisted mainly of Methanobacteriales. Ascomycota dominated the fungal diversity and fungi were discovered to be active and to produce ribosomes in the deep oligotrophic biosphere. The deep fluids from the Pyhäsalmi mine shared several features with other deep Precambrian continental subsurface environments including saline, Ca-dominated water and stable isotope compositions positioning left from the meteoric water line. The dissolved gas phase was dominated by nitrogen but the gas composition clearly differed from that of atmospheric air. Despite carbon-poor conditions indicated by the lack of carbon-rich fracture fillings and only minor amounts of dissolved carbon detected in formation waters, some methane was found in the drill

  14. A software pipeline for processing and identification of fungal ITS sequences

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    Kristiansson Erik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi from environmental samples are typically identified to species level through DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region for use in BLAST-based similarity searches in the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases. These searches are time-consuming and regularly require a significant amount of manual intervention and complementary analyses. We here present software – in the form of an identification pipeline for large sets of fungal ITS sequences – developed to automate the BLAST process and several additional analysis steps. The performance of the pipeline was evaluated on a dataset of 350 ITS sequences from fungi growing as epiphytes on building material. Results The pipeline was written in Perl and uses a local installation of NCBI-BLAST for the similarity searches of the query sequences. The variable subregion ITS2 of the ITS region is extracted from the sequences and used for additional searches of higher sensitivity. Multiple alignments of each query sequence and its closest matches are computed, and query sequences sharing at least 50% of their best matches are clustered to facilitate the evaluation of hypothetically conspecific groups. The pipeline proved to speed up the processing, as well as enhance the resolution, of the evaluation dataset considerably, and the fungi were found to belong chiefly to the Ascomycota, with Penicillium and Aspergillus as the two most common genera. The ITS2 was found to indicate a different taxonomic affiliation than did the complete ITS region for 10% of the query sequences, though this figure is likely to vary with the taxonomic scope of the query sequences. Conclusion The present software readily assigns large sets of fungal query sequences to their respective best matches in the international sequence databases and places them in a larger biological context. The output is highly structured to be easy to process, although it still needs

  15. Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional

  16. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community’s structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in

  17. Identification and quantification of ice nucleation active microorganisms by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Martin; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Several bioaerosol types, including bacteria, fungi, pollen and lichen, have been identified as sources of biological ice nucleators (IN) which induce ice formation already at temperatures as high as -10 °C or above. Accordingly, they potentially contribute widely to environmental ice nucleation in the atmosphere and are of great interest in the study of natural heterogenous ice nucleation processes. Ice nucleation active microorganisms have been found and studied among bacteria (Proteobacteria) and fungi (phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota). The mechanisms enabling the microorganisms to ice nucleation are subject to ongoing research. While it has been demonstrated that whole cells can act as ice nucleators in the case of bacteria due to the presence of specific membrane proteins, cell-free ice nucleation active particles seem to be responsible for this phenomenon in fungi and lichen. The identification and quantification of these ice nucleation active microorganisms and their IN in atmospheric samples is crucial to understand their contribution to the pool of atmospheric IN. This is not a trivial task since the respective microorganisms are often prevalent in lowest concentrations and a variety of states, be it viable cells, spores or cell debris from dead cells. Molecular biology provides tools to identify and quantify ice nucleation active microorganisms independent of their state by detecting genetic markers specific for the organism of interest. Those methods are not without their drawbacks in terms of sample material concentration required or reliable standardization. Digital Droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) was chosen for our demands as a more elegant, quick and specific method in the investigation of ice nucleation active microorganisms in atmospheric samples. The advantages of ddPCR lie in the simultaneous detection and quantification of genetic markers and their original copy numbers in a sample. This is facilitated by the fractionation of the

  18. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  19. Variations in bacterial and fungal community composition along the soil depth profiles determined by pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, D.; Yoo, G.; Jun, S. C.; Yun, S. T.; Chung, H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play key roles in nutrient cycling, and are distributed throughout the soil profile. Currently, there is little information about the characteristics of the microbial communities along the soil depth because most studies focus on microorganisms inhabiting the soil surface. To better understand the functions and composition of microbial communities and the biogeochemical factors that shape them at different soil depth, we analyzed soil microbial activities and bacterial and fungal community composition in a soil profile of a fallow field located in central Korea. Soil samples were taken using 120-cm soil cores. To analyze the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, barcoded pyrosequnecing analysis of 16S rRNA genes (bacteria) and ITS region (fungi) was conducted. Among the bacterial groups, the abundance of Proteobacteria (38.5, 23.2, 23.3, 26.1 and 17.5%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively) and Firmicutes (12.8, 11.3, 8.6, 4.3 and 0.4%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively) decreased with soil depth. On the other hand, the abundance of Ascomycota (51.2, 48.6, 65.7, 46.1, and 45.7%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively), a dominant fungal group at this site, showed no significant difference along the soil profile. To examine the vertical difference of microbial activities, activity of five extracellular enzymes that take part in cycling of C, N, and P in soil ecosystems, beta-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-1,4-xylosidase, beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase were analyzed. The soil enzyme activity declined with soil depth. For example, acid phosphatase activity was 88.5 (± 14.6 (± 1 SE)), 30.0 (± 5.9), 18.0 (± 3.5), 14.1 (± 3.7), and 10.7 (± 3.8) nmol g-1 hr-1, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively. These metagenomics studies, along with other studies on microbial functions, are expected to enhance our understanding on the complexity of

  20. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Gowda, Malali; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb) during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm) but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%). At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%). This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and cormosphere dormant

  1. Whole-metagenome-sequencing-based community profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina berries withered in two post-harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eSalvetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (traditional withering, TW or accelerated withering, AW, and to unveil whether changes of environmental drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity.Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples.For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the

  2. Corallomycetella属及以C.jatrophae为模式建立新属Corallonectria(丛赤壳科,肉座菌目)%Revision of the genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen.nov.for C.jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S.HERRERA; A.Y.ROSSMAN; G.J.SAMUELS; Christian LECHAT; P.CHAVERRI

