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Sample records for ascaris suum muscle

  1. DNA extraction from Ascaris suum muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mito, Carmela; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of DNA from Ascaris suum muscle has been developed. It combines a standard SDS-based extraction with a plant DNA extraction procedure. The use of SDS and proteinase K allows the elimination of proteins, while CTAB and polyclar AT eliminate glycogen and polyphenols. The DNA thus obtained can easily be digested by endonucleases and amplified by PCR.

  2. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leles Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species are possible: 1 Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2 Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3 Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4 Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  3. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  4. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    OpenAIRE

    Leles Daniela; Gardner Scott L; Reinhard Karl; Iñiguez Alena; Araujo Adauto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event fro...

  5. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F.van

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides lar

  6. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Background: The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results: We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the ...

  7. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides larven op geschiktheid voor het opwekken van beschermende immuniteit in muizen. Tevens werd gekeken naar het gebruik van deze antigenen voor het verrichten van serodiagnostiek. Uit het onderzoek is naar v...

  8. Mitochondrial ultrastructural and atpase changes during the life cycle of Ascaris Suum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrick, G E; S. D. Long; W. A. Sodeman Junior; Smith, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural morphology and ATPase specific activities of mitochondria isolated from 1-celled fertilized egg, 10-day embryo, 21-day infective larvae and adult body wall muscle of Ascaris suum and rat liver were determined and compared. Although cristae of both muscle and egg mitochondria contained numerous elementary particles with head pieces of conventional diameter (85 A), each muscle mitochondrion contained relatively few, short cristae with a diminished frequency of elementary particl...

  9. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  11. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the refer...

  12. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the reference geno...

  13. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.;

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...... pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human...

  14. Elektroforetska analiza proteina iz spolnih organa i kutikule glista Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Julisar Elaine; Normandee Comia, Mary; Oyong, Glenn; Claveria, Florencia

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum bili su analizirani radi utvrđivanja sličnosti i razlike u elektroforetskoj pokretljivosti proteina iz njihove kutikule i spolnih organa. U obje vrste dokazana je znatna sličnost proteinskoga profila. Elektroforezom iscrpka kutikule ženki ustanovljeno je deset zajedničkih vrpci za obje vrste, dok je elektroforezom proteina kutikule mužjaka dobiveno 12 zajedničkih vrpci proteina od čega je najmanje pet proteina bilo zajedničko za oba spola. Usporedbom protei...

  15. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  16. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Oshiro; A. Rafael; C.S. Enobe; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized an...

  17. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The percentage of disapproved livers of growing and finishing pigs has been increased significantly during the last years. In organic pig farms, this percentage is often higher than in conventional pig farms. In most cases, disapproved livers are the result of an infection with Ascaris suum. Usually, an infection of Ascaris suum is treated or controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs belonging to the benzimidazoles, levamisole and macrocyclic lactones. Organic farmers, howev...

  18. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  19. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  20. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  1. Development of patent Ascaris suum infections in pigs following intravenous administration of larvae hatched in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Fagerholm, H.P.; Nansen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The normal tissue migration of Ascaris suum in the pig host involves larval development in the liver accompanied by considerable pathological changes. The vast majority of larvae that reach the small intestine are later expelled by unknown mechanisms. We show that when migration through the liver...

  2. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Het doel van het onderzoek was na te gaan wat de preventieve werking is van drie enkelvoudige kruiden, elk met een verschillend vermeend werkingsmechanisme (proteolytische enzymen, alkaloïden, bitterstoffen), op een milde besmetting met spoelwormen (Ascaris suum) bij vleesvarkens. Het besmettingsniv

  3. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...

  4. Profiling gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna;

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to profile the immune response mounted by pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes following an A. suum infection. We selec...

  5. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina;

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis....

  7. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  8. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  9. Comparação antigênica entre extratos de Toxocara canis e Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Zyngier

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta a comparação de dois extratos de Toxocara canis e um de Ascaris suum do ponto de vista antigênico. O método usado foi a imunodifusão em gel segundo Ouchtehlöny. O extrato de T. canis obtido pela técnica de Jeska mostrou 7 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo. O extrato de A. suum obtido pela mesma técnica apenas revelou 3 faixas, uma das quais com identidade parcial com o antígeno anterior. O extrato de T. canis segundo Woodruff e Thacker revelou 3 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo, todas elas com identidade total com o outro extrato do mesmo parasita.

  10. A genetic marker allele conferring resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.;

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has helped dissecting the genetics underlying the variation in resistance to helminth infections. In pigs, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with Ascaris suum worm burden...... of the AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, faecal egg counts, number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels) of which the first two traits were considered core traits and the last two traits were associated traits. Pigs of the AA genotype had...... lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs. 19.3), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs. 70.1) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 p.i. (mean number of eggs/g faeces: 238 vs. 1259) than pigs of the AB genotype. However, none of these differences were significant (P- values of 0.06, 0.06 and 0...

  11. Early stages of Ascaris suum induce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enobe, C S; Araújo, C A; Perini, A; Martins, M A; Macedo, M S; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2006-09-01

    The inflammatory and functional changes that occur in murine lung after infection with 2500 infective Ascaris suum eggs were studied in this work. A sequential influx of neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils occurred into airways concomitantly with migration of larvae from liver to the lungs. Histological analysis of the lung showed a severe intra-alveolar haemorrhage at the peak of larval migration (day 8) and the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate on day 14. Ascaris L3 were found in alveolar spaces and inside bronchioles on day 8. The number of eosinophils was elevated in the blood on days 8 and 14. The peak of eosinophil influx into the lung was at day 14, as indicated by the high levels of eosinophil peroxidase activity, followed by their migration into the airways. The antibody response against egg and larval antigens consisted mainly of IgG1 and IgM, and also of IgE and anaphylactic IgG1, that cross-reacted with adult worm antigens. Total IgE levels were substantially elevated during the infection. Measurement of lung mechanical parameters showed airway hyperreactivity in infected mice. In conclusion, the murine model of A. suum infection mimics the Th2-induced parameters observed in pigs and humans and can be used to analyse the immunoregulatory properties of this helminth. PMID:16916369

  12. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    molecular biology and genetics. Recently, we reported the 273 megabase (Mb) draft genome of Ascaris suum (sequenced from the reproductive tract of a single adult female worm) and explored transcription in different organs, stages, and both sexes of this nematode using advanced sequencing and computer...

  13. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, T M; Rafael, A; Enobe, C S; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2004-02-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10) M-1, 7.1 x 10(9) M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7) M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3) were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others. PMID:14762577

  14. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Oshiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10 M-1, 7.1 x 10(9 M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7 M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3 were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others.

  15. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  16. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  17. N-glycans of the porcine nematode parasite Ascaris suum are modified with phosphorylcholine and core fucose residues

    OpenAIRE

    Pöltl, Gerald; Kerner, Denise; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the glycoconjugates of many parasitic nematodes have attracted interest due to their immunogenic and immunomodulatory nature. Previous studies with the porcine roundworm parasite Ascaris suum have focussed on its glycosphingolipids which were found, in part, to be modified by phosphorylcholine. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we have now analysed the PNGase A-released N-glycans of adults of this species. The presence of hybrid, bi- and triantennary N-glycans, so...

  18. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  19. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  20. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

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    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  1. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

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    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  2. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  3. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie; Nansen, P.;

    2001-01-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver; lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during...... larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile...

  4. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko;

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis...... posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...

  5. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-06-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  6. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Betson, M; Bendall, R P; Thamsborg, S M; Stothard, J R

    2012-06-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.

  7. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  8. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  9. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  10. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  11. A comparison of the efficacy of two ivermectin formulations against larval and adult Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dendatum in experimentally infected piggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Nicoll, S.; Donanque, R.J.; Abbott, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two injectable formulations of ivermectin (IVM-1 and IVM-2) at a dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg bodyweight versus placebo in the treatment and control of larval and adult stages of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. in experimentally infected pi

  12. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha;

    to reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...

  13. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  14. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  15. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  16. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity.

  17. Characterization and expression of a spliced leader RNA in the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, T W; Shambaugh, J; Denker, J.; Chubb, G; Faser, C; Putnam, L.; Bennett, K.

    1989-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris spp. contains a 22-nucleotide spliced-leader (SL) sequence identical to the trans-SL previously described in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The SL comprises the first 22 nucleotides of a approximately 110-base RNA and is transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The SL RNA contains a trimethylguanosine cap and a consensus Sm binding site. Furthermore, the Ascaris SL RNA has the potential to adopt a secondary structure which is nearly identical to potential ...

  18. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    starting week 3 post partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum specific antibodies. Weaning took place week 7 p.......p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated by regular examination of soil samples and in late June and late November using parasite naïve tracer pigs. Paddock contamination was high but eggs developed slowly resulting in a low initial transmission to the experimental pigs. By week 5 p...... of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher ‘life...

  19. Employment of anaerobic reactors in real scale and polishing ponds for removal of eggs Ascaris suum of swine effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Araujo Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The swine confinement farms and the improper disposal of their wastes carry result in contamination of water and soil. On many farms is common slurry application to soil as a means of fertilization, but without any control over the quality of the effluent being released. What is a parasite Ascaris suum from pigs can infect humans, but is not given due importance to the presence of this contaminant as soil and water. In this work the effluent of a pig was treated in a system composed of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a UASB followed by polishing ponds for removal of helminthes eggs. The experiment was conducted at the Hélio Barbosa Experimental Farm pig in the city of Igarapé / MG. Values found in the influent of helminthes eggs in the range from 2891 to 88,848 eggs L-1, while the effluent showed absence of eggs, showing the high efficiency of the treatment system. While the sludge ponds, it showed high concentration of viable eggs ranged from 10.1% to 59.8%, not being in conformity with the requirements for reuse in agriculture.

  20. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  1. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  2. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae...... allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38 degreesC. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very...

  3. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  4. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  5. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan;

    1999-01-01

    by blood eosinophilia and specific immune responses measured by peripheral blood enzyme-linked immunospot and immunosorbent assays using larval excretory-secretory products and adult body fluid as well as Western blotting with a panel of stage-specific A. suum antigens. Immune detection of a previously...... in the gut....

  6. Evaluation of a serodiagnostic test using Ascaris suum haemoglobin for the detection of roundworm infections in pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Nejsum, Peter; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric;

    2012-01-01

    . suis infection was shown to be limited after analysing sera from pigs with an experimental T. suis mono-infection. Seroconversion was shown to occur from week 6 onwards in pigs receiving 100 A. suum eggs 5 times a week. Preliminary testing of the ELISA on six randomly selected farms confirmed......% of the tested samples were seropositive, while in 19.8% of the farms 80-100% of all pigs were seropositive. The results of this study suggest that the AsHb ELISA could provide pig farmers and veterinarians with an easier and more sensitive way to estimate the overall prevalence of A. suum on their farm....... of a novel indirect ELISA using the purified A. suum haemoglobin (AsHb) molecule as an antigen. Initial validation using sera from 190 pigs experimentally infected twice a week with A. suum and Trichuris suis (25 and 5 eggs kg(-1)day(-1) respectively) demonstrated that the AsHb ELISA is able to detect long...

