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Sample records for ascension island south

  1. Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

  2. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  3. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    smaller in size, has been operating in conjunction with this effort until recently in M?ron, Spain. With the M?ron site closing, a significant gap in longitude exists between the New Mexico and Diego Garcia sites. This longitudinal gap is well covered by placing a telescope on Ascension Island (7deg 58' 20" S, 14deg 24' 4"W), in the Atlantic Ocean. Ascension Island offers the benefits of both location and weather. The near equatorial location affords the opportunity to access under-sampled low-inclination orbits and new GEO longitudes, while simultaneously filling in the GEODSS longitudinal gap. Ascension Island is a volcanic, desert island, receiving only 7" of rain per year on average. With consistent trade winds blowing from the SSE direction off Africa, the combination of an island location with consistent winds will create the smooth laminar flow sought after by all astronomical sites, which creates stable atmospheric (‘seeing') conditions. Finally, this low population island has minimal lighting, resulting in very dark skies, ideal for an observatory.

  4. Atmospheric Sampling on Ascension Island Using Multirotor UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatwood, Colin; Richardson, Thomas S; Freer, Jim; Thomas, Rick M; MacKenzie, A Rob; Brownlow, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; Nisbet, Euan G

    2017-05-23

    As part of an NERC-funded project investigating the southern methane anomaly, a team drawn from the Universities of Bristol, Birmingham and Royal Holloway flew small unmanned multirotors from Ascension Island for the purposes of atmospheric sampling. The objective of these flights was to collect air samples from below, within and above a persistent atmospheric feature, the Trade Wind Inversion, in order to characterise methane concentrations and their isotopic composition. These parameters allow the methane in the different air masses to be tied to different source locations, which can be further analysed using back trajectory atmospheric computer modelling. This paper describes the campaigns as a whole including the design of the bespoke eight rotor aircraft and the operational requirements that were needed in order to collect targeted multiple air samples up to 2.5 km above the ground level in under 20 min of flight time. Key features of the system described include real-time feedback of temperature and humidity, as well as system health data. This enabled detailed targeting of the air sampling design to be realised and planned during the flight mission on the downward leg, a capability that is invaluable in the presence of uncertainty in the pre-flight meteorological data. Environmental considerations are also outlined together with the flight plans that were created in order to rapidly fly vertical transects of the atmosphere whilst encountering changing wind conditions. Two sampling campaigns were carried out in September 2014 and July 2015 with over one hundred high altitude sampling missions. Lessons learned are given throughout, including those associated with operating in the testing environment encountered on Ascension Island.

  5. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO). Report Documentation Page Form...altitude ( Cerro Paranal) [7]. A 0.5mag increase in extinction increases the smallest detectable size by ~30%. The inland location on Ascension will...This mode follows the method implemented by MODEST for surveying the GEO belt [2]. MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Review Starlab Site On Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Atlantic green sea turtle ( Chelonia mydas mydas). The green turtle reproduces every 3 to 4 years. The female comes on shore at night and digs an...York. Mortimer, J. A. and A. Carr 1987. Reproduction and migrations of the Ascension Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ). Copeia 1:103-113

  7. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of E. minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae, new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable inwing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of E. grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  8. Calibration of Hydrophone Stations: Lessons Learned from the Ascension Island Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P E; Rodgers, A J

    2000-07-11

    Calibration of hydroacoustic stations for nuclear explosion monitoring is important for increasing monitoring capability and confidence from newly installed stations and from existing stations. Calibration of hydroacoustic stations is herein defined as the near-field precision location of the hydrophones and determination of the amplitude response; and the regional-scale calibration of acoustic traveltimes, bathymetric shadowing, diffraction, and reflection as recorded at a particular station. An important type of calibration not considered here is ocean-basin-scale calibration of a hydroacoustic monitoring system. To understand how to best conduct hydroacoustic station calibrations, an experiment was conducted in May 1999 at Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The experiment made use of a British oceanographic research vessel towing an airgun array and collected data over three MILS hydrophones that were in use by the National Data Center and the International Data Center. From the towed airgun data we were able to determine the location for each of the three hydrophones to accuracy better than 100 meters in latitude, longitude, and depth. The agreement with the nominal locations was excellent in depth and to within 1 km in latitude and longitude. The depths determined for the hydrophones and the ocean bottom depths determined from the ship's sonar system force the conclusion that all three hydrophones are located at or near the ocean bottom. Amplitude frequency response of the hydrophones was also calibrated using a calibrated temporarily deployed hydrophone to determine the airgun source function. With the source function known, the amplitude and phase response of the hydrophones could be deconvolved from the recorded waveforms provided a ''pure'' source waveform arrival is identified on the recording. Unfortunately, since the hydrophones are located near the ocean bottom, the recording is contaminated by reflections and

  9. Lunar tides in the Mesosphere over Ascension Island (8° S, 14.4° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Mitchell

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A meteor radar has been used to measure the horizontal winds in the equatorial mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Ascension Island (8.0° S, 14.4° W. A 5-year data set covering the interval 2001–2005 over the height range 78–100 km is considered. The lunar M2 tide is clearly evident in the data and reaches amplitudes as large as 11 ms−1 in the meridional component and 6 ms−1 in the zonal component. These are the first observations of the lunar tide made over the equatorial Atlantic sector. Comparisons of the observed seasonal behaviour with the model of Vial and Forbes (1994 reveals good agreement, but the observed amplitudes are generally larger and there is a systematic phase difference of ~2 h with the observed phases lagging the model. Comparisons with observations made at other equatorial sites suggest the presence of non-migrating lunar M2 tides and/or significant inter-annual variability.

  10. Methane mole fraction and δ13C above and below the trade wind inversion at Ascension Island in air sampled by aerial robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; Thomas, R. M.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Cain, M.; Richardson, T. S.; Greatwood, C.; Freer, J.; Pyle, J. A.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    Ascension Island is a remote South Atlantic equatorial site, ideal for monitoring tropical background CH4. In September 2014 and July 2015, octocopters were used to collect air samples in Tedlar bags from different heights above and below the well-defined Trade Wind Inversion (TWI), sampling a maximum altitude of 2700 m above mean sea level. Sampling captured both remote air in the marine boundary layer below the TWI and also air masses above the TWI that had been lofted by convective systems in the African tropics. Air above the TWI was characterized by higher CH4, but no distinct shift in δ13C was observed compared to the air below. Back trajectories indicate that lofted CH4 emissions from Southern Hemisphere Africa have bulk δ13CCH4 signatures similar to background, suggesting mixed emissions from wetlands, agriculture, and biomass burning. The campaigns illustrate the usefulness of unmanned aerial system sampling and Ascension's value for atmospheric measurement in an understudied region.

  11. Mean winds in the MLT, the SQBO and MSAO over Ascension Island (8° S, 14° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Day

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mean winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT over Ascension Island (8° S, 14° W have been measured at heights of approximately 80–100 km by a meteor radar. The results presented in this study are from the interval October 2001 to December 2011. In all years, the monthly-mean meridional winds display a clear annual oscillation. Typically, these winds are found to be southward during April–October, when they reach velocities of up to about −23 m s−1, and northward throughout the rest of the year, when they reach velocities up to about 16 m s−1. The monthly-mean zonal winds are generally westward throughout most of the year and reach velocities of up to about −46 m s−1. However, eastward winds are observed in May–August and again in December at the lower heights observed. These eastward winds reach a maximum at heights of about 86 km with velocities of up to about 36 m s−1, but decay quickly at heights above and below that level. The mesospheric semi-annual oscillation (MSAO is clearly apparent in the observed monthly-mean zonal winds. The winds in first westward phase of the MSAO are observed to be much stronger than in the second phase. The westward phase of the MSAO is found to maximise at heights of about 84 km with typical first-phase wind velocities reaching about −35 m s−1. These meteor-radar observations have been compared to the HWM-07 empirical model. The observed meridional winds are found to be generally more southward than those of the model during May–August, when at the lower heights observed the model suggests there will be only weakly southward, or even northward, winds. The zonal monthly-mean winds are in generally good agreement, although in the model they are somewhat less westward than those observed. Throughout the observations there were eight occasions in which the first westward phase of the MSAO was observed. Strikingly, in 2002 there was an event in which the westward winds during the

  12. Water Resources of Ascension Parish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.M.; Fendick, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ascension Parish, located along the banks of the Mississippi River in south-central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 202 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Ascension Parish. About 94 percent (190 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 6 percent (12 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Additional water is supplied to Ascension Parish for public-supply use from East Baton Rouge Parish. Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for 95 percent (192 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public-supply (4 Mgal/d), rural-domestic (3 Mgal/d), and aquaculture (3 Mgal/d). Water withdrawals in the parish generally increased from 1960 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2005. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Ascension Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  13. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  14. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  15. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  16. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  17. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dalla Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.

  18. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  19. Island effects on marine production and circulation around the island of South Georgia, Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In high-nutrient low-chlorophyll waters of the south-western Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, an intense phytoplankton bloom is observed annually north of South Georgia (37°W, 55°S). South Georgia blooms have a vital role in the ecosystem surrounding the island, and have been linked to one of the strongest seasonal atmospheric-carbon uptake in the open Southern Ocean. Which environmental conditions drive such remarkable productivity are still under debate, and were investigated in the c...

  20. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  1. Paleomagnetism of King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Raub, T. D.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Edgar, L.

    2011-12-01

    During December of 2009 when the US R/V Lawrence M. Gould was iced out of the Antarctic Peninsula, we collected core and block samples from 17 different flows and dikes at three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Two of the three sampling areas on Weaver Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula were near dikes with Ar-Ar ages of 54.6 ± 3.8 Ma and 57.4 ± 2.1 Ma respectively, close in age to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Kraus 2005, Kraus et al. 2007). After removal of significant magnetically soft components by low-temperature cycling and weak AF demagnetization, the basaltic flows from the Weaver Peninsula preserve a dual-polarity characteristic remanence isolated by higher-field AF demagnetization with an in-situ magnetization of D = 166.3, I= 65.4 (n/N = 24/30, α95 = 6.31). This direction, prior to correction for bedding tilt, is indistinct from a plausible Cenozoic reversed polarity magnetization for the site, while correcting for bedding tilt results in anomalously shallow inclinations. This result implies a post-tilting thermochemical remagnetization origin for the characteristic remanence. Analyses of the baked contact, dikes, and conglomerate tests help constrain the age of this event in context of subsequent Cenozoic magmatism on King George Island. Rock magnetic and Kappabridge experiments show that the magnetic mineralogy of the samples is often dominated by magnetite, with titanomagnetite and hematite present in some flows. The results of this multi-site study of Weaver and Fildes Peninsulas add to a growing paleomagnetic database for volcanic rocks from King George Island (Valencio et al. 1979, Kraus et al. 2010, Watts et al. 1984, Nawrocki et al. 2010) and contribute to a better understanding of the complex tectonic and magmatic activity of the South Shetland Islands.

  2. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georgia has recently been proposed. A translocation of reindeer to the Falkland Islands was undertaken in 2001 by the Falkland Island Government with two objectives: (1 to preserve the genetic resources of at least one of the South Georgia herds; and (2 to facilitate the diversification of the agricultural sector of the Falkland Islands by establishing a commercial reindeer herd. Techniques developed and used in North America for the successful relocation of large numbers of calves were adopted for the translocation. A total of 59 calves (26 females and 33 males were successfully translocated from South Georgia to the Falklands Islands in 2001, and subsequently produced their first offspring in 2003. Good husbandry practices and an understanding of biology and behaviour are essential for the successful translocation of reindeer.Flytting av rein fra Sør-Georgia til FalklandsøyeneAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Artikkelen beskriver den første overføring av rein Rangifer tarandus fra Sør-Georgia til Falklandsøyene i søratlanteren. Tamrein fra Norge ble flyttet til den subarktiske øya Sør-Georgia ved tre anledninger i perioden 1911 til 1925 i forbindelse med den norske hvalfangsten der. I dag består bestanden av rundt regnet 2600 dyr fordelt på to geografisk atskilte flokker. Av hensyn til den naturlige vegetasjonen på øya er det forslag om å på sikt utrydde reinbestanden på øya. Regjeringen på Falklandsøyene foretok en første overføring av

  3. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe) Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales) from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    A. Massalski; T. Mrozińska; Olech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat.) Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat.) so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  4. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat. Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat. so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands. In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  5. Diet of two icefish species from the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island, Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephal;us aceratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Kock, K.H.; Wilhelms, S.; Jones, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The summer diet of two species of icefishes (Channichthyidae) from the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island, Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephalus aceratus, was investigated from 2001 to 2003. Champsocephalus gunnari fed almost exclusively on krill (Euphausia superba) in all years. The im

  6. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : ASCENSION AND WHITSUNTIDE WEEKENDS

    CERN Document Server

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    Details of the arrangements to ensure the provision of a restaurant service during the Ascension and Whitsuntide weekends are given below. On all the days indicated, hot meals will be served from 11h30 to 14h00 and 18h00 to 19h30.   RESTAURANT SATELLITE CAFETERIAS KIOSQUE No. Opening times Usual opening times ASCENSION Thursday 9 May 1 2 3 08h00 - 21h00 Friday 10 May 1 2 3   07h00 - 21h00 07h00 - 18h00 Bldg. 40 Bldg. 30, 54 Bldg. 864 08h00 - 17h00     Saturday 11 May 1 2 3 07h00 - 23h00     Sunday 12 May 1 2 3 07h00 - 23h00     WHITSUNTIDE Saturday 18 May 1 2 3 08h00 - 21h00     Sunday 19 May 1 2 3 08h00 - 21h00     Monday 20 May 1 2 3 08h00 - 21h00     Restaurant Supervisory Committee Tel. 77551

  7. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: ASCENSION AND WHITSUNTIDE WEEKENDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    Details of the arrangements to ensure the provision of a restaurant service during the Ascension and Whitsuntide weekends are given below. On all the days indicated, hot meals will be served from 11h30 to 14h00 and 18h00 to 19h30. RESTAURANT CAFETERIAS PERIPHERIQUES SATELLITE CAFETERIAS KIOSQUE No. Horaire Opening times Horaire : comme d'habitude Usual opening times   ASCENSION         Jeudi 24 mai 1       Thursday, May 24 2 08h00 - 21h00 3           Vendredi 25 mai 1   Bâts. /Bldgs 6 13 17 40Bâts. /Bldgs. 30 54 Bâts. /Bldgs 864 08h00 — 17h00 Friday, May 25 2 07h00 - 21h00   3 07h00 - 18h00           Samedi 26 mai 1 07h00 - 23h00     Saturday, May 26 2   3           Dimanche 27 mai 1 07h00 - 23h00     Sunday, May 27 2   3                   PENTECOTE WHITSUNTIDE         Samedi 2 juin 1 08h00 - 21h00     Saturday, June 2 2   3           Dimanche 3 juin 1 08h00 — 21h00     Sunday, Jun...

  8. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: ASCENSION AND WHITSUNTIDE WEEKENDS

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Details of the arrangements to ensure the provision of a restaurant service during the Ascension and Whitsuntide weekends are given below. On all the days indicated, hot meals will be served from 11h30 to 14h00 and 18h00 to 19h30. DATERESTAURANT No.Opening times ASCENSION Thursday, May 29 1 2 08h00 - 21h00 3 Friday, May 30 1 2 07h00 - 21h00 3 07h00 - 18h00 Saturday, May 31 1 2 09h00 - 20h00 3 Sunday, June 1st 1 2 09h00 - 20h00 3 WHITSUNTIDE Saturday, June 7 1 08h00 - 21h00 2 3 Sunday, June 8 1 08h00 - 21h00 2 3 Monday, June 9 1 08h00 - 21h00 2 3 SATELLITE CAFETERIAS (Bldgs. 30, 40, 54) will open at the usual hours on Friday 30 May only. The KIOSK will open from 8:00 to 17:00 hrs on Friday 30 May.

  9. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Félix, Fernando; Stevick, Peter T.; Secchi,Eduardo R; Allen, Judith M; Chater, Kim; Martin, Anthony R.; Basso, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60o54.5’S – 46o40.4’W and 60o42.6’S – 45o33’W). One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-d...

  10. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.

    2016-01-01

    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  11. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  12. A preliminary study of freshwater meiofaunal communities at Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soraya J. Silva; Minerva Cordovés; Nory González; Leinny González

    2015-01-01

    Meiofaunal communities of three small, shallow freshwater habitats sampled during the austral summer of 2013 in Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, are reported. Communities are dominated by tardigrades (85%), nematodes (11%), and rotifers (3%). Collembola, Oligochaeta, crustacean larvae (nauplii) and unidentified organisms account for 0.3%. Total meiofaunal densities reach 11 770 ind∙cm-2, with mean densities (ind∙cm−2) of 1 365.83 ± 2 716.65 (Zone A), 523.67 ± 1 166.48 (Zone B) and 72.17 ± 110.78 (Zone C). Given the age of freshwater habitats, and the general lack of higher-trophic level predatory taxa, those species we report are likely early stage colonizers, and these communities are at an early stage of ecological succession. Non-parametrical analysis revealed the main variables influencing meiofaunal density and distribution are related to granulometric characteristics of sediments and microphytobenthic biomass. There were close relationships between meiofaunal abundance and microphytobenthic biomass, which indicates that benthic microalgae significantly influence meiofaunal distribution. A strong correlation between nematode abundance and the percentage of silt, clay and carbon in the sediment was also shown by canonical correspondence analysis and Spearman rank correlation.

  13. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISÂNGELA V. BARBOSA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make up an important ecological niche in ecosystems, and knowledge of their diversity in extreme environments is still incipient. The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, Antarctica. For that, soil and roots of Deschampsia antarctica were collected at the brazilian research station in Antarctica. The spore density, species diversity and mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were evaluated. There was a low density of spores (27.4 ± 17.7 and root mycorrhizal colonization (6 ± 5.1%, which did not present statistical difference. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, distributed in two genera: three species of the genus Glomus (Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2 and Glomus sp3 and one of the genus Acaulospora, which was identified at species level (Acaulospora mellea. Greater soil diversity was verified with pH 5.9 and phosphorus concentration of 111 mg dm-3, occurring two species of genus Glomus and A. mellea. Based on literature data, this may be the first record of this species of Acaulospora mellea in Antarctic soils, colonizing D. antarctica plants.

  14. MARINE BIOFOULING IN OFFSHORE AREAS SOUTH OF HAINAN ISLAND, NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This study on the characteristics of fouling communities in offshore areas south of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea, was conducted at four sites there. At each station, test panels on iron frames were hung on the mooring system at different depths. Data on biofouling were mainly obtained by examination of the fouled test panels. Organisms attached to buoys and anchors were scraped off and examined also. The results showed that the thickness and biomass of marine growth that increased the fluid loading on offshore installations depended to a large extent on hard foulers, i.e. mollusks and acorn barnacles. Algae, hydroids, stalked barnacles and bryozoans were important fouling species. The occurrence frequency and biomass of acorn barnacles decreased with increasing distance from the shore.

  15. 10m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  16. 10 m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  17. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... the range will be conducted intermittently by one or more vessels, depending on weather and...

  18. Identification of an assembly site for migratory and tropical seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. John Hughes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are good indicators of wider biodiversity and where they assemble in large numbers signifies sites important to many marine faunal species. Few such large assemblage sites have been identified and none in pelagic waters has been identified in the tropical Atlantic Ocean despite their importance for resident seabirds and those ‘on passage’ during migration. Here, we identify the likely location of just such an assembly site and provide preliminary information about the distribution of pelagic seabirds around Ascension Island in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean using a combination of trans-equatorial seabird migrant tracking data, records of at-sea surveys and land counts of seabirds returning from foraging trips. We found that waters north–north-west of Ascension Island are used more often by seabirds than those south and east of the island. Three-fifths of the species recorded in the assembly site breed at mid- or high-latitudes and some of these migratory seabirds stopover possibly to wait for favourable winds that facilitate onward flight. Our findings are important because to the best of our knowledge no seabird assembly sites have previously been identified in tropical Atlantic Ocean pelagic waters. We provide evidence to support the aspirations of the Marine Reserves Coalition that waters in the vicinity of Ascension Island should be recognised as a sanctuary for marine wildlife and we highlight an area that is worthy of further targeted investigation.

  19. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  20. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reyasudin Basir Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015 [1].

  1. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1].

  2. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ljung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere have hitherto failed to uncover a distinct climatic anomaly associated with the 8.2 kyr event. Here we present a lake sediment record from Nightingale Island in the central South Atlantic showing enhanced precipitation between 8275 and 8025 cal. yrs BP, most likely as a consequence of increased sea surface temperature (SST. We show that this is consistent with climate model projections of a warming of the South Atlantic in response to reduced north-ward energy transport during the 8.2 kyr event.

  3. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian B; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km(2) of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km(2), although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  4. Hawaiian Islands North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  5. The Paracel Islands and U.S. Interests and Approaches in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Islands. The naval base on Woody Island is an artificial harbor with a concrete dock 500-m long and capable of accommodating destroyer and frigate...conflicting views on the South Chi- na Sea disputes with the “policy of reactive assertive- ness, characterised by strong reactions to provocations by other...and the soil con- sists primarily of coral, shells, and bird guano in the form of brown powder or white nodules, at one time averaging a quarter

  6. Elements in the hair of South-east Asian islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S C; Tan, T C

    1998-01-19

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in hair samples from Singapore island (85 samples) and two islands off Batam, Indonesia (68 samples) were analysed to assess the environmental uptake of elements. Hair samples were washed with 0.1% Triton X-100 solution for 20 min in an ultrasonic bath, rinsed five times with de-ionized water and air dried. Ten to 20 mg of hair samples were digested with 1 ml of ultra-pure concentrated nitric acid in Parr bombs at 120 degrees C for 2 h. Hair digests were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Hg was determined by the cold vapour AAS method and Pb, Cd and Cu by the electro-thermal graphite furnace AAS method. For Singapore hair, the contents of Cd (in microgram/g) averaged 0.17 (range 0.02-1.81); Cu 13.2 (range 3.1-70.1); Hg 5.92 (range 1.14-35.52); and Pb 6.74 (range 0.06-107.8). For the islands off Batam, Cd was 0.32 (range 0.06-1.80); Cu 21.1 (range 3.8-143.6); Hg 5.59 (range 0.78-60.86); and Pb 15.1 (range 0.13-116.6). Statistically significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg contents were observed between the hair samples from Singapore and those of the islands off Batam in cumulative logit analysis. Hair from Singapore contained more Hg, but less Cd and Pb compared to hair from the islands off Batam. For Pb in hair, significant differences were also observed between the two islands off Batam (island 1, 18.9; and island 2, 10.2). These differences in hair metal contents are due to differences in community lifestyle (dietary, environmental or occupational intake).

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  8. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  9. Large mainland populations of South Island robins retain greater genetic diversity than offshore island refuges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Taylor, Sabrina S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Komdeur, Jan; Jamieson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    For conservation purposes islands are considered safe refuges for many species, particularly in regions where introduced predators form a major threat to the native fauna, but island populations are also known to possess low levels of genetic diversity. The New Zealand archipelago provides an ideal

  10. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  11. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  12. Lithofacies, eruptive phases and processes of Udo monogenetic multiple volcano near Jeju Island, South Sea, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HWANG Sang-koo

    2004-01-01

    A monogenetic multiple volcano was emergent on Udo island, 3 km offthe sea shore of the eastern promontory of Jeju Island, South Sea,Korea. All of the preserved volcanic successions occur in a regular pattern of sequences,representing an excellent example of an eruptive cycle. The island represents volcanic stratigraphy that comprises a horseshoe-shaped tuff cone, a nested cinder cone on the crater floor of the tuff cone,and basalt lavas which extend northwest from the moat between tuff and cinder cones. The volcanic stratigraphy suggests eruptive styles that start with emergent Surtseyan eruption, progressing through Strombolian eruption and end with lava effusion.

  13. Geodiversity and geotourism utilization of islands: Gwanmae Island of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Koo Koh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The island area has well preserved geodiversity and biodiversity due to minimal exposure to humans. UNESCO has maintained things and sites with geological importance as geoheritage. Although a number of natural heritages and national parks exist on ‘geological’ bases, geodiversity concepts are less concerned about biodiversity due to a lack of recognition. Recently, geotourism linked to geodiversity has been activated in worldwide and geopark programs have been established in many countries. These precedents offer good chances for the use of geoheritage and preservation of geodiversity. Geopark programs can lead to the preservation of geodiversity and public geoeducation through tour of geosites. In particular, it is necessary to understand oceanic nature and culture including islands through geoeducation programs used by geodiversity of islands. Gwanmae Island is the first luxury village named by the Korea National Park Service. This study suggests plans of geotourism by geosites with noticeable geodiversity of the island.

  14. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  15. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda (

  16. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Pioneer Bank (100-003), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-003b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  17. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Maro Reef (100-008), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-008b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  18. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  19. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  20. 75 FR 54695 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport, Brownsville, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International... Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are...

  1. Biostratigraphy of Famennian in Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the faunas including conodonts Palmatolepis gracilis sigmoidalis, P.gracilis gracilis, Polygnathus germanus, which are found for the first time, and corals Cystophrentis kalaohoensis it is confirmed that the Changjiang Formation refers to the Famennian, and may correlate with the Shaodong Formation and Menggongao Formation of central Hunan. This is the only Devonian deposits known in Hainan Island so far. It means that the outstanding problem of whether the Devonian rocks exist in that island is now settled. Meanwhile, the new evidences indicate that the lectostratotype section of Nanhao Formation of Baoting area refers to the Silurian,rather than the Lower Carboniferous as considered by most geologists formerly. Furthermore, the Member 3 of Nanhao Formation at Shilu-Jinbo district is proved to be the Upper Carboniferous,rather than Tournaisian or Middle-Upper Devonian as deemed to be before.

  2. The Coastal Zone of Islands: Comparative Reflections from the North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Farran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islanders tend to develop rules and methods for regulating the use of the marine environment and its accessible resources. Where islands have been subject to the influence or domination of external political forces, and such resources have become the subject of increased demand, then differences of approach, of understanding and of patterns of use can come into conflict. This is especially so where there is increased emphasis on coastal development, pressures to privatize and register coastal land and to regulate the commercial exploitation of marine resources. This article considers the Shetland & Orkney Islands from the north and Fiji, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands from the south, drawing out similarities and differences of legal approaches to key issues relevant to the foreshore and the coastal zone.

  3. Organizing Healthcare For Changing Markets: The Case of Ascension Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Engler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a Ministry Positioning process that will enable the management of Ascension Health to enact designs suitable for the rapidly changing healthcare industry. Ascension Health is the largest not-for-profit healthcare system in the United States with $21 billion in annual revenues and a presence in 24 states and the District of Columbia. Because the design of a large organization for a fast-moving environment is too complex and ambiguous to be fully planned in advance, the focus of the case is on the processes of learning while designing—that is, learning how to learn from designing organizations. The main lessons drawn from the Ministry Positioning process are discussed.

  4. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  5. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  6. Deformational evolution of a Cretaceous subduction complex: Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Passchier, Cees W.; Valeriano, Claudio M.; Simões, Luiz Sérgio A.; Paciullo, Fabio V. P.; Ribeiro, André

    2000-03-01

    New structural data from Elephant Island and adjacent islands are presented with the objective to improve the understanding of subduction kinematics in the area northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula. On the island, a first deformation phase, D 1, produced a strong SL fabric with steep stretching and mineral lineations, partly defined by relatively high pressure minerals, such as crossite and glaucophane. D 1 is interpreted to record southward subduction along an E-W trench with respect to the present position of the island. A second phase, D 2, led to intense folding with steep E-W-trending axial surfaces. The local presence of sinistral C'-type shear bands related to this phase and the oblique inclination of the L 2 stretching lineations are the main arguments to interpret this phase as representing oblique sinistral transpressive shear along steep, approximately E-W-trending shear zones, with the northern (Pacific) block going down with respect to the southern (Antarctic Peninsula) block. The sinistral strike-slip component may represent a trench-linked strike-slip movement as a consequence of oblique subduction. Lithostatic pressure decreased and temperature increased to peak values during D 2, interpreted to represent the collision of thickened oceanic crust with the active continental margin. The last deformation phase, D 3, is characterised by post-metamorphic kink bands, partially forming conjugate sets consistent with E-W shortening and N-S extension. The rock units that underlie the island probably rotated during D 3, in Cenozoic times, together with the trench, from an NE-SW to the present ENE-WSW position, during the progressive opening of the Scotia Sea. The similarity between the strain orientation of D 3 and that of the sinistral NE-SW Shackleton Fracture Zone is consistent with this interpretation.

  7. Wildlife species composition in various forest types on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmana, C.; Manshur, A.; Rusdian, O.; Putro, H. R.; Hakim, F.; Ermyanyla, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sebuku is one of the small islands in South Kalimantan Provincehaving various forest types with high potential economic in mining sector. Based on it’s business permit, the island has been divided up into several mining concessions. So that biological diversity studies in this island is an interesting in order to serve biological baseline data if someday this island to be extractedfor mining. This research was conducted on 28th November to 5th December 2015 aims to explore wildlife species inhabit mangrove forest, beach forest, and lowland forest usinga rectangle transect (40 x 1000 meter) in each forest type. The results show there are 90 wildlife species identified in Sebuku Island. The beach forest has the highest wildlife species richness (36 species), while the area having the highest protected wildlife species isthe lowland forest. Mangrove forests generally have a lower wildlife species richness. Nevertheless, in Sebuku Island, can be found mangrove forest that have a quite high wildlife species richness (28 species, 50% protected). It is due to silt sedimentation in the estuary area, so that this area become feeding ground for shore and migratory birds.

  8. Bathymetry 1M GRID of St. John (South Shore - Area 1), US Virgin Islands, 2004, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the south shore of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Due to the large file size...

  9. View of portion of South Island, New Zealand as seen from Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of South Island, New Zealand (43.0S, 171.5E) as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Cape Foulwind is at the upper left. The City of Christchurch is under clouds at the center right margin. Note the movement of sediment of alongside currents, especially on the east (right) side of the island, the Alpine Fault, which is part of the circu-Pacific volcanic-tectonic belt, is clearly visible on the left side of the island. The fault line is marked by a scarp which appears very distinct from orbital altitude. Differences in topography and vegetation on either side of the fault are also sharp.

  10. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  11. Hydrography of Potter Cove, a Small Fjord-like Inlet on King George Island (South Shetlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöser, Heinz; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mercuri, Guillermo; Laturnus, Frank; Curtosi, Antonio

    1994-05-01

    The hydrography of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands) is described in detail for one summer season. Recorded data are wind, air temperature, water temperature, salinity and water colour. From these, information on surface circulation patterns and dynamics of suspended sediments are derived. Possible sources of sediment input are discussed. As a result, a complex interaction between wind forcing, circulation and seasonal melt of high glacier surfaces emerges.

  12. Offshore Rayleigh Group Velocity Observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from Ambient Noise Data

    KAUST Repository

    Yeck, William L.

    2017-02-15

    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 - 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broadband ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network (NZNSN) to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  13. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  14. UAV-based detection and spatial analyses of periglacial landforms on Demay Point (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbski, Maciej; Zmarz, Anna; Pabjanek, Piotr; Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata; Karsznia, Izabela; Chwedorzewska, Katarzyna J.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution aerial images allow detailed analyses of periglacial landforms, which is of particular importance in light of climate change and resulting changes in active layer thickness. The aim of this study is to show possibilities of using UAV-based photography to perform spatial analysis of periglacial landforms on the Demay Point peninsula, King George Island, and hence to supplement previous geomorphological studies of the South Shetland Islands. Photogrammetric flights were performed using a PW-ZOOM fixed-winged unmanned aircraft vehicle. Digital elevation models (DEM) and maps of slope and contour lines were prepared in ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 with the Spatial Analyst extension, and three-dimensional visualizations in ESRI ArcScene 10.3 software. Careful interpretation of orthophoto and DEM, allowed us to vectorize polygons of landforms, such as (i) solifluction landforms (solifluction sheets, tongues, and lobes); (ii) scarps, taluses, and a protalus rampart; (iii) patterned ground (hummocks, sorted circles, stripes, nets and labyrinths, and nonsorted nets and stripes); (iv) coastal landforms (cliffs and beaches); (v) landslides and mud flows; and (vi) stone fields and bedrock outcrops. We conclude that geomorphological studies based on commonly accessible aerial and satellite images can underestimate the spatial extent of periglacial landforms and result in incomplete inventories. The PW-ZOOM UAV is well suited to gather detailed geomorphological data and can be used in spatial analysis of periglacial landforms in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region.

  15. Possible Late Pleistocene volcanic activity on Nightingale Island, South Atlantic Ocean, based on geoelectrical resistivity measurements, sediment corings and 14C dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Björck, Svante; Cronholm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island group situated in the central South Atlantic. The oldest of these islands, Nightingale Island, has an age of about 18Ma. In the interior of the island, there are several wetlands situated in topographic depressions. The ages of these basins have been unknown,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St....

  17. Carbonate system distribution south of the Canary Islands in spring 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván R. Ucha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the surface molar fraction of CO2 (atmosphere and sea water and water column pHT, total alkalinity, AT, nutrients and oxygen were carried out in spring 2000 at the European Station for Time Series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC and in the area located south of the Canary Islands. The significant eddy field strongly affecting the pattern of the chemical and carbonate system variables is presented and discussed. A mixing model based on the thermohaline properties of the water masses was established. The model explained over 97% of the variability found in the distribution of the chemical variables. Intermediate waters to the south of the Canary Islands show a high contribution of Antarctic waters with about 5% of pure Antarctic Intermediate Water. Moreover, the surface structure affected the atmosphere-ocean carbon dioxide exchange, making the area act as a CO2 sink taking up 9.1 mmol m-2 week-1, corresponding to 0.03 Mt of CO2 which were taken up by the area in a week at the end of March 2000.

  18. Experimental culture of non-indigenous Juncus bufonius from King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marely Cuba-Díaz; Eduardo Fuentes; Mauricio Rondanelli-Reyes; Ángela Machuca

    2015-01-01

    Juncus bufonius L. (Juncaceae) is recognized by the US Department of Agriculture as a weed or invasive plant. Recently, we reported on J. bufonius L. var. bufonius associated with the native vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis in the environs of the Polish Arctowski Station, King George Island, in the Maritime Antarctica. In this study, we evaluated the developmental stages and morphological characteristics of J. bufonius plants cultivated in controlled conditions beginning with seeds obtained from plants of the Antarctic population. Germination occurred at 3 weeks and the germination percentage was low (22.5%). The average time between the anthesis and seed formation was 7 weeks, similar to that reported for other species in the Juncaceae. According to data reported in the literature, Antarctic individuals were significantly smaller than their relatives growing in other conditions, except for the number of inflorescences. The morphological characteristics of a species vary according to its distribution and the edaphoclimatic environment where it occur; cosmopolitan plants shuch as J. bufonius also have reduced stature in cold environments. The low percentage germination may have been due to water availability in the plant chamber in which the study was conducted. J. bufonius is intolerant of dry environments, and once it suffers hydric stress its recovery is very low; thus, a moister environment could be beneficial. J. bufonius has become established amongst native vegetation near Arctowski Station and without careful control or eradication; it may have the potential to spread far beyond the site, as has happened with the alien grass Poa annua as human disturbance and climate warming increase.

  19. Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mukherjee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a firstrecord of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island.

  20. South Pacific Island Forum on Trade And Investment Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The 8th Western China International Economic and Trade Fair (WCIETF) was held in Chengdu,Sichuan Province from May 24 to 28. During the fair,the South Pacific Island Forum on Trade and Investment jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries was held successively in Chengdu and Yibing on May 26 and May 27. Invited by the CPAFFC,ambassadors or charge d affaires of Fiji,Papua New Guinea,Tonga and Vanuatu that had set up embassies in China and the representatives of the Trade Office of the Pacific Islands Forum attended the fair and the forum.

  1. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  2. Steroids in marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, bioconcentration, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 24 steroids were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China. Ten, 9, 10, 15 of 24 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from 18 years), respectively. Even though no significant risk from dietary exposure arises from individual steroid, elevated risk to humans can result from the occurrence of multiple steroids in the seafood raised in the aquaculture farms, especially for the sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and children.

  3. Factors affecting spring bloom in the South of Cheju Island in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Dongyang; HUANG Zhaojun; ZHANG Yuanzhi; PAN Delu; DING Youzhua; LIU Dazhao; ZHANG Ying; MAO Zhihua; CHEN Jianfang

    2015-01-01

    A soil circulation occurs in the south of Cheju Island in the spring. Nutrients and its influence on chloro-phyll a (Chla) around the circulations were studied from April 9 to May 6, 2007. Spring bloom with elevated concentrations of Chla was observed during the investigation. High concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and silicate at 0.6, 12, and 8 mmol/m3, respectively, were detected. A low water temperature prevented the growth of phytoplankton. Chla concentrations in the study area might be strongly associated with the high silicate concentration.