    2013-01-01

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota,Sordariomycetes,Hypocreales,Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture.With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores,the genus was re-examined using this and previously obtained cultures.A multilocus tree was constructed based on three loci (ITS,mcm7,β-tubulin) to determine phylogenetic relationships.Our results indicate that Corallomycetella repens sensu lato forms two clades associated with biogeography.Corallomycetella repens sensu stricto is restricted to specimens from Asia while C.elegans is resurrected for specimens from Africa and America.Minute striations in the ascospores are an overlooked character in species of Corallomycetella.Corallomycetellajatrophae is related to Neonectria sensu lato and unrelated to C.repens and C.elegans; thus,a new genus,Corallonectria,is described to accommodate this species.Corallonectria is characterized by furfuraceous perithecia and synnematous fusarium-like anamorph.%对Corallomycetella属的概念进行了阐述,该属包括子实体为红色、在自然和培养条件下产生菌索的丛赤壳类真菌.根据对近期采集的标本的观察和多基因系统树分析的结果,广义的Corallomycetella repens形成2个分支,它们与生物地理因素相关联.狭义的Corallomycetella repens限于来自亚洲的标本,而C.elegans来自非洲和美洲.Corallomycetella属成熟的子囊孢子表面具有纤细条纹,此特征过去曾被忽略,C.jatrophae与广义的Neonectria属关系接近,而与C.repens和C.elegans关系较远;因而建立新属Corallonectria,其子囊壳表面细粉状,无性型为束丝结构并与镰孢菌相似.

  3. Molecular genetics and diversity of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Després

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the applicability of molecular methods for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and total suspended particulates (TSP have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze.

    From filter aliquots loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses.

    Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m−3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~105 haploid human genomes.

    Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42 and some from Actinobacteria (10 and Firmicutes (1. The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3 and Basidiomycetes (1, which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2 and moss spores (2, while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist.

    Over 80% of the 53 bacterial sequences could be matched with about 40% of the 19 T-RF peaks (58

  4. Fungos filamentosos do solo da Ilha dos Eucaliptos na Represa do Guarapiranga em São Paulo, SP Filamentous fungi from the soil of the "Ilha dos Eucaliptos" in the "Represa do Guarapiranga" in São Paulo State, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Barros dos Santos

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a diversidade dos fungos do solo da Ilha dos Eucaliptos na Represa do Guarapiranga em São Paulo, SP, sob floresta de Eucalyptus, mata de interseção e mata secundária remanescente, em duas épocas climáticamente distintas: março - época quente e úmida (verão e junho - época fria e seca (inverno de 1996. Os fungos filamentosos foram isolados pelos métodos da diluição em série e placa de solo. A similaridade entre as micotas foi estabelecida pelo índice de Sörensen. No total foram obtidos 44 táxons de fungos (Zygomycota, Ascomycota e fungos mitospóricos, distribuídos em 92 ocorrências. No solo sob a floresta de Eucalyptus spp. foram encontrados 20 táxons (31 ocorrências de fungos, no solo da interseção 32 táxons (38 ocorrências e no solo da mata secundária 16 táxons (23 ocorrências. Similaridade de 47% foi encontrada entre a micota do solo sob Eucalyptus com a da interseção, e desta com a micota da mata secundária. A micota do solo sob Eucalyptus e a da mata secundária apresentaram 39% de similaridade. Na época quente e úmida (verão a micota terrestre da Ilha foi composta por 26 táxons de fungos (47 ocorrências e na época fria e seca (inverno por 32 táxons (45 ocorrências, com 46% de similaridade entre ambas. Pela diluição em série foram isolados 33 táxons (60 ocorrências e pela técnica da placa de solo, 22 táxons (32 ocorrências. O número de colônias de fungos foi significativamente maior no solo da mata secundária, seguido pela vegetação de interseção e a floresta de Eucalyptus, independentemente da época de coleta. O possível efeito inibitório de Eucalyptus sobre a comunidade dos fungos do solo da Ilha pode ter sido expresso pela diminuição do número de colônias na área reflorestada, no entanto, não afetou a diversidade dos fungos, que se apresentou elevada nos três tipos de vegetação.The aim of the present study was to compare the diversity of the fungi in the soil

  5. 块菌名实考证及其资源保护%Verification of Chinese Names of Truffles and Their Conservation in Natural Habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 刘培贵

    2011-01-01

    块菌是指Tuber属的真菌种类,属于子囊菌门(Ascomycota),生在地下,其中包含着世界上最美味和价值最昂贵的食用菌.中国食与药用真菌文化悠久,历代本草都不乏各种菌类的记载,但在本草中记载的与块菌有关系的菌类唯有1245年陈仁玉编撰的“菌谱”中称之为“麦蕈”和俗名为“麦丹蕈”的一种地下真菌.日本本草对“麦蕈”也屡有记载,并把“麦蕈”叫“地肾”和“松露”.这是“松露”一名的最早记载,“麦蕈”或“松露”可能是被现代菌物学称之为须腹菌(Rhizopogon spp.)的真菌种类.因而,“松露”一名虽是汉字,但是所指并非真正的块菌,应是须腹菌(Rhizopogon spp.),也称“假块菌”(false truffle),所以松露和块菌寓意各异.产于我国西南地区的食用黑块菌主要是印度块菌(Tuber indi-cum)或中华块菌(T.sinernse)、夏块菌(T.aestivum=T.uncinatu)和拟喜马拉雅块菌(T.pseudohimalayense=T.pseudoexcavatum),近年来身价倍增,成为中国野生食用菌出口种类中名列前三甲的菌类,在世界块菌市场上也颇受欢迎.喜马拉雅块菌(T.himalayense)在我国尚未发现它的踪迹.印度块菌和中华块菌形态上有差异,若把中国产的类似黑孢块菌的黑块菌统称为印度块菌(T.indicum)尚值得商榷.中华块菌或印度块菌形态和遗传变异多样,尚需进一步研究.2010年在云南和四川相继发现的大型香味浓郁的白块菌,近似于波氏块菌(T.borchii)组的块菌,颇具研究和巨大的商业价值,表明我国块菌资源比原有记载的要丰富的多.由于利益之驱动和疏于管理,掠夺式的采收方法造成了块菌产区生态环境毁灭性的破坏,一些商业化采集区的块菌已濒临灭绝,中国西南地区的块菌资源的保护问题迫在眉睫.本文对产自欧洲、美洲的块菌、沙漠块菌,以及块菌的生态意义和种植作了简要介绍和讨论.%Truffles are fungi