  7. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  8. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  9. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  10. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫同域种群DNA多态性研究%DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SYMPATRIC POPULATIONS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES AND ASCARIS SUUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民; 安德森; 肯尼迪

    1999-01-01

    @@ 在我国蛔虫感染遍布各地,受染人数达5亿多.而在多数农村流行区,生猪饲养十分普遍,人群和猪群的蛔虫感染往往并存,且人、猪接触密切.据作者在江西省新建县蔓湖村进行的一年纵向调查,当地人群蛔虫感染率和猪群蛔虫感染率比较接近(约60%-70%),土壤蛔虫卵污染普遍而严重,并长年稳定 ( Peng, W.D. et al. 1996 Ascaris, people and pigs in rural Jiangxi, China. Parasitology 113:547~557.). 因此这些地区人蛔虫和猪蛔虫交叉感染的机会是大量存在的.

  11. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Joseph F. Urban

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observatio...

  12. Ascaris and ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  13. Effect of the injection of an extract of Ascaris suum on macrophage activation during the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in C57Bl/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of an Ascaris suum extract (Asc affects both the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens when it is co-administered with these antigens. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Asc on macrophage activation in the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur strain TMCC 1173 infection in C57Bl/6 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip with 0.1 mg BCG (BCG group or BCG plus 1 mg Asc (BCG + Asc group. The peritoneal exudates were obtained at 2, 7 and 14 days after infection. The numbers of IFN-g-secreting cells were assessed by the ELISPOT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured by the Griess method and by the evaluation of NADPH diaphorase activity in the peritoneal exudates. The administration of Asc extract increased NADPH diaphorase activity (2 days: control = 0, BCG = 7%, BCG + Asc = 13%, and Asc = 4%; 7 days: control = 4, BCG = 13%, BCG + Asc = 21%, and Asc = 4.5% and TNF-a levels (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 169 ± 13, BCG + Asc = 202 ± 37, and Asc = 0; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 545 ± 15.5, BCG + Asc = 2206 ± 160.6, and Asc = 126 ± 26; 14 days: control = 10 ± 1.45, BCG = 9 ± 1.15, BCG + Asc = 126 ± 18, and Asc = 880 ± 47.67 pg/ml in the early phase of BCG infection. Low levels of NO production were detected at 2 and 7 days after BCG infection, increasing at 14 days (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 3.7 ± 1.59, BCG + Asc = 0.82 ± 0.005, Asc = 0.48 ± 0.33; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 2.78 ± 1.54, BCG + Asc = 3.07 ± 1.05, Asc = 0; 14 days: control = 0, BCG = 9.05 ± 0.53, BCG + Asc = 9.61 ± 0.81, Asc = 10.5 ± 0.2 (2 x 106 cells/ml. Furthermore, we also observed that Asc co-injection induced a decrease of BCG-colony-forming units (CFU in the spleens of BCG-infected mice during the first week of infection (mean ± SD; 2 days: BCG = 1.13 ± 0.07 and BCG + Asc = 0.798 ± 0.305; 7 days: BCG = 1.375 ± 0.194 and BCG + Asc = 0.548 ± 0.0226; 14 days: BCG

  14. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    . At all temperatures, viability of eggs of both species was significantly higher (Purea-treated slurry except A. galli eggs at 20°C where no significant difference was detected. In untreated slurry, the levels of pH (6.33-9.08) and ammonia (0.01-1.74mM) were lower (P......urea-treated slurry (pH: 8.33-9.28 and ammonia 1-13mM). The study demonstrated that A. galli eggs are more sensitive to unfavourable conditions compared to A. suum eggs. The use of A. galli eggs as hygiene indicator may thus be suitable to assess inactivation of pathogens....... In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h...

  15. 负载人蛔虫和猪蛔虫抗原树突状细胞影响T细胞亚群活性研究%Comparative analysis of T cell subsets response induced by DC fused with Ag of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟; 黄川; 黄艳琴; 胡银英; 戴志芳; 袁芳; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    respectively by flow cytometry (FCM),ELISA and real time PCR.And the LCs were isolated from bone marrow cells cultured with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 in vitro.The FCM results showed that DCs isolated from bone marrow cells were with high expression of kinds of surface molecules (CD86,85.5 %; CD83 38.24%; CD80,94 %).CD80 and CD83 declined after heing cultured with ascaris extract for 2 days and that of the groups fused separately with Ag of A.lumbricoides and A.suum was respectively higher and lower than the control group.ELISA showed the level of expression of TNF-α in each period of each experimental group was lower than the control group (P<0.05); IL-10 in each group increased over time,and the groups with ascaris antigen were higher than groups with same concentration of A.suum antigen (P< 0.05) in each time except the time point of 24 hours.The qPCR results showed that the levels of the groups with A.lumbricoides Ag were declined over time but significantly higher than the control groups and the groups with A.suum Ag in different time points (P<0.05).The differences between the groups with A.suum Ag and the control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).In conclusion,DC fused with the Ag of A.lumbricoides promoted a stronger Th2 type response and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in vitro.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis: a global perspective on the transmission dynamics of Ascaris in people and pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Betson, M.; Nejsum, P; Bendall, RP; Deb, RM; Stothard, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. Methods.  Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mito...

  17. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  18. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    of anthelmintics), (2) abattoir operator losses due to condemnation or downgrading of livers and lower product quality, and (3) potential interference with vaccinations and higher risk of co-infections. Apart from the cost of liver condemnations that can be extrapolated from available data, it is difficult...

  19. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus;

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens ...

  20. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  1. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. METHODOLOGY: 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single

  2. Type I-like intervening sequences are found in the rDNA of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, H; Müller, F.; Etter, A; Tobler, H

    1987-01-01

    The intervening sequences in the large ribosomal RNA gene of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum show many similarities to the type I insertions, previously found only in some insect species. They include structural features, but also a presumed transcriptional inactivity in vivo: No transcript of the rDNA intervening sequence in A. lumbricoides could be detected in Northern and dot blot hybridizations. However, the primary structure of the Pol I promoter region is well conserved in interrupted an...

  3. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were nonviable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates...... that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion: By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated...

  4. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  5. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B;

    1992-01-01

    developed more severe pneumonia and septicaemia than did parasite-free mice. The parasite-induced effect on bacterial pathogenicity was more marked for a non-toxin-producing P. multocida as compared with a toxin-producing strain of P. multocida, possibly due to the higher spontaneous pathogenicity...

  6. Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    pens on an organic farm in four seasons. There was some variation, but mean ammonia levels were generally very low (1·0-2·6 mm) and pH levels were moderate (8·04-8·88) in all three areas. Relatively, resting areas were characterized by overall moderate moisture (36%) and moderately high temperature (35...

  7. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga;

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...

  8. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M;

    2016-01-01

    a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol...

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  10. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  11. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫差异的比较研究%Comparative Studies on the Difference Between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 彭卫东

    2006-01-01

    人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的分类地位一直存在争议.本文就人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的形态学、宿主感染特异性、免疫学、生化学和核型进行比较研究,对近年来分子遗传学方面的有关进展进行了综述.

  12. Pancreatitis secondary to Ascaris Lumbricoides: A case series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ab hameed Raina, Ghulam Nabi Yattoo, Feroz Ahmad Wani, Reyaz Ahmad Para, Khaild Hamid Changal, Arshed Hussain Parry

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infestations are endemic in tropical countries. Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis secondary to ascaris is more common in females. We describe three cases who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis and all of them were females and were diagnosed on ultrasonography. In t...

  13. Ascaris lumbricoides: an unusual aetiology of gastric perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shahana; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in the tropical countries, particularly in children. A wide range of clinical presentations are reported for GI ascariasis in both adults and children. We report a case of gastric perforation due to Ascaris, a rare presentation.

  14. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  15. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  16. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.

  17. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China)

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient...

  18. Tube within Tube: Ascaris in Bowel and Biliary-Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Ankur; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sriram, Jaganathan

    2010-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common human helminthic diseases worldwide. On ultrasound, it is seen as linear non-shadowing echogenic structures with target appearance in cross section, and the live worm may show writhing movements in real time. On barium meal follow through, it appears as radiolucent tubular filling defects within the bowel lumen. Though not sensitive, direct real-time visualization of Ascaris on ultrasound is quick, non-invasive, and definitive.

  19. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection. PMID:27066982

  20. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  1. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eser Kilic; Süleyman Yazar; Recep Saraymen; Hatice Ozbilge

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, I.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls.RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P<0.05)and for males (P<0.05). In the patient and control groups,no correlation was found between age and malondialdehyde levels (P>0.05) both in females and in males. In addition,no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

  2. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  3. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie;

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of...

  4. Prevalence of antibodies against Ascaris suum and its association with allergic manifestations in 4-year-old children in the Netherlands : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinelli, E.; Willers, S. M.; Hoek, D.; Smit, H. A.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Hoekstra, M.; de Jongste, J.; van Knapen, F.; Postma, D.; Kerkhof, M.; Aalberse, R.; van der Giessen, J. W. B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2009-01-01

    The association between helminth infections and childhood atopic diseases remains controversial. The majority of studies have been carried out in tropical areas, whereas less information is available from western countries with low intensity of helminth infections. In the Netherlands, the infection

  5. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report Absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.Se presenta el caso de una mujer que vivía en zona rural con una enfermedad...

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum represent the same species based on sequence analysis of mitochondrial nad5 gene%人蛔虫和猪蛔虫线粒体nad5基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌义; 林瑞庆; 朱艳平; 刘国华

    2014-01-01

    以采自中国不同地方的人蛔虫与猪蛔虫为研究对象,PCR扩增其线粒体烟酰胺脱氢酶亚基V基因(nad5)的部分序列(pnad5)并进行序列测定,应用ClustalX 1.81程序对序列进行比对.结果显示:所获得的pnad5序列长度一致,均为556 bp;人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的pnad5序列差异仅为0.0%~2.6%,本研究结果支持人蛔虫与猪蛔虫是同一个种的结论.

  7. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  9. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  10. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Zheng; Bing-Yuan Wang; Fei Wang; Ran Ao; Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man,which can lead to various complications because of its mobility.As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris,the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare.An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies.The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus.Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning.The patient fasted,and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate.Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb.The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis.The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus.Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up.Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus,emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  11. Chronic intussusception in children caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Harry; Palčevski, Goran; Saina, Giordano; Peršić, Mladen

    2011-05-01

    Chronic intussusception (CI) is defined as an intussusception lasting for 14 days or more. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, sometimes an abdominal mass is palpable and there is a marked weight loss. Diagnosis is based on typical features revealed by ultrasound or barium enema and CT investigations. Therapy is surgical with obligatory exclusion of possible underlying lesions. We report a case of a 3.5-year-old girl with chronic intussusception. Laboratory blood findings revealed sideropenic anemia and stools positive for Ascaris lumbricoides. Anti-parasitic therapy with mebendazole was repeatedly administered with early improvements but soon after symptoms relapsed. During surgery an ileocolic chronic intussusception extending to hepatic flexure was found. Postoperative control examinations proved complete healing. We suspected that Ascaris lumbricoides infestation was an etiologic factor for the development of chronic intussusception in the child.

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Kanneganti; Makker, Jasbir S.; Prospere Remy

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infec...

  13. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world’s population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumb...

  14. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  15. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  16. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  17. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  18. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  19. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  20. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Martha E Chico; Nutman, Thomas B.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Ascaris lumbricoides may have important effects on allergy and susceptibility to infectious diseases that start in early life. To investigate if sensitization to Ascaris occurs in utero, we measured IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in Ascaris antigen-stimulated cord blood of newborns of infected and non-infected mothers using flow cytometry. There was evidence of elevated frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers compared to those of n...