  4. A new species of Eunice (Polychaeta: Eunicidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xuwen; SUN Ruiping; LIU Ruiyu(J.Y LIU)

    2013-01-01

    Ataxonomic survey ofbenthic marine animals from coastal regions of Hainan Island,South China Sea,revealed specimens of a new species ofEunice (Polychaeta:Eunicida:Eunicidae),Eunice uschakovi n.sp.,collected from the intertidal zone.The species belongs to the group of Eunice that has yellow tridentate subacicular hooks and branchiae scattered over an extensive region of the body.It resembles E.miurai and E.havaica in having both bidentate and tridentate falcigers,but can be readily distinguished by branchial features.Comparisons between E.uschakovi and the two related species are presented.

  5. Rapid landscape transformation in South Island, New Zealand, following initial Polynesian settlement

    OpenAIRE

    McWethy, David B.; Whitlock, Cathy; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Fromont, Mairie; Li, Xun; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann; Hobbs, William O.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Cook, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. In the South Island of New Zealand, Polynesians (Māori), who arrived 700–800 calibrated years (cal y) ago, and then Europeans, who settled ∼150 cal y ago, used fire as a tool for forest clearance, but the structure and environmental consequences of these fires are poorly understood. High-resolution charcoal and pollen records from 16 lakes ...

  6. Restaurant opening times for the Ascension and Whitsun weekends

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    For the Ascension weekend (from Thursday, 17 May to Sunday, 20 May inclusive) and the Whitsun weekend (from Saturday, 26 May to Monday, 28 May inclusive), the restaurant opening times will be as follows: Restaurant No.1 will be open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m., with hot meals being served from 11.30 a.m. to 2 p.m. and from 6.30 p.m. to 8 p.m. (except Friday 18 May, when the restaurant will be open as normal). Restaurant No.2 will be closed (except Friday 18 May, when the restaurant will be open as normal). Restaurant No.3 will be closed.

  7. Microclimatic, chemical, and mineralogical evidence for tafoni weathering processes on the Miaowan Island, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rihui; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Tafoni were widely distributed around the world; however, their processes of development remain unclear. In this study, the roles of microclimatic, geochemical and mineralogical processes on tafoni development along the subtropical coastline of the Miaowan Island, south China, are investigated. Field observations were carried out during three visits to the island over a four-year period (2011-2015). The orientation of 184 tafoni openings were measured, and micrometeorological changes of three tafoni on opposite sides of the island were monitored by pocket weather trackers (Kestrel 4500) in two periods. Samples of residual debris inside three tafoni hosted in a large boulder, the parent rock of the tafoni, and from the weathering profile of a nearby bedrock outcrop were collected for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The field observations showed that tafoni were of different sizes and constantly produced flakes and debris inside the tafoni caves, indicating their on-going active development. An increase in Na in residual debris in tafoni caves on the Miaowan Island is the most obvious evidence of salt weathering. Salt weathering inside tafoni caves is not intense and does not match the salt-rich environment outside the caves, indicating that the influence of salt is not strong. The loss of K, Ca, and Mg in the residue samples, and the appearance of the clay mineral montmorillonite are caused by chemical weathering. Most of the tafoni openings face mountains, demonstrating the effect of humidity in tafoni weathering. Tafoni cave shapes are related to the distribution of humid water vapour, which tends to collect at the top of the cave, and leads to more intensive development here than in other parts. Drastic daily changes in relative humidity inside tafoni caves accelerate mechanical weathering owing to swelling and shrinking of salt and clay minerals. The Miaowan Island tafoni are formed by weathering, but they cannot be simply

  8. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delayed any more. This research examines the most economically, technologically and environmentally suitable energy grid of two South Korean Islands. Several hybrid energy system configurations that analyze and identify the optimal grid-connected and grid-independent hybrid power generation systems are simulated in this study. According to the results of the study, the optimal regionally detached power generation system was the wind-PV-battery-converter hybrid system. At the end of this paper, implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. The Robben Island diversity experience. An exploration of South African diversity dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Because of its historic, symbolic and psychological representation, presenting a diversity event on Robben Island posed invaluable opportunities to form an in-depth understanding of South African diversity dynamics. This research focussed on such an event interpreted from the systems psychodynamic perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of participants attending the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE in order to understand South African diversity dynamics from a depth psychology perspective.Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events presented in South African organisations, RIDE is the only annual systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of these dynamics which manifest themselves from below the surface.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative and descriptive research from a hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm was used. The 15 participants who attended a RIDE event formed a case study. The data from an unstructured interview was content-analysed and interpreted using the systems psychodynamic perspective. The themes were integrated into a research hypothesis.Main findings: Five themes manifested themselves, namely, crossing boundaries, engaging the brave new world, ties that bind, being imprisoned and the struggle.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the importance of understanding unconscious dynamics in the context of diversity in order to inform consultants about diversity management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards how South African diversity dynamics manifest themselves and how that can be addressed in organisations.

  10. Modeled connectivity of Acropora millepora populations from reefs of the Spratly Islands and the greater South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    The Spratly Island archipelago is a remote network of coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea that is a likely source of coral larvae to the greater region, but about which little is known. Using a particle-tracking model driven by oceanographic data from the Coral Triangle region, we simulated both spring and fall spawning events of Acropora millepora, a common coral species, over a 46-yr period (1960-2005). Simulated population biology of A. millepora included the acquisition and loss of competency, settlement over appropriate benthic habitat, and mortality based on experimental data. The simulations aimed to provide insights into the connectivity of reefs within the Spratly Islands, the settlement of larvae on reefs of the greater South China Sea, and the potential dispersal range of reef organisms from the Spratly Islands. Results suggest that (1) the Spratly Islands may be a significant source of A. millepora larvae for the Palawan reefs (Philippines) and some of the most isolated reefs of the South China Sea; and (2) the relatively isolated western Spratly Islands have limited source reefs supplying them with larvae and fewer of their larvae successfully settling on other reefs. Examination of particle dispersal without biology (settlement and mortality) suggests that larval connectivity is possible throughout the South China Sea and into the Coral Triangle region. Strong differences in the spring versus fall larval connectivity and dispersal highlight the need for a greater understanding of spawning dynamics of the region. This study confirms that the Spratly Islands are likely an important source of larvae for the South China Sea and Coral Triangle region.

  11. Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys Terrapin Littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    North Deer Island South Deer Island Virginia Point TEXAS LOCATION MAP Area enlarged Nueces Bay Baffin Bay Corpus Christi Laguna Madre GU LF... TEXAS Galveston Bay GU LF OF ME XI CO In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys...SURVEY Open-File Report 03–022 In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Austin, Texas 2003 ii U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Gale A

  12. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, Atlantic Islands. Volume 3. Area 17 - Tierra del Fuego, Area 18 - Falkland Islands, Area 19 -South Georgia, Area 20 - Tristan da Cunha Group, Area 21 - Trindade, Area 22 - St. Helena, Area 23 - Ascension, Area 24 - St. Peter and Paul Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    0 17.5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 FACE »21 »TW* ■■’■ "■ IIUI" »E«ICD! fOVE«-«LO 1963-1970 JANUARY TABLE 18 (CONTi IKEA 0021 TOINDADE...DIRECTION VIPSuS SE4 HEIGHTS IFTl IKEA 0024 ST, PETER AND PAUL ROCKS ,6N 29.3» s iu HGT 1-3 4-10 11-21 22-33 34-47 41« PCT 1...l". - L ■■■’■■’ • ’ " wwm PEIKOl iQVER-»LLI IS’OS-l1»?» I SFPTEMBfR TABLE 16 (CDNT1 IKEA 002« ST. PETER AND PAUL RCfKS

  13. Geomorphic settings of mangrove ecosystem in South Andaman Island: A geospatial approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Yuvaraj; K Dharanirajan; S Jayakumar; Saravanan

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves are habitats in the coasts of tropics and subtropics, hence the geomorphology of the coast prevails in both the ocean and the land processes. To study the geomorphic setting of mangroves, it is necessary to explore both the topography of the land and the bathymetry of the sea. In this study, the geomorphic setting of mangroves in the South Andaman Island has been studied in detail using remote sensing and GIS technology. The ortho-rectified IRS satellite image was used to identify and to map the mangroves and the associated features using the visual interpretation technique. Using the GIS technique, topographic and bathymetric DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) were created to understand the geomorphology and its influence on the mangrove ecosystem. This DEM was interpreted with mangrove distribution and its associated features to create the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) of the mangrove ecosystem. Topography and bathymetry of the coast result in three dominant features like rivers, tides and waves, which play a role in shaping the geomorphic settings of mangroves, which are classified into five major types. In this study, it is identified that all the five categories of major geomorphic settings of the mangrove community exist in the south Andaman. In the field surveys, ground truth of topographic elevation, mangrove species, and associated coastal land cover features were identified and confirmed in these geomorphic settings. It is concluded that topography and bathymetry settings of the island play an indispensable role in this fragile mangrove ecosystem.

  14. Offshore Brackish Water Resources in Hong Kong: A Case Study on Lantau Island South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, H. T.; Jiao, J. J.; Chan, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Paleo-fluvial deposits associated with Quaternary sea level low stands have been recognized in Hong Kong waters. An integrated geophysical and hydrochemical approach is adopted to study these sand and gravel deposits, which are likely to constitute regional offshore aquifers and hold brackish paleo-waters. Marine seismic reflection profiles from Lantau Island South, are studied to depict the three-dimensional configuration of the subsurface aquifer-aquitard system. Sedimentological evidence and geophysical properties of an offshore vibrocore drilled south of Lantua Island show a three-fold sequence, with two upper marine layers and a lowermost oxidized terrestrial layer. The shifts of depositional environments are attributed to the Holocene sea level rise. Hydrochemical analysis of the porewater from the core samples indicates the presence of brackish water in the lowermost layer and possible diffusion transport. High ammonium levels in porewater and acoustic turbidity in seismic profiles are resulted from biogenic activities. This study provides preliminary information for feasibility study on exploiting submarine waters as an alternative water resource in Hong Kong.

  15. Coral Reef Recovery Status in South Andaman Islands after the Bleaching Event 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Marimuthu; J. Jerald Wilson; N.V. Vinithkumar; R. Kirubagaran

    2013-01-01

    The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the Union Territories of India,located in the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal.In 2010 summer,the increment in sea surface water temperature (up to 34℃) resulted in the bleaching of about 74% to 77% of corals in the South Andaman.During this event,coral species such as Acropora cerealis,A.humilis,Montipora sp.,Favia pallida,Diploastrea sp.,Goniopora sp.Fungia concinna,Gardineroseries sp.,Porites sp.,Favites abdita and Lobophyllia robusta were severely affected.This study is to assess the recovery status of the reef ecosystem by estimating the percentage of Live Coral cover,Bleached coral cover,Dead coral with algae,Rubble,Sandy fiat,Algal assemblage and other associated organisms.The sedimentation rate (mg cm-2 d-1) and coral coverage (%) were assessed during this study period.The average sedimentation rate was ranged between 0.27 and 0.89mg cm-2 d-1.The observed post bleaching recovery of coral cover was 21.1% at Port Blair Bay and 13.29% at Havelock Island.The mortality rate of coral cover due to this bleaching was estimated as 2.05% at Port Blair Bay and 9.82% at Havelock Island.Once the sea water temperature resumed back to the normal condition,most of the corals were found recovered.

  16. Middle to late Holocene coastal evolution along the south coast of Upolu Island, Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, I.D.; Grossman, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphic surveys and sedimentological analyses of coastal sediments and reef cores along the south coast of Upolu Island, Samoa, reveal that during the middle Holocene this coast was characterised by barrier spits, open lagoons, and estuaries. These estuarine systems matured during the late Holocene, with progressive sedimentation and inlet closure, leading to the dominance of mangrove swamps in the past 1000 years. Contemporaneous with the transition of open estuaries to mangrove swamps was the aggradation and progradation of coastal plains. The coastal progradation since 700-1000 years BP is best explained by increased sediment availability and reduced incident wave energy at the shore resulting from the shallowing and subsequent cessation of reef crest accretion following the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand ca. ???4500 yr BP. A small relative sea-level (RSL) lowering since 700-1000 years may have contributed to the positive sediment budget. This study highlights the need for island-wide coastal surveys to assess the relative roles of RSL, sediment budgets, and hydrodynamics on coastal evolution and stability. Differences in coastal evolution around Upolu Island may also be influenced by differential tectonic movements associated with late Holocene volcanism, coseismicity, and/ or submarine landslides. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coral reef recovery status in south Andaman Islands after the bleaching event 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, N.; Jerald Wilson, J.; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the Union Territories of India, located in the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal. In 2010 summer, the increment in sea surface water temperature (up to 34°C) resulted in the bleaching of about 74% to 77% of corals in the South Andaman. During this event, coral species such as Acropora cerealis, A. humilis, Montipora sp., Favia pallida, Diploastrea sp., Goniopora sp. Fungia concinna, Gardineroseries sp., Porites sp., Favites abdita and Lobophyllia robusta were severely affected. This study is to assess the recovery status of the reef ecosystem by estimating the percentage of Live Coral cover, Bleached coral cover, Dead coral with algae, Rubble, Sandy flat, Algal assemblage and other associated organisms. The sedimentation rate (mg cm-2 d-1) and coral coverage (%) were assessed during this study period. The average sedimentation rate was ranged between 0.27 and 0.89 mg cm-2 d-1. The observed post bleaching recovery of coral cover was 21.1% at Port Blair Bay and 13.29% at Havelock Island. The mortality rate of coral cover due to this bleaching was estimated as 2.05% at Port Blair Bay and 9.82% at Havelock Island. Once the sea water temperature resumed back to the normal condition, most of the corals were found recovered.

  18. Bryozoan diversity around the Falkland and South Georgia Islands: Overcoming Antarctic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, Blanca; Barnes, David K A; Brickle, Paul; Brewin, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    There are a number of remote archipelagos distributed between 45 and 60 °S. The biota of these islands provide useful information to describe and understand patterns in biodiversity and biogeography as well as potential impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. They are in key locations either side of the Polar Front but also have limited influence from human activities. Here we investigate one taxon, bryozoans, on South Atlantic shelf habitats of the Falkland (FI) and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (SG). We present new data on spatial distribution in these islands, as well as an analysis of the bryozoological similarities between these and neighbouring regions. A total of 85 species of cheilostome bryozoans (351 samples) were found, belonging to 33 genera, including 18 potentially new genera and 23 new species. Remarkably 65% and 41% of species were reported for the first time at FI and SG, respectively. The highest and the lowest value of species richness and species/genus ratio were found at East (EFI) and West Falkland (WFI), respectively, likely showing a tendency for stronger intrageneric competition. New data from this study were jointly analysed with data from the literature and existing databases, revealing new bathymetric ranges in 32 species. The biogeographic affinities of the bryozoans found give further evidence of the hypothesis of sequential separation of Gondwana and support the changing concept that although the Polar Front acts as a circumpolar biogeographic barrier it is not as impermeable as originally thought. Potential dispersal mechanisms are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  20. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-09-09

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.

  1. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsting, A.M.H.; Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to

  2. First record of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina from Rhodes Island, south- eastern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection of one specimen of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina of tropical Atlantic origin was for the first time found in an area of south eastern Aegean Sea. This record may indicate a recent establishment of the species on the coasts of Rhodes Island and a possible expansion of it on the coastal rocky habitats.

  3. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to footpat

  4. Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    publication of The Army Wife Handbook.92 In spite of the author’s attempt to downplay the stereotyped title, it clearly portrays the role of women ...CULTURAL CRISIS? AN ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUES AFFECTING THE ASCENSION OF WOMEN IN THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY A thesis presented to the...To) AUG 2013 – JUNE 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cultural Crisis? An Analysis of the Issues Affecting the Ascension of Women in the Australian

  5. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites in Chinstrap Penguins from Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, V; Ortiz, J; Diaz, J I; de Ybañez, M R Ruiz; Amat, M T; Palacios, M J; Benzal, J; Valera, F; de la Cruz, C; Motas, M; Barbosa, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge about parasites of Antarctic birds is fragmented and scarce. The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) from Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 64 fresh dead individuals (61 chicks and three adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2009 and examined for macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: two Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi and Tetrabothrius pauliani) and one Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes). Also, immature acanthocephalans (Corynosoma sp.) were found in one penguin. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of the host species. False negatives were found in coprological studies.

  7. Observations on ca. 175-year old human remains from Antarctica (Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D

    1999-04-01

    Information is presented on human remains from Antarctica and the circumstances under which they were found at Cape Shirreff (62 degrees 27' S., 60 degrees 47' W.), Livingston Island, South Shetlands. Support is given to the hypothesis that all the recovered bones belonged to the same person. A thorough anthropometric analysis revealed that the skull belonged to a mestizo female, 21 years of age, who may have hailed from the Chilean southern channels and whose arrival to Antarctica was possible aboard a sealer boat. Death appears to have occurred in the Antarctic during the sealing period (1819-1825). Signs of nutritional stress, anaemia, and an external otitis were identified. It is intended to use DNA analyses to prove that the femurs recovered in 1988 and 1993 belonged to the same person whose skull was found at Cape Shirreff in 1985.

  8. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  9. 3-D Computational Modelling of Oblique Continental Collision near South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    The research explores the highly oblique continental convergence at the South Island of New Zealand, considering the fundamental geodynamic mechanisms of sub-crustal lithospheric deformation during the orogenesis. In addition to the high velocity of along-strike plate motion, the oppositely verging subduction zones bounding the collision make the problem inherently three-dimensional. To study such factors during orogenesis, we conduct 3D computational modelling and present the results of a series of new experiments configured for the oblique South Island collision. The geodynamic modelling uses ASPECT - a robust highly-scalable and extendable geodynamic code featuring adaptive mesh refinement and complex rheologies. The model domain is defined by a box with prescribed velocities on the left and right faces with varied ratio of convergent versus strike-slip components, periodic boundary conditions for the front and back faces, free surface on top, and free slip at the bottom. Two different rheology types are used: brittle (pressure-, strain rate-, and material strength-dependent) for crust and visco-plastic (temperature-, pressure- and strain rate-dependent) for mantle. The obtained results provide insight into the behaviour of the lithosphere under the situation of young oblique convergence. We focus on the development of the mantle lithosphere, considering how the morphology of the sub-crustal orogenic root evolves during the convergent/strike-slip plate motions. The numerical experiments explore the dependence of this process on such factors as ratio of convergent versus strike-slip motion at the plate boundary, and rheological parameters of crust and mantle. The behaviour of the crust is also tracked to determine how the deep 3D tectonics may manifest at the surface.

  10. Estimation of lost tourism revenue in Geoje Island from the 2011 marine debris pollution event in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-04-15

    Following a period of heavy rainfall in July 2011, a large amount of marine debris was washed up on the beaches of Geoje Island, South Korea, affecting the island's tourism industry. The tourism revenue decreased due to this pollution event and was estimated by multiplying the decreased number of visitors by the average expenditure of visitors to the beaches. Due to the fact that the visitor count at the Island's beaches decreased from 890,435 in 2010 to 330,207 in 2011 (i.e., a reduction of 560,228 persons, 63%), the tourism revenue loss of the island was estimated to be US$29-37 million. This study is one of the few to consider the economic effects of marine debris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  12. Millennial mercury records derived from ornithogenic sediment on Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yan; Yuhong Wang; Wenhan Cheng; Liguang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two omithogenic sediment cores,which have a time span of 1000 years and are influenced by red-footed booby (Sula sula),were collected from Dongdao Islands,South China Sea.The determined mercury concentrations of the two cores show similar and substantial fluctuations during the past millennium,and the fluctuations are most likely caused by the changes in mercury level of the ocean environment and in anthropogenic Hg emission.For the past 500 years,the mercury concentration in the red-footed booby excrement has a striking association with global anthropogenic mercury emission.The mercury concentration increased rapidly after AD 1600 in corresponding to beginning of the unparalleled gold and silver mining in South Central America that left a large volume of anthropogenic mercury pollution.Since the Industrial Revolution,the mercury level has increased at a fast pace,very likely caused by modern coal combustion,chlor-alkali and oil refining industries.The comparison of mercury profiles from different places on earth suggested that anthropogenic mercury pollution after the Industrial Revolution is more severe in Northern Hemisphere than in Antarctica.

  13. Modern microbialites and their environmental significance, Meiji reef atoll, Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN JianWei; WANG Yue

    2008-01-01

    Meiji (Mischief) coral atoll, in Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea, consists of an annular reef rim surrounding a central lagoon. On the atoll rim there are either protuberant 'motu' (small coral patch reefs on the rim of atoll) islets or lower sandy cays that contain modern microbialite deposits on the corals in pinnacles and surrounding bottoms of the atoll. Microbialites, including villiform, hairy, and thin spine growth forms, as well as gelatinous masses, mats and encruststion, developed on coral colonies and atoll rim sediments between 0 and 15 m deep-water settings. The microbialites were produced by natural populations of filamentous cyanobacteria and grew on (1) bulbous corals together with Acropora sp., (2) on massive colonies of Galaxea fascicularis, (3) on dead Montipora digitata, and (4) on dead Acropora teres, some hairy microbialite growing around broken coral branches. This study demonstrates that microbial carbonates are developed in coral reefs of South China Sea and indicates that microbial processes may be important in the construction of modern reef systems. The results have significance in the determination of nature and composition in microorganisms implied in the formation ancient microbialites, and permit evaluation of the importance of microbial deposits in modern coral reefs and of 'microbialites' in biogeochemical cycles of modern coral reef systems. The results also provide evidence of modern analogues for ancient microbialites in shallow-water settings, and combine with sedimentological studies of ancient microbialites to understand their controls.

  14. Climate signals in Late Holocene sediments from Maxwell Bay and English Strait (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Schröder, Simon; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Climate fluctuations of the past two millennia such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period are reported mainly from the Northern Hemisphere. Evidence from Antarctica is comparably sparse and reveals regional and temporal differences, which are particularly evident at the western and eastern sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. High-resolution coastal-marine sediment cores from the northernmost tip of the West Antarctic Peninsula reveal periods dominated by finer sediments between periods that lack the finer sediment component. In Maxwell Bay this fine sediment (grain size mode around 16 µm) has been traced back to sediment related to the occurrence of glacial meltwater. It was found in sheltered places and meltwater creeks of Potter Cove, a small tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. In the sediment core this sediment occurs predominantly between 600 and 1250 AD (Medieval Warm Period) whereas it is only sparsely affecting the record between 1450 and 1900 AD (Little Ice Age). The temporal pattern is very similar to global-temperature reconstructions and even resembles temperature reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere. To avoid local effects that may occur in Maxwell Bay more sediment cores were taken from bays and straits further south of King George Island during Cruise PS97 of RV "Polarstern" in 2016. A core from English Strait reveals completely different sedimentary conditions with no detectable meltwater signal (16 µm). However, the mean grain size record resembles that of the cores from Maxwell Bay. The lack of a clear-cut meltwater sediment class as it occurs further north is likely the result of a much smaller hinterland (Greenwich and Robert islands) when compared to Maxwell Bay between Nelson Island and the much bigger King George Island where glaciers and ice sheets discharge large quantities of very turbid meltwater directly into the bay. It is concluded that during the warmer climate periods a large amount of meltwater was released along the

  15. Impacts of earthquake on atoll in Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Zhan, Wenhuan; Xiong, Lijia; Chen, Wujin; Yao, Yantao; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Coral reef is a kind of rock soil masses. It is a special marine geotechnical medium, which are made up of the reef coral debris undergo very long geological age. Atoll is the predominant type of coral reefs in South China Sea. In recent years, there are more and more construction projects on the reef flat in Nansha Islands, South China Sea. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the stability of coral reefs, especially the atolls. According to the geological structure characters of atoll in Nansha Islands, a model of reef body is presented in this paper to study the influence of earthquake. Meanwhile, Geostudio, which is a popular geotechnical engineering simulation software, is used to stimulate the stress and deformation situation of reef body under different six kinds of earthquake intensity. The factor of safety can be calculated by the limit equilibrium method. And the possible scenario of earthquake-induced landslides and sliding scale can be defined through the Newmark sliding block method. The stress distribution and deformation behavior are studied. The main relations between atoll and earthquake are analyzed as follows: (1) the safety factor of reef slope exceeds 1.993 under self-gravity state; (2) It may cause slope's instability and bring slumping when the safety factor is less than one. The factor of safety decreases with increased earthquake intensity and it may fluctuate around a particular value when earthquake intensity continues to increase; (3) The smaller shallow landslide as new developed part of the reef is subject to collapse under earthquake action and the bigger slope of reef is more stable. The results show that it is feasible to evaluate the stability of coral reef by using geotechnical engineering simulation method, which can help to provide some information for construction on coral reefs in South China Sea. In the meantime,the authers wish to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.41376063)and the National

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  20. Three-dimensional lithospheric deformation and gravity anomalies associated with oblique continental collision in South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherwath, Martin; Stern, Tim; Davey, Fred; Davies, Rob

    2006-11-01

    Isostatic considerations exhibit differences between the northern, central and southern parts of the Pacific-Australian plate collision in South Island, New Zealand. In the northern part mean elevations are moderate and the gravity low is small; the central part contains the highest elevations, and gravity and elevations correspond to each other relatively well; and in the southern part the gravity low is strongest whereas the mean elevations are moderate again. These differences indicate changes in the character of the isostatic compensation and are explained by increased thickening and widening of the crustal root from north to south, and also by the long wavelength gravity response to a mantle density anomaly that increases towards the south. A simple 3-D gravity model is derived that includes the detailed crustal structures from the South Island GeopHysical Transect (SIGHT) experiment as well as a high-density anomaly in the mantle inferred from teleseismic data. The model indicates that cold and, therefore, dense upper mantle material penetrates the asthenosphere to a greater extent in the south, similar to the behaviour of an apparently highly ductile lower crust. As plate reconstruction suggests more lithospheric shortening in the north, our model corresponds to lithospheric material escaping laterally to the south, almost perpendicular to the compression caused by lithospheric shortening of the mantle. Therefore, in addition to the prevailing mantle shear in New Zealand, there may also be a component of extrusional mantle creep beneath the Southern Alps orogen, which could have caused some of the observed large seismic anisotropy in this region. We may have also found evidence for submerged Eocene-Miocene oceanic lithosphere beneath the southeastern part of South Island that has been unaccounted for after plate reconstruction.

  1. Coral cover as a proxy of disturbance: A case study of the biodiversity of the hermatypic corals in Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui; LIAN Jiansheng; HUANG Xiaoping; HUANG Liangmin; ZOU Renlin; WANG Daoru

    2006-01-01

    The Yongxing Island is the biggest island of Xisha Islands in the middle part of the South China Sea. It occupies 1.8 square kilometers of land area and has permanent residence on it. There are only a few papers on the coral community of the Xisha Islands, reporting the species composition,structure and zonations of the hermatypic coral community in 1970s. The present study describes the hermatypic coral community based on the quadrat survey after almost 30 years in Yongxing Island in August 2002. It was the first time to present the percent cover data of live corals of Yongxing Island via a systematic scheme of quantitative quadrat sampling.The average total percent cover of the live coral is 68.4%. We found the total percent cover (TPC) could be an idea proxy of the overall disturbance regime impinging on the coral community. TPC can be used as an integrated measure of disturbance to coral reef.Using this surrogate, the best fit relation between TPC of the live corals and species richness, species diversity, or the species evenness is the unimodal second-order polymorphic parabola equation. This result is expected by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). From the fitted parabola equations,we calculated the best TPCs corresponding to the maximal species richness, the highest species diversity, or the most evenness respectively. They are surprisingly stabilized between 55% and 58%. Coral cover is the basic parameter widely available for most observation, research or monitoring programs.The good qualitative characteristics of percent cover provide powerful tool for the experimental, theoretical and modeling studies of coral reef in response to the disturbance.

  2. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils.

  3. Heavy Metal Distributions and Source Tracing in the Lacustrine Sediments of Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaodong; SUN Liguang; YIN Xuebin; WANG Yuhong

    2008-01-01

    The levels and depth distributions of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, Fe and Mn in two sediment cores DY2 and DY4 collected from the "Cattle Pond" of Dongdao Island, South China Sea, were determined and analyzed with the main objective to identify the sources of these elements and evaluate the corresponding sedimentological and geochemical processes. Lithological characters and sedimentary parameters such as LOI, CaO, LOI and TOC indicate that the depth of 96 cm and 87 cm are the critical points for DY2 and DY4 cores, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and P are remarkably enriched in the ornithogenic sediments above the critical depth points; their concentration-versus-depth profiles are similar to those of TOC and LOI; the ratios of As, Cd, Cu,Zn, Hg over Ca are significantly correlated with P/Ca. Statistical and comparative analyses of these elements' levels in the ornithogenic sediments of DY2 and DY4 strongly suggest that seabird droppings are the main source of these elements. Additionally, for the upper sediment layers of DY2 and DY4 cores, Fe oxide sorption mechanism, like organic matter, may also play an important role in the abundances of heavy metals. Heavy metal Pb has geochemical characteristics distinctly different from those of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and P, and its isotope composition indicates an origin of anthropogenic emissions from the surrounding countries. These geochemical characteristics in the orinithogenic sediments of Xisha Islands are compared with the studies in the remote Antarctic and Arctic regions.

  4. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC, Apartado 202, Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es; Soto, J. [Dpt. Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda, Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n. 39011 Santander (Spain); Lopez-Martinez, J. [Dpt. Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma, de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter.

  5. First LiDAR images of the Alpine Fault, central South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R. M.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N.; de Pascale, G. P.; Sutherland, R.; Farrier, T.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the principal component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. The fault typically accommodates slip rates of the order of ~27-29 mm/yr (dextral) and up to 6-11 mm/yr (reverse), mostly uplifting Pacific plate rocks that form the Southern Alps. However, the associated high relief, rapid uplift and erosion and high rainfall and accompanying dense temperate rainforest along the western side of the island has typically hampered geological efforts to better understand the neotectonics of the Alpine fault. LiDAR data have been acquired over a 34 km stretch of the fault between Whataroa in the northeast and Franz Josef in the southwest to test the viability of this technique under dense vegetation and in steep, dissected terrain. LiDAR has been collected from a fixed wing base (1300m above ground level) at a frequency of 70k Hz, with 33.5 Hz scan frequency and a 39° field of view. We employed a strategy of flying a dense pattern of 6 flight lines across a swath width of 1.3 km. This creates areas of both single and double overlap coverage that have allowed for accurate landscape models to be created. Results show that this strategy has provided an optimum level of forest penetration and ground returns. Initial results show remarkable level of detail in DEM’s of the landscape along the Alpine fault. Examples of results presented here include: Franz Josef, where the fault traverses the township; and Gaunt Creek, where a Deep Fault Drilling Project will be sited in early 2011.

  6. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  7. Coral communities of the remote atoll reefs in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G

    2013-09-01

    During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding coral reef communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian coral check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, coral cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average coral cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive corals were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole coral community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total coral cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, coral communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and coral cover. Spatial pattern of coral communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean coral cover was highest in the patch reef within the lagoon, followed by the fore reef slope, reef flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total coral cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the reef flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch reef. Coral cover in the fore reef revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore reef slope had higher coral cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (coral communities of the inner reef flat were characterized by higher coral cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora corals, while lower coral cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer reef flat. Destructive fishing and coral bleaching were two major threats to coral communities

  8. Quaternary vegetation and climate changes on Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, J. M.; Moar, N. T.; Shulmeister, J.; Wilson, H. D.; Carter, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    Late Quaternary terrestrial and marine pollen records from the Canterbury Plains and Banks Peninsula suggest that climates during the peak of Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7) were similar to those prevailing during stage 5e and the Holocene. Podocarp forest (notably Prumnopitys taxifolia—matai) characterises each interglaciation. In contrast, marine records from DSDP 594 cores, off the east coast of Canterbury, indicate that stage 7 was dominated by montane forest ( Libocedrus sp. and Phyllocladus). This suggests temperatures as much as 3 °C colder than indicated by the Banks Peninsula assemblage. Age control from both sites appears to be robust. Some of the differences may be related to the taphonomy of the pollen at both sites. DSDP 594 may reflect a more southerly catchment of fluvially and aeolian-derived pollen than does the Banks Peninsula site. Banks Peninsula was alternately separated from, and joined to, the mainland as Quaternary sea levels fell and rose. Assuming modern ocean current patterns, during interglacials the south-north Southland Current would have swept through the seaway separating the island from the mainland, diverting the flow of rivers embouching on the Canterbury coast, and moving sediments and fluvially transported pollen northwards. Little of this material would have reached DSDP 594, nor, if wind patterns were similar to those of today, would wind-borne pollen from Banks Peninsula have reached the site. It is probable that vegetation on the Peninsula was consistently distinct from that recorded at DSDP 594, which has a more southerly derivation. In contrast to the high mountain areas of the South Island, the low levels of grass pollen in the available record suggest that the Peninsula retained a woody vegetation over much of its area during glacial periods. This was favoured by the physiography of the area, with a variety of micro-climates, and by the extensive areas available for colonisation at times of low sea level. The podocarp

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  10. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  11. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  12. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  13. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Bathymetry of St. John (South Shore - Area 1), US Virgin Islands, 2004, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the south shore of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Due to the large file...

  14. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS.

  16. Report on Pontoniinae shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) collected by Joint Chinese German Marine Biology Expeditions to Hainan Island, South China Sea Ⅱ.Harpiliopsis, Ischnopontonia, Jocaste, Palaemonella, Periclimenaeus, Periclimenella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新正; 刘瑞玉

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports 9 species of pontoniine shrimps collected from Hainan Island, South China Sea, by the Joint Chinese German Marine Biology Expeditions, in which, Periclimenaeus arabicus (Calman, 1939) and Periclimenaeus hecate (Nobili, 1904) are recorded for the first time from Hainan Island.

  17. Correlation of coral fluorescence with nearshore rainfall and runoff in Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Under UV-laser excitation, the Porites coral from Longwan bay waters, Hainan Island, could emit yellow-green fluorescence. After fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity (FI) of the coral with the rainfall (RF) in nearshore area of Qionghai, a good relationship between FI and RF was found with a linear formula of RF =889-4.54 FI and a correlation coefficient of 0.78. Based on this formula, the rainfall sequence from 1982 to 1997 has been reconstructed. The peak annual rainfall is usually related to global El'nino events. By fitting the data of the fluorescent intensity and the runoff (RO), a quadric formula was obtained as RO=-0.0279FI2-18.59 FI-950.9 with a correlation coefficient of 0.74.The reconstructed runoff sequence from 1982 to 1997 coincided with the rainfall occurrence. The results indicate that flood and drought incidents in coastal areas of the south China are affected by global change to a great extent.

  18. South West Indian Ocean islands tomato begomovirus populations represent a new major monopartite begomovirus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatte, Hélène; Martin, Darren P; Naze, Florence; Goldbach, Rob; Reynaud, Bernard; Peterschmitt, Michel; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2005-05-01

    Biological and molecular properties of Tomato leaf curl Madagascar virus isolates from Morondova and Toliary (ToLCMGV-[Tol], -[Mor]), Tomato leaf curl Mayotte virus isolates from Dembeni and Kahani (ToLCYTV-[Dem], -[Kah]) and a Tomato yellow leaf curl virus isolate from Reunion (TYLCV-Mld[RE]) were determined. Full-length DNA components of the five isolates from Madagascar, Mayotte and Reunion were cloned and sequenced and, with the exception of ToLCMGV-[Tol], were shown to be both infectious in tomato and transmissible by Bemisia tabaci. Sequence analysis revealed that these viruses had genome organizations of monopartite begomoviruses and that both ToLCMGV and ToLCYTV belong to the African begomoviruses but represent a distinct monophyletic group that we have tentatively named the South West islands of the Indian Ocean (SWIO). All of the SWIO isolates examined were apparently complex recombinants. None of the sequences within the recombinant regions closely resembled that of any known non-SWIO begomovirus, suggesting an isolation of these virus populations.