  6. Characterization of Acremonium and Isaria ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, the only known fungal ice nuclei (IN) were a few exponents of lichen mycobionts and Fusarium spp. [Kieft and Ruscetti 1990, Pouleur et al. 1992, Hasegawa et al. 1994, Tsumuki et al. 1995], as well as two strains of mold [Jayaweera and Flanagan 1982]. Other investigated species did not show any IN activity [Pouleur et al. 1992, Iannone et al. 2011, Pummer et al. 2013]. In the last few years, IN-activity has been discovered in some rust and smut fungi [Morris et al. 2013, Haga et al. 2013], Acremonium implicatum (Acr.) and Isaria farinosa (Isa.) [Huffman et al. 2013] and a handful of other airborne and soil fungi [unpublished data]. We started characterizing the IN of Acr. and Isa.: Like other non-bacterial biological IN, they can be easily separated from the cells in aqueous suspension, and keep their activity. The IN-active aqueous suspensions were processed by filtration (5 μm, 0.1 μm, 300 kDa, 100 kDa) and exposure to heat (60° C) or guanidinium chloride (6 M). The IN activity of the processed samples was measured by a freezing assay of droplets, as described by Pummer et al. [2013]. Via the Vali formula, we calculated the amount of IN per gram of mycelium, which is higher than 105 g-1. The initial freezing temperature was -4° C for Isaria and -8° C for Acremonium IN. Both were completely knocked out by 60° C or guanidinium chloride. The Acremonium IN are in a mass range between 100 and 300 kDa. The Isaria IN seem to be either a bit larger, or more attached to larger particles, since not all of them pass through the 300-kDa-filter. It is likely that both of these new IN are proteinaceous like the IN of Fusarium spp. and lichen mycobionts, which belong to the Ascomycota phylum. Since the Isaria IN show a high onset freezing temperature and are rather large for single molecules, they might be agglomerates. Haga D.I. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 118, 7260-7272 Hasegawa Y. et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 2273-2274 Huffman A

  7. A Study on Fungal Diversity in Tobacco Rhizosphere Soil in Shandong Province%山东省烟草根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 吕国忠; 孙晓东; 慕东艳; 赵志慧; 王凤龙

    2012-01-01

    In order six areas of tobacco to explore the relationship of tobacco rhizosphere soil fungi and diseases, we selected fields in Shandong province to conduct the investigation of rhizosphere soil fungal diversity. In 2010 summer, 122 soil samples were collected and investigated by means of soil dilution plate method, totally 536 fungal isolates were obtained. From them, 79 fungal species belonging to 22 genera were morphologically identified, including 6 species belonging to 4 genera of Zygomycota, 1 species belonging to one genus of Ascomycota, and 72 species belonging to 17 genera of anamorphic fungi. The fungal population analysis indicates that Penicillium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Fusarium were the dom- inant fungal groups in tobacco-growing soil, which account for 22.39%, 13.22%, 12.69% and 9.88% respectively. The fungal diversities in tobacco rhizosphere soil in Shandong province were significantly different in the six soil-sampling regions. Zhucheng was the highest in Shannon diversity index (H' = 2.066 6), Pielou evenness index ( J = 0. 689 8) and the highest in Margalef richness index ( R = 3.730 1). It is concluded that fungi diversity is plentiful in tobacco rhizospheric soil and the mycobiota are different in various tobacco growing areas. More fungal species in tobacco rhizosphere soil are of potential significance in biological control of tobacco soil-borne diseases.%为了有助于研究烟草根际土壤真菌与根茎病害发生程度的相互关系,文中对采自山东省6个地区的122份烟草根际土壤样品进行了真菌的分离和培养,采用形态学方法进行鉴定,并分析了菌群的多样性组成。从山东烟草根际土壤中分离和鉴定出真菌22属79种,其中接合菌门4属6种,子囊菌门1属1种,无性型真菌17属72种。优势真菌种群为青霉属(Penieillium)、木霉属(Trichoderma)、镰孢菌属(Fusarium)和曲霉属(Aspergillus),所占分离真菌

  8. Development of fugal strains in biochar amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The application of carbonized materials (including biochar and hydrochar) produced by the pyrolysis of biomass to soil has been proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems [1]. In addition, several research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth by supplying and, more importantly, retaining nutrients, and by providing other benefits such as improving soil physical and biological properties [2]. Despite numerous authors take for granted that microbial degradation of carbonized materials is highly unlikely, this fact is far away from being true for all the chars. Nevertheless, the knowledge concerning the natural degradation of chars by microorganisms is of high interest due to the direct decline on the char capacity for C stabilization. In order to achieve this goal, biochars from different feedstock and pyrolysis conditions were applied to soil from a Calcareous Cambisol (0, 2.5 and 5%) which was filled into 30-cm long methacrylate columns. They were incubated during 4 months under controlled conditions (25 °C, 12 hours of light per day and water holding capacity maintained at 60% by adding deionized sterile water). After 1 month of incubation, white colonies were observed on a biochar derived from paper-sludge. The microorganisms were cultured from paper sludge biochar, isolated and further identified by DNA-based molecular analysis [3]. The identified fungi grouped into the Fusarium genus within Ascomycota phylum, being represented by F. oxysporum. These fungi are soil-borne and have the ability to exist as saprophytes. F. oxysporum strains are known to degrade lignin and complex carbohydrates associated with soil debris [4]. However, many strains within the F. oxysporum are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum is responsible for vascular wilt in cucumber plants [5]. These

  9. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    high: >540,000 bacterial and archaeal species; and >97,000 eukaryotic species (as determined using a 97% sequence similarity cutoff). The most dominant bacterial phyla include Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria, and Archaea represent 1-8% of the sequences. Additionally, the distribution patterns of Acidobacteria and consequently beta-diversity, was strongly related to soil pH. The most dominant eukaryotic taxa include many Protists (Rhizara, Gregarinia), Fungi (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota), and Metazoa (Nematodes, Rotifers, Arthropods and Annelids). No single soil factor could predict eukaryotic distribution. Central Park soil diversity was strikingly similar to the diversity of the 57 global soils. Central Park and the global soils had similarities in alpha diversity, taxon abundances. Interestingly, there was significant overlap in a number of dominant species between Central Park and the global soils. Together these results represent the most comprehensive analysis of soil biodiversity conducted to date. Our data suggest that even well-studied locations like Central Park harbor very high levels of unexplored biodiversity, and that Central Park biodiversity is comparable to soil biodiversity found globally.