  1. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  2. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for Ascaris specific protein and its clinical approach to gastro-intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for Ascaris specific protein (ASP) and measured the serum levels in control subjects average; 5.94 +- 5.94 ng/ml) and in patients with Ascaris and a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In all Ascaris carriers, very high concentration of ASP (average; 151.4 ng/ml) was observed. 12 out of 38 patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly high serum levels of ASP. The high titer of ASP and the presence of antibody to ASP, previously described, may suggest the close relationship between ASP and ulcerative colitis. RIA for ASP, also provides simple method for screening the patients with Ascaris and hence may open the new field in parasitology. (author)

  4. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  5. The Half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides Prevalence in Japanese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Da-Hong; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takaki, Jiro; Ito, Takehiko; Kurosawa,Carmen Miwa; Takigawa,Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearsonʼs correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children...

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Diagnosis during EUS for a Suspected Small Pancreatic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Mangiavillano; Silvia Carrara; Maria Chiara Petrone; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2009-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Case report We describe the case of a 37- year-old man, with a history of travelling in Eastern countries who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking a small pancreatic cancer, diagnosed during an upper EUS. The endoscopy revealeda roundworm floating i...

  7. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  8. Cellular responses and cytokine profiles in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stefan M; Massara, Cristiano L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Soboslay, Peter T; Carvalho, Omar S; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    The impact of intestinal helminth infection, i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, on cellular responsiveness and cytokine production was investigated in young adults. Ascaris-specific cellular responsiveness was higher in parasite-free endemic controls than in patients infected with T. trichiura, or A. lumbricoides, or patients co-infected with both parasites. Also, mitogen-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was higher in negative endemic controls than in infected individuals. Ascaris antigen-specific production of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IFN-gamma was low in singly Ascaris as well as in co-infected patients, whereas secretion of IL-10 and IL-13 was elevated and similarly high in all patient groups. The detection of Trichuris-specific and Ascaris-specific IgG4 revealed significantly higher serum antibody levels in Trichuris or Ascaris patients when compared to endemic controls (P Trichuris patients with a high parasite load presented reduced cellular reactivity and lower type 1 TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses when compared with endemic controls, whereas type 2 IL-10 and IL-13 productions were similar in all groups from the endemic area. The former may support parasite persistence, whereas substantial type 2 cytokine release may promote protective immunity, suggesting an adaptation of the host to control the parasite burden while minimizing immune-mediated host self-damage.

  9. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  10. Obstrução nasolacrimal em criança: Ascaris lumbricoides como uma causa incomum Nasolacrimal obstruction in a child: Ascaris lumbricoides as an unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Helder Palma Araújo; Sérgio Schneider Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo descreve um caso incomum de obstrução de vias lacrimais por Ascaris lumbricoides em uma criança de 1 ano de idade e faz um breve relato de outros casos semelhantes na literatura, enfatizando a necessidade de se pensar em helmintíase como provável causa de obstrução lacrimal em crianças desnutridas que moram em áreas de alta prevalência de parasitose intestinal.This article describes an unusual case of an obstruction of the tear ducts caused by Ascaris lumbricoides in an one-year-o...

  11. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  12. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  13. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008. Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquellas donde la gente acostumbra a defecar a ras del suelo, pues no tiene el recurso económico necesario para construir baños, ni dispone de agua potable. Esta parasitosis afecta a 25 a 35% de la población mundial (Biagi, 2004 (Becerril, 2008. Generalmente los pacientes infectados por este nematodo cursan asintómaticos, pero en caso contrario la sintomatología dependerá de la fase del ciclo vital en la que el parásito se encuentre pudiendo existir síntomas pulmonares o gastrointestinales, incluso en ciertas poblaciones como la pediátrica podría incluso ocasionar la muerte por múltiples mecanismos dentro de los cuales se incluyen la migración errática y/o la obstrucción intestinal (MS., 1996

  14. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  15. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  16. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil. PMID:22944771

  17. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  18. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  19. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  20. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Geostatistical modeling of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.The following study intends to model the spatial distribution of ascariasis, through the use of geoprocessing and geostatistic analysis. The database used in the study was taken from the PAISQUA project, including a coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey, conducted in 19 selected census tracts of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, randomly selecting a group of 1,550 children aged 1 to 9 years old plotting them in their respective domicile's centroids. Risk maps of Ascaris lumbricoides were generated by indicator kriging. The estimated and observed values from the cross-validation were compared using a ROC curve. An isotropic spherical semivariogram model with a range of 30m and nugget effect of 50% was employed in ordinary

  1. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  2. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this stud...

  3. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...

  4. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  5. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  6. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  7. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

  8. Confirmation of the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Plasmodium falciparum infection: results of a randomized trial in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2007-12-01

    A controlled randomized trial of anti-helminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Plasmodium falciparum, and Schistosoma mansoni. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 107 subjects, whereas 105 were controls. Levamisole was highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P 15 years of age. This study confirms the results of a randomized trial, which showed a negative interaction in those > 5 years of age between Ascaris and malaria parasite density in another Malagasy population, submitted to a higher malaria transmission.

  9. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  10. Massive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides of the biliary tract: report of a successfully treated case Infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides nas vias biliares: relato de um caso tratado com sucesso

    OpenAIRE

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior; José Abi Karam; Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes Warth; Alexandre Frederico de Marca; José Jukemura; Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado; Antonino dos Santos Rocha

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of a 25 years old black woman from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who developed acute obstructive cholangitis of Ascaris lumbricoides with septicemia and multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient had sickle cell trait and normal delivery 3 months ago. Massive infestation of the biliary tract by Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Sixty worms were removed from the common bile duct and hepatic abscesses were d...

  11. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    B B Barnabas; Mann, A.; T S Ogunrinola; P E Anyanwu

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serio...

  12. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid Javed; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Sultan, Nabeel; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Mehraj, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) is one of the most common helminthic infections of humans, affecting mainly children and malnourished individuals residing in developing countries. It is estimated the 25% of the world’s population is infected with this nematode. Infection occurs via ingestion of water and food contaminated by Ascaris eggs, causing asymptomatic infection to disease with abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and faecal passage of worms. The present report concerns an unusual case in ...

  13. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  14. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  15. New Allergens of Relevance in Tropical Regions: The Impact of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    One of the many aspects of the relationships between parasite infections and allergic diseases is the possibility that allergens from parasites enhance the TH2 responses, especially IgE production, in allergic diseases such as asthma. In this review we discuss about the allergenic composition of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and their potential impact on allergy sensitization and asthma pathogenesis and prevalence in populations living in the tropics and naturally exposed to both, mite al...

  16. Serologic evidence that Ascaris and Toxoplasma infections impact inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori in Colombians

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Courtney; Whary, Mark T.; Ihrig, Melanie; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Fox, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori-infected children from coastal Tumaco, Colombia, have more parasitism, and adults have lower gastric cancer risk compared with high-altitude Pasto/Tuquerres residents. Because helminth and Toxoplasma gondii infections alter helicobacter gastritis in rodent models, we determined whether seropositivity to Ascaris lumbricoides or T. gondii was associated with Th2-IgG1 or Th1-IgG2 responses to H. pylori. Methods: Sera (240) from the two populations were evaluate...

  17. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Acevedo; Jens Mohr; Josefina Zakzuk; Martin Samonig; Peter Briza; Anja Erler; Anna Pomés; Huber, Christian G.; Fatima Ferreira; Luis Caraballo

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and compa...

  18. A Community Based Survey of the Burden of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu

    OpenAIRE

    Chijioke, IR; Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, GCA; Okafor, CI; Ekejindu, IM; Sridhar, MKC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is common in our environment and antihelminthic drugs are specie specific. Thus, need to identify and characterize the species cannot be overemphasized. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 361 subjects in Enugu metropolis was carried out in this study. A single stool sample was collected for examination from the subjects, using appropriately labelled clean specimen contain...

  19. Management of biliary Ascaris lumbricoides in Kabul, Afghanistan: crossroads of advancing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Richard Gerard; Tani, Mohammad Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The case is presented of the successful removal of a dead Ascaris lumbricoides from the right hepatic duct of a middle aged woman from a rural province in Afghanistan. The case was started laparoscopically, but converted to an open procedure because of difficulty identifying the anatomic landmarks required to safely perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After worm removal, the common bile duct (CBD) was reconstructed with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The patient was discharged on postoper...

  20. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby NM

    2016-01-01

    Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and asc...

  1. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating.

  2. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  3. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1) dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  4. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berendes

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1 dry weight. In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.

  5. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Anderson Roy M; Hall Andrew; Walker Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from ...

  6. Muscle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis Additional conditions ...

  7. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  8. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  9. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  10. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  11. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Spatial distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Luis Iván Ortiz Valencia; Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes; Ricardo Cerqueira Campos Braga; Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As téc...

  12. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  13. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  14. Eliminated chromatin of Ascaris contains a gene that encodes a putative ribosomal protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, A; Aboutanos, M; Tobler, H; Müller, F.

    1991-01-01

    Chromatin diminution in the nematodes Parascaris equorum and Ascaris lumbricoides leads to the formation of somatic cells that contain less DNA than the germ-line cells. We present molecular evidence for the coding potential of germ-line-specific DNA. We report on a cDNA clone that codes for a putative ribosomal protein (ALEP-1, for A. lumbricoides eliminated protein 1). That the corresponding gene is located in the eliminated portion of the genome indicates a difference in germ-line and soma...

  15. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout ...

  16. A related moderately repetitive DNA family in the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and Panagrellus silusiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, T; Pasternak, J J

    1988-01-01

    Digestion of genomic DNA from the nematodes Panagrellus silusiae and Ascaris lumbricoides with restriction endonuclease BamH1 releases a 0.7 kilobase (kb) fragment. The 0.7 kb fragment from both nematodes was cloned onto E. coli plasmid pUC19. Using representative clones as DNA hybridization probes, it was found that (i) the BamH1 fragments cross-hybridize; (ii) a ladder-effect with multiples of 0.7 kb was evident in both species after hybridization to genomic DNA and (iii) the genomic copy n...

  17. DAMPAK PENGELOLAAN TINJA TERPADU TERHADAP INFEKSI ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DI DAERAH KOTA (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinardi Hadidjaja; Sri S. Margono; Adi Sasongko; Rumsah Rasad

    2012-01-01

    A study on the health impact of integrated environmental sanitary management was done in the village of Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. As an indicator of health status, Ascaris lumbricoides infection in school children was used. The result of the study before the intervention showed that the prevalence of A. lumbircoides infec­tion in school children who lived in RW 06 Pisangan Baru was 46.3% and 45.7% who lived in RW 013. Ex­amination of sewage water in ditches showed 42% positive with A. lumb...

  18. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes; Luis Iván Ortiz Valencia; Simone do Vale Ribeiro; Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    2004-01-01

    O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validaçã...

  19. Possible Approach for Serodiagnosis of Ascariasis by Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G4 Response Using Ascaris lumbricoides Somatic Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Tanusree; Santra, Amal; Majumder, Debendra N. Guha; Chatterjee, Bishnu P.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides was purified to homogeneity (molecular mass, 34 kDa) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographic procedures, namely, gel permeation, ion exchange, and high-performance gel permeation liquid chromatographies. The antigen showed strong binding with immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Ascaris-infested patients and was cross-reactive with IgE and IgG in patients infested with other nematodes. It reacted specifically with IgG4 (P < 0.001) in 63 As...