  19. Reef coral δ15O thermometer in Hainan island waters,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-long (1981-1998) study was conducted in Hainan Island wa ters (22°20'N, 110°39′E) to determine the relationship between δ18O in skeletal arag onite carbonate and sea surface temperature (SST) in porites lutea of reef-building corals. δ18O values in skeletal aragonite carbonate were measured by means of mass spectrometry. Coral samples grew at 5m depth at Longwan Bay. Monthly measure ments of the SST from 1960 to 1998 were taken at Qinglan Bay adjacent to the place of the collected samples. The thermometer shows that SST=-4.16 δ18OpDB + 4.9 (r=0.80) and dδ18O/dT=-0.24 permil/°C. The δ18O thermometer is strongly influ enced by the rainfall and runoff. Using the thermometer, the SST in the past hundred years with monthly resolution will be reconstructed and the climatic change in the northern area of South China Sea will be hindcasted

  20. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Liqiang [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Center, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liu Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: > Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. > This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. > The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. > Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  1. Analysis of recent surface deformation at Ischia Island Volcano (South Italy) via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; De Martino, Prospero; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Dolce, Mario; Scarpato, Giovanni; Tizzani, Pietro; Zinno, Ivana; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Ischia Island is a densely populated volcanic area located in the North-Western sector of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), whose activity is characterized by eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302 A.D.), earthquakes (the most disastrous ones occurred in 1881 and in 1883), fumarolic-hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we carry out the surface deformation time-series analysis occurring at the Island by jointly exploiting data collected via two different monitoring systems. In particular, we take advantage from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the GPS (campaign and permanent) stations deployed on the Island and belonging to the INGV-OV monitoring network. Moreover, we benefit from the large, free and open archive of C-band SAR data acquired over the Island by the Sentinel-1 constellation of the Copernicus Program, and processed via the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm [Berardino et al., 2002]. We focus on the 2014-2017 time period to analyze the recent surface deformation phenomena occurring on the Island, thus extending a previous study, aimed at investigating the temporal evolution of the ground displacements affecting the Island and limited to the 1992-2003 time interval [Manzo et al., 2006]. The performed integrated analysis provides relevant spatial and temporal information on the Island surface deformation pattern. In particular, it reveals a rather complex deformative scenario, where localized phenomena overlap/interact with a spatially extended deformation pattern that involves many Island sectors, with no evidence of significant uplift phenomena. Moreover, it shows a good agreement and consistency between the different kinds of data, thus providing a clear picture of the recent dynamics at Ischia Island that can be profitably exploited to deeply investigate the physical processes behind the observed

  2. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  3. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  4. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the

  5. The vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Cold Period, northern South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, S. Louise; Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Smith, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Pollen assemblages from Howard Valley, South Island, New Zealand, were used to reconstruct the palaeovegetation and infer past climate during the period ca 38-21 cal. ka, which encompasses the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3/2 transition and Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP). A glacier occupied the upper Howard Valley during the Last Glacial, whilst extensive glaciofluvial outwash surfaces were constructed in the lower valley. Episodic periods of fluvial aggradation and incision have produced a complex sequence of terraces flanking the main Howard River and its tributaries. Sedimentary sequences from three exposed valley fills, sampled for palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating, consist of a complex vertical and lateral arrangement of coarse textured cobbly sandy gravels interbedded with organic-rich silt deposits. Palynology of these organic-rich horizons was directly compared to an existing beetle record from these same horizons. During late MIS 3 the site was dominated by marshy shrubland vegetation interspersed with mixed beech forest, indicating temperatures ˜2-3 °C cooler than present. Climate cooling began as early as 35.7 cal. ka and coincides with evidence of cooling from other sites in New Zealand, South America and with an Antarctic cooling signature. A three phase vegetation and inferred climate pattern occurs at the site during the LGCP beginning with a transition to an alpine/sub-alpine grassland comparable to communities growing near treeline today marking the change to glacial conditions before 31 cal. ka. A small increase in tree abundance between ca 25.8 and 22.7 cal. ka suggests minor climate amelioration during the mid-LGCP. During this phase, a possible volcanically induced vegetation disruption caused by the deposition of the Kawakawa Tephra at 25 cal. ka is evident in the pollen record. This is followed by a further decline in tree pollen and increase in alpine grassland and herb pollen indicating further deterioration of conditions and a

  6. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  7. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in coastal sediment from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zijun Wu; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Nan Jia; Yuhong Wang; Linxi Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The concentrations of CH4, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, CO2 and the carbon isotope compositions of CO2 and CH4 in the pore-water of the GS sedimentary core collected from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea,were determined. The methane concentration in the pore-water shows dramatic changes and sulfate concentration gradients are linear at the base of the sulfate reduction zone for the station. The carbon isotope of methane becomes heavier at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT)likely because of the Raleigh distillation effect; 12CH4 was oxidized faster than 13CH4 and this caused the enrichment of residual methane 13C and 13C- CO2 minimum. The geochemical profiles of the pore-water support the existence of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which is mainly controlled by the quality and quantity of the sedimentary organic matter. As inferred from the index of 13C-TOC value and TOC/TN ratio, the organic matter is a mix of mainly refractory terrestrial component plus some labile alga marine-derived in the study area. A large amount of labile organic matter (mainly labile alga marine-derived) is consumed via the process of sedimentary organic matter diagenesis, and this reduces the amount of labile organic matter incorporated into the base of the sulfate reduction zone. Due to the scarcity of labile organic matter, the sulfate will in turn be consumed by its reaction with methane and therefore AOM takes place.Based on a diffussion model, the portion of pore-water sulfate reduction via AOM is 58.6%,and the percentage of CO2 in the pore-water derived from AOM is 41.4%. Thus, AOM plays an important role in the carbon and sulfur cycling in the marine sediments of Pearl River Estuary.

  8. Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated From Seawater, Je-bu island, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Hwan; Lee, Sang Seob

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile and aerobic strain, designated JB22(T), was isolated from seawater, Je-bu Island, South Korea. Strain JB22(T) was catalase and oxidase positive. Optimal growth of JB22(T) was observed at 30 °C and pH 7.0. NaCl tolerance range was 1-9 % (w/v) with an optimum of 2.0 % concentration. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JB22(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to those of Pelagicola litorisediminis D1-W8(T) (95.8 %), Roseovarius litoreus GSW-M15(T) (95.2 %), Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.0 %), Donghicola eburmeus SW-277(T) (95.0 %), and Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (94.9 %). It contained ubiquine-10 as the major respiratory quinone and C18:1 ω7c (69.3 %), :0 (9.9 %), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl (9.6 %) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of the strain JB22(T) was 47 mol  %. Based on physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JB22(T) should be regarded as a new genus of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JB22(T) (= KEMB 3001-101(T) = JCM 30822(T)).

  9. Phosphorus speciation and availability in sediments off the eastern coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Su-Mei; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Surface and core sediments were collected off the eastern coast of Hainan Island (South China Sea), and a sequential extraction method (SEDEX) was used to separate and quantify five sedimentary phosphorus (P) reservoirs: exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic P (Ca-P), detrital P (De-P) and organic P (OP). Total P (TP) in the surface and core sediments ranged from 7.96 to 22.34 μmol g-1, and was dominated by inorganic P (IP). De-P and Ca-P were the main chemical species of P in surface and core sediments. The distribution of the P species in surface and core sediments was governed by various factors, including terrigenous input, biological processes, Fe oxides/hydroxides, organic matter degradation, and sediment grain size. The organic carbon (OC)/OP ratio ranged from 37 to 293 (average, 107±58) in surface sediments, suggesting that the organic matter in sediments had been subject to degradation and comprised mostly refractory compounds. The OC/Preactive ratio (37-69) was relatively low in the core sediments, suggesting an excess of sedimentary reactive P compared with OC. The Fe/P ratio ranged from 2 to 19 in surface and core sediments, which indicates that the higher proportions of the crystalline phases occurred in estuarine areas relative to the offshore areas. The potential bioavailable P accounted for 20.3-54.2% of TP in the surface and core sediments.

  10. Rapid landscape transformation in South Island, New Zealand, following initial Polynesian settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWethy, David B; Whitlock, Cathy; Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt S; Fromont, Mairie; Li, Xun; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann; Hobbs, William O; Fritz, Sherilyn C; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. In the South Island of New Zealand, Polynesians (Māori), who arrived 700-800 calibrated years (cal y) ago, and then Europeans, who settled ∼150 cal y ago, used fire as a tool for forest clearance, but the structure and environmental consequences of these fires are poorly understood. High-resolution charcoal and pollen records from 16 lakes were analyzed to reconstruct the fire and vegetation history of the last 1,000 y. Diatom, chironomid, and element concentration data were examined to identify disturbance-related limnobiotic and biogeochemical changes within burned watersheds. At most sites, several high-severity fire events occurred within the first two centuries of Māori arrival and were often accompanied by a transformation in vegetation, slope stability, and lake chemistry. Proxies of past climate suggest that human activity alone, rather than unusually dry or warm conditions, was responsible for this increased fire activity. The transformation of scrub to grassland by Europeans in the mid-19th century triggered further, sometimes severe, watershed change, through additional fires, erosion, and the introduction of nonnative plant species. Alteration of natural disturbance regimes had lasting impacts, primarily because native forests had little or no previous history of fire and little resilience to the severity of burning. Anthropogenic burning in New Zealand highlights the vulnerability of closed-canopy forests to novel disturbance regimes and suggests that similar settings may be less resilient to climate-induced changes in the future.

  11. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Bandopadhyay; Biswajit Ghosh

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% Fe2O$^{\\text{t}}_{3}$+MgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% Fe2O$^{\\text{t}}_{3}$+MgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO–Na2O–K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O–SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan–Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  12. Multi-Modal Homing in Sea Turtles: Modeling Dual Use of Geomagnetic and Chemical Cues in Island-Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S; Putman, Nathan F; Ernst, David A; Kurth, Jessica A; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1) initiate a search strategy; or (2) follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands.

  13. Multi-modal homing in sea turtles: modeling dual use of geomagnetic and chemical cues in island-finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Endres

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1 initiate a search strategy; or (2 follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands.

  14. Abundance and size patterns of echinoderms in coastal soft-bottoms at Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Tuya, Fernando; Avila, Conxita

    2017-04-01

    Deception Island is an active volcano in Antarctic waters under high sedimentation regimes, which may affect the abundance and structure of soft-bottom assemblages. During the summer of 2012-2013, a survey of the shallow water soft-bottom assemblages of Deception Island was carried out to examine patterns of abundance and size structure of the three dominant echinoderms (Ophionotus victoriae, Sterechinus neumayeri and Odontaster validus) at 8 locations encompassing a gradient in proximity from the open ocean, including two depths (5 vs. 15 m) per location. Abundance patterns of the three species varied with depth; organisms were typically more abundant at 15 relative to 5 m depth. Our results partially supported the hypothesis that echinoderms from locations adjacent to the open ocean present larger abundances. Body sizes varied significantly among locations and depths for the three species and some places presented a density-size pattern. High sedimentation rates, combined with low ice-related disturbance, may be the reason behind the large abundances of echinoderms found in this waters.

  15. Methyl mercury concentrations in edible fish and shellfish from Dunedin, and other regions around the South Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Ashish K; Kim, Jonathan P; Furrell, Hamish; Bostock, Ben

    2015-12-15

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in edible fish and shellfish available in local markets in Dunedin, New Zealand. While most of the fish species were sourced in Dunedin, some specimens of fish were also collected from waters off Picton, around Stewart Island and also off-shore of the South Island in the Puysegur and Subantarctic regions. The concentrations of MeHg were analysed in 25 different fish species and shellfish (103 muscle tissue samples). Total mercury (HgT) levels were also analysed in a few (n=12) selected fish samples. Most of the Hg was in the form of MeHg (≥ 96%). Higher MeHg concentrations were found in fish at higher trophic levels, particularly in predatory fish species such as ling, school shark, spiny dogfish and albacore tuna. Concentrations of MeHg in all samples ranged from 0.002 to 2.515 μg MeHg/g.

  16. Morphological characterization of coral reefs by combining lidar and MBES data: A case study from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yang, Fanlin; Zhang, Hande; Su, Dianpeng; Li, QianQian

    2017-06-01

    The correlation between seafloor morphological features and biological complexity has been identified in numerous recent studies. This research focused on the potential for accurate characterization of coral reefs based on high-resolution bathymetry from multiple sources. A standard deviation (STD) based method for quantitatively characterizing terrain complexity was developed that includes robust estimation to correct for irregular bathymetry and a calibration for the depth-dependent variablity of measurement noise. Airborne lidar and shipborne sonar bathymetry measurements from Yuanzhi Island, South China Sea, were merged to generate seamless high-resolution coverage of coral bathymetry from the shoreline to deep water. The new algorithm was applied to the Yuanzhi Island surveys to generate maps of quantitive terrain complexity, which were then compared to in situ video observations of coral abundance. The terrain complexity parameter is significantly correlated with seafloor coral abundance, demonstrating the potential for accurately and efficiently mapping coral abundance through seafloor surveys, including combinations of surveys using different sensors.

  17. Gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species on the subantarctic island of South Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G McCracken

    Full Text Available Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae. One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence

  18. Ascension Island: The Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Kim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The ARM Climate Research Facility, a DOE scientific user facility, provides the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface.

  19. New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Tatur, Andrej

    2010-05-01

    New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica) Verkulich S. R. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Pushina Z.V. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Tatur A. (Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland) During the 2008-2009 austral summer, co-operative Russian - Polish paleogeographical investigations allowed to refine the understanding of the past environmental events at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Old marine deposits (ca. 30000 yrs BP) with shells, whale bones and marine algae in situ were found in the western coastal and northern inland territories at the altitudes of 20-40 m a.s.l. that evidences the covering of considerable part of the peninsula by relatively warm sea waters before the Last Glacial Maximum. Quite good preservation of these deposits supposes relatively small thickness and weak erosional potential of ice masses overlying the area during the LGM. The early Holocene phase of the peninsula deglaciation was caused by both climate warming and marine transgression, which left the deposits with fossil flora and fauna at heights up to 15 m a.s.l. (maximum rise of the relative sea-level 7000-8000 yrs BP). During the middle Holocene, glacier contraction in the area continued (on the whole) due to mainly favorable climatic conditions. The presence of marine and terrestrial deposit blocks (with shells, algae, mosses) in moraine ridges on the surface of Collins Ice Cap signifies that this glacier could vanish from the peninsula during climate optimum (ca. 4000-3000 yrs BP). The processes of new formation and growth of the ice cap started probably ca. 2000 yrs BP; within the last 1000 years the limited advance of the glacier occurred (likely corresponding to the Little Ice Age), and was replaced then by modern process of its decay.

  20. Colonization and demographic structure of Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis along an altitudinal gradient on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Vera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The colonization capacity and demographic structure of populations of Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis were studied in different microhabitats between 10 and 147 m a.s.l. on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, near the Spanish Antarctic base Juan Carlos I, in February 2002. At the highest site (147 m a.s.l., mean temperatures were about 1°C lower than at sea level. Both species are less common in inland areas and at the highest altitudes only occur at restricted sites that are frequently snow-free in the early austral summer. The diameters of the largest plants (C. quitensis cushions 7–8 cm; D. antarctica tufts 10–11 cm in the populations growing at the highest altitudes (110 and 147 m a.s.l. suggest that these populations were established about 24–28 years ago. The largest diameter plants (Deschampsia 20 cm; Colobanthus 18 cm were found at the lowest altitudes on deep soil. The presence of numerous seedlings and young individuals on the periphery of populations established several years ago or at recently colonized sites suggests an active process of expansion. There were more emerged seedlings of C. quitensis than of D. antarctica, but the density of established individuals was higher for D. antarctica, suggesting these species have different demographic strategies.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Huncik, Kevin M; Taniguchi, Satie; Petry, Maria V; Kucklick, John R; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2016-09-01

    Seabirds play an important role as top consumers in the food web and can be used as biomonitors of exposure to pollutants. Contamination studies involving non-destructive sampling methods are of considerable importance, allowing better evaluation of the levels of pollutants and their toxic effects. In the present study, organohalogen contaminants were analyzed in 113 blood samples from Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) adults and chicks collected in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 from colonies on Elephant and Livingston Islands, South Shetland, Antarctica. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane and derivatives (DDTs) and chlordanes were detected in all birds, whereas polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were not detected in any blood samples. No significant differences were found in organochlorine levels between sampling events. Adults exhibited significantly higher levels than chicks, except for PeCB. PCBs, HCB, mirex and DDTs were statistically similar in males and females from Elephant Island. Females on Livingston Island exhibited higher HCB values than males, but no sex differences were found regarding other organochlorines. The similarity in organochlorine levels between sexes in birds with very marked sexual segregation in feeding habits during the breeding season may indicate that significant amounts of contaminants are acquired during migration to lower latitudes, when the diets of males and females are similar. Birds sampled on Livingston Island exhibited significantly lower levels of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, mirex and chlordanes in comparison to those on Elephant Island, which could be the result of distinct foraging patterns between the two colonies. Organochlorine levels were similar between years in birds captured in two consecutive breeding seasons. Blood samples from Southern Giant Petrels adults and chicks proved to be useful for the comparison

  2. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended: In 1980 the caribou (Rangifer tarandus on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands represented a healthy geographic population of an Arctic-island caribou ecotype on the southern tier of Canadian Arctic Islands. Those caribou exhibited complex patterns of seasonal range occupancy, involving annual seasonal migrations between and among the three islands and Boothia Peninsula (Miller et al., 1982, 2005; Miller, 1990. A large segment of the population migrated annually from the islands to Boothia Peninsula in early winter, wintered there, and then returned to the islands in the following late winter and spring. There is no evidence for large-scale emigration of caribou anywhere in the study area (Gunn et al., 2006. Caribou on Boothia Peninsula occur as two distinct ecotypes that are genetically different from the Arctic-island ecotype that occurred on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. Both the Boothia Peninsula ecotype and the Mainland ecotype calve mostly on northern Boothia Peninsula, northwest and northeast sections respectively (Gunn et al., 2000. After summering on the peninsula, most individuals of both ecotypes migrate south of the Boothia Isthmus onto adjacent mainland areas (Gunn et al., 2000. As a result, there were about the same number of caribou wintering on Boothia Peninsula when migrant caribou from Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands wintered there, as in summer when the migrant Arctic-island caribou had returned to Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands and the migrant Boothia Peninsula and Mainland caribou ecotypes had returned from their winter ranges farther south on the mainland to their calving areas and summer ranges on Boothia Peninsula. We treat both caribou ecotypes on Boothia Peninsula as just one geographic population for our assessment. The Arctic-island caribou ecotype on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands declined about 98% from the

  3. Rethinking conditions necessary for pseudotachylyte formation: Observations from the Otago schists, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerud, M.

    2010-07-01

    Pseudotachylytes and two distinct types of cataclasite in the Otago Schist at Tucker Hill, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for both seismic slip and aseismic creep on a normal fault zone during regional crustal extension in late Cretaceous time. Regional geologic evidence suggests that the fault had its present low-angle dip (ca. 10°) at the time it was active. 'Type A' cataclasites, presumably aseismic, can be recognized by bi-fractal grain size distributions, monomict composition, angular clasts of uniform textural maturity, and a crude fabric defined by oriented grains and transgranular fractures. 'Type B' cataclasites, possibly cosesimic, have characteristics consistent with fluidized grain flow, including heterogeneous clast shapes and types, a bimodal grain size distribution, intrusive relationships with other rocks, and the absence of any fabric or transecting fractures. Pseudotachylyte, which occurs as fault veins, injection veins and more complex types of intrusive structures, consistently cuts across and invades Type A cataclasites but is both intrusive into and included as clasts in Type B cataclasites. These relationships are consistent with a fault evolution model in which the development of a damage zone through aseismic cataclasis (Type A) facilitates the formation of pseudotachylyte in a subsequent seismic event by providing a permeable matrix through which fluids can drain in the early stages of slip, thereby maintaining frictional contact between rock surfaces. The formation of pseudotachylyte, in turn, may seal the fault zone and lead to thermal pressurization in a later seismic cycle, forming fluidized (Type B) cataclasites. Seismic slip on the low-angle normal fault zone at Tucker Hill may have occurred by two distinct modes of dynamic weakening — melt lubrication and thermal pressurization — in successive seismic events. Although there is a perception among geologists that pseudotachylyte is most likely to form in intact

  4. Glaciomarine sedimentation and landforms in Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrani, Fabio; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Vieira, Rosemary

    2015-04-01

    This work consists on the integration and interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles, geological sampling and multibeam bathymetry in order to analyze and understand the evolution of the deglaciation of Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Data were obtained from three expeditions to Antarctica between 2009 and 2013, totaling 500 km of seismic lines and five geological cores. The characterization of the bottom geology was performed by analyzing the echocharacters and the sedimentary thickness of the glaciomarine deposits. Its correlation with the collected samples provided interpretation of the depositional paleoenvironments, allowing the reconstruction and evolution of the glaciers since the LGM and the recognition of glaciomarine processes. Multibeam bathymetry also provided records of submarine landforms related to glacial events and changes in positions of glaciers in the region. In this way, we ought to answer the question: which glaciomarine records are present in Admiralty Bay that can broaden our understanding of the evolution of its deglaciation during the advances and retreats of glaciers that once dominated the fjord, and its sedimentary processes? Four different echocharacters have been identified. Echoes I and II show good resolution and are characterized by continuous and sharp echoes with sub-parallel reflections and the presence of glaciomarine muds. Very prolonged echoes and absence of sub-parallel reflectors characterizes Echoes III and IV. Eco III is associated with the shallower portions of the bay, with little sediment thickness, sandier content and presence of ice rafted debris. Eco IV is associated with morainical banks and grounding zones. Seabed landform features show that the region experienced major glacial advance, with subsequent rapid retreat of the glaciers in the deeper parts of the fjord, followed by slower retreat, with the presence of several recessional moraines in the

  5. Crustal and upper mantle seismic structure of the Australian Plate, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Anne; Holbrook, W. Steven; Davey, Fred; Okaya, David A.; Stern, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected west of New Zealand's South Island parallel to the Pacific-Australian Plate boundary. The obliquely convergent plate boundary is marked at the surface by the Alpine Fault, which juxtaposes continental crust of each plate. The data are used to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure and provide a link between other seismic transects which cross the plate boundary. Arrival times of wide-angle reflected and refracted events from 13 recording stations are used to construct a 380-km long crustal velocity model. The model shows that, beneath a 2-4-km thick sedimentary veneer, the crust consists of two layers. The upper layer velocities increase from 5.4-5.9 km/s at the top of the layer to 6.3 km/s at the base of the layer. The base of the layer is mainly about 20 km deep but deepens to 25 km at its southern end. The lower layer velocities range from 6.3 to 7.1 km/s, and are commonly around 6.5 km/s at the top of the layer and 6.7 km/s at the base. Beneath the lower layer, the model has velocities of 8.2-8.5 km/s, typical of mantle material. The Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) therefore lies at the base of the second layer. It is at a depth of around 30 km but shallows over the south-central third of the profile to about 26 km, possibly associated with a southwest dipping detachment fault. The high, variable sub-Moho velocities of 8.2 km/s to 8.5 km/s are inferred to result from strong upper mantle anisotropy. Multichannel seismic reflection data cover about 220 km of the southern part of the modelled section. Beneath the well-layered Oligocene to recent sedimentary section, the crustal section is broadly divided into two zones, which correspond to the two layers of the velocity model. The upper layer (down to about 7-9 s two-way travel time) has few reflections. The lower layer (down to about 11 s two-way time) contains many strong, subparallel reflections. The base of this reflective zone is the Moho. Bi

  6. Factors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Island, Livingston Island, Antarctica during the last ∼ 1600 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez Cortizas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We sampled a short (57 cm sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetlands Islands, which spans the last ~ 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and SEM-EDS analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. The chemical record was characterized by a contrasted pattern of layers with high Ca, Ti, Zr, and Sr concentrations and layers with higher concentrations of K and Rb. The first also enriched in plagioclase and, occasionally, in zeolites, while the later were relatively enriched in 2:1 phyllosilicates and quartz. This was interpreted as reflecting the abundance of volcaniclastic material (Ca-rich vs. Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sediments (K-rich – the dominant geological material in the lake catchment. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of abundant volcanic shards in the Ca-rich layers, pointing to tephras most probably related to the activity of Deception Island volcano (located 30 km to the SE. The ages of the four main peaks of volcanic-rich material (AD ~ 1840–1860 for L1, AD ~ 1570–1650 for L2, AD ~ 1450–1470 for L3, and AD ~ 1300 for L4 matched reasonably well the age of tephra layers (AP1 to AP3 previously identified in lakes of Byers Peninsula. Some of the analyzed metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr showed enrichments in the most recent tephra layer (L1, suggesting relative changes in the composition of the tephras as found in previous investigations. No evidence of significant human impact on the cycles of most trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb was found, probably due to the remote location of Livingston Island and the modest research infrastructures – local contamination was found by other researchers in soils, waters and marine sediments on areas with large, permanent, research stations. Chromium is the only metal showing a steady enrichment in the last 200 years that could be interpreted as recent anthropogenic

  7. Factors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Island, Livingston Island, Antarctica) during the last ˜ 1600 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, A.; Rozas Muñiz, I.; Taboada, T.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Giralt, S.; Pla-Rabés, S.

    2014-03-01

    We sampled a short (57 cm) sediment core in Limnopolar Lake (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetlands Islands), which spans the last ~ 1600 years. The core was sectioned at high resolution and analyzed for elemental and mineralogical composition, and SEM-EDS analysis of glass mineral particles in selected samples. The chemical record was characterized by a contrasted pattern of layers with high Ca, Ti, Zr, and Sr concentrations and layers with higher concentrations of K and Rb. The first also enriched in plagioclase and, occasionally, in zeolites, while the later were relatively enriched in 2:1 phyllosilicates and quartz. This was interpreted as reflecting the abundance of volcaniclastic material (Ca-rich) vs. Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sediments (K-rich) - the dominant geological material in the lake catchment. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of abundant volcanic shards in the Ca-rich layers, pointing to tephras most probably related to the activity of Deception Island volcano (located 30 km to the SE). The ages of the four main peaks of volcanic-rich material (AD ~ 1840-1860 for L1, AD ~ 1570-1650 for L2, AD ~ 1450-1470 for L3, and AD ~ 1300 for L4) matched reasonably well the age of tephra layers (AP1 to AP3) previously identified in lakes of Byers Peninsula. Some of the analyzed metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr) showed enrichments in the most recent tephra layer (L1), suggesting relative changes in the composition of the tephras as found in previous investigations. No evidence of significant human impact on the cycles of most trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) was found, probably due to the remote location of Livingston Island and the modest research infrastructures - local contamination was found by other researchers in soils, waters and marine sediments on areas with large, permanent, research stations. Chromium is the only metal showing a steady enrichment in the last 200 years that could be interpreted as recent anthropogenic contamination. At the

  8. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Polygon Data Set Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  9. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Polygon Data Set Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  10. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Polygon Data Set Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  11. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Polygon Data Set Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  12. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Polygon Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  13. 2002 Long Island South Shore Estuary Benthic Habitat Line Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2002, 200 1:20,000 scale conventional-color metric film diapositives for Long Island, New York were collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic...

  14. Community characteristics of tropical montane evergreen forest and tropical montane dwarf forest in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxing Long; Runguo Zang; Yi Ding

    2011-01-01

    Both tropical montane evergreen forest (TMEF) and tropical montane dwarf forest (TMDF) are typical tropical cloud forests on Hainan Island. To compare community structure and species diversity be-tween these two forest types, we established eight and ten plots (each with 2,500 m2 in area) in TMEF and TMDF, respectively, in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China. We investigated each individual plant with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm including trees, shrubs a...

  15. Growth and seismic hazard of the Montserrat anticline in the North Canterbury fold and thrust belt, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLeest, R. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Oakley, D. O. S.; Gardner, T. W.

    2017-08-01

    Fault-related fold growth is a seismic hazard in North Canterbury, New Zealand. The North Canterbury fold and thrust belt (NCFTB) is located at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone, South Island, New Zealand where the Pacific plate transitions from subduction to transpression along the Alpine fault. Transpression causes shortening beneath the South Island, resulting in basement thrusts generating folds such as the Montserrat anticline. We focus on fault geometry and seismic hazard associated with this structure, exposed along the coast where Pleistocene marine terraces on the backlimb record tectonic uplift. To constrain parameters associated with evolution of this fault-related fold, we model the fold using several trishear kinematic models. A listric fault is most compatible with field and regional geophysical studies. Ages of marine terraces and inner edge elevations constrain uplift rate due to slip on the Glendhu fault to 1.1 ± 0.1 m(ka)-1. An ∼800 year recurrence interval is calculated for the Glendhu fault. Listric fault geometry lengthens the recurrence interval relative to other fault geometry models. An accurate understanding of subsurface fault geometry and kinematics is important for estimating seismic hazard in regions of fault-related folding such as the NCFTB because it affects recurrence interval estimations.

  16. Mineral provinces and material provenance of the surficial sediments near the Zhongsha Islands in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; WANG Kunshan

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics and distribution patterns of clastic minerals (0.063~0.125 mm) in bottom sediments represent a significant indicator for the identification of the origin of sediment. One hundred and fourteen surface sediment samples, which were collected from the area near the Zhongsha Islands in the South China Sea, were analysed to identify the mineral suites and their distributions in the study area. The area can be divided into three mineral provinces: (Ⅰ) a province of biogenic minerals, which mainly originate from the Zhongsha Atoll; (Ⅱ) a province of volcanogenic minerals, which are mainly derived from local basaltic seamounts and small-scale volcanoes that are probably erupting, with some influences from the island-arc volcanic region around the South China Sea; and (Ⅲ) a mixed mineral province whose material source includes biogenic minerals, volcanogenic minerals and terrigenous minerals; the last province can be subdivided into a mixed mineral sub-province of the northeastern part of the study area, in which terrigenous minerals are mainly derived from China's Mainland and do not exceed 17°N, and a mixed mineral sub-province of the southeastern part of the study area, in which terrigenous minerals are derived from Kalimantan and Indochina Peninsula and might be further transported into the deep sea basin through submarine canyons.

  17. Diversity of symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium in scleractinian corals of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun DONG; Hui HUANG; Liang-Min HUANG; Yuan-Chao LI

    2009-01-01

    Symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) in scleractinian corals are important in understanding how coral reefs will respond to global climate change. The present paper reports on the diversity of Symbiodinium sp. in 48 scleractinian coral species from 25 genera and 10 families sampled from the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, which were identified with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA large subunit gene (rDNA). The results showed that: (i) Symbiodinium Clade C was the dominant zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals in the Xisha Islands; (ii) Symbiodinium Clade D was found in the corals Montipora aequituberculata, Galaxea fascicularis, and Plerogyra sinuosa; and (iii) both Symbiodinium Clades C and D were found simultaneously in Montipora digitata, Psammocora contigua, and Galaxeafascicularis. A poor capacity for symbiosis polymorphism, as uncovered by RFLP, in the Xisha Islands indicates that the scleractinian corals have low adaptability to environmental changes. Further studies are needed to investigate zooxanthellae diversity using other molecular markers.

  18. Surface deformation time-series analysis at Ischia Island (South Italy) carried out via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Ricco, Ciro; Tammaro, Umberto; Castaldo, Raffaele; Tizzani, Pietro; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Ischia Island, located at the North-Western corner of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), is a volcanic area, whose state of activity is testified from eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302), earthquakes (the most disastrous in 1881 and 1883), hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we present the state of the art of the Ischia Island ground deformation phenomena through the joint analysis of data collected via different monitoring methodologies (leveling, GPS, and Differential SAR Interferometry) during the last twenty years. In particular, our analysis benefits from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the 257 leveling benchmarks and the 20 (17 campaign and 3 permanent) GPS stations deployed on the island. Moreover, it takes advantage from the large archives of C-band SAR data (about 300 ascending and descending ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images) acquired over the island since 1992 and the development of the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS). The latter, allows providing space-time information on the ground displacements measured along the radar line of sight (LOS), and thanks to the availability of multi-orbit SAR data, permits to discriminate the vertical and east-west components of the detected displacements. Our integrated analysis reveals a complex deformative scenario; in particular, it identifies a spatially extended subsidence pattern, which increases as we move to higher heights, with no evidence of any uplift phenomena. This broad effect involve the Northern, Eastern, Southern and South-Western sectors of the island where we measure velocity values not exceeding -6 mm/year; moreover, we identify a more localized phenomenon affecting the North-Western area in correspondence to the Fango zone, where velocity values up to -10 mm/year are retrieved. In addition, our study shows a migration of the Eastern sector of the island

  19. Geographical distribution and age composition of Euphausia superba larvae (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the South Shetland Islands region and southern Scotia Sea in relation to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qian; XU Zhaoli; HUANG Hongliang; CHEN Xuezhong; FENG Chunlei; LI Lingzhi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of the different life stages of Euphausia superba in the region of the South Shet-land Islands and southern Scotia Sea (Antarctica) were assessed based on scientific survey data collected in January and February of 2010. Adults, eggs, nauplii, metanauplii, calyptopis I-III, and furcilia I-II were found in the investigation. The abundance of larvae averaged 1 172.8 ind./m2, with calyptopis I and II as the dominant stages. Habitat occupancy patterns varied among Euphausia superba at different stages, and three sub-regions were identified by cluster analysis. The degree of larval development increased from west to east. Larvae were not observed north of the South Shetland Islands. Calyptopis I was predominant in the water between Elephant Island and the South Orkney Islands, which featured no thermocline. Older stages, including calyptopis II and III and furcilia I and II, were common in north and northeast of the South Orkney Islands, which were characterized by high temperature and high chlorophyll concentration. Distri-bution and abundance of the early life stages of E. superba were associated with specific environmental con-ditions. According to Biota-Environment matching (BIOENV ), the distributions of E. superba larvae were correlated with a combination of temperature at the surface and 200 m, and 0-100 m integrated chlorophyll a concentration.

  20. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  1. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  2. Survey of reefs based on Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images in the Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yuewei; LIU Yongxue; LI Manchun; ZHOU Minxi; YANG Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    A detailed survey of the reefs in the Nansha Islands’ sea that are of strategic importance is conducive to their future development. In this study, a total of 50 Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images were used to analyze the geological features and spectral characteristics of the Nansha reefs. The exposed islands/sandbanks, reef flats and sub-tidal reefs were identified with the near-infrared band, the red and green bands, and the blue band, respectively. Based on the relationships among various characteristics and bands illustrated in the OLI images, the maximum between-cluster variance threshold algorithm (OTSU method) and the mathematical morphology were employed to extract characteristic parameters of the spatial geometry of the reefs from top to bottom, which were subsequently operated by a series of post-processing methods such as vectorization, simplification and topological analysis. Among the 132 standalone reefs and 16 atolls that are identified in the study, four reefs have yet to be named in the Standard Names of Various Islands in the South China Sea and the website Nansha Islands Online (http://www.nansha.org/). Another 24 ones are exposed to the atmosphere even during high tides. Taiping Island with an area of 0.57 km2 represents the largest exposed geological feature. This study demonstrated the applicability of medium-resolution satellite images to derive the coral reef information effectively and thus provided information for the related departments that are responsible to manage the coast. An improved resolution of multispectral bands with the panchromatic band in higher spatial resolution (15 m for OLI image) is expected to provide an optimum satellite based approach to map marine habitats.

  3. Temperature Response of the HTR-10 during the Power Ascension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10 MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor-Test Module (HTR-10 is the first High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor in China. With the objective of raising the reactor power from 30% to 100% rated power, the power ascension test was planned and performed in January 2003. The test results verified the practicability and validity of the HTR-10 power regulation methods. In this study, the power ascension process is preliminarily simulated using the THERMIX code. The code satisfactorily reproduces the reactor transient parameters, including the reactor power, the primary helium pressure, and the primary helium outlet temperature. Reactor internals temperatures are also calculated and compared with the test values recorded by a number of thermocouples. THERMIX correctly simulates the temperature variation tendency for different measuring points, with good to fair agreement between the calculated temperatures and the measured ones. Based on the comparison results, the THERMIX simulation capability for the HTR-10 dynamic characteristics during the power ascension process can be demonstrated. With respect to the reactor safety features, it is of utmost importance that the maximum fuel center temperature during the test process is always much lower than the fuel temperature limit of 1620°C.

  4. 3D Geometry of Active Shortening, Uplift and Subsidence West of the Alpine Fault (South Island, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisetti, F.; Sibson, R. H.; Hamling, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the transform boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates across the South Island of New Zealand, linking the opposite dipping Hikurangi and Puysegur subduction zones. In the northern South Island, the transition from the subducted W-dipping Pacific slab of the Hikurangi margin to the intra-continental transform margin is defined by earthquake foci from 350 to 100 km deep. West of the Alpine Fault the Australian crust above the slab has been incorporated into the collisional plate boundary and uplifted in a compressional belt up to 100 km wide. Retro-deformation and back-stripping of 10 regional transects utilising surface geology, seismic reflection lines and exploration wells define the progressive deformation of the Australian crust since 35 Ma along the collisional margin. The reconstructed geometry of faulted basement blocks is tied to localisation and evolution of overlying sedimentary basins, coeval with displacement on the Alpine Fault. Amounts of shortening, uplift and subsidence and fault activity are heterogeneous in space and time across the margin, and are controlled by compressional reactivation of inherited high-angle, N-S Paleogene normal faults oblique to the margin. However, significant differences also occur along the strike of the collisional margin, with major contrasts in uplift and subsidence north and south of lat. 41°.7, i.e. the region overlying the southern termination of the Hikurangi slab. These differences are highlighted by present day hydrographic anomalies in the Buller region, and by the pattern of filtered topography at > 75 km wavelength. Our data show that the 3D geometry of the Australian plate cannot be entirely attributed to inherited crustal heterogeneity of a flexured "retro-foreland" domain in the footwall of the Alpine Fault, and suggest the need of deeper dynamic interaction between the Pacific and Australian lithosphere along the subduction-collision margin.