  10. STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN SAPROPHYTIC OBLIGATE MARINE FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyuzhnaya O.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today promising area of the development and introduction of new antimicrobial agents is to search for new antibiotics from natural sources, namely among marine organisms - microscopic fungi. Such saprophytic fungi as Ascomycota (families Arenariomyces, Ceriosporopsis, Corollospora, Halosphaeria and Basidiomycota (family Nia, which are widely spreaded in Ukraine (salty estuaries and the coast of the Black Sea, are the objects of the study of this work. These types of marine organisms have been provided by the Odessa Branch of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas after collecting samples of water, sediment, cellulose substrates and subsequent isolation and obtain pure cultures by accumulation in the form fruiting bodies of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes - ascocarps and basidiocarps that can be stored 3-5 months in sterile seawater. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial properties of saprophytic fungi obligate marine, which are characteristic for residents in Ukraine, namely the Black Sea. Materials and methods. At this stage the study of antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion method and method of cocultivation of marine fungi with test strains in liquid culture medium. We have used reference strains of microorganisms: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6896, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and opportunistic fungus Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and Discussion. Determination of antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method showed that all samples had antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive test strains (S. aureus and B. subtilis, effect for the Gramnegative bacteria (E. coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa was much smaller or non-existent, and it isn’t observed against C. albicans (exclusion Nia vibrissa with zone of growth inhibition – 6.2 mm. The results of the counting of cells test strains

  11. Microbial degradation of a metal organic biocide in soils; Mikrobieller Abbau eines im Holzschutz verwendeten metallorganischen Biozids im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, Desiree

    2010-06-17

    -fingerprinting technique. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by correspondence analysis to explore the effect of WP and incubation time on the microbial community patterns. Bacterial and eukaryotic community structure differed significant between samples with Cu-Amine treated samples and Cu-HDO treated samples. To identify abundant eukaryotic community members a cloning and sequencing approach was carried out. Only few fungal sequences were obtained of the eukaryotic sequence diversity in the interface of wood and soil, which were affiliated to pronounced shifts in the eukaryotic community structure along the incubation time. One of these was the white-rotter Sphaerobolus stellatus (basidiomycota) and the mold-rotter Lecytophora multabilis (ascomycota). The dominant eukaryotic community members were affiliated to the phyla Alveolata, Disicicrista, Amoebozoa, Arthropoda or Nematoda. However, the majority of these phyla are known to have a bacteriovorious lifestyle and are not able to degrade or metabolize wood, WP or WP ingredients. This finding suggests that the majority of eukaryotes grazes on the bacterial population and is rarely involved in Cu-HDO degradation. In conclusion, a defined bacterial population is involved in Cu-HDO degradation and both the bacterial and eukaryotic community was significantly directly and indirectly affected by the presence of Cu-HDO. (orig.)

  12. Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Two Populus Cultivars%两种杨树树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 郭利民; 常聚普; 王海明; 贺伟; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the predominant species dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,the fungal endophytes were isolated from barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa by tissue isolation,and identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations.A total of 1 175 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 35fungal taxa belonging to 15 genera,including 1 species of Basidiomycota and 34 taxa of Ascomycota.And Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,and Diaporthe conorum were the predominant species of fungal endophytes in barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,while A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks of the two cultivars.The variation of predominant fungal endophytes of two poplar species in different seasons was detected.%为了解健杨94(转基因抗虫杨94)、三倍体毛白杨2个杨树品种干部树皮内生真菌区系及其优势种群的季节变化情况,本研究利用组织分离法从2个杨树品种996块组织中分离内生真菌1 175株,健杨94和三倍体毛白杨分别分离612、563株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为15个属、35个分类单元,包括担子菌1个分类单元,子囊菌34个分类单元.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢属真菌、间座壳属真菌等,其中,仅有链格孢、葡萄座腔菌和桑砖红镰孢是两品种共有的优势种群种类,而且优势种群会随季节变化而变化.在两品种的内生真菌中,链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群.

  13. Diversity of endophytic fungi from Pteroceltis tatarinowii%青檀内生真菌菌群多样性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴新义; 陈双林

    2011-01-01

    为了解我国特有孑遗植物青檀的内生真菌的菌群组成和变化规律,分别于春秋两季从江苏、安徽、河南和山东 4省的5个野生青檀居群地采样进行了内生真菌的分离、鉴定及多样性分析.结果表明,所分离出的 3,611株内生真菌归于31属,无性型予囊菌中的腔孢类菌群占49.42%、丝孢类菌群占28.52%,有性型子囊菌菌群占2.52%,其余19.52%的菌群不产孢.在真菌属的水平,以拟茎点霉属Phomopsis(22.10%)和交链孢属Alternaria(20.66%)为优势菌群.南京与枣庄的野生青檀内生真菌菌群组成之间的相似性最高(Cs=0.84),南京与南阳的相似性最低(Cs=0.60).在宿主组织中,青檀叶片、叶柄和枝条中都以腔孢类菌群居于优势.春季和秋季青檀内生真菌的组成存在较大差异,春季以丝孢类菌群居多(46.71%),秋季则以腔孢类菌群居多(55.85%).%Diversity of endophytic fungi from Pteroceltis tatarinowii was studied in order to understand diversity and succession change of endophytic fungal communities in this endemic plant. Healthy plant samples were collected from five natural distribution areas ofP. tatarinowii in Anhui, Henan, Shandong and Jiangsu Provinces. A total of3,611 isolates of endophytic fungi were obtained.Thirty-one genera belonging to Ascomycota (2.25%), Coelomycetes (49.42%) and Hyphomycetes (28.52%) were identified, of these Phomopsis (22.10%) and Alternaria (20.66%) were the dominant genera. A total of 19.52% of all isolates were sterile on the media.The community of endophytic fungi from P. tatarinowii of Nanjing and that of Zaozhuang has the highest similarity (Cs = 0.84),while the community similarity of Nanjing and that of Nanyang was the lowest (Cs = 0.60). Coelomycetes was the most dominant in lamina, petiole and branch. The isolation rate of Hypomycetes was the highest (46.71%) in spring, but that of Coelomycetes (55.85%) was the highest in autumn.