  20. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  1. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  3. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. PMID:25486916

  4. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  5. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  6. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  7. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Mônica Rodrigues; Valencia Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Braga Ricardo Cerqueira Campos; Medronho Roberto de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As téc...

  8. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression.

  9. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  10. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kosuke Kaji; Mitsuteru Kitade; Hideto Kawaratani; Masahito Uemura; Junichi Yamao; Masao Fujimoto; Akira Mitoro; Masahisa Toyohara; Motoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Fukui; Hitoshi Yoshiji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Masaharu Yamazaki; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Ryuichi Noguchi; Masayoshi Sawai; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Tsuyoshi Mashitani

    2007-01-01

    Although the etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, the postulated causes include allergies,parasites, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. It is sometimes accompanied by several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rares. A 28-year-old woman complained of acute right hypocondrial pain and dyspnea associated with systemic eruption. Several imaging modalities revealed acute cholecystitis and pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion. A marked peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, and the eruption was diagnosed as urticaria. Her serum had a high titer of antibody against Ascaris lumbricoides. Treatment with albendazole drastically improved all clinical manifestations along with normalization of the imaging features and eosinophilia. We report herein a rare case of simultaneous onset of acute cholecystitis and pericarditis associated with a marked eosinophilia caused by parasitic infection.

  11. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  12. Aspectos imunológicos na infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Ana Catarina Rodrigues Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Ascaris lumbricoides é um parasita, geo-helminta, a sua prevalência é maior em zonas quentes e húmidas, em que as condições de saneamento e higiene são precárias. É o principal responsável por parasitoses intestinais, principalmente em crianças, manifestando-se por náuseas, vómitos e dor abdominal. Em casos mais graves pode causar défice no desenvolvimento físico e cognitivo. O sistema imun...

  13. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Spatial distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rodrigues Campos

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As técnicas de geoestatística permitiram a análise exploratória espacial, variografia e krigagem ordinária. A análise estatística inclui teste "t" de Student, odds ratio e intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada para A. lumbricoides foi de 27,5%. A renda familiar, o nível de escolaridade da dona de casa e as condições peridomiciliares foram identificados como fatores significativamente associados à ocorrência de ascaríase. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 150 metros, contribuição de 0,45 e efeito pepita de 0,55 foi empregado na krigagem ordinária. CONCLUSÕES: A continuidade espacial de aproximadamente 150 metros corrobora a influência do peridomicílio na ascaríase. Pela krigagem ordinária, foi possível estimar a ocorrência da doença em toda a área de estudo e construir um mapa de risco.OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk areas for Ascaris lumbricoides parasitic overload, using geoprocessing and geostatistic methods of analysis. METHODS: A coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey was conducted in 19 selected census districts of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A sample of 1,664 children aged between 1--9 years was selected and plotted in their own home' centroid. Geostatistics techniques allowed spatial exploratory analysis, variographic study, and ordinary kriging. Student t-test, odds ratio and confidence intervals were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS

  14. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.A. de; Del Caro, S.R.; Bender Lamego, C.M.; Mercon de Vargas, P.R.; Vervloet, V.E.C.

    1985-02-01

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis.

  16. Hubungan Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Terhadap Hasil Uji Tusuk Kulit (Skin Prick Test) dengan Alergen dari Cacing Ascaris pada Anak Sekolah Dasar Negeri 047/XI Koto Baru yang Memiliki Riwayat Atopi di Kecamatan Pesisir Bukit Kota Sungai Penuh Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, intestinal worms that are transmitted through the soil (Soil-transmitted helminthiasis) is a common infection that involves many people in the world. Estimates suggests Ascaris lumbricoides infects over one billion people. The number of most worm infections apply to sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, China and East Asia. Prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases in children has increased worldwide in recent years, but the reason behind the increase in prevalence is un...

  17. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  18. [Elimination of juvenile stages of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758) by mouth. Report of a case and some epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Pino Q, Gloria; Muñoz S, Nelson; Tobar C, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Ascariosis is a parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large geohelmint endemic in our country. At present, ascariosis is a rare infection in Chile. We present a case of an adult, resident of the Villa Alemana municipality, Valparaiso Region, who spontaneously expelled two juvenile nematodes by mouth. We review the manifestations produced by the larval and adult stages of this parasite including their diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological considerations.

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  20. Multiparasitic Infection (Hydatid Cyst of the Spleen and Ascaris Lumbricoides Infestation) Mimicking an Acute Surgical Abdomen – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar Călin; Vizitiu Alexandru; Deak Karoly; Russu Cristian; Tudor Adrian; Suciu Bogdan; Stolnicu Simona; Hulub Marius; Molnar Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst involving the spleen is a rare clinical condition (0.5-4%). We report a case of multi-parasitic infection in a 62 year old female (hydatid cyst and ascaris lumbricoides infestation), confirmed during surgery. The purpose of the paper is to emphasize on the rare association of the two parasitic infections, affecting two different organs (spleen and jejunum). The combined symptomatology of the two parasites could mimic an acute surgical abdomen.

  1. COMPARISON OF EXCRETORY SECRETORY ANTIGENS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOLDES AND TOXOCARA CATI 2ND. STAGE LARVAE WITH BIOCHEMICAL METHODES

    OpenAIRE

    F. Maleky; Massoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Purification of parasitic antigens is a major activity in immunoparasitology because of its application in immunodiagnosis, vaccination analysis of immunopathology, preparation of monocolomal antibody and finding out the cross reactive antigens versus specific antigens of a parasite. In this survey F2 ultrafiltration excretory secretory antigens of Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara cati were separated by gel chromatography on sephacryl S-200 into several antigenic and non antigenic fractions....

  2. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  3. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B B Barnabas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serious challenges to global health care delivery. Moreoever, in developing countries, the cost of orthodox medication is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. This is coupled with the adulterated drugs and emergences of drug resistant strains have led to an intensive search for natural products of higher plants, which are biologically active against parasitic infections. Many plants are used locally in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections. Nigeria offers a rich floral diversity that are used traditionally to treat worm infections. Nigerian medicinal plants (Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides used commonly used in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria for the treatment of worm infections were screened for anthelminthic activity. The extracts exhibited varying degree of anthelminthic activities against Ascaris lumbricoides. The extract of C. laxa display potent anthelminthic property. The extract of C. laxa with pronounced activity against A. lumbricoides may contain metabolites that have pharmacologically active principles with promising anthelminthic properties. This indicates the medical potential of C. laxa in the treatment of helminthiasis.

  4. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  5. Successful treatment of lipoid pneumonia associated with bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Sias, Selma; Oliveira Caetano, Regina; Dutra Comarella, Júlia; de Oliveira, Elen; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-08-01

    Partial bowel obstruction is a serious complication of ascariasis infestation generally treated with mineral oil. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) as a therapeutic strategy for reducing lung inflammation of lipoid pneumonia associated with ascariasis. The study included five children (mean age 25 months) with partial small-bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides, who underwent diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage for assessment of refractory pneumonia. Routine biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis were carried out in the BAL. Protein, lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) cytokine levels were determined in the serum before and after treatment. At admission, children consistently had respiratory symptoms, altered hematological function, increased immunoglobulin E serum level and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Chest tomography showed consolidation with air bronchogram (4/4), ground-glass infiltration (3/4) and decreased attenuation in the consolidation areas (2/4). Presence of marked pleocytosis with Sudan positive foamy alveolar macrophages, high protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL indicated presence of mixed alveolitis. One child with extensive consolidation and air bronchogram in both lungs died before treatment. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages efficiently removed alveolar oil deposits, restored BAL cellularity, improved clinical symptoms, radiological parameters and further reduced inflammatory reaction evidenced by marked decrease of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. This study presents a therapeutic strategy for management of lung complications caused by mineral oil administration to treat intestinal bowel obstruction associated with ascariasis. PMID:20026557

  6. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  7. The role of dogs in transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A

    2010-04-01

    The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.

  8. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  9. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chuangeng; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-08-01

    Peptides with Ascaris-type fold are a new kind of toxins founded from venomous animals recently. Functionally, these unique toxin peptides had been identified as potent protease inhibitors, which was similar to other known Ascaris-type peptides from non-venomous animals. Whether Ascaris-type peptides from venom animals have neurotoxin activities remains unclear. Here, a scorpion toxin SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type fold was characterized to have a neurotoxin activity, which can selectively inhibit KCNQ1 potassium channel. SjAPI-2 had 62 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteine residues. Charged residue analyses showed that two acidic residues of SjAPI-2 were regionally distributed, and 10 basic residues were distributed widely throughout the whole peptide, which was similar to classical potassium channel toxins. Pharmacological studies confirmed that SjAPI-2 was a selective KCNQ1 potassium channel inhibitor with weak effects on other potassium channels, such as Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels. Concentration-dependent studies showed that SjAPI-2 inhibited the KCNQ1 potassium channel with an IC50 of 771.5±169.9 nM. To the best of our knowledge, SjAPI-2 is the first neurotoxin with a unique Ascaris-type fold, providing novel insights into the divergent evolution of neurotoxins from venomous animals. PMID:26014142

  10. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Morales; Luz Arelis Pino

    1988-01-01

    La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminació...

  11. Chemokines responses to ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection with hookworm among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorodion Oriri Asemota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geohelminth infections are predominant in Nigeria and communities at greatest risks are those with poor environmental/sanitary conditions and unhygienic habits. Chemokine ligands (CXCL a class under chemokine group play important roles in the immune system by either mediating susceptible or protective immune responses to parasitic infections. Aim: This study was to assess the impact of Ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection on some serum chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11 in infected Nigerians. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 individuals attending Agbor general hospital were examined for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Thereafter, sera were obtained from positive volunteers and control group using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to examine the impact of these helminth infections on the serum concentration of some chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11. Results: The mean sera levels of CXCL5 and CXCL9 in infected volunteers were higher than the control subjects. Also, positive correlation was recorded for CXCL9 (P > 0.05, while negative responses were seen for CXCL5 and CXCL11 (P > 0.05 in relation to increase in the intensities of infections. CXCL9 was more expressed in A. lumbricoides + hookworm co-infections than single. Furthermore, the mean concentration of CXCL5 was higher in infected females than males (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The proinflammatory responses of CXCL5 and CXCL9 to A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections could be an indication of the meditating roles of these chemokines in the immune system to either confer some form of host/parasite immunity or susceptibility.

  12. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.

  13. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (Plumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  14. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (Plumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Ascaris lumbricoides EGGS AND HUMAN-INTESTINAL PROTOZOAN CYSTS FOUND IN RIVER WATER OF ANGKE RIVER, JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Lisawati Sutanto; Rizal Subahar

    2008-01-01

    Fecal contamination is a serious environmental problem at Angke River Jakarta. A cross-sectional study was conducted during April-June 2007 and the aim of the study is to assess the water quality of Angke River by detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and the protozoan cysts. A total 24 L water of Angke River was collected from 8 sampling locations consisted of Kembangan/Duri Kosambi (upper reaches of river), Pesing Polgar (lower reaches of river), Teluk Gong (lower reaches of river), Pantai...