  5. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  6. Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew W.; Almond, Peter C.; Roering, Joshua J.; Tonkin, Philip J.

    2010-10-01

    Loess deposits constitute an important archive of aeolian deposition reflecting wider patterns of glacial atmospheric circulation, and more localised interactions between riverine source areas, loess trapping efficiency and geomorphic controls on erosion rate. Conceptual models have been formulated to explain the coeval evolution of loess mantles and associated landscapes (loess landscape models) but none apply to areas of tectonically induced base-level lowering. This study uses an age sequence of alluvial fill terraces in the Charwell Basin, north-eastern South Island New Zealand, which straddles the transpressive Hope Fault, to investigate geomorphic controls on loess landscape evolution in an active tectonic region. We hypothesize that the more evolved drainage networks on older terraces will more effectively propagate base-level lowering by way of a greater areal proportion of steep and convex hillslopes and a smaller proportion of non-eroding interfluves. Eventually, as the proportion of interfluves diminishes and hillslope convexity increases, terraces shift from being net loess accumulators to areas of net loess erosion. We investigate the nature of erosion and the geomorphic thresholds associated with this transition. Morphometric analysis of alluvial terraces and terrace remnants of increasing age demonstrated geomorphic evolution through time, with a decrease in extent of original planar terrace tread morphology and an increase in frequency of steeper slopes and convexo-concave land elements. The number of loess sheets and the thickness of loess increased across the three youngest terraces. The next oldest (ca. 150 ka) terrace remnant had the greatest maximum number of loess sheets (3) and loess thickness (8 m) but the loess mantle was highly variable. A detailed loess stratigraphic analysis and the morphometric analysis place this terrace in a transition between dominantly planar, uniformly loess-mantled landforms and loess-free ridge and valley terrain

  7. Distribution of Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate in Nansha Islands Sea Area,Southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程塞伟; 林洪瑛

    2004-01-01

    Based on the survey data from the program Multidisciplinary Expedition to Nansha Islands Sea Area, the distribution of dissolved inorganic phosphate ( PO43--P ) in the sea water of Nansha Islands Sea Area is comprehensively analyzed in this paper. The results show that PO43--P concentration in the sea water of southeastern Nansha Islands Sea Area is commonly higher than that in the other sea areas; the vertical distribution of PO43--P concentration varies inconspicuously in different seasons; the concentration of PO43--P increases with water depth and changes most greatly in the layer of 50 ~ 100 m. The diurnal variation of PO43--P concentration differs in different seasons and at different observation stations. The distribution and variation of PO43--P concentration result from the physical and biological processes together.

  8. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  9. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of South Gardner Pinnacles (100-015) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-015b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near S Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  10. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system.

  11. Zooplankton standing stock off south of Great Nicobar Island during an oil spill incident and after

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    the 5 degrees 45'N latitude from 82 degrees E to 92 degrees E longitude. The biomass values noted tow weeks after the oil spill along the oil tanker route (negligible to 50 ml/100 m sup(3)) and in the vicinity of the island (2.45 to 70 ml/100 m sup(3...

  12. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... have sustained ecological damage over many decades from the presence of invasive mice. Eradicating... adjacent productive marine environment make the Farallon Islands an ideal breeding and resting location for... pesticides and the minimum requirements analysis process under the Wilderness Act. Three alternatives are...

  13. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  14. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The..., Put-in-Bay, Ohio. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the...

  15. Description and proposed life cycle of Maritrema novaezealandensis n. sp. (Microphallidae) parasitic in red-billed gulls, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus, from Otago Harbor, South Island, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martorelli, Sergio R; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    Maritrema novaezealandensis n. sp. is described from Otago Harbor, South Island, New Zealand, on the basis of adult specimens collected from the Red-billed gull, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus, and excysted metacercariae obtained from crabs. It belongs to the "eroliae group" and differs from...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  17. A great volcanic eruption around AD 1300 recorded in lacustrine sediment from Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhongkang Yang; Nanye Long; Yuhong Wang; Xin Zhou; Yi Liu; Liguang Sun

    2017-02-01

    The contents of Ti, Al and Fe₂O₃ in a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) collected from Dongdao Island, South China Sea (SCS), were determined to be much higher than those in the three major sediment endmembers (coral sand, guano and plants), and their likely sources include terrigenous dust and volcanic ash. At 61 cm (~AD 1300), the contents of Ti, Al and Fe₂O₃ have an abnormally high spike, which cannot be explained by terrigenous dust. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions at 61 cm are in excellent agreement with those in volcanic materials, but they are significantly different from those in terrigenous dust, implying a possible material input from historical volcanic eruptions in the lacustrine sediment DY6. The documented great Samalas volcanic eruption at AD 1257 in Indonesia is likely the candidate for this volcanic eruption.

  18. A great volcanic eruption around AD 1300 recorded in lacustrine sediment from Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongkang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Yi; Sun, Liguang

    2017-02-01

    The contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 in a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) collected from Dongdao Island, South China Sea (SCS), were determined to be much higher than those in the three major sediment end-members (coral sand, guano and plants), and their likely sources include terrigenous dust and volcanic ash. At 61 cm (˜AD 1300), the contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 have an abnormally high spike, which cannot be explained by terrigenous dust. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions at 61 cm are in excellent agreement with those in volcanic materials, but they are significantly different from those in terrigenous dust, implying a possible material input from historical volcanic eruptions in the lacustrine sediment DY6. The documented great Samalas volcanic eruption at AD 1257 in Indonesia is likely the candidate for this volcanic eruption.

  19. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  20. Distribution of Organic Matter, Iron, Mangenese in Surface Sediments in the Nansha Islands Sea Area, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weihua; Wu Yunhua; Chen Shaoyong; Yin Kedong

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of organic matter, iron and manganese in the deep sea surface sediments in the Nansha Islands sea area, South China Sea are measured. Horizontal and vertical distributions of iron and manganese are discussed. The vertical distribution of iron and manganese in the sediments results from reduction, diffusion, and redeposition of manganese (or iron) oxide and hydroxide in the sediment. There are the maxima of iron and manganese in solid phase in the top of the sediment, which is caused by the penetration of O2 and the upward flux of Mn2+ ( or Fe2+ ). Manganese bacteria play a very important role in the cycle of solid-phase iron and manganese in the ocean environment. Manganese bacteria oxidize Mn2+ ( or Fe2+ ) in dissolved state to Mn4+ ( or Fe3+ ) in oxidized state under the aerobic condition, whereas they reduce iron and manganese in anaerobic conditions.

  1. Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.

    2003-04-01

    A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of

  2. Review Article: Potential geomorphic consequences of a future great (Mw = 8.0+ Alpine Fault earthquake, South Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island has not sustained a large magnitude earthquake since ca. AD 1717. The time since this rupture is close to the average inferred recurrence interval of the fault (~300 yr. The Alpine Fault is therefore expected to generate a large magnitude earthquake in the near future. Previous ruptures of this fault are inferred to have generated Mw = 8.0 or greater earthquakes and to have resulted in, amongst other geomorphic hazards, large-scale landslides and landslide dams throughout the Southern Alps. There is currently 85% probability that the Alpine Fault will cause a Mw = 8.0+ earthquake within the next 100 yr. While the seismic hazard is fairly well understood, that of the consequential geomorphic activity is less well studied, and these consequences are explored herein. They are expected to include landsliding, landslide damming, dam-break flooding, debris flows, river aggradation, liquefaction, and landslide-generated lake/fiord tsunami. Using evidence from previous events within New Zealand as well as analogous international examples, we develop first-order estimates of the likely magnitude and possible locations of the geomorphic effects associated with earthquakes. Landsliding is expected to affect an area > 30 000 km2 and involve > 1billion m3 of material. Some tens of landslide dams are expected to occur in narrow, steep-sided gorges in the affected region. Debris flows will be generated in the first long-duration rainfall after the earthquake and will continue to occur for several years as rainfall (remobilises landslide material. In total more than 1000 debris flows are likely to be generated at some time after the earthquake. Aggradation of up to 3 m will cover an area > 125 km2 and is likely to occur on many West Coast alluvial fans and floodplains. The impact of these effects will be felt across the entire South Island and is likely to continue for several decades.

  3. Polyphasic characterization of 10 selected ecologically relevant filamentous cyanobacterial strains from the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancusova, Miroslava; Kovacik, Lubomir; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Dusinsky, Roman; Wilmotte, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano. Based on major phenotypic features, the strains were divided into four distinct morphotypes: Leptolyngbya borchgrevinkii (A), Leptolyngbya frigida (B), Microcoleus sp. (C) and Wilmottia murrayi (D). This morphological identification was in agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a strain corresponding to the L. borchgrevinkii morphotype was determined. Morphotype B is most related to sequences assigned to L. frigida isolated from microbial mats of coastal lakes in East Antarctica. Morphotype C belongs to a cluster including strains with morphotypes corresponding to Microcoleus attenuatus, Microcoleus favosus and Microcoleus sp., which are from Antarctica and other continents. Morphotype D is grouped with sequences assigned to W. murrayi mostly isolated from Antarctica.

  4. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S.M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G.L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006–2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43−. High riverine concentrations of nitr...

  5. A review of scientific research trends within ASPA No. 126 Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, was one of the first sites in Antarctica designated for environmental conservation and scientific protection. Research on Byers Peninsula has been predominantly international, with 88 indexed publications (93% of them published during last 20 years) from 209 authors affiliated to 110 institutions from 22 nations, all of which are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. Palaeontological research represented 20% of the published articles. The variety of freshwat...

  6. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  7. The New Avalanche-Like Stochastic Model for Parameterization of Seismicity and Its Application to the South Sakhalin Island Seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic process is usually considered as an example of occurrence of the regime of self-organizing criticality (SOC. A model of seismic regime as an assemblage of randomly developing episodes of avalanche-like relaxation, occurring at a set of metastable subsystems, can be the alternative of such consideration. The model is defined by two parameters characterizing the scaling hierarchical structure of the geophysical medium and the degree of metastability of subsystems of this medium. In the assemblage, these two parameters define a model b-value. An advantage of such approach consists in a clear physical sense of parameters of the model. The application of the model for parameterization of the seismic regime of the south part of Sakhalin Island is considered. The models of space changeability of the scaling parameter and of temporal changeability of the parameter of metastability are constructed. The anomalous increase of the parameter of metastability was found in connection with the Gornozavodsk and Nevelsk earthquakes. At the present time, high values of this parameter occur in the area of the Poyasok Isthmus. This finding is examined in comparison with other indications of an increase in probability of occurrence of a strong earthquake in the South Sakhalin region.

  8. Influence of ENSO and IOD to Variability of Sea Surface Height in the North and South of Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlan, Ahmad; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Kunarso; Zainuri, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagic countries in the world. Besides being in the tropics, these waters are also located between two continents and two oceans that making this area are heavily influenced by the global atmospheric phenomena such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Sea level rise is one of the main threats faced by Indonesia and other island countries in the world. Not only global warming, sea level rise in the tropics also caused by inter annual variability such as ENSO and IOD. This research has been aimed to determine the influence of ENSO and IOD to variability of sea surface height in the north and south of Java. This research used Satellite altimetry data were constructed by multi-mission satellite. These results showed that the sea level anomaly generally inversely related to ENSO and Dipole Mode Index. The phenomenon that most influence a decrease sea level anomaly in the study area is a phenomenon IOD + and the phenomenon that most influenced the increase sea level anomaly is La Niña. South of Java is area that has the large effect of changes in sea levels than north of Java. During La Niña, sea level anomaly can be increase up to 0.3 m and sea level anomaly can be decrease up to -0.28 m during IOD+.

  9. Modern microbialites and their environmental signifi-cance,Meiji reef atoll,Nansha (Spratly) Islands,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Meiji (Mischief) coral atoll, in Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea, consists of an annular reef rim surrounding a central lagoon. On the atoll rim there are either protuberant ’motu’ (small coral patch reefs on the rim of atoll) islets or lower sandy cays that contain modern microbialite deposits on the corals in pinnacles and surrounding bottoms of the atoll. Microbialites, including villiform, hairy, and thin spine growth forms, as well as gelatinous masses, mats and encrustation, developed on coral colonies and atoll rim sediments between 0 and 15 m deep-water settings. The microbialites were produced by natural populations of filamentous cyanobacteria and grew on (1) bulbous corals together with Acropora sp., (2) on massive colonies of Galaxea fascicularis, (3) on dead Montipora digitata, and (4) on dead Acropora teres, some hairy microbialite growing around broken coral branches. This study demonstrates that microbial carbonates are developed in coral reefs of South China Sea and indicates that microbial processes may be important in the construction of modern reef systems. The results have significance in the determination of nature and composition in microorganisms implied in the formation ancient microbialites, and permit evaluation of the importance of microbial deposits in mo-dern coral reefs and of ’microbialites’ in biogeochemical cycles of modern coral reef systems. The re-sults also provide evidence of modern analogues for ancient microbialites in shallow-water settings, and combine with sedimentological studies of ancient microbialites to understand their controls.

  10. Publication of the Bulletin for ‘Ascension’ and restaurant closure Ascension and Whitsuntide weekends

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Thursday 21 May will be a public holiday (Ascension), so items for publication in this edition (22-23/2009) should reach the Publication Section or the Staff Association, as appropriate, before midday on Monday 18 May. Thank you for your understanding. Publication Section - DSU-CO Tel. 73830 ~Restaurants closureRestaurant No. 2 and Restaurant No. 3 will be closed from Thursday 21 May 2009 to Sunday 24 May 2009 for the ‘ascension’ weekend and on 1st June 2009 for Whitsuntide. Restaurant No. 1 will remain open throughout although with weekend opening hours on 21 May and 1st June.

  11. Subduction—Modified Subcontinental Mantle in South China:Trace Element and Isotope Evidence in Basalts from Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 解广轰; 等

    1996-01-01

    Cenozoic lavas from Hainan Island,South China,comprise quartz tholeiite,olivine tholeiite,alkali basalt,and basanite and form a continuous,tholeiite-dominated,compositional spectrum.Highly incompatible elements and their relationships with isotopes in these lavas are shown to be useful in evaluating mantle-source composition,whereas modeling suggests that ratios of elements with bulk partition coefficients significantly larger than those of Nb and Ta may be sensitive to partial melting.Th/Ta and La/Nb ratios of alkali basalts are lower than those of tholeiites,and they are all lower than those of the primitive mantle,These ratios correlate positively with 207Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios.Such relationships can be explained by mixing of depleted and enriched source components.A depleted component is indicated by alkali basalt compositions and is similar to some depleted OIB (PREMA).The enriched component,similar to sediment compositions,is indicated by tholeiites with high LILE/HFSE,207Pb/204Pb,and 87Sr/86Sr ratios.In general,basalts from Hainan and the South China Basin(SCB)share common geochemical characters.e.g.high Rb/Sr,Th/Ta,207Pb/206Pb,and low Ba/Th ratios.Such a geochemical trend is comparable to that of EMII-type OIB and best explained as the result of subduction.Occurrence of these characteristics in both continental Hainan basalts and SCB seamout basalts indicates the presence of a South China geochemical domain that exists in the mantle region below the lithosphere.

  12. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

  13. Comparative Analysis between the Government Micro-Grid Plan and Computer Simulation Results Based on Real Data: The Practical Case for a South Korean Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which are produced through the combustion of fossil fuels, cause climate change. Unfortunately, South Korea is highly dependent on fossil fuels because of its industrial nature. However, many islands in South Korea have the potential to generate a considerable amount of renewable energy, which should be studied. KEPCO (Korea Electricity Power Corporation, which runs micro-grid facilities in Gasado Island in Jindo, South Korea, built micro-grid facilities in Mozambique in 2015. The micro-grid construction of Gasado Island is considered one of the most successful micro-grid projects of KEPCO, so KEPCO is hoping to expand energy development overseas and become a top-tier global power company. This study aims to find a more technologically and economically optimal hybrid energy system for Gasado Island that KEPCO should have built. We also compared this optimal solution to the Korean government plan. The Korean government plan is the same as the KEPCO plan because KEPCO is classified as a market-oriented public corporation under the Act on the Management of Public Institutions. In the final section of this paper, both the implications and limitations are discussed in detail.

  14. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Mitigating the Security Risks in the South China Sea Island Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    South China Sea. The Association of Southeast Nations ( ASEAN ) is disunited and has been largely ineffective in moving the dispute forward. However... ASEAN ). While it has declared an Air Defense Identification Zone in the East China Sea, China has publicly 5 dismissed any rumors that it would do...with ASEAN . Thus, China’s use ambiguity to avoid conflict with ASEAN , maintain the status quo and delay the settlement of the dispute. Strategy of

  16. The human bioclimates of Western and South Pacific islands and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, G R

    1995-08-01

    The current bioclimates of equatorial Western and tropical South Pacific have been assessed, using the concepts of effective temperature and relative strain as a basis for evaluating likely changes in human comfort regimes as a consequence of global warming. Current bioclimates may be considered marginally stressful for indigenous populations. Global warming will result in changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of physioclimatically stressful conditions.

  17. Formation and Transportation of High-Salinity Water Produced in Polynyas South of the St.Lawrence Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hongli; ZHAO Jinping; SHI Jiuxin; JIAO Yutian

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied variations of temperature and salinity in seawater under sea ice using hydrologic data collected from polynyas south of the St.Lawrence Island during March of 2008 and 2009.The results indicate that the high-salinity water found during the cruises of 2008 and 2009 was due to the formation of polynyas.The salinity observed in 2008 was higher than that in 2009as a result of higher salt production in 2008.The spatial distributions of high-salinity cores differed between the two cruises.In March 2008,a southeastward flow was formed under the persistent northerly wind in the observation region,which transported the high-salinity water produced by the polynyas to the southeast.The similar flow,however,did not exist in March 2009 because the northerly wind over the study area was interrupted by a southerly wind.Accordingly,the polynyas and the high-salinity water produced by them existed for a short time.As a result,the high-salinity water in 2009 did not spread very far,and stayed within the polynyas.In addition,during the 2009 cruise,two stages of observations in the polynyas showed the core of high-salinity water was shifted to the southwest of the St.Lawrence Island.This result suggested that a southwestward flow might have existed in the area at the onset of the northerly wind,which was consistent with the alongshore and/or offshore flows caused by the northerly wind.

  18. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  19. A development plan for the south-eastern part of Pag island with an emphasis on olive-growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Koščak Miočić-Stošić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the fact that the traditional usage of rural landscapes was agricultural, a degradation of landscape values, as well as an onset of natural succession, occur due to contemporary lifestyle. This can lead to negative effects regarding land-use change. This paper focuses on the south-eastern part of Pag island and explores the possibilities for the revitalisation of its neglected areas by envisioning its future development as an olive-growing region. The final goal was to define a planning procedure framework which would enable the creation of a strategic vision to be transformed into a comprehensive spatial development strategy for the research area. This area encompasses the territory between Kaštela in the north-west and the Pag’s bridge in the south-east which administratively belongs to the Zadar County and includes the Town of Pag, and the Kolan and Povljana municipalities. Olive-growing has been recognized as the strategic choice for development because of its tradition in the area and the potential integration with other relatable activities. Based on the SWOT analysis, an appropriate mission, a vision and strategic goals were defined for developing Pag as an olive-growing region. Further landscape planning methods included (1 the Lynch mapping analysis, (2 the Forman and Godron landscape ecology analysis and (3 the landscape pattern analysis. The results were then used together with digital orthophoto imagery to overlay and analyse relevant information. Hand drawings as well as AutoCAD, ArcGIS and image editing computer programmes were used in the process. This analytical phase was then followed by the development of several alternative spatial zonings, diagrams and concepts based on a preferable neighbourhood matrix and the activity sizing table. The planning process resulted in a concept for spatial development of the research area which would enable the implementation of the strategic vision. The main goal of this

  20. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria from geothermal environments in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago, with the proposal of Bacillus fumarioli sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, N A; Lebbe, L; Hoste, B; Goris, J; Forsyth, G; Heyndrickx, M; Murray, B L; Syme, N; Wynn-Williams, D D; De Vos, P

    2000-09-01

    Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from soils taken from active fumaroles on Mount Rittmann and Mount Melbourne in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, and from active and inactive fumaroles on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. The Mt Rittmann and Mt Melbourne soils yielded a dominant, moderately thermophilic and acidophilic, aerobic endospore-former growing at pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C, and further strains of the same organism were isolated from a cold, dead fumarole at Clinker Gulch, Candlemas Island. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis, SDS-PAGE and routine phenotypic tests show that the Candlemas Island isolates are not distinguishable from the Mt Rittmann strains, although the two sites are 5600 km apart, and 16S rDNA sequence comparisons and DNA relatedness data support the proposal of a new species, Bacillus fumarioli, the type strain of which is LMG 17489T.

  1. Cephalopoda as prey of juvenile Southern elephant seals at Isla 25 de Mayo/King George, South Shetland Islands

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    Luciana Burdman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to enhance the knowledge of the feeding habits of the juvenile component of the population of Southern elephant seals [Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758] from Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands, age class whose diet information is scarce. A total of 60 individuals were stomach lavaged in the spring - summer seasons of three consecutive years (2003, 2004 and 2005 of which 53.3 % (n = 32 presented food remnants. The Antarctic glacial squid Psychroteuthis glacialis Thiele, 1921 was the dominant prey taxon in terms of frequency of occurrence (68.7%, numerical abundance (60.1% and biomass (51.5%, contributing 84.1% to the total relative importance index. Other squid prey species of importance were Slosarczykovia circumantartica Lipinski, 2001 in terms of occurrence (37.5% and numerical abundance (14% and Moroteuthis knipovitchi Filippova, 1972 in terms of biomass (16%. All identified cephalopod prey taxa are distributed south of the Antarctic Polar Front, except for the squid Martialia hyadesi Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889 which has a circumpolar distribution associated to the Polar Frontal Zone. No significant differences in the sizes of P. glacialis preyed upon by elephant seals were found between sexes and years. However, significant interannual differences were found in the taxonomical composition of their diet. This would be associated with temporal changes in food availability at the foraging areas of seals, which in turn may have been influenced by changes in oceanographic conditions as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon that occurred during part of the study period. Furthermore, a differential response of males and females to this temporal variation was observed, with the former being also associated to a predation on octopods. This would suggest a sexual segregation in foraging habits of this species from the early stages of its life cycle.

  2. Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the 'viral stage' (day 1-day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the 'convalescent stage' (day 5-day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic

  3. Distribution and covering percentage of sponge (Porifera in different coral reef condition and depth in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARYANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, four specieses of sponge namely Auletta sp., Callyspongia pseudoreticulata, Callyspongia sp., and Halichondria sp. have been potentially identified as bacteriside for fishery commodities. Nevertheless, information on sponge distribution, its covering percentage, and its habitate are still very little. Observation on distribution and abundance of sponge was conducted in the Southeastern and the Northwestern part of Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi, using scuba diving set and under water writting tools. At first, coral reef condition in 3 and 10 m depths up to 100 m length of shore line were observed in both stations, using “lifeform method”. Then distribution and covering percentage of sponge, biotic and abiotic factor in 3, 6, 9, and 12 m depths in both stations were examined using “square transect method”. The result showed that different coral reef condition qualitatively causes different of sponge species distribution, but quantitatively not significantly different (P>0,05 on its covering percentage. It was also found that generally sponge grows better at the dead coral where no other biotic organism around.

  4. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-07-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed.

  5. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  6. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Quartino

    Full Text Available Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  7. Three tropical seagrasses as potential bio-indicators to trace metals in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HUANG Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the trace metals Cu,Cd,Pb,and Zn were measured in seawater,rhizosphere sediments,interstitial water,and the tissues of three tropical species of seagrasses (Thalassia hemprichii,Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata) from Xincun Bay of Hainan Island,South China.We analyzed different environmental compartments and the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in the interstitial and seawater.The concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in blades compared with roots or rhizomes in T.hemprichii and E.acoroides,respectively.A metal pollution index (MPI) demonstrated that sediment,interstitial water,and seagrasses in the sites located nearest anthropogenic sources of pollution had the most abundant metal concentrations.There was obvious seasonal variation of these metals in the three seagrasses with higher concentrations of Cu,Pb and Zn in January and Cd in July.Furthermore,the relationships between metal concentrations in seagrasses and environmental compartments were positively correlated significantly.The bioconcentration factors (BCF) demonstrated that Cd from the tissues of the three seagrasses might be absorbed from the sediment by the roots.However,for C.rotundata,Zn is likely to be derived from the seawater through its blades.Therefore,the blades of T.hemprichii,E.acoroides and C.rotundata are potential bio-indicators to Cd content in sediment,and additionally Zn content (C.rotundata only) in seawater.

  8. Seed Dynamics in Relation to Gaps in a Tropical Montane Rainforest of Hainan Island, South China: (Ⅱ) Seed Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Guo Zang; Yi Ding; Wei-Yin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of seed bank dynamics In relation to gaps in an old growth tropical montane rainforast of Hainan Island, South China, were studied over two consecutive years. From June 2001 to June 2003, soil seed bank sampling blocks were taken near each of the four sides of each seed trap and immediately put into a nursery for observation of seedling emergence dynamics in four seasons (each experiment in each season). The abundances of seedlings that emerged from seed banks showed the trend of vine functional group (VFG) > shrub functional group (SFG) > tree functional group (TFG) > herb functional group (HFG), but the trend in species richness of seedlings that emerged from the soil seed banks was TFG > VFG > SFG > HFG. The abundances of seedlings that emerged from seed banks in the three gap zones showed no significant differences, but significant differences did exist for the species richness. The time of sampling or seasons of experiments had significant influences on both the species richness and seedling abundances. The seedling emergence processes of each experiment all revealed the unimodal patterns. Few emergences occurred 1 year after each experiment. Compared with those under closed canopies, the recruitment rates from seed to seedlings and from seedlings to saplings in gaps were higher, but the mortality rates from saplings to big trees were also higher in the gaps.

  9. Continuous Tidal Streamflow and Gage-Height Data for Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Erbland, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, was developed to evaluate methodologies for determining fecal coliform total maximum daily loads for shellfish waters. To calibrate the model, two index-velocity sites on the creeks were instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity meters and water-level sensors to compute a 21-day continuous record of tidal streamflows. In addition to monitoring tidal cycles, streamflow measurements were made at the index-velocity sites, and tidal-cycle streamflow measurements were made at the mouth of Bass Creek and on the Stono River to characterize the streamflow dynamics near the ocean boundary of the three-dimensional model at the beginning, September 6, 2007, and end, September 26, 2007, of the index-velocity meter deployment. The maximum floodtide and ebbtide measured on the Stono River by the mouth of Bass Creek for the two measurements were -155,000 and 170,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). At the mouth of Bass Creek, the maximum floodtide and ebbtide measurements during the 2 measurement days were +/-10,200 ft3/s. Tidal streamflows for the 21-day deployment on Bass Creek ranged from -2,510 ft3/s for an incoming tide to 4,360 ft3/s for an outgoing tide. On Cinder Creek, the incoming and outgoing tide varied from -2,180 to 2,400 ft3/s during the same period.

  10. Seismic attribute analysis for 3-D structural interpretation of the offshore South Marsh Island, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horozal, Senay; Lee, Gwang Hoon; Cukur, Deniz; Pigott, John D.

    2013-04-01

    Structural and seismic attribute analyses of 3-D seismic reflection data from southwest offshore South Marsh Island, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, reveal complex structures affected by salt tectonics triggered by interaction between salt, faults and rapid deltaic sedimentation on the shallow continental shelf. Salt exercises the main control on the sedimentary processes in the study area to move, to divert sediment, to create instability, and to block sediment transport pathways. The depths of salt range about 4,300 m (14,000 ft) to 6,500 m (21,600 ft). Salt is very deep and forms a thin sheet in the southwestern part of the area, whereas it rises to shallow depths, forming a dome in the central part. Salt is seen at relatively shallow stratigraphic levels in the northwest and south where it forms thin salt rollers. The margins of Miocene strata are deformed by salt movement and faulting in the study area. The study area is riddled by numerous normal faults which are mostly E-trending and some N- and NW-trending with southward gradual increase in growth factors. Eight main normal faults were interpreted from seismic data which are mostly E-trending S-dipping, and are accompanied by smaller secondary faults. Three of E-trending down-to-the-basin growth faults cut across the study area separating the area into four blocks. These faults form a stair-stepping structure in the south direction. Two conjugate-crossing normal faults are located over the central salt dome which may indicate active salt doming. Seismic attribute analysis was applied as output of seismic volumes, and horizon and time-slice maps in order to identify the structure of study area. These attribute volumes together with time- and horizon-slices gave amplitude anomalies at discontinuities (faults) and lithological changes (sand to shale, salt). Faults interpreted and mapped from seismic profiles and those identified by seismic attribute slices are compatible, therefore, seismic attribute analysis can

  11. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  12. Drag of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in pure liquids and binary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašković Radomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of predicting the drag coefficient of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in uniformly super­heated pure liquids and in binary solutions with a non-volatile solute at large Reynolds and Peclet numbers is discussed. In the case of pure liquids, the general solution for the drag coefficient of an accelerated growing bubble from its inception at the critical radius and through the surface-tension-, inertia-, and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes is established, as well as some necessary adaptations in the case of binary solutions with a non-volatile solute. Two particular limiting regimes in the case of pure liquids, inertia-controlled and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes, respectively, are analyzed in details, with satisfactory results. .

  13. Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J. J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Cardenas, B. Vargas; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 x 10(17) eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distri

  14. Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J. J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Cardenas, B. Vargas; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 x 10(17) eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distri

  15. Isotopic composition and distribution of plutonium in northern South China Sea sediments revealed continuous release and transport of Pu from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junwen; Zheng, Jian; Dai, Minhan; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Weifang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-03-18

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in sediments of the northern South China Sea and its adjacent Pearl River Estuary were determined to examine the spatial and temporal variations of Pu inputs. We clarified that Pu in the study area is sourced from a combination of global fallout and close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands where above-ground nuclear weapons testing was carried out during the period of 1952-1958. The latter source dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as evidenced by elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) in a dated sediment core. Even after the 1950s, the Pacific Proving Grounds was still a dominant Pu source due to continuous transport of remobilized Pu from the Marshall Islands, about 4500 km away, along the North Equatorial Current followed by the transport of the Kuroshio current and its extension into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait. Using a simple two end-member mixing model, we have quantified the contributions of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds to the northern South China Sea shelf and the Pearl River Estuary are 68% ± 1% and 30% ± 5%, respectively. This study also confirmed that there were no clear signals of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident impacting the South China Sea.

  16. Assessing a 1500-year record of Atlantic hurricane activity from South Andros Island, the Bahamas, using modeled hurricane climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Emanuel, K.; Wiman, C.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones can cause substantial loss of life and economic resources in coastal areas. In the current changing climate, it is of critical importance for society to understand any links between hurricane activity and climactic conditions. Unfortunately, historical tropical cyclone records are too short and incomplete to constrain how climate controls cyclone activity or to accurately quantify the risk of such storms to local human populations. Hurricane-induced deposits preserved in sediment cores can offer records of past hurricane activity stretching over thousands of years. Here we present a 1500 year annually resolved record of the frequency of intense hurricane events in a blue hole (AM4) on South Andros Island on the Great Bahama Bank. This carbonate island in the western North Atlantic Ocean is positioned along the trackway of many storms originating in the Caribbean and Atlantic basins. The record is corroborated by cores collected from three other blue holes near AM4. Over the past 1500 years, there have been periods of elevated hurricane activity from 750 to 950 CE, 1150 to 1300 CE and 1550 to 1850 CE. The statistical significance of this sedimentary record is assessed utilizing a set of synthetic storms generated from a previously published statistical deterministic hurricane model. The model simulates climatological conditions from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset, and the CMIP5 MPI model for the 20th century calibration (1850-2005 CE), and the millennial simulation (850-1849 CE). The average reoccurrence rates of hurricanes passing within 100 km of AM4 under each simulation are 1.06, 0.62, and 0.61 storms per year respectively. Using each climatology, thousands of hurricane induced deposits for the site are generated based on a random draw of these storms, a wind speed threshold for deposit, and a temporal resolution given the sedimentation rate of approximately 1 cm/yr at the site. Overall, the results of this study offer information on changes

  17. Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary

    1986-01-01

    Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral

  18. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  19. Three dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S.; Feenstra, J.; Eccles, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies intended to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. In order to better understand the structural features of the central Alpine Fault, we have developed three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (VP and VS) models of the region by double-difference tomography using datasets from multiple seismic networks. In previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S-wave arrivals by more than a factor of two, thereby substantially improving the VS model. Compared to previous studies, our new higher-resolution VP model based on more observations shows a clear VP contrast (higher VP on the southeast hanging wall side) at depths of 5 - 10 km near the DFDP drill sites. With our better resolved VS model, in the same region, we detect a sharply defined high VS body (VS > 3.7 km/s) within the hanging wall. Our earthquake relocations reveal the presence of clusters within and around low-velocity zones in the hanging wall southeast of the Alpine Fault. Together with the improved earthquake locations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips southeastward at about 50^circ from 5 to 15 km depth, as inferred from the velocity structure, seismicity, and observations of fault zone guided waves.

  20. South pacific climate variability and its impact on low-lying islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIABILITE CLIMATIQUE DU SUD PACIFIQUE ET SES IMPACTS SUR LES ILES BASSES. L’environnement climatique du Pacifique sud est conditionné par “l’extrême océanité” de la région et l’interaction étroite entre l’atmosphère et l’océan qui conditionne la vie et l’ensemble des paramètres environnementaux des pays insulaires. Les deux principaux phénomènes climatiques qui affectent la région sont : ENSO ( El Niño - Southern Oscillation et le réchauffement global. Ces deux signaux climatiques, facteurs principaux de la variabilité climatique du Pacifique, font sentir leur action sur l’élévation du niveau moyen de l’océan qui, à terme, peut mettre en cause l’existence même de certains archipels, sur les modifications de la vie océanique et de son exploitation, sur la fréquence et l’intensité des cyclones, sur l’alternance des sécheresses et des périodes humides, sur la production agricole, et sur la santé des lagons et des formations récifales. VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA EN EL PACÍFICO SUR Y SU IMPACTO EN ISLAS BAJAS. El medio ambiente climático de la región del Pacífico Sur se caracteriza por la interacción intensa del océano y la atmósfera, la cual impacta la vida y otros parámetros medioambientales de la región. Dos fenómenos principales están condicionando la variabilidad climática de la región: El Niño y la Oscilación del Sur (ENSO y el Calentamiento Global. Estos dos componentes del cambio climático están afectando la elevación del nivel del mar, la vida en el océano, la frecuencia e intensidad de los huracanes, la ocurrencia de sequías e inundaciones, la potencialidad agrícola, la salud de las regiones costeras incluyendo lagunas y arrecifes. The climatic environment of the South Pacific region is characterized by the intense ocean atmosphere interaction which impacts the life and other environmental parameters of the region. Two main phenomenons are conditioning the climate variability of

  1. Black disease (Terpios hoshinota): a probable cause for the rapid coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Liu, Guo Hui; Yan, Hong Qiang; Zhang, Hui Ling

    2012-07-01

    The northern reef of Yongxing Island, the largest reef island of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, was in good condition with significant cover of scleractinian corals until 2002. Surveys in 2008 and 2010, however, found that coral coverage had declined rapidly and severely, implying that catastrophic coral mortality occurred during the past 8 years. A blackish mat was observed covering live and dead corals in both 2008 and 2010 that was identified as an encrusting sponge, Terpios hoshinota, by special surface morphology and spicule structure. In addition, spicule residues were found on the surface of long-dead corals, indicating a previous invasion of T. hosinota. T. hoshinota is referred to as the "black disease" because it rapidly overgrows and kills corals. Our evidence indicates that outbreaks of black disease are at least partially responsible for the massive coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island over the past 8 years, although human activities and heat-related coral bleaching cannot be discounted as minor causes for this coral decline.

  2. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina Border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L M

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  3. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  4. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  5. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A.; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  6. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  7. Multibeam collection for RC2601: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1985-01-10 to 1985-02-03, departing from Ascension Island and returning to Ascension Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Characterizing rates and mechanisms of soil transport using tephra as a tracer: Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Almond, P.; Tonkin, P.; McKean, J.