  14. THE LICHEN GENUS PSEUDEVERNIA ZOPF IN CHINA%中国拟扁枝衣属的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏江春; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2003-01-01

    拟扁枝衣属Pseudevernia隶属于子囊菌门Ascomycota,茶渍目Lecanorales,梅衣科Parmeliaceae.迄今已知6种,即粉芽拟扁枝衣P. soralifera、细拟扁枝衣P. cladonia、粗拟扁枝衣P. intensa、茶渍拟扁枝衣P. consocians、橄榄陶拟扁枝衣P. olivetorina及拟扁枝衣P. furfuracea.后三种地衣之界定是在形态特征相似但仍有区别的前提下,以其各自所含次生代谢产物之不同与地理分布区之差异为根据的.茶渍拟扁枝衣含有茶渍酸;裂芽发育良好而密度中等;裂片狭窄,为北美所特有.橄榄陶拟扁枝衣含橄榄陶酸;裂芽较稀少;裂片狭长;分布区以北欧为主,延伸至北非及西亚,如巴基斯坦.而拟扁枝衣则含袋衣酸;形态多变;分布区以南欧洲为主,遍布于整个欧洲,向南延伸至北非,向东延伸至亚洲,如蒙古等.本文首次报道了该属地衣在中国的分布.文中除了对拟扁枝衣进行形态、化学及分布类型的描述外,还配有该种的照片以及该属已知种的检索表.此外,这种地衣是欧洲高级香水配方成分中不可缺少的的生产原料之一.因此,该种在中国的发现对于香精工业原料的研究具有重要意义.另一重要香精原料地衣粉扁枝衣(Evernia prunastri)主要分布在欧洲,在亚洲迄今只知在日本有报道,在中国迄今尚未被发现.然而,扁枝衣(Evernia mesomorpha)在中国的分布却十分普遍.至于另一著名香料地衣粉芽肺衣(Lobaria pulmonaria)在中国的分布迄今仅见于东北地区.%The lichen genus Pseudevernia with the species P. furfuracea is reported for the first time from China. Descriptions are given to both the genus and the species based on Chinese collection. Thallus photographs of both the upper and lower sides are provided. The key to the known species of the genus is given as well.

  15. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病菌种的26S rDNA序列分析%Analysis on recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis monilia germs of 26S rDNA sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟绍琴; 许瑞环; 李康; 黄兴国; 陈亦微

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基于核糖体基因26S rDNA D1/D2区序列分析法在临床酵母菌菌种鉴定中的应用.方法 收集来源于复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病分泌物标本93株,PCR扩增其26S rDNA D1/D2区,对扩增产物进行序列测定和分析,并与基因库中的基因序列进行同源性比对.结果 所有菌株均鉴定到种,同源性达99%和100%,同属于真菌双核亚界、子囊菌门、酵母菌科的3个属,89株为candida,3株为Kodamaea,1株为Pichia.其中candida中有7个种,38株candida glabrata,23株 candida albicans,16株candida parapsolisis,9株candida metapdilosis,1株candida orthopsilisis,1株 candida tropicalis,1株candida nivariensis;3株Kodamaea ohmeri;1株Pichia kudriavzevii.结论 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病的病原体主要为candida属的candida glabrata、candida albicans 和candida parapsolisis,非candida albicans占75.27%是其特征;26SrDNA D1/D2区序列分析为临床酵母菌的分子水平鉴定提供了一种准确、可行的方法.%Objective To explore the ribosomes gene based on 26S rDNA D1/D2 area sequence analysis method in the clinical application of yeast strain identification. Methods To collect from recurrent genital vaginal moniiiosis secretion specimens of 93 plants,PCR amplification its 26S rDNA D1/D2 area,the amplification products scries were determined and analyzed,and the genetic sequences with gene pool than homology. Results All strains arc identification to the kind,the homology of 99% and 100%, belong to the fung, dikarya, ascomycota, saccharomycctaccac of this three genera,89 strains for Candida,3 strains for Kodamaca,for Pichia 1 strain. One of seven kinds of Candida,38 strains Candida glabrata, Candida albicans 23 strains, 16 strains Candida parapsolisis, 9 of Candida mctapdilosis, Candida orthopsilisis 1 strain,Candida tropicalis 1 strain, 1 strain Candida nivaricnsis;3 strains Kodamaca ohmcri;Pichia kudriavzevii 1 strain. Conclusion Recurrent genital vaginal moniliosis pathogen of

  16. Field Observations of Bioaerosols: What We've Learned from Fluorescence, Genetic, and Microscopic Techniques (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. A.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Després, V. R.; Elbert, W.; Sinha, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    biodiversity [3,4]. Filters collected at a semi-urban site in Germany for approximately one year determined that ~34% of the airborne fungal species were Ascomycota (sac fungi), 64% were Basidiomycota (club fungi), and that their relative proportions changed seasonally. Numerical simulations with state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and climate models are helping to unravel the regional and global distribution and transport of PBA [5]. The atmospheric abundance and environmental effects of PBA are particularly pronounced in tropical regions, where both the biological activity at the Earth’s surface and the physicochemical processes in the atmosphere are particularly intense and important for the Earth system and global climate. If climate change and human activities lead to changes in the abundance and properties of PBA, this might influence the hydrological cycle and provide a feedback to climate change [1]. [1] Elbert et al. (2007) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569 - 4588. [2] Huffman et al. (2009) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 17705 - 17751. [3] Després et al. (2007) Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141. [4] Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2009) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 106, 12814 - 12819. [5] Burrows et al. (2009) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 10829 - 10881.

  17. C24(28)-Sterol Reductase Is Involved in Polarity Growth and Early Development of Neurospora crassa%C24(28)-甾醇还原酶参与粗糙脉孢菌极性生长及早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会珍; 吴迪; 陈志玲

    2012-01-01

    Ergosterol is an important sterol component of the cell membrane in different fungal species. Biosynthesis of ergosterol is a complicated enzymatic reaction involved in multiple enzymes, C24 ( 28 )-sterol reductase is a key enzyme in this process, which catalyzes the reduction of ergostatetraenol to ergosterol using NADPH as a co-factor. Because the activity of C24 ( 28 ) -sterol reductase is critical for ergosterol production, functional analysis of C24(28)-sterol reductase will help to understand the role of ergosterol in polarity growth of filamentous fungi. Homology analysis revealed that C24 ( 28 ) -sterol reductase proteins shared high level of amino acid sequence similarity among ascomycota. In Neurospora crassa, C24( 28 )-sterol reductase was encoded by Erg-2 gene. Erg-2 knock-out ( Erg-2KO ) strains of Neurospora crassa were generated by homologous recombination and homokaryotic Erg-2 strains were obtained via electro-transformation .filtration of spore suspension, then confirmed with PCR. Compared to the wild-type strain, Erg-2KO exhibited a slow hyphal growth within 36 hrs after inoculation, while no significant difference afterwards. Our results indicate that C24 (28) -sterol reductase is important for the initial growth and development of Neurospora crassa.%麦角甾醇是真菌细胞膜的主要固醇类物质,其生物合成是一个复杂的酶促反应过程,其中C24( 28) -甾醇还原酶是麦角甾醇合成途径中的关键酶,对C24( 28) -甾醇还原酶功能的研究有助于阐明麦角甾醇对真菌极性生长的影响.本文对粗糙脉胞菌C24 (28)-甾醇还原酶蛋白(Erg-2基因编码)序列的同源性分析表明,在子囊菌门的3个物种中,C24( 28) -甾醇还原酶具有很高的保守性.根据同源重组基因敲除原理,通过电转化、分生孢子过膜以及PCR鉴定的方法获得了Erg-2基因缺失突变株(Erg-2KO),进一步利用斜面生长法并结合细胞壁染色进行突变株表型分