  17. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  18. Serum cytokines profiles in Nigerian children withAscaris lumbricoides infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irior Dominic Osagie; Abu Maliki

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytokines profile in the serum of some Nigerian children with Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) infection and relations between the intensity of infection, age and the concentration of these cytokines.Methods: Feacal samples from consenting children were examined using formol ether concentration techniques and Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Sera of 96 children comprising 76A. lumbricoides infection and 20 controls were subjected to enzymes-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The mean sera concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were (16.7±7.6) pg/mL, (4.6±0.8)pg/mL, (391.6±52.0) pg/mL and (181.2±30.4) pg/mL, respectively. The control subjects had the following mean serum cytokines: TNF-α(2.9±1.8) pg/m, IL-4 (4.0±0.1) pg/mL, IL-5 (125.1±50.1) pg/mL, IL-10 (74.5±54.2) pg/mL, respectively. The difference between the sera cytokines concentration of theA. lumbricoides infected children and their controls were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL- 5 and IL-10(χ2= 9.99,P< 0.05;χ2 = 137.24,P < 0.05;χ2 = 44.30,P < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of infection correlated positively with TNF-α, and IL-5 (r = 0.93 and 0.98, respectively) while IL-4 and IL- 10 correlated negatively with the intensity of infection (r = -0.62 and 0.99, respectively). TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with age (r = 0.19, 0.33 and 0. 66, respectively). The mean cytokines between those with mild and moderate infections were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 (χ2 = 3.60, 4.52 and 5.30, respectively). The ratio of TNF-α: IL-10 was 0.092.Conclusions: Elevated IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α found in the sera of the volunteers with Ascariasis implicates these cytokines as key mediators in the host responses toA. lumbriocoides infection in our studied area.

  19. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + d...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2045 - Pyrantel tartrate powder; pyrantel tartrate pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Strongylus equinus), small strongyles (Trichonema spp., Triodontophorus), pinworms (Oxyuris), and large... (Ascaris suum) and nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) infections. (ii) It is added to feed at 0.4 gram pyrantel... (Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus), small strongyles (Trichonema...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder for oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. Effective against the following nematode infections: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), intestinal thread worms (Strongyloides ransomi) and lungworms (Metastrongylus spp. ). (iii) Limitations. Do not administer within 72 hours of slaughter for food....

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0486 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0486 ref|NP_006952.1|ND5_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24884|NU5M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) emb|CAA38174.1| ND5 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006952.1 0.17 21% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0892 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0892 ref|NP_006948.1|ND4_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24880|NU4M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4) emb|CAA38170.1| ND4 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006948.1 0.020 25% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 ref|NP_006948.1|ND4_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24880|NU4M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4) emb|CAA38170.1| ND4 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006948.1 0.003 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-10-0000 ref|NP_006945.1|ND2_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24877|NU2M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) emb|CAA38167.1| ND2 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006945.1 0.004 25% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-07-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-07-0000 ref|NP_006952.1|ND5_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24884|NU5M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) emb|CAA38174.1| ND5 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006952.1 1e-119 70% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-08-0176 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-08-0176 ref|NP_006952.1|ND5_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24884|NU5M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) emb|CAA38174.1| ND5 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006952.1 1e-119 70% ...

  8. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  9. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim; Ary Pires de Souza; Edison Iglesias Vidal; José Geraldo Menezes; Patrícia Gomes Bittencourt Valentim

    2009-01-01

    Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  10. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Garn, JV; Mwandawiro, CS; Nikolay, B.; Drews-Botsch, CD; Kihara, JH; Brooker, SJ; Simiyu, EW; Okoyo, C; Freeman, MC

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children atte...

  12. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

  13. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Andreas Schüle; Petra Clowes; Inge Kroidl; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Anthony Nsojo; Chacha Mangu; Helene Riess; Christof Geldmacher; Rüdiger Paul Laubender; Seif Mhina; Leonard Maboko; Thomas Löscher; Michael Hoelscher; Elmar Saathoff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sect...

  14. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    Weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakKecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Penyakit ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan gizi, pertumbuhan dan penurunan produktifitas kerja. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen sebagai akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar IFN-γ dan IL-10 antara orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dan tidak terinfeksi...

  15. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Kecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen yang terjadi akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar IFN-γdan IL-10 pada orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dengan tidak terinfeksi yang diinduksi vaksi BCG.Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Muara Fajar Kecamatan...

  16. Hubungan Infeksi Cacing Ascaris Lumbricoides Dengan Indeks Massa Tubuh Pada Siswa Perempuan SD Salsabila Kecamatan Medan Marelan Kota Medan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides) merupakan salah satu penyebab infeksi dengan prevalensi mencapai 60-90% di Indonesia. Cacing ini dapat mengambil sumber karbohidrat dan protein di usus sebelum diserap tubuh. Infeksi cacing banyak diderita anak sekolah dasar, yaitu sekitar 40-60%. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan studi cross-sectional. Sampel diambil dengan metode consecutive sampling pada siswa perempuan kelas I sampai kelas VI SD Salsabil...

  17. Follow-up of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in children living in a community treated with ivermectin at 3-monthly intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Ranque, S.; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Garcia, A.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Ivermectin treatment was administered every 3 months over a 1-year period (April 1993-April 1994) to the whole eligible population of a village in South Cameroon where both #Ascaris lumbricoides$ and #Trichuris trichiura$ were hyper-endemic. A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment. Thirty children, aged 5-15 years, were not only found egg-positive for #A. lumbricoides$ and/or #T. trichiura$ before the first treatment but were also each treated and examined in e...

  18. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  19. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  1. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth.

  2. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  3. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (plumbricoides (plumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (plumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic areas and also that improved hygienic conditions in the urban environment is associated with increased responses to airborne allergens.

  4. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  5. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth. PMID:24818416

  6. THE EFFECT OF VARIOS CHEMICALS AND TEMPERATURE IN CESTRUCTION OF THE EGGS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES: A PROGRESS REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Arfaa

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of soil and night-soil with the eggs or larvae of soil-transmitted helminthes is very important factor in the transmission of these infections. The effect of various temperatures and different chemicals on the development of larva inside the eggs of Ascaris, which is the most resistant eggs or larvae of helminthes, or destruction of developed larvae inside the eggs has been evaluated by infecting white mice or by direct observations. In eggs with developed larva, temperature of 600C for one hour kills all larvae while in lower temperature, 40% or more larvae are still alive. In a temperature of 600C for 15 and 20 minutes no larvae is found in the liver of mice. Of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, sodium-nitrite and calcium superphophate, thiabendazole and mebendazole have higher effect in destruction of eggs. In eggs with undeveloped larva, it was shown that in a temperature of 600C for 15 minutes or more, development of larva does not take place, while in lower temperature development of larva in some eggs takes place. In a temperature of 700C for 10 minutes no development of larva has been observed. Evaluation of the effect of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, urea, iodine and potassium dichromate has shown that mebendazole with a concentration of 1/100,000 or more inhibit the development of larvae. Other chemicals have some effects on the development of larvae. Results of previous investigations have shown that although many chemicals are effective in the laboratory conditions, they are not very effective when used in the field. Therefore, more studies on this subject in the field are necessary, in order to find application of this control method.

  7. Co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides modulates protective immune responses against Giardia duodenalis in school Venezuelan rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (plumbricoides lightly parasitized children, G. duodenalis infection was associated to a significant increase (plumbricoides moderately parasitized group, being those levels similarly lower as those observed in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between the levels of anti G duodenalis antibodies, skin test hyper-reactivity and cytokines with the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection (p>0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.

  8. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  9. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  10. Analysis of clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices in hospitalized children with Ascaris lumbricoides infection from the northeastern region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Kaczmarski, Maciej G; Sawicka-Zukowska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Majewska, Anna; Plewa, Katarzyna; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Debkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common soil-transmitted helminth infection in the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices of ascariasis in hospitalized children from the northeastern region of Poland. Patients in the Pediatric Ward hospitalized in the Regional Hospital in Dabrowa Białostocka in the period of 2005-2007 were included in this retrospective study. The intestinal stage of ascariasis was diagnosed on the basis of positive coprological survey performed using the decantation technique. A total of 938 patients were included in the study, 1801 stool samples were evaluated, and A. lumbricoides-positive tests were obtained from 252 children. Ascaris-positive young children (Ascaris-positive preschool-aged children (4-7 yrs) accounted for 8.1% and school-aged children (8-18 yrs) for 15.8%. Seasonal patterns were observed in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides (maximum in August-December). There was no relationship between BMI z-score, hemoglobin levels and prevalence of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Significant predictors of intestinal stage ascariasis in a multivariate logistic regression model were: abdominal pain as a reason for hospital admission (OR-2.19; 95% CI 1.62-2.95; p < 0.001) and age from 4 to 7 years (OR-2.0; 95% CI 1.41-2.80; p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of ascariasis was not higher in the group of patients with atopic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) and co-existing ascariasis did not affect the eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. Ascariasis is still a current pediatric clinical problem characterized by non-specific clinical manifestations, which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of children's diseases.

  11. Prevalência e intensidade de infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides em amostra populacional urbana (São Paulo, SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira; Marcelo Urbano Ferreira; Marcos Roberto Nogueira

    1991-01-01

    Pesquisaram-se ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides em amostras fecais de 407 moradores (8,87% do total) de uma favela da cidade de São Paulo. Realizaram-se exames qualitativos (sedimentação por gravidade) e quantitativos (técnica de Kato & Miura adaptada a contagens). Discutem-se aspectos diferenciais da epidemiologia da ascaríase em áreas urbanas e rurais, com base em dados deste estudo e da literatura. Salienta-se a importância, em epidemiologia, da quantificação de exames de fezes.Prevalence and ...

  12. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-08-01

    The 13q33-34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy.

  13. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  14. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  15. Muscles of the Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... four muscle pairs, arranged in layers, and the fascia that envelops them. The abdominal wall muscles are ... formed by two muscular sheets and their associated fascia. « Previous (Head and Neck) Next (Upper Extremity) » Contact ...

  16. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body? These muscles help you move, lift things, pump blood through your body, and even help you breathe. ... is a specialized type of involuntary muscle. It pumps blood through your body, changing its speed to keep ...

  17. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  18. Muscle Session Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  19. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  20. Observação in vitro da ação dos isolados fúngicos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides (Lineu, 1758) In vitro observation of the action of isolates of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamydosporium on the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio R. Braga; Jackson V. Araújo; Artur K. Campos; Rogério O. Carvalho; André R. Silva; Alexandre O. Tavela; Alessandro S. Maciel

    2007-01-01

    Observou-se a ação in vitro dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides. Após sete, dez e quatorze dias de interação, o fungo promissor a ser utilizado no controle biológico de Asaris lumbricoides foi o Verticillium chlamydosporium (26-30%). Os outros fungos não foram satisfatórios.The in vitro action of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamyd...

  1. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H; Dekaminsky, R; Niwas, S; Soto, R; Jolly, P

    2001-04-01

    Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9) and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4) respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001), level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01), reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02), households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002), and the location of households (p=0.03). Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively), ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively) and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR)=22.2), children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8), and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0) were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively).

  3. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  4. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  5. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H;

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of epinephrine and contractions on muscle metabolism was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Subtetanic contractions (180/min) through 20 min elicited glycogenolysis and increased phosphorylase a activity. In the soleus, a slow-twitch red muscle, these effects were...... transient, but when epinephrine at a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) was added to the perfusate, glycogenolysis and phosphorylase activity were sustained throughout contractions. At this high frequency of contractions, the effect of epinephrine was much smaller in the fast-twitch red fibers...... and not significant in the fast-twitch white fibers of the gastrocnemius muscle. However, during less frequent contractions (30/min) epinephrine increased glycogenolysis and phosphorylase a activity in fast-twitch muscle. The data suggest that epinephrine and muscle contractions exert a dual control of muscle...