    2001-12-01

    Downslope transport of soil in the absence of overland flow has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including particle-by-particle rheologic creep and disturbances associated with biological activity. Process stochasticity and difficulties associated with field measurement have obscured the characterization of long-term soil transport rates and mechanisms. Most modeling studies represent soil transport as a slope and/or soil depth-dependent process, although field evidence is sparse. At our study site along incised fluvial terraces of the Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand, we documented vertical profiles of tephra concentration along a hillslope transect to quantify soil transport. Near the relatively undissected hilltop, we observed a 10 cm thick primary tephra layer (ca 22.6 kyr) within loess deposits approximately 80 cm below the landscape surface. In the downslope direction, the depth to the highly concentrated tephra layer decreases, coincident with an increase in hillslope convexity (which is proportional to erosion rate if soil flux varies linearly with hillslope gradient). Exhumation of the spike in tephra concentration results from landscape lowering due to soil transport processes as evidence for overland flow erosion is lacking. Approximately 20 m downslope of the hilltop, where the depth to the tephra spike declines to 40-50 cm, peak concentrations decrease by a factor of 4 and tephra is distributed uniformly within the upper 40 cm of soil. Further downslope near the valley margin, we observed low and relatively uniform tephra concentrations in the upper soil. The transition from a thin, highly concentrated tephra layer at depth to sparse, widely distributed tephra within the upper soil column may result from soil mixing and transport by tree and plant root activity. The depth of this transition is approximately 50 cm along our transect, coincident with the rooting depth of Podocarpus trees that populated the area through much of the

  9. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  10. Denudation rates derived from spatially-averaged cosmogenic nuclide analysis in Nelson catchments, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdis, A.; Norton, K. P.; Ditchburn, B.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-12-01

    events. This is highlighted by sediment yields reaching ~2535 t km-2 yr-1 following storm events in the Nelson region (Basher et al., 2011). At least on the northern South Island of New Zealand, extreme climatic events appear to be the main driver of elevated denudation rates. Basher, L., Hicks, D., Clapp, B., & Hewitt, T. (2011). Sediment Yield Response to Large Storm Events and Forest Harvesting, Motueka River, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal ofMarine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 45, No. 3 , 333-356.

  11. Effect of Hillslope Gradient on Vegetation Recovery on Abandoned Land of Shifting Cultivation in Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ding; Run-Guo Zang; You-Xu Jiang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of hillslope gradient on vegetation recovery on abandoned land of shifting cultivation in Hainan Island, south China, by measuring community composition and structure of 25-year-old secondary forest fallows along a hillslope gradient (up-, middle-, and down-slope position).A total of 49 733 free-standing woody plant stems higher than 10 cm and belonging to 170 species, 112 genera, and 57 families was found in the three 1-hm2 investigation plots. Stem density was highest in the down-slope stand and lowest in the up-slope stand. Species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were both highest in the middle-slope stand, and lower in the down-slope and up-slope stands. The recovery forest fallows on different hillslope positions were all dominated by a few species. The five most abundant species accounted for 70.1%, 58.8%, and 72.9% of total stem densities in stands in the up-, middle-, and down-slope positions, respectively. The five species with the greatest basal areas accounted for 74.5%,84.3%, and 74.7% of total stem basal area for the up-, middle-, and down-slope positions, respectively. The number of low-density species (stem abundance less than five) increased from the up-slope position downward. Of the nine local common species among three different functional groups, the short-lived pioneer species dominated the up-slope position, but long-lived pioneer species dominated the middle- and down-slope positions. The climax species of primary tropical lowland rain forest was found in the downslope position. Both the mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and mean height of the trees increased with decreasing hillslope gradient. The stem density and basal area in different size classes were significantly different in stands in different slope positions. Our results indicated that the rate of secondary succession varies, even over small spatial scales caused by the hillslope gradient, in early vegetation recovery.

  12. Monthly sea surface temperature records reconstructed by δ18O of reef-building coral in the east of Hainan Island,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Xuexian(何学贤); LIU; Dunyi(刘敦一); PENG; Zicheng(彭子成); LIU; Weiguo(刘卫国)

    2002-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic compositions of a coral colony of Porites lutea obtained on a core allowed the reconstruction of a 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures. This coral δ18O data are from the east of Hainan Island water (22°20′N, 110°39′E), South China Sea. The relationship between δ18O in the skeletal aragonite carbonate and the sea surface temperature (SST) is SST = -5.36 δ18OPDB-3.51 (r = 0.73, n = 470), dδ18O/d(SST) = -0.187‰/ ℃; and the thermometer was set at monthly resolution. The 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures reflected the same change trend in the northern part of South China Sea as the air temperature change trend in China.

  13. Sediment sequences and palynology of outer South Bay, Manitoulin Island, Ontario: Connections to Lake Huron paleohydrologic phases and upstream Lake Agassiz events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. F. M.; Anderson, T. W.

    2017-10-01

    South Bay on the southern coast of Manitoulin Island is a fjord-like embayment connected to Lake Huron by a natural narrow gap in the bay's outer sill 6.5-14 m above the lake. A seismic profile, pollen, plant macrofossil, grain size analyses, and other sediment properties of two piston cores from a shallow outer basin of the bay document a 9 m-thick sediment section comprising rhythmically laminated clay under silty clay containing zones with small molluscan shells and marsh detritus. A sandy pebbly layer under soft silty clay mud overlies these sediments. This stratigraphy represents inundation by deep glacial Lake Algonquin followed by the shallowing Post Algonquin series of lakes, and exposure in the early Holocene by 5 Lake Stanley lowstands in the Lake Huron basin separated by 4 Lake Mattawa highstands. Overflow from South Bay in the first lowstand is thought to have eroded the outer sill gap. Marsh environments are inferred to have formed in the bay during subsequent lowstands. The Lake Mattawa highstands are attributed to outburst floods mainly from glacial Lake Agassiz. Palynological evidence of increased spruce occurrence, an apparent regional climate reversal, during the dry pine period is attributed to cold northwest winds from the Lake Superior basin and a lake effect from the Mattawa highstands in the Lake Huron basin. Lake waters transgressed South Bay following the pine period to form the Nipissing shore on Manitoulin Island. Transfer of Lake Huron basin drainage to southern outlets and continued glacioisostatic uplift of the region led to the present configuration of South Bay and Lake Huron.

  14. Examination and comparative study of the Ascension of The Prophet of Islam In The View Of Michael Sells And Anne-mari e Shamil with Inter- Religious Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babollah Mohammadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sells, American scholar of Quran,about the Ascension (Mi,raj of the prophet (PBUH focuses on three issues: First, the Mi,raj term is not used in the Quran and the ascension of the explanation is not enough. second, Mohammad is no different from the miracle of the Quran is the miracle of God,he is not anything else, Quran states. Third, Ascension of the prophet (PBUH has been in sleep and dream.According to him, the discussion about the layers of the subject is based mainly on the evidence of Quran.In this case, only limited information can be found in the Asra chapter (sooreh of the Quran.In addition, he has tried to make the Ascension event from Jewish traditions and the effects Bvdaysm.actually the orientalist`s goal is to prove the absence of ascension of the prophet(PBUH.  In contrast, Anne-marie Shamil stayes that prophet`s ascension derived from the first verse of Asra sura and believes that two processes(horizontal and verticalfor prophet happened.and unlike Michael,he knows mi,raj from the God miracles.Anne-Marie because her sufficient the Sunni sources is doubt with belief in the physical and spiritual ascension,in some of her votes,such as; visible or not visible in the ascension of God by the prophet.Despite the fundamental criticism that some elements of the theory of two Orientalists arrived,positive points are observed in their ideas.in this article we have tried to express the views of the Orientalists, then to review their ideas considered

  15. Examination and comparative study of the Ascension of The Prophet of Islam In The View Of Michael Sells And Anne-mari e Shamil with Inter- Religious Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Azadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sells, American scholar of Quran,about the Ascension (Mi,raj of the prophet (PBUH focuses on three issues: First, the Mi,raj term is not used in the Quran and the ascension of the explanation is not enough. second, Mohammad is no different from the miracle of the Quran is the miracle of God,he is not anything else, Quran states. Third, Ascension of the prophet (PBUH has been in sleep and dream.According to him, the discussion about the layers of the subject is based mainly on the evidence of Quran.In this case, only limited information can be found in the Asra chapter (sooreh of the Quran.In addition, he has tried to make the Ascension event from Jewish traditions and the effects Bvdaysm.actually the orientalist`s goal is to prove the absence of ascension of the prophet(PBUH.  In contrast, Anne-marie Shamil stayes that prophet`s ascension derived from the first verse of Asra sura and believes that two processes(horizontal and verticalfor prophet happened.and unlike Michael,he knows mi,raj from the God miracles.Anne-Marie because her sufficient the Sunni sources is doubt with belief in the physical and spiritual ascension,in some of her votes,such as; visible or not visible in the ascension of God by the prophet.Despite the fundamental criticism that some elements of the theory of two Orientalists arrived,positive points are observed in their ideas.in this article we have tried to express the views of the Orientalists, then to review their ideas considered

  16. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing geese at south Nelson Island, Alaska: A report of results from 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents a field investigation of goose productivity in 1984 conducted on Nelson Island on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures used...

  17. A GIS-BASED GLACIER INVENTORY FOR THE ANTARCTIC PENINSULA AND THE SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS ——A FIRST CASE STUDY ON KING GEORGE ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the international project “Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS)" headed by the US Geological Survey is to establish a world wide glacier inventory based on satellite imagery.This data set will form a first digital baseline study for future glacier monitoring.The presented GIS_based glacier inventory for King George Island is a case study for the area of the Antarctic Peninsula.In the database of the glacier inventory topographic information,specific glaciological parameters as well as metadata will be included.The topographic data consists of drainage basin limits,basin areas,altitudinal ranges,perimeters and mean lengths.Glaciological data sets should comprise information on glacier retreat in different periods,glacier velocities,ice thickness and bedrock topography as well as derived parameters.Modelled and measured mass balance parameters could be included as additional data layers.In particular,these metadata records must comprise background information on data accuracy and data sources and should be compatible with a future data model for the King George Island GIS (KGIS).Three examples illustrate that the GLIMS database will not only contain information valuable for glaciological applications,but also other environmental studies on the island will benefit from this standardised remote sensing data sets.Therefore,a very close link between the data models of KGIS and GLIMS has to be established to enable these synergisms.Finally,better access to historic aerial photography would enable a continuous record of glacier retreat from the beginning of the 1950's onward.

  18. Examination and Comparison of Phrases of Some Old Letters of Ascension (to Heaven and It's Comparison with Shafiee Kadkani's Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کهدویی کهدویی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human voyage to the world of ultra sense is a matter of discourses which was widely discussed between nations and the various schools of philosophy, language and many people including leaders of religions and thoughts branches confessed doing such voyages and left some literary reports of their mystical and dreamy travel. The oldest and newest of these reports are shown in this paper and them between the voyages that traditional people have reported and the letter of ascension of M.R.SH.KK as ample of a modern man which is available we make some comparisons in different dimensions , dealing with unconscious and interfering of super human in forming their phrases . This survey shows that most of these voyages could have certain occurrences, and could explain them in scientific view and particularly based on Yung's ideas. In evaluating a part of phrases of these voyages it has been shown that the similarities and common points of these ascensions is related to the beliefs, mortification and deliberations that cause these voyages in one side and in the other side is related to the influence of the most formers and the letter voyages; also by comparing the two traditional and modern groups of passengers of the invisible world. Through submitting and explaining their documentary reports, the ideology role of these two groups is described in creating the elements of these phrases and mean while the commitment and mission of human is described based on considering the traditional definition of human as a speaking animal and the definition of moderns as a searching animal in human general ascension , and at the end it is reminded that the modern human is trying to encourage and prepare the collective conscience of human to clear and improve the society through conscious movement and describing manners of painful souls in world of spirits and using the fear strategy. The reason of fear less critic of poets in the last part of the letter of ascension of

  19. The global rise in methane 2007-present: isotopic constraints from Ascension and Alert. Is a significant change occurring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Euan G.; Manning, Martin R.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James; Brownlow, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Since 2007, atmospheric methane has risen globally by about 6 ppb a year (NOAA data), though with strong year to year variations, after a prolonged approach to equilibrium in the 1980s and 1990s. Much of this growth has been driven from the tropics, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, though with brief episodes of strong growth also in the Arctic in 2007, and in the Northern Hemisphere's low temperate latitudes. Global growth was about 13±1 ppb in 2014 and continued strongly through 2015 (NOAA data). The renewed growth in total methane burden has been accompanied by a significant shift in δ13CCH4 ratio to more 13C depleted values, which began simultaneously with the start of the rise, and has been broadly sustained, although there have also been large short term positive anomalies in δ13CCH4 occurring in both hemispheres. On Ascension island (8oS), δ13CCH4 values through into 2015 have stabilised around 0.2‰ more negative than in 2007-8. Measurements from Cape Point (34oS), and Alert (82oN) show similar patterns, as do NOAA-INSTAAR results from S. Pole. This isotopic trend is quite different from the trend of the 20th century, and implies current growth is driven by biogenic sources, not direct anthropogenic emissions. A budget analysis of both methane mole fraction and δ13CCH4 ratio has been used to investigate patterns. It is unlikely that the growth was driven by reductions in the OH sink, as such scenarios are hard to reconcile with the isotopic record. Increased anthropogenic emissions, from coal and gas leaks or fires, would tend to shift isotopic values to less 13C depleted values, the opposite of observations. The most likely explanation for the change is thus sustained growth in low latitude and southern biogenic sources, probably mainly from tropical wetlands, forests and savannas, with a possible contribution also from ruminants. In total, over the 9 year 2007- 2015 period, methane growth has been about 50-60 ppb, and continuing. The broad

  20. Description and proposed life cycle of Maritrema novaezealandensis n. sp. (Microphallidae) parasitic in red-billed gulls, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus, from Otago Harbor, South Island, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martorelli, Sergio R; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard;

    2004-01-01

    Maritrema novaezealandensis n. sp. is described from Otago Harbor, South Island, New Zealand, on the basis of adult specimens collected from the Red-billed gull, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus, and excysted metacercariae obtained from crabs. It belongs to the "eroliae group" and differs from ot......, with metacercariae encysted in the body cavity of the crustacean host. Finally, the definitive host, the gull, L. n. scopulinus, harbors the adult worms in its intestine.......Maritrema novaezealandensis n. sp. is described from Otago Harbor, South Island, New Zealand, on the basis of adult specimens collected from the Red-billed gull, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus, and excysted metacercariae obtained from crabs. It belongs to the "eroliae group" and differs from...... other related species mainly in the shape, size, and patterns of distributions of the spines on the cirrus, the shape of the metraterm, the presence of an unlobed ovary, and the complete ring of the vitelline follicles. Based on morphometric features of metacercariae and adult specimens, the trophic...

  1. Origin of the Islands Disputes in South China Sea and Countermeasure Analysis%南海岛礁争端的由来及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊

    2014-01-01

    South China Sea Islands and their adjacent waters have been parts of the territory of China since ancient times.However,the neighboring countries and major powers continuously strengthen the occupation and interfere in China ’ s territorial sovereignty .China should carry out a comprehensive legal propaganda , strengthen the effective control of the islands and reefs ,and conduct flexible activism in accordance with sea so as to safeguard our sover-eignty in the South China Sea .%南海诸岛及其附近海域自古就是中国的领土,然而周边国家及大国不断强化侵占,干涉我国领土主权。我国应全面开展法律宣传造势,强化岛礁有效控制,并依海域开展灵活多样的维权行动,以维护我国在南海的主权。

  2. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two Southern Hemisphere tropical/subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa from ozonesondes, LIDAR, and in situ aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the Southwestern Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg. This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 ozonesondes, DIAL LIDAR and MOZAIC airborne instrumentation.

    The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: ozonesondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when the LIDAR profiles show greater values in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere when the LIDAR profiles show lower values during all seasons. These results show that the climatological value of LIDAR profiles must be discussed with care since LIDAR measurements can be performed only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit of the profile depends on the signal strength.

    In addition, linear trends have been calculated from ozonesonde data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results show that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer that is affected by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratosphere-troposphere exchange is more frequently expected.

  3. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  4. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  5. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Margalef

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4–27.8 kyr BP is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles (DO and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA, the Southern Westerlies (SW, and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ. The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard–Oeschger stadials.

  6. Providing University Education in Physical Geography across the South Pacific Islands: Multi-Modal Course Delivery and Student Grade Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Poole, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Enormous distances across the vast South Pacific hinder student access to the main Fiji campus of the regional tertiary education provider, the University of the South Pacific (USP). Fortunately, USP has been a pioneer in distance education (DE) and promotes multi-modal delivery of programmes. Geography has embraced DE, but doubts remain about…

  7. Ductile nappe stacking and refolding in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit: insights from Sifnos Island (south Aegean Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravadinou, E.; Xypolias, P.; Chatzaras, V.; Iliopoulos, I.; Gerogiannis, N.

    2016-01-01

    New geological and structural mapping combined with kinematic and amphibole chemistry analyses is used to investigate the deformation history of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Aegean Sea). We concentrate on north Sifnos, an area characterized by exceptionally well-pre

  8. Circulation around La Réunion and Mauritius islands in the south-western Indian Ocean: A modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pous, Stéphane; Lazure, Pascal; André, Gaël.; Dumas, Franck; Halo, Issufo; Penven, Pierrick

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to document the circulation in the vicinity of La Réunion and Mauritius islands, i.e., within 500 km offshore, on the intraseasonal time scale, using a high-resolution realistic modeling strategy. The simulated sea level anomalies, water mass properties, and large-scale circulation compare favorably with satellite and in situ observations. Our high-resolution simulation suggests that the currents around the islands are maximal locally, oriented southwestward, to the southeast of both islands which is not visible in low-resolution satellite observations. It also highlights the high degree of variability of the circulation, which is dominated by westward propagating features. The predominant time scale of variability is 60 days. This coincides with the period of a barotropic mode of variability confined to the Mascarene Basin. The characteristics of the westward propagating anomalies are related to baroclinic Rossby waves crossing the Indian Ocean but only in the long-wave resting ocean limit. Tracking those anomalies as eddies shows that they also have a meridional tendency in their trajectory, northward for cyclones and southward for anticyclones, which is consistent with previous studies. Sensitivity experiments suggest that they are predominantly advected from the east, but there is also local generation in the lee of the islands, due to interaction between the circulation and topography.

  9. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klöser, H.; Ferreyra, G.; Schloss, I.; Mercuri, G.; Laturnus, F.; Curtosi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The invest

  10. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klöser, H.; Ferreyra, G.; Schloss, I.; Mercuri, G.; Laturnus, F.; Curtosi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The

  11. Search for First Harmonic Modulation in the Right Ascension Distribution of Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; D'Olivo, C Dobrigkeit J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.12.007

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above $2.5\\times 10^{17}$ eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% $C.L.$ for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.

  12. Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 × 1017 eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% C.L. for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.

  13. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two southern subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa from ozone sondes, LIDAR, aircraft and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clain

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the southwestern part of Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg. This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 radiosoundings, DIAL LIDAR, MOZAIC airborne instrumentation and Dasibi UV ground based measurements.

    The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: radiosondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when smaller values for the LIDAR profiles in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere for all seasons occur. These results show that the LIDAR profiles are at times not representative of the true ozone climatological value as measurements can be taken only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit reached depends on the signal.

    In the lower troposphere, climatological ozone values from radiosondes have been compared to a one year campaign of ground based measurements from a Dasibi instrument located at high altitude site (2150 m at Reunion Island. The seasonal cycle is comparable for the two datasets, with Dasibi UV values displaying slightly higher values. This suggests that if local dynamical and possibly physico-chemical effects may influence the ozone level, the seasonal cycle can be followed with ground level measurements. Average ground level concentrations measured on the summits of the island seem to be representative of the lower free troposphere ozone concentration at the same altitude (~2000 m whereas night time data would be representative of tropospheric concentration at a higher altitude (~3000 m due to the subsidence effect.

    Finally, linear trends have been calculated from radiosondes data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations

  14. 韩日岛争与美国的态度%Island Dispute between Japan and South Korea as well as the U.S. Attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相旼[韩

    2013-01-01

    直到19世纪70年代,日本官方在各种文件中仍承认独岛为韩国的领土。20世纪初,日本军国主义在发动大规模侵略战争期间强行将独岛划归日本所有(日本称“竹岛”)。二战结束后,朴正熙执政期间,由日方提出的独岛归属问题成为韩日双方争论的焦点。整个冷战期间,由于韩日两国都是美国的重要盟国,每当韩日两国出现岛争问题时,美国表面上总是持中立态度,实际上存在着听信日本一面之词而混淆是非的问题。韩日岛争的问题不只是领土归属问题,也是一个是历史认识问题。同时,韩日岛争不仅是韩日两国间的问题,也应该加上美国因素,在东北亚国际关系的框架下考察这一历史遗留问题才是恰当的。美国作为调解者,理应选择历史上独岛主权归属韩国的立场,客观公正地解决韩日两国之间的岛争。%Japan had admitted that Dokdo belonged to Korea in various ocial documents until the 1870s. How-ever, in the early 20th century, Japanese militarism forcibly placed Dokdo into Japanese territory as“Takeshima”in a large-scale war of aggression. After World War II, under the government of Park Chung-hee, the ownership of Dokdo became a focus of debate between Korea and Japan. Throughout the Cold War, the United States kept a neutral stand seemingly whenever the island dispute appeared between South Korea and Japan, as the two of them were important U.S. allies by then; while in fact, it believed what Japan said one-sidedly that confused right and wrong. The island dispute between South Korea and Japan was not simply a territorial attribution but the understanding of history. Meanwhile, the island dispute was not simply the problem between South Korea and Japan, the U.S. should be taken into account; and it is proper only when the historical issue is taken into account under the framework of international relations in Northeast Asia

  15. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species.

  16. Regional hard coral distribution within geomorphic and reef flat ecological zones determined by satellite imagery of the Xisha Islands, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiuling; Su, Fenzhen; Zhao, Huanting; Zhang, Junjue; Wang, Qi; Wu, Di

    2017-05-01

    Coral reefs in the Xisha Islands (also known as the Paracel Islands in English), South China Sea, have experienced dramatic declines in coral cover. However, the current regional scale hard coral distribution of geomorphic and ecological zones, essential for reefs management in the context of global warming and ocean acidification, is not well documented. We analyzed data from field surveys, Landsat-8 and GF-1 images to map the distribution of hard coral within geomorphic zones and reef flat ecological zones. In situ surveys conducted in June 2014 on nine reefs provided a complete picture of reef status with regard to live coral diversity, evenness of coral cover and reef health (live versus dead cover) for the Xisha Islands. Mean coral cover was 12.5% in 2014 and damaged reefs seemed to show signs of recovery. Coral cover in sheltered habitats such as lagoon patch reefs and biotic dense zones of reef flats was higher, but there were large regional differences and low diversity. In contrast, the more exposed reef slopes had high coral diversity, along with high and more equal distributions of coral cover. Mean hard coral cover of other zones was reef system was estimated to cover 1 060 km2, and the emergent reefs covered 787 m2. Hard corals of emergent reefs were considered to cover 97 km2. The biotic dense zone of the reef flat was a very common zone on all simple atolls, especially the broader northern reef flats. The total cover of live and dead coral can reach above 70% in this zone, showing an equilibrium between live and dead coral as opposed to coral and algae. This information regarding the spatial distribution of hard coral can support and inform the management of Xisha reef ecosystems.

  17. Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Gil-Peña, I.; Maestro, A.; López-Martínez, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Soto, R.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Rey, J.; Pueyo, O.

    2016-07-01

    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lowermost post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplacement position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-caldera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC.

  18. New records of Chondrilla australiensis and Chondrilla grandistellata (Demospongiae: Chondrosida: Chondrillidae from Havelock Island, South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Immanuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chondrilla is reported from the Andaman group of Islands off Havelock Island for the first time, with two species, C. grandistellata and C. australiensis in this study.  This genus has previously been reported and represented by four species in Indian waters viz., Chondrilla mixta, C. sacciformis, C. kilakaria and C. australiensis. C. australiensis is light brown to reddish-brown in colour; encrusts primarily on live boulder corals; contains oxyasters measuring 14.8-(18.5-22.2 µm and spherasters measuring 17.3-(26-29.7 µm. C. grandistellata is tan or brown in colour with unevenly distributed white speckles; Contains large spherasters that measure 106.3-(143.3-175.6 µm.  In this study it is suggested that C. sacciformis specimens reported previously from India may be C. grandistellata; this probable conspecificity is also discussed.  

  19. 南海诸岛的土壤及其生态系统特征%Soils and the soil ecosystem in the South China Sea Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚子同; 张甘霖; 杨飞

    2013-01-01

      首先阐述中国在20世纪30年代、70年代和90年代研究南海诸岛土壤的历程,进而从土壤形成、土壤特性、鸟粪磷矿和土壤分布论述南海诸岛土壤的特点,指出此种土壤为富磷高钙的砂性土壤,其形成年龄为1000~2000 a,认为在赤道热带气候和珊瑚、贝壳砂母质条件下,在海鸟、植物及其作用下形成的土壤,构造了一个独特的、富磷土壤生态系统。为了保持这个生态系统的稳定性,应特别注意保护好作为这个生态系统的纽带——土壤。文章提出了相应的措施。%This paper reviewes the survey and researches on soils and ecosystems of the South China Sea Islands carried out during the 1930s, 1970s and 1990s. Soil formation, soil characteristics, guano phosphate rocks and soil distribution of the South China Sea Islands are introduced. The soils in these islands are phospho-calcic sandy soils, whose ages are about 1 000~2 000 a. B. P. It is believed that a special phosphorus-enriched soil and the entire ecosystem consisting coral, shell sands, seabirds, plants and soils was constructed by the interaction of these factors. Sea birds play a key role in P cycle by adding P-rich guano to the soils. To maintain the stability of this ecosystem, special attention should be paid to the key link of the ecosystem, namely, the soils.

  20. Elemental (C/N ratios) and Isotope (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) Compositions of Surface Sediments from the Barrier Islands in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2017-04-01

    The Nakdong River Estuary (NRE) in South Korea is a typical, artificially-manipulated estuary and blocked by two large dam. The Noksan Dam, built in 1934, blocks the flow of the West Nakdong River, and the NRE Dam was completed between 1983 and 1987 to regulate the flow of the East Nakdong River (called the Eulsuk River locally). For the past half century, several huge industrial complexes have been developed in the reclaimed land near the NRE. In the estuary, the hydraulic circulation has been markedly modified caused by the changes in the river discharge and geomorphic configuration of such as the formation of a series of barrier islands, the two large dams resulting from the artificial control of the natural river flow and upstream intrusion of saltwater by the operation of the two large dams. Consequently, the saltwater wedge that once reached approximately 40 km upstream is now blocked at the dam, considerably reducing the tidal prism. The estuary is typified by barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. We investigated the elemental (C/N ratios) and isotopic (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) compositions of organic matters in various composition in the surface sediments in the NRE. In May 2015, 90 surface sediment samples were collected on and around three islands in the NRE. The mean grain size of the barrier island system in the NRE ranged from 1.1 to 8.9 Φ (average 3.9 Φ) in mean grain size, and they were composed of various sediment types, including muddy Sand (S), sandy Mud (sM), and Mud (M). A useful application of the C/N ratios is as a proxy for assessment of organic matter source change, related to the sediment origins terrestrial or marine. The C/N ratios (average, 5.88) imply that the organic matter in the study area was of marine origins, as indicated by the lower ratios between 4 and 10. The isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) indicated the deposition of algae-derived organic

  1. Integrating Sustainability into Teaching and Research at the University of the South Pacific to Enhance Capacity for the Sustainable Development of Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayathu C. Koshy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pacific Island countries have been recognised globally as a ‘special case for environment and Sustainable Development (SD’ because of their extreme vulnerability to a host of both external and internal development challenges such as: Narrow range of resources, high population density, limited export volume, impacts of climate change and natural disasters, trade, ICT and globalisation pressures. As part of their strategic approach to address these threats, the island countries have become party to a number of international and regional multi-lateral agreements. However, there are severe capacity constraints, at all levels-individual, institutional and systemic-to the full-scale implementation of these agreements. Part of the problem is that the educational system in general and in particular the higher educational institutions have not yet mainstreamed sustainability into their curriculum. Thus there is a ‘campus-workplace’ mismatch for SD implementation that needs to be addressed urgently. Approach: This study addresses how the University of the South Pacific (USP and two other Pacific universities in the Pacific island region have been addressing these capacity issues using a ‘logical framework approach’ for the development and implementation of two on-going, multidisciplinary ESD projects. The first is a USP project, funded by the Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU-USP, the second may be seen as a much broader extension of the ACCU-USP project, in the form of a networked initiative involving USP, UPNG and NUS. Results: Within the limitations discussed elsewhere (ibid, the ACCU-USP and EDULINK-NIU (NIU: network of island universities projects are progressing well in establishing institutional structures for the promotion of ESD, developing new courses and resource materials, establishing new postgraduate programmes, enhancing community capacity to manage natural resources sustainably and contributing

  2. Seasonal evolution of the upper-ocean adjacent to the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean: Results from a “lazy biological mooring”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Renfrew, Ian A.; Boehme, Lars; Biuw, Martin; Fedak, Mike

    2011-07-01

    A serendipitous >8-month time series of hydrographic properties was obtained from the vicinity of the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean, by tagging a southern elephant seal ( Mirounga leonina) on Signy Island with a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL) in March 2007. Such a time series (including data from the austral autumn and winter) would have been extremely difficult to obtain via other means, and it illustrates with unprecedented temporal resolution the seasonal progression of upper-ocean water mass properties and stratification at this location. Sea ice production values of around 0.15-0.4 m month -1 for April to July were inferred from the progression of salinity, with significant levels still in September (around 0.2 m month -1). However, these values presume that advective processes have negligible effect on the salinity changes observed locally; this presumption is seen to be inappropriate in this case, and it is argued that the ice production rates inferred are better considered as "smeared averages" for the region of the northwestern Weddell Sea upstream from the South Orkneys. The impact of such advective effects is illustrated by contrasting the observed hydrographic series with the output of a one-dimensional model of the upper-ocean forced with local fluxes. It is found that the difference in magnitude between local (modelled) and regional (inferred) ice production is significant, with estimates differing by around a factor of two. A halo of markedly low sea ice concentration around the South Orkneys during the austral winter offers at least a partial explanation for this, since it enabled stronger atmosphere/ocean fluxes to persist and hence stronger ice production to prevail locally compared with the upstream region. The year of data collection was an El Niño year, and it is well-established that this phenomenon can impact strongly on the surface ocean and ice field in this sector of the Southern Ocean, thus

  3. Solubility of iron and other trace elements in rainwater collected on the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heimburger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The soluble fraction of aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti in rainwater on the Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities of elements exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only a fraction of smaller aerosols reaches the Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport, resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 27 ± 6 μg m−2 d−1 (~0.5 μmol m−2 d−1 for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

  4. What do we know of consumers’ preferences and food choices in the islands of the South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Kate M.

    1999-01-01

    Governments in developing countries have tended to focus on the production end of their food systems. However, there is increasing recognition of the need to understand the nature of post-harvest marketing and consumers' behaviour in order to develop effective policies for food marketing initiatives and nutrition security. This paper presents an examination of the available research into consumer preferences in the South Pacific region and the contexts in which the research was conducted. Of ...

  5. Hurricane Sandy's Impact on Coastal Sedimentation on Long Island's South Shore: Results from a 2013 Rapid Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Goff, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the NY coast, we conducted subsurface and multi-beam analyses, ground-truthed by grab samples, in 3 areas: the western end of Fire Island (FIW), eastern Fire Island (FIE) where a new inlet formed during the storm, and Long Beach (LB). Grab samples yielded sands and muds, a surprise given the shallow (10-25m) water depths. Muds rested on top of sands and were removed for additional analyses. Since percent mud could not be determined absolutely, sediments were washed through a 63 mm sieve, RoTapped for 10 minutes at ¼ Φ, and weight percent calculated for the coarse fraction. At FIW and FIE, fine sands dominate the shallowest depths studied, consistent with previous studies. At FIE, the sedimentary wedge extends to ~15m, with finest sands (peak 3-3.5 Φ) in shallowest waters surveyed (~10m). Slightly coarser (2.5Φ) sediments plus relict gravels are present in swales where the wedge shoals. This supports mapping results indicating sand ridges migrated to the SW. Medium to fine sand is present at the deepest extent of the wedge; the grain size distribution matches a sample taken in the swash zone on the eastern flank of the new breach. Sediments may have been transported shoreward and then reworked post-Sandy. Samples seaward of the new breach were capped by a mud layer, which in turn had a layer of fine sand resting on it, evidence of a nascent ebb tidal deposit. At FIW, sediments in the shallow NE swale are finer (3.5Φ) and better sorted. As the region is underlain by relict sediments, these fine sands may be relicts exposed by storm-driven bedform migration. Deeper water (~22m w.d.) samples at FIW are coarser and contain shell hash. Sand on the lee side of the sand ridge, which CHIRP profiles show did not migrate significantly and accumulated sands, are medium (1.5 Φ), and match the grain sizes found on Fire Island beach. Muds contain heavy metals in concentrations consistent with transport from adjacent estuaries.

  6. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöser, Heinz; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mercuri, Guillermo; Laturnus, Frank; Curtosi, Antonio

    1993-10-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The investigated season showed two distinct periods: Early summer lasted until end of December with comparatively cold temperatures, unstable water column and deep penetration of light; late summer started in early January and was characterized by reduced salinity due to meltwater discharge and high turbidity due to suspended sediments. Meltwater influence did not sufficiently change salinity to be responsible for the frequently noted paucity of macroalgal communities in sheltered bays. Shading by suspended sediments was equally considered to be of minor importance, as macroalgae have their optimal growth phase from September to December. During this period, light penetration and depth distribution of macroalgae coincide perfectly. From these results, a general review on depth limitation of macroalgae by light conditions is derived.

  7. The western Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea): highlight on their eruptive history based on K-Ar dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Aeolian Islands volcanoes are located in southern Tyrrhenian Sea on the northern continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Stromboli, Panarea and Vulcano volcanoes of the half eastern sector are well studied as they are still active and they represent high volcanic hazard. While stratigraphic studies were carried out on volcanoes of the western sector, radiometric ages are lacking to well understand their eruptive history. Therefore, new geochronological and geochemical data were obtained for Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina and Lipari western volcanoes. The aim is to establish a complete time framework of the volcanism and to study possible time-related variations of magma compositions. The 37 new ages were obtained using K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique that is suitable for dating Quaternary volcanic rocks. The new geochemical data consist of whole rock major and trace elements analysis on dated samples. Our new sets of data give evidence that the Aeolian Islands are young volcanoes emplaced within the last 300 ka. The oldest products outcrop at Filicudi, Salina and Lipari. Te first emerged activity of Alicudi volcano occurred 120 ka ago. While quiescence activity of at least 50 ka is recognized at Filicudi and Lipari, and potentially at Salina, the volcanic activity of Alicudi would have been relatively continuous. These whole volcanoes were active within the last 30 ka which has to be considered for volcanic hazard assessment. At the scale of each volcano, the degree of differentiation increase roughly through time, except at Filicudi where the ultimate products correspond to mafic magma. At the scale of the archipelago, this process increases from western Alicudi and Filicudi volcanoes, where andesitic magmas are the most evolved magmas, to central Salina and Lipari volcanoes, where rhyolitic magmas are emitted during explosive eruption. Moreover, pulses of magmatic activity would have occurred around 30-40 and 110-120 ka when the four volcanoes

  8. The lost traces of the frescoes on the western frontage of the ascension Church in Žiča

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the lower layer of the façade mortar that once covered the western frontage of the Žiča katholikon, traces were registered of the figure of an archangel (the western face of the tower and parts of ornamental friezes (southern wing of the narthex façade and the northern oculus. Consideration of the data provided in earlier documentation leads one to conclude that this referred to traces of painting done during the renewal of the Ascension Church in the time of Archbishop Danilo II. [[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036: Srpska srednjovekovna umetnost i njen evropski kontekst i br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  9. 南海诸岛珊瑚礁可持续发展%Sustainable Development of the Coral Reefs in the South China Sea Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵焕庭; 王丽荣; 袁家义

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are the most productive and diverse of all marine ecosystems. In recent years, coral reefs are in degradation under the threats of natural events and human activities, such as climate change, sea-level rising, ocean acidification, over-fishing, sedimentation, contamination and regional development. How to protect coral reefs so that they can produce ecosystem goods and services sustainably to meet the needs of today and future is focused on in recent years. Related concepts and approaches of sustainable development of coral reefs are introduced in this paper. The potential of sustainable development of and the pressure faced by the coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands are also analyzed. Finally, several sustainable development methods for the coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands are proposed, such as MPA, ICZM, and EBM.%珊瑚礁是具有极高生物生产力和生物多样性的海洋生态系统之一,由于受到自然因素(如气候变化、海平面上升和海洋酸化等)以及人类活动(如过度捕捞、沉积物、污染物和区域发展等)因素的影响,珊瑚礁生态系统近年来不断处于退化之中。如何保护珊瑚礁资源,以使其能持续为人类提供产品和服务,满足当代和未来人们发展的需要则成为关注的焦点。文章介绍了珊瑚礁可持续发展的概念和模式,分析了南海诸岛在珊瑚礁国土资源、渔业资源、旅游资源和油气资源等几方面的可持续发展潜力,及其所面临的自然、人为压力,据此给出了珊瑚礁可持续发展的途径。

  10. Having faith in each other: not-for-profit giant Ascension Health hooks up with United Surgical Partners for ASC joint venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michael

    2004-09-13

    In the biggest deal of its kind, not-for-profit giant Ascension is going to build ambulatory surgery centers with for-profit United Surgical Partners, which already has a deal with Baylor, left. "Hospitals are realizing that outpatient services are the future. This strategy is sound," one healthcare consultant said.