  18. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    entomopathogenic taxa in the Phylum Ascomycota. Although these fungi have been traditionally reg

  19. Microbial Biodiversity in Rhizosphere ofLycium bararumL. Relative to Cultivation History%不同种植年限宁夏枸杞根际微生物多样性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳小凡; 郑国琦; 彭励; 雷川怡; 杨红艳; 马玉; 赵强; 石硕矾

    2016-01-01

    Nanliang,Ningxia,China,for analysis of physic-chemical properties,such as pH,electrical conductivity,SOM,total salt,total and readily available N,P and K,etc. Results showed that pH remained unchanged in all the fields,while total salt content,total and readily available phosphorus and electrical conductivity in the soil increased significantly with the age of cultivation. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the rhizosphere soil using a Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit for sequence analysis of V4 sections of 16S rDNA as indicator of bacterial diversity and ITS2 sections of 18S rDNA gene as indicator of fungal diversity,with the aid of the Illumina MiSeq system. Results of the sequencing were assembled and clustered with the FLASH,QIIME,and UPARSE pipeline software packages. In the end,is was found that the α diversity of the rhizosphere bacteria community did not vary much between the fields different in cultivation history,but fungal diversity did, and decreased with the cultivation going on from 5 a to 10 a(p<0.05). For analysis of changes in microbial community structure at the phyla and genus levels,the software of RDA Classifier to denote each OUT by species. It was found thatProteobacteria(22.2%),Crenarchaeota(15.1%),Bacteroidetes(13.9%), Acidobacteria(12.4%),Chloroflexi(10.3%),Gemmatimonadetes(4.8%),Actinobacteria (4.7%),Planctomycetes(4.0%)andVerrucomicrobia(2.0%)were the dominate bacterial groups and Ascomycota(29.5%)andBasidiomycota(11.7%)were the dominant fungal group in the rhizosphere of the plant. However,about 55.8% of the fungi found in the rhizosphere were still unknown in the taxonomy. Besides,the sequencing further demonstrated that soil microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied sharply between the fields different in cultivation history and stood out uniquely in each field from the others. The variation between fields different in cultivation history was particularly significant in terms of the ratio of

  20. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Franc, Gray D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere (1,2). Several types of PBAP have been identified as ice nuclei (IN) that can initiate the formation of ice at relatively high temperatures (3, 4). The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is due to a surface protein on the outer cell membrane that catalyses ice formation, for which the corresponding gene has been identified and detected by DNA analysis (3). Fungal spores or hyphae can also act as IN, but the biological structures responsible for their IN activity have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, properties, and effects of fungal IN in the atmosphere have neither been characterized nor quantified. Recent studies have shown that airborne fungi are highly diverse (1), and that atmospheric transport leads to efficient exchange of species among different ecosystems (5, 6). The results presented in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. 2012 (7) clearly demonstrate the presence of geographic boundaries in the global distribution of microbial taxa in air, and indicate that regional differences may be important for the effects of microorganisms on climate and public health. DNA analyses of aerosol samples collected during rain events showed higher diversity and frequency of occurrence for fungi belonging to the Sordariomycetes, than samples that were collected under dry conditions (8). Sordariomycetes is the class that comprises known ice nucleation active species (Fusarium spp.). By determination of freezing ability of fungal colonies isolated from air samples two species of ice nucleation active fungi that were not previously known as biological ice nucleators were found. By DNA-analysis they were identified as Isaria farinosa and Acremonium implicatum. Both fungi belong to the phylum Ascomycota, produce fluorescent spores in the range of 1-4 µm in diameter, and induced freezing at -4 and

  1. 中国西北地区披碱草属植物所带内生真菌的培养特征%Characteristic of asexual endophytes isolated from Elymus species in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋辉; 南志标; 田沛

    2015-01-01

    内生真菌与植物所形成的共生体普遍存在于冷季禾草中,共生体有利于提高宿主植物的生物和非生物抗性。虽然目前研究者们已对禾草内生真菌做了大量的研究,但是尚未发现对分布于中国西北地区披碱草属植物无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌培养特征的研究。本研究从中国西北地区分离出15株来自不同地理种群披碱草属植物无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌。通过分离培养,测定了这15株无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌的菌落生长速度,结果显示,这15株无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌菌落的平均生长速度为(0.41~0.85)mm/d,且生长速度与海拔具有相关性。分布在海拔低于3000 m 的无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌的菌落生长速度比生长于海拔高于3000 m 菌落的生长速度快。观察菌落发现,分布在海拔高于3000 m 的菌落正面特征较为一致,而分布在海拔低于3000 m 的菌落正面特征出现不同。另外,通过多基因联合建树发现,分布在海拔高于3000 m 的无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌聚在一个分支,而分布在海拔低于3000 m 的无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌呈现星状分布。由于目前尚未对中国西北地区披碱草属植物无性世代 Neotyphodium 内生真菌命名。因此,希望本研究结果能为该菌的命名提供理论依据。%Forage grasses (Poaceae)often harbour endophytes belonging to the Neotyphodium and Epichlo(Clavicipitaceae,Ascomycota)genera.Neotyphodium endophytes,the asexual state of Epichlospecies,helps to protect cool-season grasses against biotic and abiotic stresses including drought,disease,herbivory and para-sitism and enhance aboveground and belowground vegetative and reproductive growth.There is little informa-tion on colonial diversity of asexual endophytes isolated from Elymus species in northwest Chinese.In the present study,different geographic

  2. Analysis on the Soil Fungal Community Structure in Melia azedarach-Triticum aestivum Agroforestry Ecosystem%苦楝-小麦农林复合生态系统土壤真菌群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 周鹏; 季永华