  6. Right sternalis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetti R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the muscular variations of the chest and their identification for the proper dissection planes through radiological examination is important. Sternalis is an occasional muscle, which lies along the side of the sternum. It may be confused as a tumor. The existence of sternalis muscle, its location, orientation and early identification are necessary in breast surgeries. Presence of sternalis muscle adjacent to the breast is of clinical importance.

  7. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefte, S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2007-01-01

    In the late stages of muscle development, a unique cell population emerges that is a key player in postnatal muscle growth and muscle regeneration. The location of these cells next to the muscle fibers triggers their designation as satellite cells. During the healing of injured muscle tissue, satell

  8. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines...

  9. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  10. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  11. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  12. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  13. Research on the immune mechanisms of Ascaris lumbricoides infection over the past decade%近10年似蚯蚓线虫感染的免疫机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 张冬丽

    2013-01-01

    本文从固有免疫、适应性免疫及疫苗研究等几方面论述似蚯蚓线虫(蛔虫)感染的免疫学研究新进展.%This paper describes recent advances in the induction of innate immunity and acquired immunity against Ascaris lumbricoides and it also discusses the development of vaccines.

  14. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs ([i]Ascaris[/i], [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Trichuris[/i] in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dąbrowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the [i]Ascaris [/i]spp., [i]Trichuris [/i]spp. [i]and Toxocara [/i]spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labourintensive methods for assessing viability of [i]Ascaris [/i]spp[i]., Toxocara [/i]spp[i]. and Trichuris [/i]spp[i].[/i] eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green ([i]Ascaris and Trichuris[/i] and green-blue ([i]Toxocara[/i]. However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Ascaris[/i] and [i]Trichuris[/i] eggs occurring in the sludge.

  15. Slipped and lost extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, T D; Lambert, S R

    2001-09-01

    A slipped or lost muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a marked limitation of duction and inability to rotate the eye beyond the midline. Loss of a rectus muscle can occur after strabismus surgery, trauma, paranasal sinus surgery, orbital surgery, or retinal detachment surgery. The extraocular rectus muscle most frequently slipped or lost is the medial rectus muscle. Forced ductions, active force generation, saccadic velocity studies, differential intraocular pressure measurements, and orbital imaging studies may aid in identifying a slipped or lost muscle. However, no single diagnostic test provides absolute reliability for determining a lost muscle. Slipped muscles develop when the muscular capsule is imbricated without including the muscle or muscle tendon during strabismus surgery. When the capsule is reattached to the sclera, the tendon and muscle are then free to slip posteriorally from the site of attachment. Slipped muscles are retrieved by following the thin avascular muscle capsule posteriorally until the muscle is identified. A lost muscle can be found using a traditional conjunctival approach, by an external orbitotomy, or by an endoscopic transnasal approach. Although many diagnostic maneuvers are useful in identifying a lost rectus muscle, the oculocardiac reflex is the most important. Once the lost muscle is identified, the muscle should be imbricated with a nonabsorbable synthetic suture and securely reattached to the globe. PMID:11705143

  16. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  17. Muscle regeneration after sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglé, Adrien; Rocheteau, Pierre; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe critical illness is often complicated by intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), which is associated with increased ICU and post-ICU mortality, delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and long-term functional disability. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ICU-AW, but muscle regeneration has not been investigated to any extent in this context, even though its involvement is suggested by the protracted functional consequences of ICU-AW. Recent data suggest that muscle regeneration could be impaired after sepsis, and that mesenchymal stem cell treatment could improve the post-injury muscle recovery. PMID:27193340

  18. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.;

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  19. Muscle biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  20. Muscles alive: ultrasound detects fibrillations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Nienhuis, M.; Dijk, J.P. van; Arts, I.M.P.; Alfen, N. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscle ultrasound is capable of visualizing muscle movements. Recent improvements in ultrasound technology have raised the question whether it is also possible to detect small-scale spontaneous muscle activity such as denervation. In this study we investigated the ability of dynamic muscl

  1. 蛔虫重度流行区人群化疗策略的研究%Research on chemotherapy strategy for population in heavy epidemic areas with ascaris iumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢峰; 陈红根; 曾小军; 林丹丹; 姜唯声; Jong-YilChai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different chemotherapy strategies for Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Four chemotherapy strategies with Albendazole,which were mass chemotherapy once a year,mass chemotherapy once in two years,se-lective chemotherapy once a year and selective chemotherapy twice a year,were carried out in four control villages,respectively. The effects of strategies on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides were observed continuously for 4 years ,and compared with the dada of a control village. Results The average positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 44.37%(4850/10931) in 5 pilot villages in 2001. The infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased maximally,from 45.2%in 2001 to 6.3%in 2005 with the reduction of 86.1% in villages where the strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year was implemented. Conclusion The strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year has the best effect on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides.%目的:评价不同化疗措施控制蛔虫的效果。方法在4个控制村用阿苯哒唑分别进行1年1次全民化疗、2年1次全民化疗、1年1次选择性化疗和1年2次选择性化疗措施后,连续4年观察其对控制居民蛔虫的效果,并和对照村进行比较。结果2001年5个试点村蛔虫平均阳性率为44.37%(4850/10931),采取每1次/年全民化疗人群蛔虫感染率下降最大,由2001年的45.2%下降到2004年的6.3%,降幅为86.1%。结论1次/年全民化疗策略对于控制蛔虫感染的效果佳。

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  3. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  4. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors.

  5. Toxic effect of Ascaris lumbricoides body fluid on intestinal epithelial cells%人蛔虫体腔液对人肠上皮细胞的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 袁铿; 彭卫东; 周宪民

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫体腔液(Ascaris bodyfluid,ABF)对人肠上皮细胞株(HCT-8)的毒性作用及作用浓度和时间的关系.方法以体外细胞培养方法观察ABF对HCT-8细胞的毒性作用,比较不同浓度ABF作用下不同时间HCT-8细胞的死亡率和形态结构.结果HE染色显示,当ABF浓度为800μg/ml时,HCT-8细胞的毒性作用最大,除浓度为12.5μg/ml的实验组,各实验组(25~8μg/ml)的毒性均高于对照组.结论ABF对HCT-8细胞所产生毒性作用在一定程度上表现出浓度和作用时间的依赖关系,并诱导细胞凋亡的发生.

  6. Loss of muscle performance in seniors: changes to the dynamic muscle structure and muscle gearing

    OpenAIRE

    Randhawa, Avleen

    2012-01-01

    Muscle structure changes with ageing in a manner that can alter its contractile mechanics, resulting in a reduction in strength and mobility. Fascicles within a muscle can shorten at slower velocities than the muscle belly, in a process known as belly gearing. Belly gearing allows the fascicles to produce a greater force when they contract. However, it may be compromised when we age. The gastrocnemii muscles in the calf were imaged in young adults and seniors using ultrasound. Their muscle st...

  7. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  8. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  9. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  10. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume. PMID:27653488

  11. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  12. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  13. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    to accumulation of intermolecular cross-links are thought to be the cause, though no cross-link could be identified, that could confirm this hypothesis. Yet, although it has never been possible to demonstrate a direct relation between the total amount of collagen and tenderness, it is still generally agreed...... composition, the organizational structure of connective tissue, the role of connective tissue in muscle contraction and the generation of force, metabolic regulation of arterial structure focusing on associated collagen changes, and a new highly-specific technique for following in three-dimensions changes...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  14. Signaling in muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-02-02

    Signaling pathways regulate contraction of striated (skeletal and cardiac) and smooth muscle. Although these are similar, there are striking differences in the pathways that can be attributed to the distinct functional roles of the different muscle types. Muscles contract in response to depolarization, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. The actomyosin fibers responsible for contraction require an increase in the cytosolic levels of calcium, which signaling pathways induce by promoting influx from extracellular sources or release from intracellular stores. Rises in cytosolic calcium stimulate numerous downstream calcium-dependent signaling pathways, which can also regulate contraction. Alterations to the signaling pathways that initiate and sustain contraction and relaxation occur as a consequence of exercise and pathophysiological conditions.

  15. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could...... be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine...

  16. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Loreille Odile; Bouchet Françoise

    2003-01-01

    The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively sepa...

  17. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  19. Current status of the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole for the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides in North-Western Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke Nadia Diniyanti Lubis; Syahril Pasaribu; Chairuddin Panusunan Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole in the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) in theNorth-WesternIndonesia.Methods:229 primary school children who were positive forA. lumbricoides in their stool were recruited in the study.123 children received single-dose of400 mg albendazole and106 children received single-dose500 mg of mebendazole.After1 week, their stools were examined for the cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate(ERR).Egg culture was also performed and observation was made on week-1, -3, -4.Results:have shown a non-significant difference inCR96.7%vs.100%; and ERR of99.3%vs.100.0% for albendazole and mebendazole groups respectively(P>0.05).In-vitro egg culture has shown trends of decrease in the percentage of the unfertilized eggs and in≥2 cell eggs in both treatment groups(P<0.05).The embryonated eggs from the albendazole groups has shown an increase from7.3% on week-1 to13.8% on week-4, whilst the mebendazole group has shown a constant increase during the whole4 weeks of culture from7.5% to28.3%(P<0.01). Conclusions:No evidence of drug resistance is noted so far from the area ofNorth-Western part ofIndonesia.In addition, although both drugs showed incomplete ovicidal effects, single-dose albendazole is better than mebendazole in sterilizingA. lumbricoideseggs.

  20. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary.

  1. Parasitismo por Ascaris lumbricoides em crianças menores de dois anos: estudo populacional em comunidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Macedo Lêda Maria da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência e a intensidade da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides foram analisadas mediante um estudo transversal em crianças residentes no Município de Duque de Caxias, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre julho e dezembro de 1997. A população do estudo foi constituída por crianças com menos de dois anos de idade e as mães das crianças menores de um ano. As amostras fecais foram recolhidas nos domicílios em frascos contendo solução conservadora de MIF e processadas por meio das técnicas de MIFC e Kato-Katz. As prevalências de infecção por A. lumbricoides observadas foram 3,3% (I.C. 95% 1,0 - 7,8 para os menores de um ano, 30,7% (I.C. 95% 25,4 - 36,4 para as crianças com um ano de idade e 42,3% (I.C. 95% 33,0 - 51,9 para as mães. Infecção com carga parasitária moderada/pesada foi observada em cerca de 38% das crianças com um ano de idade e 36,0% das mães. Estes resultados demonstram a importância da ascariose já no primeiro ano de vida e indicam a necessidade de aprofundamento na investigação desta parasitose na população materno-infantil.

  2. Inflammatory muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastaglia F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The three major immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis (DM, polymyositis (PM and inclusion body myositis (IBM, each have their own distinctive clinical features, underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and patterns of muscle gene expression. In DM a complement-dependent humoral process thought to be initiated by antibodies to endothelial cells results in a microangiopathy with secondary ischemic changes in muscles. On the other hand, in PM and IBM there is a T-cell response with invasion of muscle fibers by CD8+ lymphocytes and perforin-mediated cytotoxic necrosis. In IBM degenerative changes are also a feature and comprise autophagia with rimmed vacuole formation and inclusions containing β-amyloid and other proteins whose accumulation may be linked to impaired proteasomal function. The relationship between the inflammatory and degenerative component remains unclear, as does the basis for the selective vulnerability of certain muscles and the resistance to conventional forms of immunotherapy in most cases of IBM. Patients with DM or PM usually respond to treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents but their use remains largely empirical. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy can be used to achieve disease control in patients with severe weakness or dysphagia, or in patients with immunodeficiency, but its use is limited by expense. Emerging therapies for resistant cases include TNFα inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, alemtuzumab. However, experience with these therapies is still limited and there is a need for randomized trials to test their efficacy and establish guidelines for their use in clinical practice.