  11. New narrow-range endemic land snails from the sky islands of northern South Africa (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae and Urocyclidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and five new species of land snails are described from high altitude, insular, Afrotemperate forest habitats in northern South Africa. The distribution of these species is discussed in relation to other narrowly endemic land snails occurring in this and neighbouring regions. The new genus is Ptilototheca gen. nov.; the five new species are: Gulella davisae sp. nov., G. hadroglossa sp. nov., Ptilototheca soutpansbergensis gen. et sp. nov., Sheldonia monsmaripi sp. nov. and S. wolkbergensis sp. nov.

  12. Accurate Source Depths and Focal Mechanisms of Shallow Earthquakes in Western South America and in the New Hebrides Island Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas S.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1983-12-01

    Synthetic seismograms are matched to long-period P waveforms in order to obtain accurate depths of shallow earthquakes with known focal mechanisms. Accurate depths are obtained for a large sample of moderate-sized (6 South America (83 events) and one in the New Hebrides (61 events). In these two areas of contrasting styles of subduction, the accurate depths provide new information on the bending of descending plates near trenches, the seismicity and tectonics of the upper plate, and the geometry and structure of the zone of contact between the upper and descending plates. Depths of suboceanic earthquakes which occurred near the trench and which have either tensional and compressional horizontal stress axes agree well with Chapple and Forsyth's (1979) preferred model of a bending elastic-perfectly plastic plate. However, an unusually deep event occurred beneath the Fiji plateau in an area of young ocean floor supposed to have been formed by sea floor spreading processes only since late Miocene time. The calculated depth of the event, 48 km, places it below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary derived from thermal models. Vertical cross sections through the shallow parts of the subduction zones show that most of the earthquakes with thrust faulting focal mechanisms can be interpreted to be interplate events located in a thin (South American interplate zone is 2 to 3 times larger than that in the New Hebrides. Most of the intraplate events near the interplate boundary are located in the descending plate. In the upper plate, seismicity is more pronounced in the "back arc" regions of the two subduction zones. Thus our results support the generality of a relatively aseismic zone in the upper plate located trenchward of the magmatic arc. Depths of shallow earthquakes in the eastern Andes and sub-Andean regions of South America range between about 9 and 36 km, indicating that both the upper and middle crust are seismically active; about 75% of the events occurred in the

  13. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  14. Paleo-earthquake signatures from the South Wagad Fault (SWF), Wagad Island, Kachchh, Gujarat, western India: A potential seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Gadhavi, Mahendrasinh S.; Kothyari, Girish Ch; Satuluri, Sravanthi

    2017-02-01

    In last 500 years, Kachchh experienced several large magnitude earthquakes (6.0 ≥ M ≤ 7.8), however, not all accompanied surface rupture. The 1819 Allah Bund earthquake (Mw7.8) accompanied surface rupture, whereas, the 2001 Bhuj event (Mw7.6) occurred at a depth of 23 km on E-W striking south dipping thrust fault remained blind. Discontinuities between the denser-brittle basement (?) and overlying ductile-softer Mesozoic-Tertiary-Quaternary succession resulted in a different geometry of faulting. Normal faults associated with rift were reactivated as reverse faults during inversion tectonics, propagated in sedimentary succession and arrested. Thrust-ramps developed along the discontinuities accompanied surface ruptures. Folded structures along the South Wagad Fault (SWF) - an active thrust, exhibits lateral-propagation of fold segments and linkage, suggestive of fault-related-fold growth. Paleoseismic investigations revealed evidence of at least three paleo-earthquakes. Event I occurred before BCE 5080; Event II between BCE 4820 and 2320, and was probably responsible for a massive damage at Dholavira - Harappan site. Event III was between BCE 1230 and 04, most likely caused severe damage to Dholavira. Archaeo-seismological Quality Factor (AQF) of 0.5 suggests that the Dholavira is vulnerable to earthquakes from nearby active faults. With 1500-2000 yr of recurrence interval, occurrence of a large magnitude earthquake on SWF cannot be ruled out.

  15. Interannual variability in reproductive traits of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides around the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, K E; Marshall, C T; Scott, B E; Young, E F; Brickle, P

    2017-07-01

    Commercial fisheries data, collected as part of an observer programme and covering the period 1997-2014, were utilized in order to define key reproductive traits and spawning dynamics of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides at South Georgia. Multi-year spawning site fidelity of D. eleginoides was revealed through the identification of previously unknown spawning hotspots. Timing of female spawning was shown to have shifted later, leading to a shorter spawning duration. A decrease in length and mass of female and male spawning fish and a reduced number of large spawning fish was found, evidence of a change in size structure of spawning D. eleginoides. During the study period fewer later maturity stage females (including spawning stage) were observed in conjunction with increased proportions of early stage female D. eleginoides. The findings are discussed in the context of reproductive success, with consideration of the possible effects such spawning characteristics and behaviours may have on egg and larval survival. This work presents the first long-term assessment of D. eleginoides spawning dynamics at South Georgia and provides valuable knowledge for both the ecology of the species and for future fisheries management of this commercially important species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Relationships Between Clinico-Epidemiological Patterns of Invasive Meningococcal Infections and Complement Deficiencies in French South Pacific Islands (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daures, Maguy; John, Michele; Balter, Cécile Veysseyre; Simon, Olivier; Barguil, Yann; Missotte, Isabelle; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Laumond-Barny, Sylvie; Noel, Martine; Besson-Leaud, Laurent; Spasic, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Suremain, Aurélie; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Descloux, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) is three fold more common in New Caledonia (NC) than in metropolitan France and many IMD cases (35.7%) are due to Y and W135 serogroups. The purpose of our study was to identify IMD risk factors in NC. A retrospective study of all IMD cases that occurred in NC between 2005 and 2011 was conducted. Socio-environmental, clinical and biological data were collected. A search for immune deficiency was proposed to all cases. IMD presentation and outcome were compared according to meningoccal serogroups and the complement deficiency status (C-deficiency). Sixty-six sporadic IMD cases (29 B serogroup, 20 Y or W135, 6 C, 1 A, 10 unknown) occurred in 64 patients often cases of late complement component deficiency. Patients with C-deficiency were mainly Melanesian (92.8%) originating from the Loyalty Islands (62.1%). They were mostly infected with Y/W135 (42.9%) or B serogroups (32.1%). They often developed later and more severe disease than patients without C-deficiency (need for intensive cares in 60% versus 28.0% of cases, p = 0.01). A high prevalence of C-deficiency in the Melanesian population may explain epidemiological and clinical features of IMD in NC. Our results imply an adaptation of meningococcal vaccine strategies in NC.

  17. Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer risk in New South Wales North Coast Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Ruth; Spuur, Kelly Maree; Currie, Geoffrey; Greene, Lacey

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to document the distribution of mammographic parenchymal patterns (MPP) of Indigenous Australian women attending BreastScreen New South Wales (NSW) North Coast, to profile breast cancer risk as it relates to breast density and to explore the correlation between MPP, breast size as described by the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age. Ethics was granted from CQUniversity Human Research Ethics Committee, NSW Population Health Services Research Ethics Committee and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council Ethics Committee. A quantitative retrospective analysis reviewed 502 screening mammograms against the Tabár I-V MPP classification system. The PNL was measured in millimetres (mm) and the age of the patient documented. A statistically significant variation in the distribution of MPP (P distribution of MPP was noted in this snapshot of Indigenous women. A larger study of Indigenous Australian women is required for validation.

  18. Ecological differences of south polar skua populations from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and eastern Larsemann Hills,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zipan; Hans-Ulrich Peter

    2004-01-01

    A study has been done on the comparison of nesting and feeding behavior, population variances as well as breeding success between two populations of south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) from near Great Wall station on Fildes Peninsula and near Zhongshan station in Eastern Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. There are evident differences in their population ecology. The foraging habit is much related to regional ecosystem and food resources near their territorial area. Dependence on human food waste influences skua's diet,which considerably affects their behavior even population variation in both areas. The skuas in Zhongshan Station,could shorten and/or regulate the timing for their egg laying and hatching, and take precedence of one chick brooding, for keeping their breeding success, and subsequent species continuation.

  19. Measuring slip in paleoearthquakes using high-resolution aerial lidar data: Combined analysis of the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence, and Hope faults, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, R. W.; Dolan, J. F.; Hatem, A. E.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Grenader, J.; McGuire, C. P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Nicol, A., , Prof

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of a large new high-resolution aerial lidar microtopographic data set provides > 500 measured fault offsets from sections of the four primary right-lateral strike-slip faults of the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), in northern South Island, New Zealand. With a shot density of >12 shots/m2 (and locally up to 18 shots/m2) these high-quality data allow us to resolve topographically defined geomorphic offsets with decimeter precision along 250 km of combined fault length. The measured offsets range in size from 2 m to > 100 m, and allow us to constrain displacements in the past one to several surface ruptures along stretches of the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence, and Hope faults. Our results reveal a number of important details of the rupture history of these faults, including: (1) the amount of slip and spatial variability (along and across strike) of strain released in the most recent event along sections of each of the four faults; (2) the consistency of slip throughout the past several ruptures on specific faults; and (3) suggestions of potential linkages and segment boundaries along each fault. The lidar data also facilitate precise measurements of larger offsets that, when combined with age data collected as part of our broader collaborative analyses of incremental fault slip rates and paleoearthquake ages, help to constrain the broader spatial and temporal patterns of strain release across the MFS during Holocene and latest Pleistocene time.

  20. Seed Dynamics in Relation to Gaps in a Tropical Montane Rainforest of Hainan Island,South China:(Ⅰ) Seed Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seed dynamics is an important part of stand dynamics in forest ecosystems.In this paper,26 gaps were randomly selected to study the influence of gaps on the spatial and temporal patterns of seed rains in a tropical montane rainforest of Hainan Island,South China.Three zones for each gap,including outside gap zone(Non-gap),transitional gap zone(EG-CG),and central gap zone(CG),were designed,and four seed traps(each 1m × 1m in size)were placed in each zone.Seed rains were collected by these traps every 10 days from June 2001 to May 2002.Seed rain varied greatly with season and generally exhibited a pattern of unimodal change during the study period:seed abundance and species richness were both greater in the wet season than in the dry season.Gaps significantly influenced the temporal patterns of both species richness and density of seed rains.Gaps had no significant influences on the spatial distribution patterns of seed rain species richness,but significantly affected the spatial distribution pattern of seed rain densities.Among the three different zones of gaps,the outside gap zone generally received more seeds inputs than the two other gap zones.

  1. Regional variation of selected polyaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons over the South Island of New Zealand, as indicated by their content in Pinus radiata needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, R; Baumgartner, I

    1987-01-01

    We analysed needles of Pinus radiata along three transects through the South Island of New Zealand for chlorinated hydrocarbons ( alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB and PCB) and PAH (fluoranthene, 3,4-benzopyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene and indenopyrene). At rural sites we also collected samples of moss (Wijkia extenuata) and lichens (Usnea sp.) in order to compare the pollutant concentrations within these plants. A principal component analysis confirmed findings from moss and snow studies in Europe that the PAH concentrations vary regionally in the same way. The pattern of the principal component loadings of the chlorinated hydrocarbons reflects their heterogeneous immission and their different chemodynamics. The regional pattern indicates an increase of gamma-HCH from remote areas to those used intensively for agriculture and gardening, followed by a decrease towards the inner city of Christchurch. In contrast, PCB and PAH show their highest levels of contamination in the city. The regional distribution of PAH in Christchurch correlates well with traffic density, and particularly with the pattern of smoke from domestic fires. Our study demonstrates that needles of P. radiata can be better monitors of atmospheric pollution in New Zealand than mosses or lichens.

  2. High-resolution multi-proxy evidence for millennial- and centennial-scale climate oscillations during the last deglaciation in Jeju Island, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungjae; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Lim, Jaesoo; Park, Yong-Hee

    2014-12-01

    Millennial- and centennial-scale climate and vegetation changes during the last deglaciation from Hanon Maar paleolake on Jeju Island, South Korea were reconstructed by high-resolution multi-proxy data (pollen, Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization [ARM], Total Organic Carbon [TOC], Total Nitrogen [TN], Carbon/Nitrogen [C/N] ratio, carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions (δ15N and δ13C), major element geochemistry, and sediment grain size). The resolution of our multi-proxy data was sufficiently high to enable the detection of millennial- and even centennial-scale climate change in the study area during the last deglacial transition. We found centennial-scale cold reversals between 14,650 and 12,900 cal yr BP, possibly corresponding to the Bølling-Allerød [BA] oscillations. Hanon pollen data implied that climate amelioration around 11,900 cal yr BP terminated the Younger Dryas [YD] in the study area and that a cold event around 11,300 cal yr BP probably correlated with the Pre-Boreal Oscillation [PBO] cooling event. Our results indicate that rising summer insolation and northward expanding low-latitudinal warm currents exerted a strong influence on climatological teleconnection via westerlies between the North Atlantic and the East Asian region during the last deglaciation, presumably causing a decoupling between temperature and East Asian Summer Monsoon [EASM] precipitation during the last deglaciation.

  3. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  4. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  5. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  6. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  7. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  8. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  9. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  10. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  11. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  12. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  13. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  14. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  15. Provenance analysis of heavy minerals in beach sands (Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas) - A view to mineral deposits and the geodynamics of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Skoda, Radek

    2017-10-01

    Beach sands are ideal traps to collect heavy minerals (HM) from different geodynamic settings and mineral deposits. The coastal sediments contain a mixture of HM derived from the submarine shelf and from source rocks in the hinterland. This is true in a transgressive periglacial regime, where drowned valleys and estuaries are instrumental in draining HM to the arenaceous beach sediments from more distal basement lithologies. A scenario like this can be found in the Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas. The site under study is the missing link between South Africa and South America, the splitting-apart of which is mirrored by the HM distribution predominantly concentrated in the backshore and dune belt along the coast. The HM are subdivided into three HM associations reflecting the geodynamic evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean and of some of the prominent mineral deposits on the Gondwana Continent: (1) Gondwana cratons and Proterozoic orogens, with Cr and BIF deposits (rutile, zircon, ilmenite, tourmaline, garnet, Cr spinel), (2) rift-related and break-apart magmatic lithologies with mantle-derived pipe rocks such as kimberlites (zircon, pyroxene, spinel, Mg ilmenite), (3) Cordillera-type lithologies with polymetallic stratabound deposits (tourmaline, amphibole, chlorite, REE phosphates). The variation of the major HM from the stable craton (Kalahari-Kaapvaal Craton) in the East to the mobile fold belt (Andes) in the West follows the order of stability of HM. In addition to these 3 geodynamic HM groups, sporadic occurrences of HM originating from alteration (leucoxene, chlorite s.s.s. (= solid solution series)) are part of armored relics such as ;nigrine; which on transport disintegrated and thereby released these HM. The major ultrastable and stable HM zircon, rutile, tourmaline s.s.s., spinel s.s.s., and garnet s.s.s. are displayed in a synoptical x-y plot showing the mantle and crustal trends of fractionation and formation of cumulates by means of particular

  16. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  17. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.

  18. Community Characteristics of Early Recovery Vegetation on Abandoned Lands of Shifting Cultivation in Bawangling of Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi DING; Run-Guo ZANG

    2005-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is a major form of agricultural practice in most parts of tropical regions worldwide. In places where the bush fallow period is excessively shortened or the period of cultivation is extended for too long, the rate of vegetation recovery and biodiversity on abandoned lands of shifting cultivation would decline. The recovery of the secondary plant communities could even be inhibited for a prolonged period because of grass occupancy. Because of the vital significance of the early recovery communities to secondary succession, we studied the community characteristics of early recovery vegetation on abandoned lands of shifting cultivation in Bawangling of Hainan Island. Measurements were made of the community composition and structure of early recovery vegetation. The sprouting abilities of different functional groups and different species in the same functional group, and the effect of the grass functional group on the composition and quantitative characteristics of tree and shrub functional groups were analyzed. Results indicated that only a few families, genera, or species apparently dominated in the early recovery vegetation on the abandoned lands of shifting cultivation and that deciduous species occurred with a rather high percentage in this early recovery community compared with the natural secondary or old growth forests. Smallsized individuals dominated the woody community. The abundance and basal area of sprouting stems for species in the tree functional group were greater than those of seeder stems, whereas the abundance and basal area of resprouters and seeders for species in the shrub functional group did not differ. The total abundance of stems for the community, stem abundances for species in tree or shrub functional groups, and for seeder or resprouter stems were all negatively correlated with coverage of the grass functional group. The mean sprouting ability in the tree functional group was greater than in the shrub functional group

  19. Life between tides: Spatial and temporal variations of an intertidal macroalgal community at Potter Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcías, María Laura; Deregibus, Dolores; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Quartino, María Liliana

    2017-03-01

    Intertidal zones are one of the most studied habitats in the world. However, in Antarctica, further studies are needed for a more complete understanding of these systems. When conspicuous Antarctic intertidal communities occur, macroalgae are a key component. Given that intertidal communities have a fast response to variations in environmental conditions and could reflect climate fluctuations, we conducted a non-destructive study with photographic transects in an intertidal zone at Potter Peninsula, Isla 25 de Mayo/King George Island, over four years and during five months of the warm season. We tested the general hypothesis that macroalgal intertidal communities are mainly structured by the vertical stress gradient and that changes in temperature between seasons and between years have a great influence in the macroalgal community structure. Spatial, seasonal and inter-annual variations were studied using GLM, quantile regression and NMDS ordinations. The vertical stress gradient was the main factor that explained macroalgal cover. The Low and the Middle level shared similarities, but the latter was more variable. The High level had the lowest cover, richness and diversity. The dominant species here was the endemic red alga Pyropia endiviifolia, which is strongly adapted to extreme conditions. At the Middle level, there was a significant increase in macroalgal cover during spring months, and it stabilized in summer. Inter-annual variations showed that there is a strong variation in the total macroalgal cover and community structure over the studied years. Environmental conditions have a significant effect in shaping the studied intertidal community, which is very sensitive to climate oscillations. An increase in temperature produced a decrease of annual ice foot cover, number of snow days and - as a result - an increase in macroalgal cover. In a global climate-change scenario, a shift in species composition could also occur. Species with wide physiological

  20. Causes of seasonal and decadal variability in a tropical seagrass seascape (Reunion Island, south western Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, A.; Villeneuve, N.; Cordier, E.; Kolasinski, J.; Maurel, L.; Farnier, N.; Frouin, P.

    2017-01-01

    While seagrass meadows are considered as vulnerable or declining habitats worldwide, facing many natural and anthropogenic pressures, the opposite trend is suggested by this study in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Located at the benthos-pelagos interface, seagrass beds are critical coastal habitats and can be used as relevant health indicators for larger marine ecosystems or land-sea continuum. In order to determine which are the factors driving seagrass ecosystems health it is essential to quantify their seascape pattern fluctuations. The long-term (over 65 years) and seasonal scale variability was assessed in the monospecific Syringodium isoetifolium seagrass bed seascape at the Ermitage/La Saline fringing reef using aerial photographs and field measurements. Both long-term and short-term scales have been informative and both types of monitoring appear as useful tools for seagrass ecosystem management. Strong variations in seagrass coverage were observed in the 16 rasters analyzed from years 1950-2015, the magnitude order was however similar to the one observed at the recent seasonal scale (up to 2016 m2 gained or 4863 m2 lost over few months at site scale). Seascape pattern analysis revealed that physical factors (swell events, cyclones) had a major impact on the ocean-exposed site with varying impact degree depending on frequency, duration and intensity. Biotic (herbivory) or anthropogenic (grubbing, nutrient inputs) factors were also identified to influence the structural shape, fragmentation, or disappearance of seagrass beds. Further work is required to better quantify the effect of each single factor, a difficult task due to their combined expression. At the reef scale, these results showed a positive correlation between seagrass beds and inner reef flat coverage suggesting that common factors drive these highly resilient ecosystems.

  1. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    trains de bulles ainsi qu'à la détermination de la vitesse ascensionnelle des bulles. Les mesures expérimentales du rayon et de la vitesse d'une bulle nous ont permis de déterminer le coefficient de traînée d'une bulle montante qui constitue une mesure indirecte de son état de surface en termes de mobilité interfaciale. Ces mesures nous ont montré que l'interface d'une bulle de champagne conserve une grande mobilité interfaciale pendant sa phase ascensionnelle, à la différence des bulles de taille fixe qui montent dans une solution de macromolécules tensioactives. C'est la faible dilution du champagne en macromolécules tensioactives et le grossissement continu des bulles pendant l'ascension qui assurent aux bulles une faible contamination de leur interface. Pour comparaison, nous avons réalisé le même type de mesures sur des bulles de bière. Le contenu en macromolécules tensioactives étant beaucoup plus important dans une bière, l'effet de dilution du matériel tensioactif à la surface des bulles lié à l'accroissement de la surface des bulles ne compense plus l'adsorption massive des tensioactifs à la surface des bulles. Contrairement aux bulles du champagne, les bulles de bière adoptent vite un comportement de type sphère rigide. Nous avons également discuté l'influence relative de certains paramètres sur la taille des bulles lorsqu'elles parviennent en surface. Il a notamment été montré que le rôle théorique joué par la température du champagne sur la taille des bulles est quasiment négligeable. Pour finir, nous avons proposé d'essayer de faire du train de bulles une sorte d'empreinte digitale du liquide effervescent dans lequel il évolue en analysant la dynamique ascensionnelle des bulles via la mesure de leur coefficient de frottement. Nous avons pu différencier à ce jour par cette méthode trois grandes familles de boissons gazeuses : les vins effervescents au sens large (champagne compris), les bières et les eaux gazeuses

  2. Mantle plumes beneath the South Pacific superswell revealed by finite frequency P tomography using regional seafloor and island data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, M.; Yoshimitsu, J.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Reymond, D.; Suetsugu, D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new tomographic image beneath the South Pacific superswell, using finite frequency P wave travel time tomography with global and regional data. The regional stations include broadband ocean-bottom seismograph stations. The tomographic image shows slow anomalies of 200-300 km in diameter beneath most hot spots in the studied region, extending continuously from the shallow upper mantle to 400 km depth. Narrow and weak slow anomalies are detected at depths of 500-1000 km, connecting the upper mantle slow anomalies with large-scale slow anomalies with lateral dimension of 1000-2000 km prevailing below 1000 km depth down to the core-mantle boundary. There are two slow anomalies around the Society hot spot at depths shallower than 400 km, which both emerge from the same slow anomaly at 500 km depth. One of them is located beneath the Society hot spot and the other underlies 500 km east of the Society hot spot, where no volcanism is observed.

  3. The megazoobenthos of the Scotia Arc islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Megabenthic epifauna composition and distribution from the Scotia Arc islands based on data collected during the Antarctic summer of 1986-87 is presented. Samples were taken from bottom trawl catches at 345 stations (29 at Shag Rocks, 104 at South Georgia, 8 at the South Sandwich Islands, 93 at the South Orkney Islands, 46 at Elephant Island, and 65 at the South Shetland Islands, from 26 to 643 m depth. Among the most striking features of the faunistic composition of the area, pointed out by multivariate analysis, are the singularity of Shag Rocks, closer to the Magellan region, and of the volcanic South Sandwich Islands, as well as the similarity of South Georgia and the South Orkney Islands and that of the islands nearest to the Antarctic continent, especially Elephant Island and the South Shetlands Islands. This similarity is due to the higher frequency and abundance of the most characteristic taxa in the Antarctic epibenthos, such as sessile suspension feeders (sponges, calcareous bryozoans, pennatulids, crinoids, and motile fauna with a wide variety of trophic strategies (asteroids, holothurians, pycnogonids, large isopods and gammarids. These data confirm the fact that the long-lived suspension-feeder communities, demosponges and hexactinellids, characteristic of the Antarctic epibenthos stretch to the eastern shelf of South Georgia without reaching the north-west of this island, the South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks. Some of the zones with rich communities of sessile filter-feeders, long-lived sponges or reef formations of calcareous bryozoans or serpulids should be proposed as Specially Protected Areas.

  4. Pre-Fukushima levels of artificial radionuclides activities in maritime samples from King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobiech-Matura, K. [European Commision DG-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, Geel (Belgium); Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, W.E. Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzycka 10/12, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Different maritime samples were collected at King George Island during Polish scientific expeditions in years 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. They originated mainly from Admiralty Bay region. Activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238,239+240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am were measured using γ-, β- and α-spectrometry. Our measurements allow estimating the state of radioactive pollution of Antarctic environment directly before the Fukushima accident. Examined samples included different elements of Antarctic marine environment: macro-algae (e.g. Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Ascoseira mirabilis), fishes(e.g. Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus), birds (e.g. Pygoscelis adeliae, P. papua), and crustaceans (e.g. Euphausia superba, Waldeckia obesa). Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs vary from <0.3 to 21.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg d.w. In comparison with results obtained for samples of animals and macro-algae previously [1,2] our results are similar or lower. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu range from <0.2 to 455 ± 56 mBq/kg d.w. and comparing to previous results [1,2] they were similar or lower. For maritime animals from Terra Nova Bay [3] results are also similar or lower than obtained in present project. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}Pu in samples varied from <0.2 to 79 ± 22 mBq/kg d.w. In comparison to results presented in [1,2,3] our values are similar or higher. Activity concentrations obtained for {sup 90}Sr varied from <1.5 to 73 ± 24 Bq/kg d.w. and are similar or lower then values given in [2,3]. Activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am varied from <9.4 to 29.8 ± 9.3 mBq/kg d.w. and they are similar or higher than values obtained in [3] and similar to that from [1]. Obtained results show that levels of radioactive contamination were very low and in many cases lower than the detection limit. Planned further investigation will allow estimating the environmental condition after the Fukushima accident. (authors)

  5. Effects of sea-level rise and pumpage elimination on saltwater intrusion in the Hilton Head Island area, South Carolina, 2004-2104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion of the Upper Floridan aquifer has been observed in the Hilton Head area, South Carolina since the late 1970s and currently affects freshwater supply. Rising sea level in the Hilton Head Island area may contribute to the occurrence of and affect the rate of saltwater intrusion into the Upper Floridan aquifer by increasing the hydraulic gradient and by inundating an increasing area with saltwater, which may then migrate downward into geologic units that presently contain freshwater. Rising sea level may offset any beneficial results from reductions in groundwater pumpage, and thus needs to be considered in groundwater-management decisions. A variable-density groundwater flow and transport model was modified from a previously existing model to simulate the effects of sea-level rise in the Hilton Head Island area. Specifically, the model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004) and evaluate the conceptual model, (2) project these trends from the present day into the future based on different potential rates of sea-level change, and (3) evaluate the relative influences of pumpage and sea-level rise on saltwater intrusion. Four scenarios were simulated for 2004-2104: (1) continuation of the estimated sea-level rise rate over the last century, (2) a doubling of the sea-level rise, (3) a cessation of sea-level rise, and (4) continuation of the rate over the last century coupled with an elimination of all pumpage. Results show that, if present-day (year 2004) pumping conditions are maintained, the extent of saltwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer will increase, whether or not sea level continues to rise. Furthermore, if all pumpage is eliminated and sea level continues to rise, the simulated saltwater extent in the Upper Floridan aquifer is reduced. These results indicate that pumpage is a strong driving force for simulated saltwater intrusion, more so than sea-level rise at current rates

  6. The nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanism of the Trindade Island (South Atlantic Ocean): Review of the stratigraphy, and inferences on the volcanic styles and sources of nephelinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gustavo Luiz Campos; Bongiolo, Everton Marques

    2016-12-01

    Trindade Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1170 km from the Brazilian coast, and represents the eastern end of the E-W Vitória-Trindade Chain. It shows the youngest plume-induced (ca. 3.7 to 2.4 Ma) and the Desejado (DF, ∼2.4 to 1.5 Ma), Morro Vermelho (MV, processes within the nephelinite-phonolite volcanism. Also, available geochemical databases were used to improve the stratigraphic correlation between nephelinites from different units and to characterize their mantle sources. The nephelinitic volcanism may represent Strombolian and Hawaiian-type activity of low viscosity and volatile-rich lavas interlayered with pyroclastic successions (fall-out deposits). Phonolitic deposits record explosive Vulcanian-style episodes of volatile-rich and higher-viscosity lavas interlayered with pyroclastic deposits (mostly pyroclastic flows). Geochemical data allowed the individualization of nephelinites as follows: (1) MV olivine-rich nephelinites and all olivine-free varieties are low K2O/Na2O, K2O/TiO2 and intermediate CaO/Al2O3 that may be derived from N-MORB and HIMU mantle components; (2) the VF olivine-rich nephelinites have high K2O/Na2O, K2O/TiO2 and CaO/Al2O3 that indicates both EM and HIMU mantle sources and; (3) the PF olivine-rich nephelinites show high K2O/TiO2 similar to those from VF, and intermediate CaO/Al2O3 as nephelinites from MV rocks, suggesting a mixed source with EM + HIMU > N-MORB components. We suggest that the HIMU and EM mantle types resulted from metasomatic episode(s) in the peridotitic mantle beneath the Trindade Island during the Brasiliano Orogeny and later, as previously pointed out by Marques et al. (1999). Thus, the major HIMU component would relate to recycled oceanic crust or lithospheric mantle (mostly CO2-eclogites) whereas the less important EM component to recycled marine or continental sediments.

  7. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  8. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  9. Electrical properties of schist and mylonite from the South Island, New Zealand: Exploring the source of the Southern Alps Anomalous Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Katherine; Toy, Virginia; Ohneiser, Chrisitan; Lockner, David

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Alps Electrical Conductor (SAC), identified from magnetotelluric surveys of the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) in the South Island, New Zealand, has high electrical conductivity relative to surrounding lithology (0.1 to 1 S/m between 5 and 25 km depth). This phenomenon is spatially coincident with shear zones of the Alpine Fault transform boundary and a region of anomalously low seismic velocity. It has been suggested these geophysical anomalies indicate dynamically linked fluids or graphite networks at depth, but this is unconfirmed. The convergent component of deformation within the Southern Alps orogen exhumes the lower crust. Because of this, we have been able to examine the relationship between electric properties, porosities, and mineral arrangement of hanging wall rock samples across metamorphic and strain gradients approaching the Alpine Fault. These allow us to constrain the roc properties which yield the source of the Southern Alps Electrical Conductor. We measured the electrical properties of 7 hand samples at the USGS Rock Physics Lab in Menlo Park, California. Complex resistivity of samples under confining pressure was measured up to 200 MPa, with a saturating brine of 0.1 M KCl. Laboratory measurements were then converted to complex conductivity. Mylonite conductivities were also averaged at each confining pressure and extrapolated to Alpine Fault conditions at depth (using fluid conductivity, geothermal gradient and effective confining pressure) to find projected in situ values between 0 and 9.4 km depth. Porosity ranges from 1.2 to 5.4% for hanging wall metamorphic schists and 1.0 to 1.9% for Alpine Fault Zone mylonites. Schist porosity substantially decreases with increasing proximity to the Alpine Fault, but mylonite porosity exhibits no systematic trend. Conductivity at 5 MPa effective confining pressure and 20 Hz ranges from 9.70x10-5 to 2.23x10-3 S/m for schists and 1.48x10-3 to 4.33x10-3 S/m for mylonites. Schist

  10. A giant, submarine creep zone as a precursor of large-scale slope instability offshore the Dongsha Islands (South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Alves, Tiago M.; Wu, Shiguo; Rebesco, Michele; Zhao, Fang; Mi, Lijun; Ma, Benjun

    2016-10-01

    A giant submarine creep zone exceeding 800 km2 on the continental slope offshore the Dongsha Islands, South China Sea, is investigated using bathymetric and 3D seismic data tied to borehole information. The submarine creep zone is identified as a wide area of seafloor undulations with ridges and troughs. The troughs form NW- and WNW-trending elongated depressions separating distinct seafloor ridges, which are parallel or sub-parallel to the continental slope. The troughs are 0.8-4.7 km-long and 0.4 to 2.1 km-wide. The ridges have wavelengths of 1-4 km and vertical relief of 10-30 m. Slope strata are characterised by the presence of vertically stacked ridges and troughs at different stratigraphic depths, but remaining relatively stationary in their position. The interpreted ridges and troughs are associated with large-scale submarine creep, and the troughs can be divided into three types based on their different internal characters and formation processes. The large-scale listric faults trending downslope below MTD 1 and horizon T0 may be the potential glide planes for the submarine creep movement. High sedimentation rates, local fault activity and the frequent earthquakes recorded on the margin are considered as the main factors controlling the formation of this giant submarine creep zone. Our results are important to the understanding of sediment instability on continental slopes as: a) the interpreted submarine creep is young, or even active at present, and b) areas of creeping may evolve into large-scale slope instabilities, as recorded by similar large-scale events in the past.

  11. Mapping Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover to Detect Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study of Tarkwa, South West Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soakodan Aduah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI effect controls internal climates of buildings and affects energy use and comfort of urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to detect UHI from Land Surface Temperature (LST and to investigate whether land cover has any influence on UHI in Tarkwa, South West Ghana using satellite remote sensing techniques. A Landsat 7 ETM+ image, DEM and meteorological data were used to generate a land cover map with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm whiles LST was modeled with the Landsat Plank’s curve. Validation of the LST map was achieved by comparing it with air temperature measured at the UMaT meteorological station. The mean modeled LST of 298.60 Kelvin compared well with the mean observed air temperature of 298.30 Kelvin. Furthermore, LST ranged between 289 and 305 Kelvin while urban areas and bare soils had higher LSTs than vegetated areas implying that higher NDVI areas are associated with lower temperatures. Hence, LST maps produced indicated the existence of UHI effect in the Tarkwa area. From the study it is evident that impervious and non-evaporative surfaces have high LSTs due to absence of vegetation. Therefore, uncontrolled land cover changes may intensify the UHI effect. The study has proven that remote sensing can be used in operational mapping of LST for climate studies, vegetation monitoring and detecting UHIs in the humid regions of Ghana. This confirms the important role Earth observation and geoinformation technology can play in environmental monitoring and management as global climate and land cover changes.

  12. Mesoproterozoic island arc magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian Plate: Evidence from geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages of mafic plutonic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Zhang, Ze-ming; Balaram, V.; Reddy, U. V. B.

    2016-11-01

    The Prakasam Igneous Province within the Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) preserves important imprints of mafic magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian plate. Here we report petrology, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb age data from three gabbro plutons namely Purimetla, Kanigiri and P C Palle which intruded into the high grade rocks of the region. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data on zircons from the three plutons reveal prominent late Mesoproterozoic ages of 1334 ± 15 Ma, 1338 ± 27 Ma and 1251.2 ± 9.4 Ma. The cumulative 207Pb/206Pb mean age of 1315 ± 11 Ma is interpreted to represent the timing of mafic magmatism in the Prakasam Igneous Province. These rocks show adcumulus to mesocumulus and poikilitic textures indicating fractional crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxenes in the Purimetla pluton whereas the Kanigiri and P C Palle intrusions possess hornblende and biotite suggesting the role of water during partial melting. The rocks show LREE enrichment (∑LREE/∑HREE = 2.2-15.0), marked Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.8-2.2) and fractionated patterns (LaN/YbN = 3-79). Primitive mantle normalised trace element spider diagrams indicate subduction modified arc signatures with LILE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ti and Zr relative to Th and La. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show arc magmatic affinities for the three gabbro plutons consistent with subduction zone setting. We propose a tectonic model involving intra oceanic island arc accretion during late Mesoproterozoic along the eastern margin of the Indian continent.