    2015-01-01

    the treatments was divided into three groups. There were no obvious differences in species richness among rhizosphere-associated fungal communities and nonrhizosphere fungal communities. However, the species richness of rhizosphere-associated fungal community from wheat grown under M. azedarach and M. azedarach were higher than nonrhizosphere fungal community. There were significant differences in Shannon-Wiener indexes among rhizosphere-associated fungal communities, while the difference was not significant among nonrhizosphere fungal communities. Additionally,no significant differences were present in equitability index among rhizosphere-associated fungal communities or nonrhizosphere fungal communities,whereas,the equitability index between rhizosphere-associated and nonrhizosphere fungal community of wheat grown under M. azedarach was significantly different,and the same as M. azedarach. Finally,sequencing of eleven dominant DGGE bands showed that 3 of the 11 sequences were uncultured fungi and the rest 8 sequences belonged to Glomeromycota,Basidiomycota,Ascomycota or Deuteromycota. [Conclusion]The species richness,Shannon-Wiener index and equitability index of rhizosphere-associated fungi from wheat grown under M. azedarach were higher than that of monocultured wheat,which indicated that diversity of rhizosphere-associated fungal community of wheat was enriched by trees grown in this agroforestry ecosystem. Our results may provide new reference for agroforestry practice.%【目的】采用18S rDNA PCR-DGGE技术研究苦楝-小麦农林复合生态系统根际及非根际土壤真菌群落结构,以期揭示农林复合生态系统中伴生树种对作物根际真菌群落的影响,为农林复合经营实践提供理论参考。【方法】提取根际和非根际土壤真菌 DNA,采用通用引物 GC-FR1和 FF390扩增18S rDNA 基因目的片段,扩增片段用变性梯度凝胶电泳分析;不同处理间微生物群落结构的相似性采用非

  3. Effects of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of Vaccinium corymbosum to drought stress%4种丛枝菌根真菌对南高丛蓝莓抗旱性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆龙; 刘晓敏; 徐小兵; 李晴晴; 张红; 肖家欣

    2016-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae)、地表球囊霉(G.versiforme)、根内球囊霉(G. intraradices)和幼套球囊霉(G.etunicatum)4种丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌接种南高丛蓝莓(Vaccinium corymbosum)品种薄雾对干旱胁迫的生理生化反应.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了叶片相对含水量与叶绿素含量,增加了可溶性糖含量、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性与丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)含量,但对菌根侵染率的影响较小;在干旱胁迫下,4种 AM 真菌尤其是摩西球囊霉接种株相对含水量、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量、叶片 SOD 活性均显著高于未接种株,而接种株叶片 MDA 含量相对低于未接种株;另外, AM 真菌接种处理能够提高蓝莓植株根、茎、叶的磷和钾含量以及根围土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性,尤以摩西球囊霉处理最为明显.总之,4种 AM 真菌接种处理提高了蓝莓品种薄雾植株的抗旱性,以摩西球囊霉的效果最好.%Summary Blueberry(Vaccinium spp.)is well known for its rich anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds, which helps preventing from cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses.Over the past decades,blueberry has been cultured in many areas of China,thus became the fastest-growing species in fruit production,potentially making China one of the largest blueberry-producing countries in the world.However,blueberry growth and production were severely affected by drought events in areas of Yangtze River.Vaccinium plants preferred acidic soils and spontaneously formed mutualistic symbiotic associations mainly with soil fungi of the phylum Ascomycota,called ‘ericoid mycorrhizae”.However,some reports have indicated that the absence of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi inoculum may allowVaccinium plants to associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi,and AM fungi inoculation significantly enhanced growth of Vaccinium plants

  4. A Study on Diversity of Vaginal Fungal Flora in Patients with Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis%复发性念珠菌性阴道炎患者阴道真菌菌群多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑能能; 刘玮; 漆丽娅; 陈晓新

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析复发性念珠菌性阴道炎(RVC)患者阴道真菌菌群的多样性.方法 采用分离培养法和真菌18SrDNA序列分析方法,通过对RVC患者、单纯性念珠菌性阴道炎(SVC)患者和健康志愿者(H)阴道真菌18S rDNA序列进行克隆和测序,构建真菌18S rDNA克隆文库,建立系统发育树,获取各组研究对象阴道真菌菌群的结构和组成特征.结果 RVC患者、单纯性念珠菌性阴道炎患者和健康志愿者阴道标本中存在3个真菌类群14个属共19个种系型的真菌菌群,3个真菌类群分别为子蘘菌纲(89.96%)、担子菌纲(8.43%)和卵菌纲(1.61%).健康志愿者、单纯性念珠菌性阴道炎患者和RVC患者组的阴道真菌菌落分别存在有8、11、15个种系型,只有4种真菌种系型共同存在于3组研究对象中.念珠菌属为健康志愿者、单纯性念珠菌性阴道炎患者和RVC患者组阴道真菌菌群的优势菌属,其阳性克隆子比例分别占41.18%、51.55%和46.20%;属于Uncultured eukaryote clone的克隆序列也在克隆文库中占据很大比例.结论 人类阴道黏膜中存在丰富多样的真菌类群,RVC患者阴道真菌菌群分子生态结构发生明显改变,提示阴道真菌菌群紊乱可能与RVC发生发展相关.%Objective To analyze the diversity of vagina] fungal flora in patients with recurrent vaginal candidiasis ( RVC). Methods Through isolation - culture method and 18S rDNA series analysis method, 18S rDNA series of vaginal fungal flora were cloned and sequenced in healthy volunteers, simple and recurrent vaginal candidiasis patients, respectively. Then the structure and composition characteristics of individuals in different groups were obtained after constructing 18S rDNA cloning library and setting up phylogenetic tree. Results Three fungal groups ( Ascomycotae 89.96%, Basidiomycetes 8.43%, Oomycetes 1.61%) with 14 genera including 19 phylotypes of fungi flora were found in vaginal specimens. The

  5. Analyses on composition and diversity of endophytic fungi in different parts of Lindera glauca from Tianmu Mountain%天目山山胡椒不同部位内生真菌组成及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菡; 李文超; 秦路平

    2012-01-01

    ( Cs) as indexes, the composition and diversity of endophytic fungal community were analyzed. The results show that 328 strains of endophytic fungi ( 161 strains in stem, 40 strains in leaf and 127 strains in bark) are obtained from 728 tissues of 26 individuals of L. glauca. 44 taxa are identified (19 taxa in stem, 18 taxa in leaf and 28 taxa in bark) , in which, 25 taxa are identified to species, 17 taxa to genus and 2 taxa to family. The accession numbers of their ITS sequences in GenBank are from JF502420 to JF502462. In all of 44 taxa, 40 taxa belong to Ascomycota (310 strains) which exist in all parts of L. glauca, and 4 taxa belong to Basiodiomycota (18 strains) which only exist in stem and bark of L glauca. Endophytic fungal CR in stem, bark and leaf of L glauca is 65% , 60% and 15% , IR is 0.77, 0.61 and 0. 19, respectively. Endophytic fungal H' in leaf and bark both is 2.63, which is ohviously higher than that in stem (H' = 1. 83). The dominant genera of endophytic fungi in L. glauca are Phomopsis, Paraconiothyrium, Phoma and Colletotrichum, most of them exist in leaf, stem and bark. Cs value of endophytic fungi between stem and bark, stem and leaf, leaf and bark is 0. 27, 0. 19 and 0. 18, respectively, which shows the composition of endophytic fungi between bark and leaf or bark and stem is not extremely similar. It is indicated that there are a lot of endophytic fungi in L. glauca, the composition of endophytic fungal community in stem, leaf and bark has a certain diversity and difference, and the distribution of endophytic fungi has the tissue specificity.