  3. Physics in muscle research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazumi, T

    2000-01-01

    Muscle is one of few organs whose performance can be measured by physical quantities. However, very few attempts have been made to apply theoretical physics to muscle. In this paper we will see how physical principles can be applied by taking advantage of unique properties of muscle structure. The first topic is to establish the stability conditions of sarcomere structure. The conclusions are then compared to some experimental facts. Next, we move on to the field theory fundamentals. The concept of energy density as a stress tensor is shown to be a powerful tool for the dielectric force theory to understand how proteins move under electric fields. By combining the structural stability theory and the dielectric force theory we arrive at a helical dipole array. We discuss the source of strong dipole fields and how the dipole strength could be controlled by Ca ions. The behavior of water and ions under electric fields is briefly discussed. The third topic is the mechanical stiffness of muscle in longitudinal and lateral directions. Some experimental data are shown and the physics of anisotropic stiffness is discussed. An appendix is provided to explain the pitfalls of experimenting with isolated components rather than organized structures (sarcomere).

  4. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... can do. These stretches will help keep your muscles from getting shorter or tighter. Being active also ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: rippling muscle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden impact on the muscle causes it to bunch up (percussion-induced muscle mounding) or exhibit repetitive ... potentials in the tubular system of skeletal muscle fibers. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May;31(5):652-8. ...

  6. El grado de agregación de Ascaris lumbricoides según grupos de edad, después de una intervención antihelmíntica de masas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Ruíz; Guadalupe Ocampo; Araceli Soto; José, Marco V.

    1996-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir la heterogeneidad de la reinfección por Ascaris lumbricoides según grupos de edad, en distintos intervalos, después de un primer tratamiento antihelmíntico masivo. Material y métodos. A partir de datos de la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por A. lumbricoides obtenidos en un estudio epidemiológico de ascariasis, realizado en Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, México, se deriva el grado de agregación por medio del método de máxima verosimilitud, asumiendo una distribución bi...

  7. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim

    2013-01-01

      Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle...... function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... pools being of key importance for SR Ca2+ release and thereby affecting muscle contractility and fatigability....

  8. Muscle diseases: the muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Pytel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Dystrophic muscle disease can occur at any age. Early- or childhood-onset muscular dystrophies may be associated with profound loss of muscle function, affecting ambulation, posture, and cardiac and respiratory function. Late-onset muscular dystrophies or myopathies may be mild and associated with slight weakness and an inability to increase muscle mass. The phenotype of muscular dystrophy is an endpoint that arises from a diverse set of genetic pathways. Genes associated with muscular dystrophies encode proteins of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix, and the sarcomere and Z band, as well as nuclear membrane components. Because muscle has such distinctive structural and regenerative properties, many of the genes implicated in these disorders target pathways unique to muscle or more highly expressed in muscle. This chapter reviews the basic structural properties of muscle and genetic mechanisms that lead to myopathy and muscular dystrophies that affect all age groups.

  9. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    % of normal). Muscle strength and disease duration were not related. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that patients with generalized MG have (i) a significant generalized, fixed muscle weakness, (ii) that male patients with MG have a more severe muscle weakness than women, (iii) that proximal upper limb...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...

  10. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  11. Skeletal muscle adaptations and muscle genomics of performance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Hill, Emmeline W

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size. Furthermore, equine skeletal muscles have a high mitochondrial volume that permits a higher whole animal aerobic capacity, as well as large intramuscular stores of energy substrates (glycogen in particular). Finally, high buffer and lactate transport capacities preserve muscles against fatigue during anaerobic exercise. Many of these adaptations can improve with training. The publication of the equine genome sequence in 2009 has provided a major advance towards an improved understanding of equine muscle physiology. Equine muscle genomics studies have revealed a number of genes associated with elite physical performance and have also identified changes in structural and metabolic genes following exercise and training. Genes involved in muscle growth, muscle contraction and specific metabolic pathways have been found to be functionally relevant for the early performance evaluation of elite athletic horses. The candidate genes discussed in this review are important for a healthy individual to improve performance. However, muscle performance limiting conditions are widespread in horses and many of these conditions are also genetically influenced. PMID:26831154

  12. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  13. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select

  14. Reduced Muscle Glycogen Differentially Affects Exercise Performance and Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lees; Williams, Jay H; Batts, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of reduced muscle glycogen on exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Male rats were assigned to a low glycogen group (LG) that participated in a protocol of exercise and fasting, a high glycogen group (HG) that exercised but were allowed free access to food, or control group (CON) that did not exercise but were allowed free access to food. Following the protocol, muscle glycogen content of the LG animals was reduced by 45%. The LG animals also perform...

  15. Sildenafil increases muscle protein synthesis and reduces muscle fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    SHEFFIELD-MOORE, M.; Wiktorowicz, J E; Soman, K V; Danesi, C.P.; Kinsky, M.P.; Dillon, E.L.; Randolph, K.M.; Casperson, S.L.; Gore, D.C.; Horstman, A.M.; Lynch, J. P.; Doucet, B.M.; Mettler, J.; Ryder, J W; Ploutz-Snyder, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in skeletal muscle function occur during the course of healthy aging as well as with bedrest or diverse diseases such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, and heart failure. However, there are no accepted pharmacologic therapies to improve impaired skeletal muscle function. Nitric oxide may influence skeletal muscle function through effects on excitation-contraction coupling, myofibrillar function, perfusion, and metabolism. Here we show that augmentation of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine...

  16. Painful Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Enlargement: Reactive Masticatory Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsetos, Christos D.; Bianchi, Michael A.; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptoma...

  17. Muscle-specific microRNAs in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Martin; Novak, Jan; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Proper muscle function constitutes a precondition for good heath and an active lifestyle during an individual's lifespan and any deviations from normal skeletal muscle development and its functions may lead to numerous health conditions including e.g. myopathies and increased mortality. It is thus not surprising that there is an increasing need for understanding skeletal muscle developmental processes and the associated molecular pathways, especially as such information could find further uses in therapy. The understanding of complex skeletal muscle developmental networks was broadened with the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) molecules. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by means of miRNA-mRNA interaction. Several miRNAs expressed exclusively in muscle have been labeled myomiRs. MyomiRs represent an integral part of skeletal muscle development, i.e. playing a significant role during skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current knowledge regarding the involvement of myomiRs in the individual phases of myogenesis and other aspects of skeletal muscle biology, along with an up-to-date list of myomiR target genes and their functions in skeletal muscle and miRNA-related therapeutic approaches and future prospects. PMID:26708096

  18. : AMPK and skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mounier, Rémi; Lantier, Louise; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Pende, Mario; Daegelen, Dominique; Sakamoto, Kei; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; 6 figures; 49 références bibliographiques International audience Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits protein synthesis through the suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a critical regulator of muscle growth. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of the AMPKalpha1 catalytic subunit on muscle cell size control and adaptation to muscle hypertrophy. We found that AMPKalpha1(-/-) primary cultured myotubes a...

  19. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...... upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards...

  20. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base

  1. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  2. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  3. Free Flap Functional Muscle Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ryan M; Ruch, David S

    2016-08-01

    Free functional muscle transfers remain a powerful reconstructive tool to restore upper extremity function when other options such as tendon or nerve transfers are not available. This reconstructive technique is commonly used for patients following trauma, ischemic contractures, and brachial plexopathies. Variable outcomes have been reported following free functional muscle transfers that are related to motor nerve availability and reinnervation. This article highlights considerations around donor motor nerve selection, dissection, and use of the gracilis muscle, and the surgical approach to performing a free functional muscle transfer to restore elbow flexion and/or digit flexion. PMID:27387083

  4. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  5. Colecistite aguda por ascaris lumbricoides Acute cholecystites for ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Clemente da Rocha; Severino Lourenço da Silva Júnior; Rodrigo Fernando Lourenço de Amorim

    2006-01-01

    Biliary’s ascariasis is the most often ectopic site of this helminthiasis, but invasion of the worms into the gallbladder is quite rare. The autors report a case of a patient with clinical symptoms, compatible with cholecystitis induced by the worm, as shown by ultrasonography. Treatament was cholecystectomy and antihelmintic drug therapy with a good outcome.

  6. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der B.J.J.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force–length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple ge

  7. The interscutularis muscle connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Lu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete connectional map (connectome of a neural circuit is essential for understanding its structure and function. Such maps have only been obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans. As an attempt at solving mammalian circuits, we reconstructed the connectomes of six interscutularis muscles from adult transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in all motor axons. The reconstruction revealed several organizational principles of the neuromuscular circuit. First, the connectomes demonstrate the anatomical basis of the graded tensions in the size principle. Second, they reveal a robust quantitative relationship between axonal caliber, length, and synapse number. Third, they permit a direct comparison of the same neuron on the left and right sides of the same vertebrate animal, and reveal significant structural variations among such neurons, which contrast with the stereotypy of identified neurons in invertebrates. Finally, the wiring length of axons is often longer than necessary, contrary to the widely held view that neural wiring length should be minimized. These results show that mammalian muscle function is implemented with a variety of wiring diagrams that share certain global features but differ substantially in anatomical form. This variability may arise from the dominant role of synaptic competition in establishing the final circuit.

  8. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  9. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D;

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...

  10. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...

  11. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...

  12. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L;

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...... dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented...

  13. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  14. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  15. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments). PMID:27489217

  16. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  17. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments).

  18. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  19. Preparation and Identification of a Human Single Chain Fv Antibody Against Ascaris lumbricoides%抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 高英; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 王乾宇; 黄高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct humanize phage antibody library against Ascaris lumbricoides and to screen specificity scFv to Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Total RNA was abstracted from peripheral blood lympho-cytes of 20 persons, and was used to amplify VH and VL gene by RT-PCR. The amplified VH and VL genes were spliced to form scFv gene which was cloned into pCANTAB-SE phagemid, and the constructed recombinant phage-mid was transformed to E. Coli TC1 to construct human natural single-chain antibody library from which positive clones were screened. Results A primary library of 1.5 × 106 and a second library of 1.2 × 106 were constructed. Conclusion This study was to provide us the basis for radionuclide imaging and therapy for ascariasis.%目的:构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,从中筛选建抗蛔虫人源特异性单链抗体.方法:分离10个患蛔虫病人的淋巴细胞,提取总RNA反转录为cDNA,PCR扩增人抗体重链(VH)和轻链(VL)可变区基因,采用SOE-PCR法将VH和VL片段随机拼接成scFv片段,并克隆入噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E中,构建噬菌体单链抗体库.结果:初级库库容量为1.8×106,在大肠杆菌TG1中重组后得到1.6×106的次级抗体库.结论:本研究成功构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,拟在为蛔虫病的预防、诊断、治疗奠定基础.

  20. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, J-P

    2012-10-01

    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  1. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation....... METHODS: Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Genotyping of 410 worms was also conducted using a panel...... of microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic, population genetic, and Bayesian assignment methods were used for analysis. RESULTS: There was marked genetic segregation between worms originating from human hosts and those originating from pig hosts. However, human Ascaris infections in Europe were of pig origin...