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Dynamics of Species Richness and Abundance of Woody Plant Functional Groups in a Tropical Forest Landscape of Hainan Island,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Dong Zhang; Run-Guo Zang; Yao-Dong Qi

    2008-01-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-diverse ecosystems on Earth. Their structures and ecological functions are complex to understand. Functional group is defined as a group of species that play similar roles in an ecosystem. The functional group approach has been regarded as an effective way of linking the compositions of complex ecosystems with their ecological functions. To understand the variation of functional groups in species-rich ecosystems after disturbance, the present study investigated the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of woody plants in a typically fragmented natural forest landscape of Hainan Island in South China. The study area was classified into eight landscape types based on vegetation type, disturbance manner and the time of recovery. The woody plant species were aggregated into seven functional groups based on the growth form, successional status and plant size. The results gained from the present study showed that all functional groups, except for the emergent and canopy tree species, were present in all eight landscape types. Each landscape type had different numbers of dominant functional groups. There are similar species richness and stem abundance structure among functional groups between mid-successional clear cut lowland rainforest and old growth tropical coniferous forest. This similarity exists in selective logged lowland rainforest and old-growth lowland rainforest, as well as among landscape types of montane rainforest. The functional groups with the same successional status had similar patterns of species richness and stem abundance ratios among different landscape types. The variation patterns of functional groups along the successional stages in terms of species richness and stem abundance among the tropical lowland rainforest landscape types were more similar to each other than those in the tropical montane reinforest landscape types. This study provides further support for the competition-colonization tradeoff and

  14. Culture de l’ascension sociale et figures du harcèlement Culture of Social Advancement and Harassment Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Brepohl de Magalhaes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans des sociétés où le mérite était le moteur principal de l’ascension sociale, l’essor d’une culture individualiste et le développement des sciences et des techniques ont modifié les rapports à la valeur « travail » et les pressions pour l’efficacité au travail ont augmenté. Ces conditions affaiblissent les liens contractuels, favorisent la fraude, la corruption, et autorisent le regain des faveurs. Analyser la prédisposition au harcèlement dans cette configuration sociale et ses effets dans la société contemporaine est l’objectif de cet article.In societies where the merit criterion was the main motor of social advancement, the rise of individualist culture and the development of sciences and techniques have modified the relations to « labor » value and the pressures for work efficiency have increased. These conditions weaken the contractual links, favor fraud and corruption and authorize the development of favors. The aim of this article is to analyze the predisposition to harassment inside this social configuration and its effects in current society.

  15. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Lakshadweep Islands lie on the sea route between South Asia, Far East and African countries. Being on the trade route, boats and ships used the islands of Lakshadweep as a stopover to take on fresh water. Lakshadweep Islands played an important role...

  16. Knee extensor and flexor muscle power explains stair ascension time in patients with unilateral late-stage knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Anu M; Pöyhönen, Tapani; Manninen, Mikko; Heinonen, Ari; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the extent of asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor muscles, and to examine whether asymmetrical muscle deficits are associated with mobility limitations in persons with late-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional. Research laboratory. A clinical sample (N=56; age range, 50-75y) of eligible persons with late-stage knee OA awaiting knee replacement. Not applicable. Knee extensor and flexor power and torque assessed isokinetically; thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed by computed tomography; mobility limitation assessed by walking speed and stair ascension time; and pain assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire. The asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor power and torque were between 18% and 29% (Pmuscle CSA, the asymmetrical deficit was 4% (Ppower deficits and weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the contralateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Moreover, weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the ipsilateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Greater knee pain in the OA joint was independently associated with slower stair ascending time in both models. The knee extensor and flexor muscle power of both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides and the pain in the OA knee were independently associated with stair ascension times. These results highlight the importance of assessing muscle power on both sides and knee pain in the prevention of mobility limitations in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ascending in healthcare. Roman Catholic Ascension Health has made a Fortune 500 name for itself with business acumen, risk-taking and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2007-05-14

    In less than a decade, Ascension Health has risen to the top tier of U.S. healthcare systems, with operating revenue that bests household names like Google and Amazon.com. Helping lead the system's meteoric rise is CEO Anthony Tersigni, left. "We are a ministry. We're not a business. We do business practices for one basic reason: We have bondholders who are counting on us to repay the bonds."

  18. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a

  19. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  20. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed.

  1. Sediment Transport and Infilling of a Borrow Pit on an Energetic Sandy Ebb Tidal Delta Offshore of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, A.; Xu, K.; Ma, Y.; Sanger, D.; Van Dolah, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bottom-mounted instrumentation was deployed at two sites on an ebb tidal delta to measure hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed elevation. One site ('borrow site') was 2 km offshore and used as a dredging site for beach nourishment of nearby Hilton Head Island in South Carolina, and the other site ('reference site') was 10 km offshore and not directly impacted by the dredging. In-situ time-series data were collected during two periods after the dredging: March 15 - June 12, 2012('spring') and August 18 - November 18, 2012 ('fall'). At the reference site directional wave spectra and upper water column current velocities were measured, as well as high-resolution current velocity profiles and suspended sediment concentration profiles in the Bottom Boundary Layer (BBL). Seabed elevation and small-scale seabed changes were also measured. At the borrow site seabed elevation and near-bed wave and current velocities were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Throughout both deployments bottom wave orbital velocities ranged from 0 - 110 m/s at the reference site. Wave orbital velocities were much lower at the borrow site ranging from 10-20 cm/s, as wave energy was dissipated on the extensive and rough sand banks before reaching the borrow site. Suspended sediment concentrations increased throughout the BBL when orbital velocities increased to approximately 20 cm/s. Sediment grain size and critical shear stresses were similar at both sites, therefore, re-suspension due to waves was less frequent at the borrow site. However, sediment concentrations were highly correlated with the tidal cycle at both sites. Semidiurnal tidal currents were similar at the two sites, typically ranging from 0 - 50 cm/s in the BBL. Maximum currents exceeded the critical shear stress and measured suspended sediment concentrations increased during the first hours of the tidal cycle when the tide switched to flood tide. Results indicate waves contributed more to sediment mobility at

  2. Genetic variability and forensic efficiency of 39 microsatellite loci in the Li ethnic group from Hainan Island in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Xie, Bingbing; Yang, Yaran; Yang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Lv, Yuexin; Chen, Chuguang; Liu, Xu; Fang, Xiangdong; Wu, Huijuan; Yan, Jiangwei

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential pre-requisite in forensic application. The present study obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from a Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified in two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of the Chinese Li ethnic group. The allele frequency distribution and several parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analysed. A total of 378 alleles were observed with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0026-0.5899. The power of discrimination and power of exclusion ranged from 0.7569-0.9672 and 0.2513-0.7355, respectively. The power of exclusion (PE) ranged from 0.2580-0.7943 for trio paternity cases and 0.1693-0.5940 for duo paternity cases. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5001-0.8611. The cumulative match probability across these 39 loci was 2.4242 × 10(-38). The results indicate that 39 STR loci are polymorphic among the Li ethnic group in Hainan Island in the South China Sea. This set of polymorphic STR loci provide highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, as well as basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.

  3. Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pascalis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. METHODOLOGY: We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households. Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that i Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global "clade 7" but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of

  4. Insights into deglaciation of the largest ice-free area in the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) from quantitative analysis of the drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Sandra; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Maestro, Adolfo; Garrote, Julio; Ortega, José A.; Serrano, Enrique; Durán, Juan José; Schmid, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative geomorphic analysis of the drainage system on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, has been carried out in order to study the relief evolution, glacial history and possible neotectonic influence on the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago. Aerial photographs, SAR data from RADARSAT-2 satellite, field work, a digital elevation model and GIS spatial analysis have been used to identify, map and study the existing drainage basins. A series of morphometric parameters have been studied in 30 selected basins in order to characterize their shape as well as the drainage network. Results in morphometric parameters reveal elongation trends in the shape of basins and a limited hierarchical network, common of a youthful stage of landscape evolution models. Several morphometric indexes (hypsometric integral, hypsometric curves, SL index, transverse topographical drainage basin asymmetry-T-Factor) have been used to study possible controls on drainage development. Results have been discussed in relation to relief and drainage evolution linked to the spatial distribution of lithological units and structural framework. T-Factor shows an apparently disorganized pattern and absence of tectonic influence. However, there are local values of second order basin asymmetry directions and magnitudes, which could reflect a succession of master rills through time, related to the changes in water supply during the deglaciation history of Byers Peninsula. Hypsometric values and curves of basins are also mainly related to a young stage of landscape evolution. Analysis of hypsometric integrals together with T-Factor index has allowed us to establish a possible deglaciation model on Byers Peninsula, which successfully explains the results. Areas of different landscape evolution stage are linked in space and support the hypothesis of local glacial centers during the ice cover retreat process. SL index results do not show the same pattern in results, which could be

  5. A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El Hierro Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David

    2014-05-01

    A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with

  6. Seismic structure of the lithosphere beneath the ocean islands near the mid-oceanic ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, C.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi

    2013-10-01

    Deciphering the seismic character of the young lithosphere near the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR) is a challenging endeavor. In this study, we determine the seismic structure of the oceanic plate near the MORs, using the P-to-s conversions isolated from good quality data recorded at 5 broadband seismological stations situated on the ocean Islands in their vicinity. Estimates of the crustal and lithospheric thickness values from waveform modeling of the P receiver function stacks reveal that the crustal thickness varies between 6 and 8 km with the corresponding depths to the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varying between 43 and 68 km. However, the depth to the LAB at Macquire Island is intriguing in view of the observation of a thick (~ 87 km) lithosphere beneath a relatively young crust. At three other stations i.e., Ascension Island, Sao Jorge and Easter Island, we find evidence for an additional deeper low velocity layer probably related to the presence of a hotspot.

  7. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24961 Data, South of Necker, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 200109-200406 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24961 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  8. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa. These data provide coverage between 50 and 5000 meters. The...

  9. Mosaic of 2m bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS World View-2 satellite imagery of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, South Pacific, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  10. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymety derivatives at Tutuila Island,...

  11. Seafloor Backscatter Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  12. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  13. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  14. On the recent M=6.1 earthquake occurred at Kefalonia island (South-West Greece) on 26 January 2014: Manifestations of an Earth system in critical state

    CERN Document Server

    Contoyiannis, Y; Kopanas, J; Antonopoulos, G; Koulouras, G; Eftaxias, K; Nomicos, C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show, in terms of fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) recorded two days prior to the earthquake of Kefalonia (Cephalonia), Greece [(38.22o N, 20.53oE), 26 January 2014, M=6.1] that the Earth system around the focal area came to critical condition two days before the earthquake occurence. Specifically, the MHz EME recorded by the remote telemetric stations on the island of Kefalonia and the neighboring island of Zante came simultaneously to critical conditions. The analysis was performed by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF) revealing critical features.

  15. An Analysis of China's Public Diplomacy to South Pacific Island Countries:Causes and Status%中国开展南太平洋岛国公共外交的动因及现状评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳

    2014-01-01

    公共外交是全球化时代塑造国家形象、增强国家软实力的重要途径。基于中国建设海洋强国战略的实施、经济可持续发展以及与台湾当局“外交”博弈的需要,中国亟须获得南太平洋岛国民众对中国的理解、信任和支持,增强中国在南太平洋地区的影响力。近年来,中国通过文化外交、华侨华人外交、援助外交等公共外交项目的开展,在南太平洋岛国的影响力有所增强。本文认为,由于大国竞争性公共外交的影响,中国在南太平洋岛国的影响力和感召力仍显不足,应秉承“和平、合作、和谐”的外交理念,继续拓展外交空间。%In the era of globalization,public diplomacy is playing an important role in shaping national im-age and enhancing national soft power.In view of China's strategy of great marine power and the need of e-conomic development and the“diplomatic fight”against Taiwan,China really needs to win the understand-ing,trust and support of South Pacific island countries'people and enhance its regional influence.In recent years,through the development of cultural diplomacy,public outreaching to overseas Chinese,economic aid,and Confucius Institutes ,we have enhanced our influence in South Pacific island countries.However, due to competitive public diplomacy of other great powers,China's soft power and charisma in South Pacific island countries is still inadequate,and we need to broaden China's diplomatic space under the banner of“peace,cooperation,and harmony”.

  16. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  17. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  18. SANA1M.TIF - South Anacapa Island sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the South Anacapa area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and 2000. A Klein...

  19. SANA1M.TIF - South Anacapa Island sidescan sonar backscatter image in nearshore Benthic Habitat mapping Project S. California map Series. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sidescan sonar image of the nearshore seafloor (0 to 100 m water depths) of the South Anacapa area was mosaicked from data collected in 1999 and 2000. A Klein...

  20. Evidence of Arid to Semi-arid Climate Near Western Pacific Warm Pool During Sea-Level Lowstands: Caliche Surfaces in Late Cenozoic Carbonates of Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, S.; Mii, H.; Horng, C.; Huang, F.; Chi, W.; Yui, T.; Torng, P.; Huang, S.; Wang, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, K.

    2003-12-01

    Whether the climate of tropical seas during glacial periods became cold and dry has been an open debate. Models by different authors proposed the tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to be about 2\\deg lower, or 5-6\\deg lower than present. The controversy partly arise from disparate reconstructions of temperature from stable oxygen isotope archives of marine sediments. In this paper, we provide field evidence of semi-arid or arid climate during late Cenozoic sea-level lowstands from an atoll located in central South China Sea near the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Lower rainfall and higher evaporation associated with the dry conditions might have resulted in less meteoric water component in the surface sea-water, and this factor should be taken into considerations in deciphering temperature from isotopic records. Taiping Islet (Itu Aba), located at N10\\deg 23' and E114\\deg 22' is part of the Nansha (Spratly) Islands near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Rock cores of a borehole at Taiping became accessible to the authors in the recent years. We identified at least four subaerial exposure surfaces (SES) in the late Cenozoic carbonates. Caliche deposits are recognized on each of the four surfaces on the basis of alveolar texture, micro-rhizolith, caliche glaebules and corroded limestone nodules in reddish matrix (terra-rossa). Caliche developed on limestones typically forms in semi-arid to arid areas with annual precipitation from about 500 to 1000mm, while the modern annual rainfall of Nansha Island is 1800-2100mm. The occurrence of the Nansha caliche suggests the climate was much drier than present during the sea-level lowstands represented by the four SES. During the sea-level falls, reduced surface area of South China Sea with continental shelves exposed might have resulted in less moistures in the atmosphere and therefore less precipitation and higher evaporation rates. As a result, the

  1. A novel cluster of mariner-like elements belonging to mellifera subfamily from spiders and insects: implications of recent horizontal transfer on the South-West Islands of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Yamada, Akinori; Tokuda, Gaku; Gurung, Raj Deep; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Maekawa, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Mariner-like elements (MLEs) have been isolated from various eukaryotic genomes and they are divided into 15 subfamilies, including main five subfamilies: mauritiana, cecropia, mellifera/capitata, irritans, and elegans/briggsae. In the present study, MLEs belonging to mellifera subfamily were isolated from various spiders and insects (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) inhabiting the South-West Islands of Japan and neighboring regions. MLEs isolated from 15 different species formed a distinct novel cluster in mellifera subfamily. MLEs obtained from three different species [i.e., the bee Amegilla senahai subflavescens (Amsmar1), the wasp Campsomeris sp. (Casmar1), and the swallowtail butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae (Paamar1)] contained an intact open reading frame that encoded a putative transposase. These transposases exhibited high similarity of 97.9% among themselves. In case of Casmar1, the presence of an intact ORF was found in high frequencies (i.e., 11 out of 12 clones). In addition, these transposases also showed the presence of a terminal inverted repeat-binding motif, DD(34)D and two highly conserved amino acid motifs, (W/L)(I/L)PHQL and YSP(D/N)L(A/S)P. These two motifs differed from previously known motifs, WVPHEL and YSPDLAP. MLEs isolated from these three different species may have been inserted into their genomes by horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the presence of an intact ORF suggests that they are still active in habitats along these isolated islands.

  2. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The Lakshadweep Islands lie on the sea route between West Asia and Africa on the one hand and South Asia and the Far East on the other. In maritime history, these islands have played a vital role by providing shelter, fresh water and landmarks...

  3. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements.

  4. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  5. Superclone Expansion, Long-Distance Clonal Dispersal and Local Genetic Structuring in the Coral Pocillopora damicornis Type β in Reunion Island, South Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Pauline; Fauvelot, Cécile; Mehn, Vincent; Bureau, Sophie; Rouzé, Héloïse; Magalon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis type β is known to present a mixed reproduction mode: through sexual reproduction, new genotypes are created, while asexual reproduction insures their propagation. In order to investigate the relative proportion of each reproduction mode in P. damicornis type β populations from Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, clonal propagation along the west coast was assessed through four sampling sites with increasing geographical distance between sites. Coral colonies were sampled either exhaustively, randomly or haphazardly within each site, and genotypic diversity was assessed using 13 microsatellite loci over a total of 510 P. damicornis type β determined a posteriori from their mtDNA haplotype (a 840 bp sequenced fragment of the Open Reading Frame). Overall, 47% of all the sampled colonies presented the same multi-locus genotype (MLG), a superclone, suggesting that asexual propagation is extremely important in Reunion Island. Within each site, numerous MLGs were shared by several colonies, suggesting local clonal propagation through fragmentation. Moreover, some of these MLGs were found to be shared among several sites located 40 km apart. While asexual reproduction by fragmentation seems unlikely over long distances, our results suggest a production of parthenogenetic larvae. Despite shared MLGs, two differentiated clusters were enclosed among populations of the west coast of Reunion Island, revealing the necessity to set up appropriate managing strategies at a local scale. PMID:28068406

  6. Morphological modifications of the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean) in response to Neogene climate change: evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Floriane; Delpech, Guillaume; Gautheron, Cécile; Nomade, Sébastien; Pinna-jamme, Rosella; Ponthus, Léandre; Guillaume, Damien

    2016-04-01

    The processes driving erosion in geodynamic contexts in which regional tectonics is of minor importance, such as in oceanic islands, can be seen as a combination of positive/negative retroactions between climate change, isostasy or dynamic topography. The Kerguelen Islands (48-50° S, 68.5-70.5° E) are of particular interest to understand the impact of Cenozoïc climatic variations on the long-term geomorphological evolution of emerged reliefs at mid-latitudes. The Kerguelen Islands (6700 km2) are the emerged part of the vast Kerguelen oceanic plateau and reach a maximum height of 1852m asl. The archipelago is mostly made up of Oligocene basaltic traps (≈25 Ma) up to 1000m asl that are cross-cut by a dense network of large and deep valleys. The impact of glacial erosion during the last Quaternary glaciations on the landscape morphology is attested by the occurrence of U-shaped valleys, abundant moraines, erratic blocs and glacial lakes, as well as remnants of glaciers. Numerous plutonic complexes of various age (25-4.5 Ma) locally intrude theses traps and cover about 15% of the main island's surface; the largest being located in the Rallier du Baty peninsula (800 km2). This plutonic complex is mainly constituted of syenites with minor occurrence of gabbros and monzonites. The southern part of this complex has a laccolith structure with satellites plutons and formed between 13.7 and 8.0 Ma. The cooling history of syenites from the Rallier du Baty plutonic complex was investigated in order to identify one or several denudation periods and to understand the potential role of climate change on the geomorphological evolution of the islands since the Oligocene. We conducted the first thermochronological study on the Kerguelen Islands using the biotite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometer and the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer (AHe). The 40Ar/39Ar ages range from 9.44 ± 0.13 Ma to 13.84 ± 0.07 Ma for the various parts of the southern complex. These ages are identical to

  7. Under the Dragon’s Wing: A Strategic Approach to China’s Militarization Efforts of its Artificial Islands in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    responsibility of being my primary sounding board and has definitely heard more than her fair share about the inner- workings of China and the South China... Definitions .................................................................................................... 8 Limitations and Delimitations...pointing at us. First, China does not export revolution; second, it does not export famine and poverty ; and third, it does not mess around with you

  8. 南太平洋岛国华人社会的发展:历史与现实的认知%The Chinese Immigrants in the South Pacific Islands:Historical Development and Present Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费晟

    2014-01-01

    As a result of massive international exportation of Chinese Labors in modern history,the Chinese immigrant societies had established in the South Pacific Islands since the end of the Nineteenth Century. The earliest Chinese immigrants were largely naturalized after the Second World War,while larger groups of Chinese immigrants came since mid-1980s.The Chinese immigrants actively take part in building local so-cieties and promote modernization of the South Pacific countries both historically and contemporarily.Con-sequently they also set up advantages in some economic and political affairs to many other citizens.However the Chinese immigrants,whose contributions were sometimes unfairly charged by certain Western media and local politicians,were also involved in and impeded by local conflicts.Giving the grant China's strategy to promote cooperation with neighbor countries,the Chinese immigrant societies in the South Pacific Islands will be a positive and supportive force to bridge domestic society and local people.%南太平洋岛国的华人移民社会最初形成于19世纪中后期,主要是近代中国劳工输出的结果。“二战”后,华人移民基本实现了本土化;20世纪80年代中后期又出现新的移民潮,形成较大规模的华人移民群体。无论从历史还是从现实来看,华人移民都积极参与并推动了南太平洋岛国各项事业的发展,由此确立起较高的经济与政治影响力。不过,华人移民群体也不可避免地被当地社会内部冲突与矛盾所波及,并受到部分西方媒体及少数政客的借题炒作。本文认为,从我国发展对南太平洋岛国战略关系的角度看,岛国华人社会将扮演日益重要且积极的纽带角色。

  9. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  10. 1946 Unimak Island, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 1, 1946, at 12:29 [local time] a rather strong magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred with source to the south of Unimak Island, causing one of the most...

  11. An assemblage of mollusks associated with the high latitude scleractinian coral Alveopora japonica (Eguchi 1968) in Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jeung, Hee-Do; Ju, Se-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bin; Jung, Sukgeun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Corals reefs and communities support a wide range of flora and fauna. The complete richness and abundance of faunal communities in either coral reefs or communities is not fully understood. This is especially true for high-latitude coral communities. In this work, we carried out an analysis of an Alveopora japonica associated mollusk assemblage, in Jeju Island, Korea. A. japonica is one of the major coral species present in high abundance (88-155 colonies m-2), with a high recruitment rate (7.8 juvenile corals m-2 yr-1) in Jeju Island, and may serve as a habitat for other benthic organisms. In 2012, a total number of 579 A. japonica colonies with sizes ranging between 15.1-346.7 cm2 in the surface area were collected from a 1m× 10m quadrat installed at a depth of 10 m at Keumneung, on the northwest coast of Jeju Island. Numerous benthic invertebrates were found to be associated with A. japonica colonies. Twenty-seven bivalves and gastropods were identified, including a boring mytilid, Lithophaga curta, and an arcid, Barbatia stearnsi. A zonalgeographical examination of the distribution ranges of these mollusks revealed a majority of warmer water species. Our observations also showed that A. japonica may be providing a habitat to grazing gastropod, Turbo cornutus, and encrusting Spondylidae and Chamidae bivalves. A. japonica forms a coral carpet with a distinct assemblage of bivalves. It is thought that the presence of these mollusks species in the coral indicates its use as a nursery for juvenile species, a ready food supply of organic detritus, and a refuge from predators.

  12. Soil-geomorphology interactions and paleoclimatic implications of an ornithogenic soil toposequence on Rata Island, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Soares; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio Pereira; Clemente, Eliane de Paula; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello

    2014-07-01

    The formation of highly phosphatized soils on sites of avian activity is a common feature of oceanic islands. We characterized a toposequence of phosphatic soils on Rata Island, to evaluate the soil genesis based on local topographic variations. For this purpose, four soils ranging from the upper hill down to the lowest landscape position on the island, representing a range of parent materials (basalt and calcareous sands), were analyzed. In the lowest landscape position a shallow Regosol was identified, strongly influenced by birds and marine sprays, developed on “karstified” Pleistocene calcarenites; the three other soils in the upper part of the toposequence are Ornithogenic Cambisols, ranging from a deep Cambisol profile on Basalt lava to intermediate Cambisols on mixed colluvial sediments of the basalt/calcareous. The lowermost Regosol is associated with a rugged landscape with strong calcarenite dissolution and karstification. The soil phosphatization is clearly an inherited process of the Late Quaternary age, when climate conditions were different. Initial weathering took place in the last interglacial period, under wetter conditions during which the Tertiary basalts were strongly weathered, leaving corestones in a saprolitic, oxidized mass. In the late Pleistocene, a gentle surface distributed these weathering products along the pediment slopes as colluvial materials, whereas in the coastal areas aeolian processes formed large sand dunes composed of reworked calcareous sands from marine sources during a time of very low sea level. During this time, widespread bird activity accounted for secondary apatite formation on the surface of calcareous oolites. Finally, the Holocene warming was accompanied by increasing sea level, enhanced tropical weathering, Fe and Al mobility and variscite formation superimposed on degraded Ca-phosphates, forming two phase phosphatic aggregates.

  13. Reshaping US Navy Pacific response in mitigating disaster risk in South Pacific Island nations: adopting community-based disaster cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M

    2014-02-01

    The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building.

  14. The bryophytes of Trindade Island, South Atlantic, Brazil As briófitas da Ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Laid Alkimim Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trindade is a Brazilian oceanic island located about 1,200 Km east of the Brazilian coast (between 20º 31' 30" S, 29º 19' 30'' W. The island originated from the abissal zone about 3 million years ago, has a maximum altitude of 620 meters and an area of 9.28 Km². Even though the fanerogamic flora is known, there were virtually no data on the bryophyte flora. Four expeditions to the island were carried out during two years and approximately 431 specimens collected. This work presents the Bryoflora of this island, which comprises 32 species, including 20 species of liverworts distributed among six families; the most speciose being Lejeuneaceae with 11 species and Frullaniaceae with four. There are also 11 species of mosses distributed among eight families, the most diverse being Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae and Pottiaceae with two species each. Only one species of hornworts was found. The bryophyte flora of Trindade most likely originated from the threatened Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil and, therefore, has conservation implications. Keys and comments are provided.Trindade é uma ilha oceânica brasileira localizada a 1.200 km a oeste da costa do Brasil entre as coordenadas 20º 31' 30" S e 29º 19' 30'' W. A ilha emergiu da zona abissal cerca de 3 milhões de anos, com altitude máxima de 620 m e uma área de 9,28 km². Sua flora fanerógama é relativamente conhecida, sendo praticamente não tendo dados sobre a flora de briófitas. Foram realizadas quatro expedições entre os anos de 2010 e 2011 e cerca de 431 espécimes coletados. O resultado mostrou 32 espécies de briófitas, das quais 20 são hepáticas distribuídas em seis famílias, com 11 espécies de Lejeuneaceae e quatro de Frullaniaceae. Na divisão dos musgos foi representado com 11 espécies distribuídos em oito famílias sendo a mais diversificadas com duas espécies: Fissidentaceae, Leocobryaceae e Pottiaceae. Na divisão dos antóceros apenas uma espécie foi

  15. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  16. Newly developed evidence for the original Tethysan island-arc volcanic rocks in the southern segment of the South Lancangjiang Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper re-describes the characteristics of pre-Ordovician (Pt3) metamorphic volcanic rocks in the Huimin-Manlai region of Yunnan Province from the aspects of petrographic characteristics, rock assemblage, petrochemistry, REE, trace elements, lead isotopes and geotectonic setting. The metamorphic volcanic rocks maintain blasto-intergranular and blasto-andesitic textures; the volcanic rocks are characterized by a basalt-andesite-dacite assemblage; the volcanic rocks are basic-intermediate-intermediate-acid in chemical composition, belonging to semi-alkaline rocks, with calc-alkaline series and tholeiite series coexisting, and they are characterized by low TiO2 contents; their REE distribution patterns are of the LREE-enrichment right-inclined type; the volcanic rocks are enriched in large cation elements and commonly enriched in Th and partly depleted in Ti, Cr and P, belonging to the Gondwana type as viewed from their Pb isotopic composition; petrochemically the data points fall mostly within the field of island-arc volcanic rocks. All these characteristics provided new evidence for the existence of original Tethysan island-arc volcanic rocks in the region studied.

  17. A dipole wind curl pattern induced by Taiwan Island and its effect on upper stratification in the northeastern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yi; SHI Ping; ZHOU Wen; DU Yan; XIE Qiang; ZHUANG Wei; WANG Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    Using hydrographic data sampled during four successive late summer-early autumn cruises in 2004-2007,vertical stratification along transects in the lee of Taiwan Island was analyzed to investigate upper ocean responses to orographically induced dipole wind stress curl (WSC).Results indicate that mixed-layer depth (MLD) and its relationship with thermocline depth varied under different local wind forcings.Average MLD along the transects from the 2004 to 2007 cruises were 18.5,30.7,39.2 and 24.5 m,respectively.The MLD along the transects deepened remarkably and resulted in thermocline ventilation in 2005 and 2006,whereas ventilation did not occur in 2004 and 2007.Estimates indicate that frictional wind speed was the major factor in MLD variations.To a large degree,the combined effects of frictional wind speed and Ekman pumping are responsible for the spatial pattern of MLD during the cruises.

  18. Geochemistry of the ophiolite and oceanic island basalt in the Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping tectonic mélange zone, South Qinling and their tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Shaocong; ZHANG Guowei; PEI Xianzhi; YANG Haifeng

    2004-01-01

    Detailed studies indicate that Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping tectonic zone is a complicated mélange zone which includes many tectonic slabs of different origins. Ophiolite (MORB-type basalt), oceanic island tholeiite and alkaline basalt have been identified. Moreover, this tectonic mélange zone is eastward connected with the Mianlüe suture zone. The deformation characteristics, consisting components and volcanic rock geochemical features for the Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping tectonic mélange zone are much similar to those of the Mianlüe suture zone and Deerni ophiolite. Therefore, the Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping tectonic mélange zone should be the westward extension part of the Mianlüe suture zone. It indicates that the Mianlüe suture zone had extended to the Nanping area.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN PARIWISATA BAHARI BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI PULAU KALEDUPA, KABUPATEN WAKATOBI, PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGGARA (Community Based Marine Tourism Development in Kaledupa Island, Wakatobi Regency, South East Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwijaya Lesmana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengembangan pariwisata bahari berbasis masyarakat di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, Kabupaten Wakatobi, Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober – November 2014. Penelitian menggunakan metode analisis prospektif partisipatif, wawancara, analisis pengaruh antar-variabel kunci, membangun skenario, dan analisis implikasi strategis dan aksi antisipatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga variabel utama yang harus dititikberatkan dalam pengembangan wisata bahari di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, yaitu informatif, koordinasi antar instansi, dan sumberdaya alam. Penitikberatan pada ketiga variabel tersebut diharapkan dapat menghilangkan kesalahpahaman dan kesalahpenafsiran atas informasi yang diberikan sehingga dapat menunjang hubungan yang harmonis antar pemangku kepentingan pengembangan wisata bahari. Koordinasi yang harmonis diharapkan dapat mensinergikan antar perencanaan, pengembangan dan pengelolaan. Diharapkan pula sumberdaya alam yang ada berkesinambungan tanpa mengurangi dan merusak kualitasnya.   ABSTRACT The research on community based marine tourism development at Kaledupa island has been conducted on October – November 2014. This research used participatory prospective analysis, interview, Influence Analysis of inter key variables, scenario building, and Analysis of Strategic Implication and Anticipative act. The result shows that there are three key variables that should be focused on marine tourism development at Kaledupa island i.e informative, inter-institutions coordination, and natural resources. These variables should be focused in order to relieve misconception and misinterpretation on information which is given, so that it can support harmonic relationship between marine tourism stakeholders. The synergy of planning, development, and management can be expected from harmonic coordination. It is also expected that existing natural resources

  20. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  2. Epidemiological Investigation of a Diarrhea Outbreak in the South Pacific Island Nation of Tuvalu During a Severe La Niña-Associated Drought Emergency in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emont, Jordan P; Ko, Albert I; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Ituaso-Conway, Nese; Nilles, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    AbstractThe association between heavy rainfall and an increased risk of diarrhea has been well established but less is known about the effect of drought on diarrhea transmission. In 2011, the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu experienced a concurrent severe La Niña-associated drought and large diarrhea outbreak. We conducted a field investigation in Tuvalu to identify factors that contributed to epidemic transmission in the context of a drought emergency. Peak case numbers coincided with the nadir of recorded monthly rainfall, the lowest recorded since 1930. Independent factors associated with increased risk of diarrhea were households with water tank levels below 20% (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-4.60) and decreased handwashing frequency (OR = 3.00 [1.48-6.08]). The resolution of the outbreak occurred after implementation of a hygiene promotion campaign, despite persistent drought and limited water access. These findings are potentially important given projections that future climate change will cause more frequent and severe droughts.

  3. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  4. AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values.

  5. Spring upper warm water of the Nansha Islands sea area in the South China Sea and the numerical study on its dynamic mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shuqun; LONG Xiaomin; WANG Sheng'an; CHEN Rongyu

    2006-01-01

    According to the satellite remote sensing monthly mean sea surface temperature data and in situ observational Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data, it is shown that in spring, at the upper layer to the west of Palawan Island, there exists a relatively weak warm water tongue which is distinctly different from the cold water southeast of the Balabac Strait.The relative temperature difference between the warm and cold water reduces gradually from winter to spring. P-vector method is employed to calculate the current field based on the in situ observational data,which shows that the warm water is within an anticyclonic meander. Based on the remote sensing wind stress during the observational period, a coupled single-layer/two-layer model is employed to study the dynamic mechanism of this anticyclonic meander current field corresponding to the warm water tongue.According to the numerical results, it is suggested that this anticyclonic meander could be mainly the residue of the winter anticyclonic eddy, rather than formed by the inflow water from the Sulu Sea via the Balabac Strait.

  6. Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Nicolas Christian; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Thiel, Martin

    2017-05-15

    An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey. Sixteen (80%) of the scad had ingested one to five microplastics, mainly blue polyethylene fragments that were similar in colour and size to blue copepod species consumed by the same fish. These results suggest that planktivorous fish, as a consequence of their feeding behaviour as visual predators, are directly exposed to floating microplastics. This threat may be exacerbated in the clear oceanic waters of the subtropical gyres, where anthropogenic litter accumulates in great quantity. Our study highlights the menace of microplastic contamination on the integrity of fragile remote ecosystems and the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management.

  7. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy L. Esterhuizen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B, many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as or betasatellites (DNA-βs. Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  8. Diversity of dicotyledenous-infecting geminiviruses and their associated DNA molecules in southern Africa, including the South-west Indian ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marie E C; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N; Mabasa, Ken G; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L

    2012-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-αs) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  9. Topossequência de solos na ilha da trindade, atlântico sul Topossequence of soils on the trindade island in the brazilian south atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Paula Clemente

    2009-10-01

    Ilha da Trindade que os tornam difíceis de enquadramento no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, carecendo de adaptações em diversos níveis categóricos.The Brazilian Oceanic islands are unique environments which have received increasing attention from the scientific community due to their environmental importance. This study aimed to provide a first characterization of soils of the Trindade Island, considering mainly the chemical and physical properties in the different geoenvironments. Another objective was to contribute to a deeper undestanding of the pedogeomorphological relationships, allowing a preliminary identification of soils along a typical toposequence. A total of 10 soil profiles representing all geoenvironments were sampled. These soils were the result of lithological, topographical and vegetation influences, frequently in close association. Soil chemical, morphological and physical analyses were performed and the results indicate the ocurrence of unique features that suggest an endemic character. The pedodiversity on Trindade is primarily related to the parent material and topographical variations. Soils generally have high fertility, particularly in terms of Ca and P contents associated with bird excreta inputs. On the southern side of the island, with a cooler and wetter climate, narrow valleys and steep slopes shelter a more exuberant vegetation of giant ferns, with accumulation of fíbrous organic material even on steep slopes, forming atypical Histosols. Soils at an altitude of over 400 m are more acid and nutrient-poor, but P contents are still very high, which was attributed to bird activity. On the northern side of the island, semi-arid to tropical dry climates prevail, and soils are shallower, nutrient-rich and highly eroded, with dominance of Litholic or Regolitic Neosols. Some pedological features of Trindade soils prevent an appropriate fitting by the Brazilian Soil Classification System, calling for adaptations at various

  10. Evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into a South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; McKey, D; Duval, M F; Malapa, R; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2008-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction of cassava was recorded during group interviews in each village. Using a set of 11 SSR markers, we genotyped the 104 landraces collected and 60 supplementary accessions from a within-landrace study (12 landraces x 5 plants). Out of the 104 landraces collected, we discovered 77 different multilocus genotypes and the within-landrace study identified several polyclonal landraces. Our data suggest a number of hypotheses about the dynamics of diversity of cassava in Vanuatu.