  6. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    entomopathogenic taxa in the Phylum Ascomycota. Although these fungi have been traditionally regarded exclusively as pathogens of arthropods, recent studies have demonstrated that they occupy a great diversity of ecological niches. Entomopathogenic fungi are now known to be plant endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers, and plant growth promoters. These newly understood attributes provide possibilities to use fungi in multiple roles. In addition to arthropod pest control, some fungal species could simultaneously suppress plant pathogens and plant parasitic nematodes as well as promote plant growth. A greater understanding of fungal ecology is needed to define their roles in nature and evaluate their limitations in biological control. More efficient mass production, formulation and delivery systems must be devised to supply an ever increasing market. More testing under field conditions is required to identify effects of biotic and abiotic factors on efficacy and persistence. Lastly, greater attention must be paid to their use within integrated pest management programs; in particular, strategies that incorporate fungi in combination with arthropod predators and parasitoids need to be defined to ensure compatibility and maximize efficacy. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are potent MCAs. Substantial progress in research and application of EPNs has been made in the past decade. The number of target pests shown to be susceptible to EPNs has continued to increase. Advancements in this regard primarily have been made in soil habitats where EPNs are shielded from environmental extremes, but progress has also been made in use of nematodes in above-ground habitats owing to the development of improved protective formulations. Progress has also resulted from advancements in nematode production technology using both in vivo and in vitro systems; novel application methods such as distribution of infected host cadavers; and

  7. PYROSEQUENCING APPROACH TO STUDY MICROBIAL COMPOSITION IN A RED SOIL PROFILE%一个红壤剖面微生物群落的焦磷酸测序法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超磊; 贺纪正; 沈菊培; 戴宇; 张丽梅

    2013-01-01

    .Results showed that with increasing soil depth,soil clay increased in content,while organic matter,total nitrogen,and carbon to nitrogen ratio declined.Correspondingly,the numbers of gene copies per gram of dry soil also decreased within the range of 107.09 ~ 109.3 for archaeal 16S rDNA,108.10 ~ 109.70 for bacterial 16S rDNA,106.54 ~ 107.95 for fungal 18S rDNA,107.24 ~ 108.61 for archaeal amoA gene,104.76 ~ 106.25 for bacterial amoA gene,105.94 ~ 107.88 for nirK gene,106.81 ~ l09.21 for nirS gene,and 107.03 ~ 109.46 for nosZ gene.Pyrosequencing generated 6 459 archaeal 16S rDNA sequences with an average length of 496 bp,28 626 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences with an average length of 448 bp,and 4 683 fungal 18S rDNA sequences with an average size of 534 bp.OTU (97% similarity) analysis revealed that the α-diversity was in the order bacteria > fungi > archaea,but there was no significant correlation between microbial α-diversity and soil properties determined.Analysis of the Jaccard dissimilarity indicated that microbial communities in different layers of the same soil profile were closer,compared with the dissimilarity between three surface replicates.Mantel test showed that clay content was the main soil factor explaining the variation of microbial communities.In all the soil samples,archaea was dominated (89%) with Thermoprotei (belonging to Crenarchaeota),of which the distribution was significantly related to soil clay content.The bacterial community consisted mainly of Acidobacteria (33%),Proteobacteria (17%),Chloroflexi (12%),Firmicutes (10%),Actinobacteria (7%),and Bacteria incertae sedis (11%).Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were found to be more abundant in the surface soils than in other soil layers,while the situations of Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were opposite.All fungal sequences belonged to three phyla,i.e.,Ascomycota (87%),Basidiomycota (9%) and Glomeromycota (4%).This work demonstrated the great potential of pyrosequecing

  8. 粗毛纤孔菌糖苷水解酶5基因克隆及蛋白质结构分析%Gene Cloning and Protein Structural Studies of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme Gene from Inonotus hispidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓晗; 王峰; 董爱荣; 陈俏丽; 刘立宏; 零雅茗; 王博文; 丁晓霞; 王世新

    2015-01-01

    . The whole length of the gene from the 3‘end to the 5 ’end was 1 727 bp. GenBank accession number of the gene was KM368321. The amino acid sequence encoded by this gene contains 300 amino acids,the molecular weight is 31. 226 55 kD,and the isoelectric point ( pI) is 9. 24. Domain structure analysis showed that IhGH5 -1 has a conservative catalytic domain structure. The maximum likelihood tree showed that a closer relationship with the other glycoside hydrolase family 5 homologous was from fungus of Ascomycota,such as Thielavia terrestris and Chaetomium globosum. The three-dimensional comparison showed that three-dimensional structure of IhGH5 -1 had seven alpha helixs,four beta foldings. It was found that the structure was similar with other fungal glycoside hydrolase family 5 protein spatial structures,and evolutionary relationships were consistent with the maximum likelihood tree analysis. The gene expression and enzymatic assays showed that the product of this gene had the highest relative activity at 65℃.[Conclution]The gene cloning and protein structural study of IhGH5 -1 would be a theoretical basis for industrial application of this enzyme.%【目的】克隆得到粗毛纤孔菌糖苷水解酶5基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学分析、蛋白质原核表达和酶活研究,为糖苷水解酶的利用提供依据。【方法】分离纯化粗毛纤孔菌,并于 PDA斜面长期保存。应用 TRIzol提取粗毛纤孔菌总 RNA,通过 AMV反转录系统将 RNA 反转录成 cDNA,构建 cDNA 文库;应用 NCBI BLAST 分析并检测糖苷水解酶基因家族5阳性序列,RACE法克隆基因全长命名为 IhGH5-1并提交 NCBI注册; ORF-Finder分析IhGH5-1基因开放阅读框,推导出氨基酸序列;筛选 NCBI登录的糖苷水解酶家族5同源序列,Clustal W 进行保守结构域区段多序列比对;应用 Mega 5.05选用 WAG+G模型构建最大似然树;应用 PSIPRED server对 IhGH5-1进行α螺旋和β折叠的蛋