  11. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  12. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  13. RESGPSPNTS_GSBAY.SHP: Navigation, bathymetry, and water temperature points of ship position during continuous resistivity profile data collection by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, in May and September 2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  14. RESGPSLNS_GSBAY.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profile data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, in May and September 2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  15. Data acquisition logs in PDF format maintained on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activities 2008-007-FA and 2008-037-FA in Great South Bay, Long Island, New York in May and September, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  16. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  17. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  18. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  19. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  20. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  1. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  2. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  3. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  4. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  5. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  6. 中国舟山群岛与韩国海岛鱼禁忌及其比较%The Taboo and Comparison of Fish between Chinese Zhoushan Islands and South Korean Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛

    2016-01-01

    鱼的崇拜与禁忌是世界性的巫术现象,也是鱼文化研究中较为冷落的领域。中韩两国的鱼禁忌大都是相同或相通的,内容丰富,联想怪异,涉及面广,充满着神秘的民俗意象。舟山渔民以鱼为生,以鱼为业,鱼禁忌主要表现在“捕鱼的禁忌”“送鱼与祭鱼的禁忌”和“食鱼的禁忌”,尤以食鱼的禁忌更为突出。中韩两国的鱼禁忌在略有差异之下具有许多相似点,具体有三个特征:无鳞鱼或无名鱼及形状怪异的鱼,均被中韩孕妇所禁忌;食鱼习俗有相同或相通的鱼禁忌;鱼禁忌随着时代的发展和对鱼类认知的进展而不断变化。%Fish worship and taboo is not only a worldwide witchcraft phenomenon ,but also a neglected field in the cultural studies of fish .With all the differences of the objective images and their symbolic and metaphoric features about fish between China and South Korea ,there exist some similarities ,which origi‐nate from the mysteries of the folk images ,including the following three specific features :the unknown fish or the fish without scales and oddly shaped are taboos for the pregnant women ;the fish customs are the same or interlinked with fish taboos ;fish taboos are developed with the times and people's cognition .

  7. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  8. Relationships between plant functional traits at the community level and environmental factors during succession in a tropical lowland rainforest on Hainan Island, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Bu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We explored how plant functional traits respond to environmental factors and examined the underlying mechanism driving the ecological strategies of plant species in a community. Experiments were conducted at four randomly selected tropical lowland rainforests at different successional stages:15-, 30- and 60-year-old secondary forests and one old-growth forest, each in the Bawangling Nature Reserve of Hainan Island. A total of 200 plots (20 m×20 m were sampled. Individuals of tree and shrub species with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥1 cm were identified and both their functional traits and the environmental factors in each plot were measured. ANOVA showed that canopy openness, level of soil nutrients, specific leaf area, and content of total organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus within the leaf decreased at the community level during the successional process. Meanwhile, leaf dry matter content, wood density and potential maximum height increased. However, soil water content and leaf potassium content, changed non-significantly. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that environmental factors driving functional traits at the communitylevel varied during the successional process. The key environmental factors were soil organic matter and pH value in the 15-year-old secondary forest; canopy openness and soil total phosphorus content in the 30-year-old secondary forest; available phosphorus and total potassium content of the soil in the 60-year-old secondary forest; and soil phosphorus content and organic matter content in the old-growth forest. Our results indicate that at different successional stages, the same functional traits respond to different environmental factors, enabling adaptation to specific environmental conditions.

  9. Photosynthesis in relation to leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and specific leaf area of seedlings and saplings in tropical montane rain forests of Hainan Island, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fude LIU; Ming ZHANG; Wenjin WANG; Shuning CHEN; Jianwei ZHENG; Wenjie YANG; Fengqin HU; Shuqing AN

    2009-01-01

    In order to make clear the relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N, leaf P and SLA of tropical trees, and test the differences in the relationships among life-form groups (trees, shrub-like trees and shrubs),seedlings and saplings of 101 species from a tropical montane rain forest, located in the Diaoluo Mountain of Hainan Island, were selected. The net photosynthesis based on area and mass (Aarea and Amass), leaf nitrogen content based on area and mass (Narea and Nmass), leaf phosphorus content based on area and mass (Parea and Pmass) and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured and/or calculated.The results showed that Aarea and Amass tended to follow the order of shrubs > trees > shrub-like trees. One-way ANOVA showed that the difference in Aarea between shrubs and shrub-like trees was significant (p 0.05). The relationship between Aarea and SLAwas highly significant in shrubs (p = 0.0006),trees (p 0.05). The relationships between Amass and leaf N and SLA were highly significant in all three life-form groups and for all species (p < 0.0001). For Amass and leaf P, there were significant correlations in tree groups (p =0.0377) and highly significant correlations in shrub groups (p = 0.0004), shrub-like tree groups (p = 0.0018) and for all species (p < 0.0001). Stepwise regression showed that predicted Amass values were closer to the observed values than those for predicted Aarea values. Thus, it can be concluded that the relationships obtained from seedling and sapling measurements are close to those from mature individuals; correlations between photosynthesis and Nmass, Pmass and SLA traits are significant and the relationships are stronger and more stable for A mass than for Aarea.

  10. Subduction erosion of forearc mantle wedge implicated in the genesis of the South Sandwich Island (SSI) arc: Evidence from boron isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonarini, Sonia; Leeman, William P.; Leat, Phil T.

    2011-01-01

    The South Sandwich volcanic arc is sited on a young oceanic crust, erupts low-K tholeiitic rocks, is characterized by unexotic pelagic and volcanogenic sediments on the down-going slab, and simple tectonic setting, and is ideal for assessing element transport through subduction zones. As a means of quantifying processes attending transfer of subduction-related fluids from the slab to the mantle wedge, boron concentrations and isotopic compositions were determined for representative lavas from along the arc. The samples show variable fluid-mobile/fluid-immobile element ratios and high enrichments of B/Nb (2.7 to 55) and B/Zr (0.12 to 0.57), similar to those observed in western Pacific arcs. δ11B values are among the highest so far reported for mantle-derived lavas; these are highest in the central part of the arc (+ 15 to + 18‰) and decrease toward the southern and northern ends (+ 12 to + 14‰). δ11B is roughly positively correlated with B concentrations and with 87Sr/86Sr ratios, but poorly coupled with other fluid-mobile elements such as Rb, Ba, Sr and U. Peridotites dredged from the forearc trench also have high δ11B (ca. + 10‰) and elevated B contents (38-140 ppm). Incoming pelagic sediments sampled at ODP Site 701 display a wide range in δ11B (+ 5 to - 13‰; average = - 4.1‰), with negative values most common. The unusually high δ11B values inferred for the South Sandwich mantle wedge cannot easily be attributed to direct incorporation of subducting slab materials or fluids derived directly therefrom. Rather, the heavy B isotopic signature of the magma sources is more plausibly explained by ingress of fluids derived from subduction erosion of altered frontal arc mantle wedge materials similar to those in the Marianas forearc. We propose that multi-stage recycling of high-δ11B and high-B serpentinite (possibly embellished by arc crust and volcaniclastic sediments) can produce extremely 11B-rich fluids at slab depths beneath the volcanic arc

  11. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  12. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  13. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  14. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  15. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  16. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  17. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex.

  18. 浅析“亚太再平衡”战略下美国与南太岛国关系的新发展%Brief Analysis on the New Development of the Relation between the U.S.and the South Pacific Islands under the Background of“Asia Pacific Rebalancing Strategy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀琚; 叶圣萱

    2016-01-01

    历史上,美国与南太平洋岛国(以下简称“南太岛国”)有着长期而复杂的关系。自新世纪奥巴马政府实施“亚太再平衡”战略以来,美国重新提升了南太地区在其全球地缘政治安全战略中的地位,将其确立为“亚太再平衡”战略的第二道战线。美国增进了与该地区岛国的政治、安全关系,同时在经济援助、文化交流、气候变化、环境保护等方面,也加大了与南太岛国的合作。本文阐述了“亚太再平衡”战略背景下美国对南太岛国的重新定位,并探析了美国与南太岛国关系的新发展,进而提出中国的应对策略。%Historically,there was a long and complex relationship between the United States and the South Pacific islands.Since the Obama administration implemented “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”in the new century,the United States has newly promoted the status of the South Pacific region in its global geopo-litical and security strategy,and regarded this region as its second frontline of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”.The US enhances political and security relations with the islands in this region,and in the as-pects of economic assistance,cultural exchanges,climate change,and environmental protection.The Unit-ed States pushes forward cooperation with the South Pacific islands.This paper illustrates American reloca-tion towards the South Pacific islands under the background of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”,discus-ses the new development of the relation between the United States and the South Pacific islands,and then puts forward China’s replying strategies.

  19. Eruptive history of western and central Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): temporal evolution of magmatism and of morphological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.; Peccerillo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Aeolian Island archipelago is a complex volcanic province located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. It emplaced in a geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on the western and central volcanoes that are respectively Alicudi-Filicudi-Salina and Lipari-Vulcano. They erupted the whole range of magmas typical of convergence settings : from calc-alkaline (CA) to potassic series (KS) through high-K CA (HKCA) and shoshonitic series (SHO). All these magma products were emitted in a span time of less than 300 ka that attests to the complexity of the volcano-tectonic evolution of this province. We report new geochronological data, based on the K/Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique, which is well suited for dating Quaternary volcanic materials. New geochemical analyses were realized on the dated samples in order to study the temporal evolution of the magmatism. These data sets were coupled with geomorphological analysis to study the relation between main morphological structures and eruptive styles. Before 180 ka, only the Filicudi, Salina and Lipari volcanoes had emerged activity. Their magmas have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously at the extremities of the archipelago. Alicudi products are less various and have the more primitive composition. SHO and HKCA products were emitted on Lipari and Vulcano, while only CA magmas were emplaced on Filicudi and Salina. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi is characterized by mafic magmas of HKCA affinity. To the other extremity, similar products of SHO affinity were emplaced in southern Lipari and northern Vulcano. At this period, explosive activity with dacitic pumices occurred in Salina. The degree of differentiation and the K enrichment increase from western sector to central sector volcanoes and through time except at

  20. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  1. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  2. The tick Ixodes granulatus infests Rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Paperna I.

    2006-01-01

    The ixodid tick Ixodes granulosus Supino 1897 was found infesting Rattus rattus in Semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing Singapore to the south. None of the examined R. rattus from the other islands fringing Singapore, or from Singapore island were found infested. Ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on Singapore island on Rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. We speculate that invading black rats in Semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent pop...

  3. Vascular plant diversity of the Paracel Islands, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Paracel Islands (Xisha Islands comprise a group of tropical islands that are located south of mainland China and have a particular natural flora. Based on a literature search and our own investigations, we present here a checklist of plants for 24 of the Paracel Islands. We also report an analysis of plant diversity, its distribution and relationship with that of neighboring regions. A total of 396 vascular plants were recorded which belonged to 262 genera and 85 families. Of these, 220 were wild species and 176 were cultivated. As a whole, the islands do not possess a rich flora; however, there are major differences in plant diversity among islands. The flora consists in large part of tropical elements, typical of tropical coral islands of China. The flora is most closely connected to that of Hainan Island, and closely related to those of Taiwan of China, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

  4. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  5. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  6. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part II. Poecilosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte II. Poecilosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 16 species are registered for the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: Acanthorhabdus fragilis Burton, 1929, Iophon unicornis Topsent, 1907, Clathria (Axosuberites flabellata (Topsent, 1916, Clathria (Axosuberites nidificata (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Kirkpatrickia variolosa (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Myxodoryx hanitschi (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Iotroata somovi (Koltun, 1964, Tedania (Tedaniopsis charcoti (Topsent, 1907, Tedania (Tedaniopsis vanhoffeni (Hentschel, 1914, Tedania (Tedaniopsis oxeata (Topsent, 1916, Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Isodictya lankesteri (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Isodictya toxophila Burton, 1932, Isodictya bentarti Ríos, Cristobo & Urgorri, 2004, Latrunculia (Latrunculia brevis Ridley & Dendy, 1886 and Latrunculia (Latrunculia biformis (Kirkpatrick, 1908. Amongst the identified species, five are new occurrences for the studied region, three have their bathymetric limit extended and the others are confirmed for the studied area.No presente estudo 16 espécies são registradas para as Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: Acanthorhabdus fragilis Burton, 1929, Iophon unicornis Topsent, 1907, Clathria (Axosuberites flabellata (Topsent, 1916, Clathria (Axosuberites nidificata (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Kirkpatrickia variolosa (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Myxodoryx hanitschi (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Iotroata somovi (Koltun, 1964, Tedania (Tedaniopsis charcoti (Topsent, 1907, Tedania (Tedaniopsis vanhoffeni (Hentschel, 1914, Tedania (Tedaniopsis oxeata (Topsent, 1916, Isodictya kerguelenensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Isodictya lankesteri (Kirkpatrick, 1907, Isodictya toxophila Burton, 1932, Isodictya bentarti Ríos, Cristobo & Urgorri, 2004, Latrunculia (Latrunculia brevis Ridley & Dendy, 1886 e Latrunculia (Latrunculia biformis (Kirkpatrick, 1908. Dentre as espécies identificadas, cinco são novas ocorrências para a região estudada, três têm seu limite batimétrico ampliado e as demais são confirmadas para a área de estudo.

  7. A new model evaluating Holocene sediment dynamics: Insights from a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lagoon (Bora Bora, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaack, Anja; Gischler, Eberhard; Hudson, J. Harold; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Lohner, Andreas; Vogel, Hendrik; Garbode, Eva; Camoin, Gilbert F.

    2016-08-01

    found in the lagoon of nearby Tahaa, which are supposed to be induced by elevated cyclone activity. Correspondingly, enhanced erosion and run-off from the volcanic hinterland as well as lower lagoonal salinity would be associated with intense rainfall during repeated cyclone landfall. Increased amounts of coarse-grained sediment from marginal reef areas would be transported into the lagoon. However, Ti/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios as proxies for terrigenous sediment delivery have incessantly declined since the mid-Holocene. Also, benthic foraminiferal faunas do not validate reef-to-lagoon transport of sediment. Alternatively, the apparent onset of higher hydrodynamic energy conditions can be explained by more permanent southeast trade winds and higher-than-present sea level, which are supposed for the mid-late Holocene in the south Pacific. Sustained winds would have flushed higher amounts of open ocean water into the lagoon enhancing primary productivity and the amount of pelagic organisms within the lagoon while lowering lagoonal salinity. We propose the shift towards coarser-grained sedimentation patterns during the mid-late Holocene to reflect sediment-load shedding of sand aprons due to oversteepening of slopes at sand apron/lagoon edges during times of stronger trades and higher-than-present sea level of the Highstand Systems Tract, which led to redeposition of sediment even within the lagoon center. Modern conditions including a sea-level fall to modern level were reached ca. 1000 years BP, and lagoonal infill has been determined to a large part by fine-grained carbonate-dominated sediments produced within the lagoon and derived from the marignal reef. Infill of lagoonal accommodation space via sand aprons is estimated to be up to six times higher than infill by lagoonal background sedimentation and emphasizes the importance of the progradation of sand aprons. Contrary to the commonly supposed assumption that coarse-grained sediment layers within fine-grained lagoonal

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island group, American Samoa in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island Group, American Samoa, South Pacific. These...

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island group, American Samoa with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island Group, American Samoa, South Pacific. These...

  10. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  11. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  12. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  13. 78 FR 53467 - John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System; Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ..., as well as areas along the coasts of the Great Lakes, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The... reclassified from T08P (an otherwise protected area) to T08 (a System unit). T11, T11P: SOUTH PADRE ISLAND UNIT... break between the Laguna Madre and South Padre Island that is visible on the base imagery. T12:...

  14. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu; Keryea Soong

    2017-01-01

    .... In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan...

  15. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  16. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  17. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established a...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  18. Geoid anomalies over two South Atlantic fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam P.; Parsons, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Seasat altimetry profiles across the Falkland-Agulhas and Ascension fracture zones were examined for evidence of step-like geoid offsets predicted from thermal modeling of the lithosphere. Neither the plate nor the half-space model of lithospheric thermal evolution succeeds in predicting the variations in step height with age across the fracture zone branches considered. For ages less than about 30 Ma, the step offsets decrease in a manner suggesting a plate with a thickness of 50-75 km. At greater ages, the offsets show complex behavior that may be due to bathymetric features adjacent to the fracture zones. Similar geoid patterns on opposite branches of the Falkland-Agulhas fracture zone are indicative of processes that act symmetrically on both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This is consistent both with small-scale convection occurring beneath the lithosphere and with bathymetric features originally produced along the ridge crest and now located symmetrically on opposite sides of the ridge. The west flank of the Ascension fracture zone displays a regrowth in step height at about 40 Ma consistent with small-scale convection and in agreement with other studies of Pacific and South Atlantic fracture zones.

  19. floodzones_ascension_FEMA_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  20. After accounting for competing causes of death and more advanced stage, do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with cancer still have worse survival? A population-based cohort study in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Walton, Richard; You, Hui; Baker, Deborah; Roder, David; Currow, David; Aranda, Sanchia

    2017-06-02

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia have been found to have poorer cancer survival than non-Aboriginal people. However, use of conventional relative survival analyses is limited due to a lack of life tables. This cohort study examined whether poorer survival persist after accounting for competing risks of death from other causes and disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis, for all cancers collectively and by cancer site. People diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry. Aboriginal status was multiply imputed for people with missing information (12.9%). Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 'advanced stage' at diagnosis (separately for distant and distant/regional stage). Survival was examined using competing risk regression to compute subhazard ratios (SHRs) with 95%CIs. Of the 301,356 cases, 2517 (0.84%) identified as Aboriginal (0.94% after imputation). After adjusting for age, sex, year of diagnosis, socio-economic status, remoteness, and cancer site Aboriginal peoples were more likely to be diagnosed with distant (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) or distant/regional stage (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.18-1.40) for all cancers collectively. This applied to cancers of the female breast, uterus, prostate, kidney, others (those not included in other categories) and cervix (when analyses were restricted to cases with known stages/known Aboriginal status). Aboriginal peoples had a higher hazard of death than non-Aboriginal people after accounting for competing risks from other causes of death, socio-demographic factors, stage and cancer site (SHR 1.40, 95%CI 1.31-1.50 for all cancers collectively). Consistent results applied to colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers. Aboriginal peoples with cancer have an elevated hazard of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people, after accounting for more advanced stage and competing

  1. 微创上颌窦外提升与不翻瓣种植联合手术的临床观察%Minimally invasive maxillary sinus ascension and not double disc planting combined surgery clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春光; 高菊荣; 高瑞; 张婧; 白茹; 刘捷; 贺祎

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Explore minimally invasive maxillary sinus ascension and planting the clinical efficacy of combined surgery, not double disc.Methods: Choice 32 patients with dentition defect beind maxillary dental area in March 2012 to February 2014, alveolar bone height 3.0~3.0 mm, 45 implanted implants in same period of maxillary sinus ascension, after 10 months to complete the permanent repair. Clinical examination and X-ray follow-up observation for 12-35 months.Results: 32 cases of minimally invasive maxillary sinus combination of ascension and not double disc planting operation smoothly, 1 case of maxillary sinus mucosa damage, after 10~12 months crescent root slices of new bone formation around the implant. After the implant prosthesis follow-up observations, implants saved rate was 100%.Conclusion: Minimally invasive maxillary sinus combination of ascension and not double disc planting after surgical method applied in maxillary teeth missing, small surgical trauma, quicker recovery, clinical effect is stable and satisfaction.%目的:探讨微创上颌窦外提升与不翻瓣种植联合手术的临床疗效。方法:选择32例上颌后牙区骨量不足的牙列缺损患者,其牙槽骨高度为3.0~5.0 mm,上颌窦外提升术后同期植入45颗种植体,术后10个月完成永久修复。随访12~35个月,采用临床检查和X射线检查观察临床疗效。结果:32例微创上颌窦外提升与不翻瓣种植联合手术顺利,无1例上颌窦黏膜破损,术后10~12个月牙根尖片显示种植体周围有新骨生成。种植修复后随访观察结果显示种植体存留率为100%。结论:微创上颌窦外提升与不翻瓣种植联合手术方法应用于上颌后牙缺失,手术创伤小,术后恢复快,临床效果稳定。

  2. Caring for the Environment and the Mitigation of Natural Extreme Events in Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli Veitayaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the villagers in Vanuaso Tikina, Gau Island, Fiji, have collaborated with the University of the South Pacific to manage their environmental resources to prepare them for difficult and challenging times ahead. This review essay seeks to publicize this island community-based experience by illustrating a range of resource management initiatives, and some of the challenges of their implementation. The experience is instructive to the rest of Fiji and other island and coastal societies where similar initiatives can be tried or further promoted.

  3. Biodiversity of culturable bacteria associated with Crassostrea hongkongensis from the tidal flat of Naozhou Island in the South China Sea%硇洲岛潮汐带牡蛎相关可培养细菌多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建青; 朱泓溢; 刘祝祥; 刘荷; 贺建武; 李洪军; 钟小娟; 李文均; 陈义光

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the diversity of cultivable bacteria isolated from Crassostrea hongkongensis collected from the tidal flat of Naozhou Island (20°52′-20°56′ N,110°33′-110°38′ E) in the South China Sea.[Methods] Bacteria strains were isolated from homogenates of the sample by using conventional culture-dependent method,and then the isolated strains were investigated by using a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences.[Results] We isolated 102 bacteria strains from the sample on a number of media [MA (marine agar 2216),MH (moderate halophilic medium agar),NA (nutrient agar)] supplemented with 0-25% (W/V) NaCl.On the basis of the results of some morphological,physiological and biochemical tests,we selected 74 strains to perform a further phylogenetic analysis.Our results showed that the 74 isolates represented 38 species,belonging to 18 genera (Idiomarina,Morganella,Proteus,Halomonas,Paracoccus,Wohlfahrtiimonas,Marinobacter,Vibrio,Pseudoalteromonas,Shewanella,Oceanimonas,Nitratireductor,Myroides,Bacillus,Virgibacillus,Staphylococcus,Enterococcus,Trichococcus) of 16 families (Idiomarinaceae,Enterobacteriaceae,Halomonadaceae,Rhodobacteraceae,Xanthomonadaceae,Alteromonadaceae,Vibrionaceae,Pseudoalteromonadaceae,Shewanellaceae,Aeromonadaceae,Phyllobacteriaceae,Flavobacteriaceae,Bacillaceae,Staphylococcaceae,Enterococcaceae,Carnobacteriaceae) in 4 phylogenetic groups (Gamma-Proteobacteria,Alpha-Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,Firmicutes).The most of isolates were within the subphylum Gamma-Proteobacteria (45strains,60.8%),followed by Firmicutes (12 strains,16.2%),Bacteriodetes (11 strains,14.9%) and Alpha-Proteobacteria (6 strains,8.1%).The phylogenetic analysis results suggested that there were obvious genetic divergences between most isolates and their closest type strains (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranged from 94.3% to 99.8%).The results also showed that,out of the 74 isolates,at least 6 strains could

  4. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  5. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  6. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  7. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B V Subba Rao; M Radhakrishna; K Haripriya; B Someswara Rao; D Chandrasekharam

    2016-03-01

    The Andaman Islands form part of the outer-arc accretionary sedimentary complex belonging to the Andaman–Sumatra active subduction zone. The islands are characterized by thick cover of Neogene sediments along with exposed ophiolite rocks at few places. A regional magnetic survey was carriedout for the first time over the Andaman Islands with a view to understand the correlation of anomaly signatures with surface geology of the islands. The residual total field magnetic anomaly maps have revealed distinct magnetic anomalies having intermediate to high amplitude magnetic signatures andcorrelate with the areas over/close to the exposed ophiolite rocks along the east coast of north, middle and the south Andaman Islands. The 2D modelling of magnetic anomalies along selected E–W profiles across the islands indicate that the ophiolite bodies extend to a depth of about 5–8 km and spatiallycorrelate with the mapped fault/thrust zones.

  8. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  9. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    deployment of the DOE (Department of Energy) ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) to Ascension Island, nominally for April 1 2016 - March 31 2017, and 4) ONFIRE (Observations of Fire's Impact on the southeast Atlantic Region), a proposed deployment of the NCAR C-130 aircraft to Sao Tome Island in 2017.

  10. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  11. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  12. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  13. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  14. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  15. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  17. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the South China Sea (C.S.K. Program, Cruise II) and around Seribu Islands by R.V. Jalanidhi, December 6-December 28, 1971 (NODC Accession 7300974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations from the R.V. JALANIDHI in the South China Sea and other areas. Data were collected from 06 December 1971 to 28...

  18. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  19. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (MDMR), and local stakeholders. The project is multi-phased and includes the restoration of features on the...note was prepared by Jennifer Gerhardt Smith, Research Biologist , of the ERDC Environmental Laboratory; Justin McDonald, P.E., Lead Project Engineer...Island, Biloxi, Mississippi. MS thesis, University of South Alabama. Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Coastal Preserves Program Website

  20. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-06-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  1. Multibeam collection for KN192-07: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-12-31 to 2008-01-17, departing from Natal, Brazil and returning to Ascension Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for RC2602: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1985-02-04 to 1985-02-26, departing from Ascension Island and returning to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for RC2515: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1984-12-26 to 1985-01-09, departing from Belem, Brazil and returning to Ascension Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. 海南岛霸王岭热带云雾林雨季的环境特征%Environmental characteristics of tropical cloud forests in the rainy season in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙文兴; 丁易; 臧润国; 杨民; 陈少伟

    2011-01-01

    Aims Tropical cloud forest, a seldom-studied but important type of tropical forest vegetation, is usually distributed around mountaintops and is characterized by unusual environmental conditions that determine its unique biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our objective was to explore the characteristics of solar irradiance, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil conditions and topographic conditions during the rainy season in two tropical cloud forest communities: tropical montane evergreen forest (TMEF) and tropical montane dwarf forest (TMDF).Methods Based on surveyed environmental data of TMEF and TMDF in Bawangling National Natural Reserve in Hainan Island of South China, we assessed differences in environmental conditions between the two cloud forests, and examined correlations among the environmental conditions, using principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis.Important findings Daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) showed a unimodal curve both in TMEF and TMDF, but PAR in TMEF was significantly lower than in TMDF. From May to October, mean daily air temperatare differed significantly between TMEF and TMDF and showed a unimodal curve in the two forests, with average values of (21.76 ± 2.44) ℃ and (19.33 ± 1.03) ℃, respectively. Additionally, mean daily relative humidity differed significantly between TMEF and TMDF and showed an inverse "S" curve; average values were (88.44 ±2.90)% and (97.71 ± 0.80)%, respectively. TMEF had higher total nitrogen, total phosphorous, available nitrogen,organic matter, pH and soil thickness, but lower total potassium and available phosphorous than TMDF. Slope,cover of exposed rock and altitude were lower in TMEF than TMDF, and were significantly correlated with other ecological factors. Principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that air temperature,available phosphorous, total potassium, total nitrogen and the three topographic factors were

  5. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  6. Report of the SocMon capacity development workshop for the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem countries in South Asia, St Martin's Island, Bangladesh, 2-11 January, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon, V.; Saleem, M.; Townsley, P.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic Monitoring (SocMon) is an approach and set of tools for conducting socio-economic monitoring of changes in coastal communities. Planned outputs of the workshop included: training of local staff i SocMon methodologies; draft a SocMon report for St. Martin's Island; a workplan for implementing the SocMon; a communication strategy; and key inputs to a regional SocMon strategy

  7. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  8. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu South Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the south shore of the island of Oahu at approximately 200-m resolution....

  9. The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore from Cat Island, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2014-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected over 487 line kilometers (> 300 miles) of high-resolution geophysical data around Cat Island, Mississippi, to improve understanding of the island's geologic evolution and identify potential sand resources for coastal restoration. In addition, 40 vibracores were collected on and around the island, generating more than 350 samples for grain-size analysis. The results indicate that the geologic evolution of Cat Island has been influenced by deltaic, lagoonal/estuarine, tidal, and oceanographic processes, resulting in a stratigraphic record that is quite complex. The region north of the island is dominated by lagoonal/estuarine deposition, whereas the region south of the island is dominated by deltaic and tidal deposition. In general, the veneer of modern sediment surrounding the island is composed of newly deposited sediment and highly reworked relict sediments. The region east of the island shows the interplay of antecedent barrier-island change with delta development despite a significant ravinement of sediments. The data show from little to no modern sediment east of the island, exposing relict sediments at the seafloor. Finally, the data reveal four subaqueous sand units around the island. Two of the units are northwest of the modern island and one is southwest. Given the dominant, westward, longshore transport along the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, the geographic location of these three units suggests that they do not contribute to the modern sediment budget of Cat Island. The last unit is directly east of the island and represents the antecedent island platform that has supplied sand over geologic time for creation of the spits that form the eastern shoreline. Because of its location east of the island, the antecedent island unit may still supply sediment to the island today.

  10. Geomorphology of the Boao coastal system and potential effects of human activities-Hainan Island, South China%海南博螯沿岸地貌与人类活动的潜在影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大奎; 殷勇; I.Peter Martini

    2005-01-01

    The Boao coastal system along the eastern coast of Hainan Island is a dynamic delta-tidal inlet-barrier formed during the late Holocene. The delta developed inside a shallow lagoon barred by a sandy barrier with a narrow, shallow tidal inlet opening. Two major distributary channels separated by small islands characterize the delta. The lagoon is silting up receiving and trapping sediments from both the river and, in minor measure during storms, through the tidal inlet opening and barrier washovers. The barrier at the tidal inlet is highly dynamic and changes its form, accreting (migrating spit) against the inlet during fair-weather conditions and being eroded during storms and river floods.The delta has almost completely filled the lagoon and major concerns exist on the effect that ongoing large development plans may have on the environment. These concerns include the effect on floods and rate of siltation once banks of the islands have been stabilized and floodwater and sediment load are impeded from spreading over the lowlands, and the effect of increasing pollutant loads from the new facilities on the ecosystems of the increasingly restricting lagoon water and on the seashores.

  11. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  12. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  13. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  14. Equations for estimating selected streamflow statistics in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Steeves, Peter A.; Waite, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Regional regression equations were developed for estimating selected natural—unaffected by alteration—streamflows of specific flow durations and low-flow frequency statistics for ungaged stream sites in Rhode Island. Selected at-site streamflow statistics are provided for 41 long-term streamgages, 21 short-term streamgages, and 135 partial-record stations in Rhode Island, eastern Connecticut, and southeastern and south-central Massachusetts. The regression equations for estimating selected streamflow statistics and the at-site statistics estimated for each of the 197 sites may be used by Federal, State, and local water managers in addressing water issues in and near Rhode Island.

  15. 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON THE MALDIVES ISLANDS: INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Keating

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-tsunami field surveys of the Maldives Islands where carried out to document the effects of the tsunami inundation. The study area was situated in the islands of South Male Atoll that were some of the most heavily damaged islands of the Maldive Islands. The tsunami damaged the natural environment, vegetation, man-made structures, and residents. The maximum tsunami wave height was 3-4 m. This level of inundation exceeded the height of most residents. The wave height was greatest on the eastern rim of the South Male Atoll (closest to the tsunami source and these islands were completely flooded. The islands within the interior of the atoll saw the lowest wave heights, and these were only marginally flooded.Surveys of flood lines left on the exterior and interior of structures were measured but proved to be substantially less than that reported by survivors. It appears that the highest inundation was not preserved as flood lines. We suggest that the turbulence associated with the tsunami inundation erased the highest lines or that they did not form due to an absence of debris and organic compounds that acted as adhesion during the initial flooding.Significant erosion was documented. Deposition took place in the form of sand sheets while only desultory deposition of coral clasts in marginal areas was found. Seasonal erosion, and storms are likely to remove most or all of the traces of the tsunami within these islands.

  16. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  17. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  18. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  19. Bathymetry 2M Grid of Grammanik Bank, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of Grammanik Bank south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA...

  20. Farallon National Wildlife Refuge Southeast and West End Islands 2016 Invasive Plant Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The South Farallon Islands of Central California are part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). Ongoing seabird and marine mammal population and habitat...

  1. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  2. Bathymetry of Mid Shelf Reef, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Mid Shelf Reef south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's...

  3. NOAA TIFF Graphic- 0.5m Backscatter Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  4. Bathymetry 1m GRID of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA...

  5. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating of zir...

  6. A PRIMARY STUDY OF FOSSIL HILL FLORA FROM FILDES PENINSULA OF KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    The fossil plants studied in this paper were collected by the Chinese Antarctic Expeditions (1986—1987 and 1987—1988) from the locality Fossil Hill on the Fildes Peninsula southwest of the King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

  7. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while waiting...

  8. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... south (eastbound) span of the William P. Lane Jr. Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a...

  9. A first contribution to our knowledge of the flora of the Talaud Islands and Morotai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.; Lam, H.J.

    1942-01-01

    The Talaud Islands are forming part of the Malay Archipelago, being situated north of Celebes and the Moluccas, south of Mindanao and east of the Sangihe group, between 3°45’ and 5°35’ N. lat. and 126°32’ and 127°10’ E. long. The main group consists of three larger islands, viz. Karakelong, Salebabo

  10. South China Sea: Disputes and Great Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinming

    2011-01-01

    In the South China Sea disputes, China has ample proof to claim sovereignty over the Xisha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nansha Islands (the Spratly Islands) while the claims of certain southeast Asian countries do not hold any water. The South China Sea disputes have their origins in the San Francisco Peace Treaty signed in 1951, the result of intervention by the United States and Great Britain in regional affairs. Even today, the United States has not discarded its Cold War mentality and continues to intervene in the South China Sea disputes. The only change in the United States' attitude is that it has changed its pretext for intervention from "containing Communist expansion" in the past to "preserving freedom of navigation in the South China Sea" in the present.

  11. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  12. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  13. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  14. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  15. 以赛促学视角下医学生综合能力提升的探讨%To Promote the Medical Students Comprehensive Ability Ascension Study from Competitive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂鹏; 李佳楠; 高心妍; 沙尔望; 徐昕梦; 赵琦; 刘洋

    2014-01-01

    In recent years ,the medical institutions are trying to explore the clinical medicine specialty teaching reform road and“competitive learning”as an effective education mechanism ,incentive mech‐anism and the inspection mechanism ,has been more and more universities adopted ,but also put for‐ward new ideas for the medical students’ comprehensive ability ascension .Jiamusi University School of Medicine to fully rely on the national basic medical innovation forum and the experimental design competition and the National Medical College clinical skills competitions medical professional competi‐tion ,and actively create than learning to spell learning atmosphere ,around the“competitive learning , and promote education ,to promote education and teaching mode”and carry on in the ascension of core competence training in medical students game ,so that the medical students better to complete the transition from basic to clinical role ,provides education and teaching ideas more for the training of medical students .%近年来,各大医学院校都在积极探索临床医学专业教学模式改革之路,而“以赛促学”作为一种有效的教育、激励以及检验机制,越来越多的被各大高校所采用。与此同时,也为医学生综合能力的提升提出了新的思路。佳木斯大学医学院充分依托全国基础医学创新论坛暨实验设计大赛和全国高等医学院校大学生临床技能竞赛等医学专业比赛,积极营造比学赶拼的学习氛围,围绕“以赛促学、以赛促教”等教育教学模式开展提升医学生核心竞争力的训练,从而使得医学生更好的完成从基础到临床的角色转换,为医学生的培养提供了更多的教育教学思路。

  16. Organic maturation and thermal history of Queen Charlotte Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Vellutini, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    The level of organic maturation and thermal history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands have been determined with vitrinite reflectance (R{sub 0}), numerical modeling (modified Arrhenius model), and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis. The level of organic maturation increases from northern Graham to southern Moresby Island, which primarily reflects high heat flow resulting from Middle to Late Jurassic and Eocene to Oligocene plutonism and cospatial dyking. Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic and most Cretaceous strata are overmature on Moresby Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 2.40 to 5.80%. Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata are immature to overmature on Graham Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 0.15% (Skonun Formation) to 2.4% (Haida Formation). Locally, R{sub 0} values up to 3.2% on Graham Island and 8.3% on Moresby Island occur adjacent to igneous intrusives. Modeling measured levels of organic maturation suggests that elevated geothermal gradients ranging from 83{degree} to 150{degree}C/km existed during Yakoun (183-178 Ma) and Masset (35-10 Ma) volcanism on Graham Island. Numerical modeling further suggests that Triassic strata on Fredrick Island and Kennecott Point (Graham Island) entered the oil window during the early Miocene, whereas Jurassic strata at Rennell Junction and Cumshewa Inlet entered the oil window during the Bajocian. Cretaceous strata on north and south Graham Island entered the oil window during the early Miocene and are currently within the oil window. The Tertiary Skonun Formation is generally immature except for strata on west and northeast Graham Island, which entered the oil window in the late Miocene.

  17. South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovutor Owhoeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  18. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  19. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  20. Geology--hydrology of Avery Island Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, C.H.

    1977-07-01

    After a review of the geology of the Gulf Coast salt domes, the geology (geomorphology and tectonics) and hydrology of Avery Island Dome, 10 miles south-southwest of New Iberia, Louisiana, were studied in detail. Rock mechanics were studied using grouts and piezometers. 17 figs. (DLC)