  3. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  4. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders. PMID:18759381

  5. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  6. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) decarboxylates pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle. Because PDH is the only step where carbohydrate-derived substrate can enter the mitochondria and become completely oxidized, PDH activity can potentially determine if glycogen / glucose...... is oxidized completely, or whether pyruvate is converted to lactate. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) is overall determined by the degree of PDH-E1? phosphorylation, where PDH-E1? dephosphorylation activates PDH, while PDH-E1? phosphorylation inactivates PDH. The PDH-E1? phosphorylation state...... in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate accumulation...

  7. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  8. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  9. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  10. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan

    2011-01-01

    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  11. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  12. Adductor muscle strains in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Tyler, Timothy F

    2002-01-01

    An in-season adductor muscle strain may be debilitating for the athlete. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly could become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the six muscles of the adductor group could be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (Grade I), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (Grade III) in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey players throughout the world, approximately 10% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries, which have been linked to hip muscle weakness, previous injuries to that area, preseason practice sessions and level of experience, may be preventable if such risk factors can be addressed before each season. Hip-strengthening exercises were shown to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of adductor strains in one closely followed National Hockey League ice hockey team. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for ice hockey players, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. Clinicians feel an active training programme, along with completely restoring the strength of the adductor muscle group, is the key to successful rehabilitation. Surgical intervention is available if nonoperative treatment fails for 6 months or longer. Adductor release and tenotomy was reported to have limited success in athletes. PMID:11929360

  13. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  14. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  15. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  16. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  17. Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jared; Maves, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease. Recent studies have begun to address which components of muscle fiber types mediate their susceptibility or resistance to muscle disease. However, for many diseases it remains largely unclear why certain fiber types are affected. A substantial body of work has revealed molecular pathways that regulate muscle fiber type plasticity and early developmental muscle fiber identity. For instance, recent studies have revealed many factors that regulate muscle fiber type through modulating the activity of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MYOD1. Future studies of muscle fiber type development in animal models will continue to enhance our understanding of factors and pathways that may provide therapeutic targets to treat muscle diseases. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:518-534. doi: 10.1002/wdev.230 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27199166

  18. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris...... suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum...... anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition....

  19. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  20. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  1. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  2. Cricopharyngeal muscle hypertrophy: radiologic-anatomic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, W E; Clements, J L; Austin, G E; Knight, K

    1984-05-01

    There is a divergence of opinion concerning the cricopharyngeal muscle defect commonly seen in the pharyngoesophageal area on barium esophagram. Some observers believe this defect is the result of neuromuscular dysfunction with the demonstration of the unrelaxed muscle bundle; however, others believe it is the result of actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle. Radiologic and pathologic study of 24 unselected autopsy cases revealed cricopharyngeal hypertrophy in 13 cases by radiologic criteria. Histologic examination revealed that the cricopharyngeal muscle thickness was uniformly greater in these cases than in the radiographically normal cases. The cricopharyngeal muscle defect is associated with actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle in many cases. PMID:6609574

  3. [Myalgia of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, H J; Türp, J C

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory muscle pain can be regarded as a regional manifestation of musculoskeletal disorders similar to those observed in other body regions. Along with temporomandibular joint pain and some painless disturbances related to mandibular mobility they are subsumed under the term temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Masticatory muscle pain is assumed to be associated with a variety of biophysiological risk factors. Valid diagnostic instruments make it possible to differentiate between the various TMD subgroups. In most cases, masticatory muscle pain can be treated/managed successfully. In a considerable number of patients, however, the pain persists over a long period of time despite therapeutic interventions. Understanding of the underlying neurobiological background of acute and chronic pain may help in therapeutic decision-making and evaluation of the therapeutic effects. PMID:19551421

  4. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles...... from individuals with chronic SCI show less resistance to fatigue, and the speed-related contractile properties change, becoming faster. These findings are also present in animals. Future studies should longitudinally examine changes in muscles from early SCI until steady state is reached in order...

  5. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  6. Investigation on contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the different soil of three counties in Ganso Province%甘肃省三县土壤中人蛔虫卵污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 杨成明; 陈生邦; 杨俊克; 令晓兰; 华红玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解甘肃省农村居民生活环境中人蛔虫卵污染的现状. 方法 分别采集武山县、凉州区、岷县3个调查点10~20户居民4类环境中的土壤,应用饱和硝酸钠漂浮镜检法检查土样中人蛔虫卵,计算土壤样品的蛔虫卵阳性检出率,并对3地居民蛔虫感染率进行分析比较. 结果 土壤中人蛔虫卵总检出率为28%,菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房土壤的人蛔虫卵检出率依次为30%、36%、30%和16%. 结论 调查点环境蛔虫卵污染严重,应采取措施改善环境卫生,减少居民感染蛔虫.%Objective To investigate the different soil contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs at liv-ing environments in rural areas. Methods Wushan County, Liangzhou District and Min County were select-ed as 3 pilots for investigation. Ten samples of soil including 4 different environments from Min County and 20 samples from the others were randomly collected. A. lumbricoides eggs in the different soil were floated with sat-urated nitrate and counted by microscopy. Positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was then calculated and A. lumbricoides infection rates of inhabitants at 3 pilots were compared and analysed. Results The over-all positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was 28%, and among them the rates at the vegetable gar-dens, lavatory surroundings, courtyards in the countryside and kitchens were 30% ,36% ,30% and 16%, re-spectively. Conclusion The pilots were badly contaminated by A. lumbricoides eggs. Measures should be taken to improve the living environments and decrease the infection rate of Ascaris in the residents.

  7. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia;

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  8. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Stefan; 10.1088/1367-2630/9/11/417

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  9. Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Development and Growth to Breast Muscle Myopathies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    Selection in meat-type birds has focused on growth rate, muscling, and feed conversion. These strategies have made substantial improvements but have affected muscle structure, repair mechanisms, and meat quality, especially in the breast muscle. The increase in muscle fiber diameters has reduced available connective tissue spacing, reduced blood supply, and altered muscle metabolism in the breast muscle. These changes have increased muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis but have limited muscle repair mechanisms mediated by the adult myoblast (satellite cell) population of cells, likely resulting in the onset of myopathies. This review focuses on muscle growth mechanisms and how changes in the cellular development of the breast muscle may be associated with breast muscle myopathies occurring in meat-type birds.

  10. Repositioning forelimb superficialis muscles: tendon attachment and muscle activity enable active relocation of functional myofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alice H; Riordan, Timothy J; Wang, Lingyan; Eyal, Shai; Zelzer, Elazar; Brigande, John V; Schweitzer, Ronen

    2013-09-16

    The muscles that govern hand motion are composed of extrinsic muscles that reside within the forearm and intrinsic muscles that reside within the hand. We find that the extrinsic muscles of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) first differentiate as intrinsic muscles within the hand and then relocate as myofibers to their final position in the arm. This remarkable translocation of differentiated myofibers across a joint is dependent on muscle contraction and muscle-tendon attachment. Interestingly, the intrinsic flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of the foot are identical to the FDS in tendon pattern and delayed developmental timing but undergo limited muscle translocation, providing strong support for evolutionary homology between the FDS and FDB muscles. We propose that the intrinsic FDB pattern represents the original tetrapod limb and that translocation of the muscles to form the FDS is a mammalian evolutionary addition.

  11. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  12. Changes in muscle spindle firing in response to length changes of neighboring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Hiltsje A; Vincent, Jake A; Baan, Guus C; Nardelli, Paul; Lodder, Johannes C; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Cope, Tim C; Maas, Huub

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle force can be transmitted to the skeleton, not only via its tendons of origin and insertion but also through connective tissues linking the muscle belly to surrounding structures. Through such epimuscular myofascial connections, length changes of a muscle may cause length changes within an adjacent muscle and hence, affect muscle spindles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epimuscular myofascial forces on feedback from muscle spindles in triceps surae muscles of the rat. We hypothesized that within an intact muscle compartment, muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but can also sense length changes that occur as a result of changing the length of synergistic muscles. Action potentials from single afferents were measured intra-axonally in response to ramp-hold release (RHR) stretches of an agonistic muscle at different lengths of its synergist, as well as in response to synergist RHRs. A decrease in force threshold was found for both soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius afferents, along with an increase in length threshold for SO afferents. In addition, muscle spindle firing could be evoked by RHRs of the synergistic muscle. We conclude that muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but also local length changes that occur as a result of changing the length and relative position of synergistic muscles.

  13. Lack of CFTR in Skeletal Muscle Predisposes to Muscle Wasting and Diaphragm Muscle Pump Failure in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar Divangahi; Haouaria Balghi; Gawiyou Danialou; Comtois, Alain S.; Alexandre Demoule; Sheila Ernest; Christina Haston; Renaud Robert; Hanrahan, John W.; Danuta Radzioch; Petrof, Basil J

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often have reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm, the primary muscle of respiration. Here we show that lack of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays an intrinsic role in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In normal murine and human skeletal muscle, CFTR is expressed and co-localized with sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins. CFTR-deficient myotubes exhibit augmented levels of intracellular calcium aft...

  14. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2016-01-01

    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, ...

  15. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  16. Pharmacology of airway smooth muscle proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Roscioni, Sara S.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Pera, Tonio; Schmidt, Martina; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle thickening is a pathological feature that contributes significantly to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Ongoing research efforts aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the increased airway smooth muscle mass have indicated that hyperplasi

  17. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  18. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M;

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes cau...

  19. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  20. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  1. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  2. Muscle mechanics and neuromuscular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the properties of the mechanical system, especially muscle elasticity and limb mass, to a large degree determine force output and movement. This makes the control demands of the central nervous system simpler and more robust. In human triceps surae, a

  3. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  4. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    concentrations of extracellular potassium in exercising muscle and (3) exaggerated accumulation of ADP during exercise that may inhibit sodium-potassium and calcium-ATPases. Disorders of muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis reveal the crucial role of these metabolic processes for supplying both anaerobic...... and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  5. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, M; Richter, Erik

    1988-01-01

    Muscle-glycogen breakdown during exercise is influenced by both local and systemic factors. Contractions per se increase glycogenolysis via a calcium-induced, transient increase in the activity of phosphorylase a, and probably also via increased concentrations of Pi. In fast-twitch muscle...... in contracting muscle by increasing the phosphorylase a activity via increased cyclic AMP production. The availability of blood-borne substrates may also influence muscle glycogenolysis and, therefore, exercise performance....

  6. STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita eMathur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species, altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function.

  7. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  8. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...

  9. Muscle fatigue in fibromyalgia is in the brain, not in the muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Elisabeth; Amris, Kirstine; Bliddal, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC).......To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC)....

  10. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  11. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  12. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  13. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  14. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  15. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  16. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  17. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  18. In cirrhotic patients reduced muscle strength is unrelated to muscle capacity for ATP turnover suggesting a central limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Nielsen, H B; Secher, Niels H.;

    2011-01-01

      We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria.......  We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria....

  19. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (PBlood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability.

  20. Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Shin, Hyun Ju; Lee, Weonyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was def...

  1. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition : a new therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Increasing size and strength of skeletal muscle represents a promising therapeutic strategy for muscular disorders. One possible new tool is Myostatin (Mstn) because it plays a crucial role in regulating skeletal muscle mass. The first goal of our work was to determine whether Mstn inhibition could prevent muscle atrophy in catabolic states. As glucocorticoids play a major role in most muscle atrophy models, we assessed whether muscle atrophy caused by glucocorticoids in excess could be preve...

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  3. New perspectives of studying gastrointestinal muscle function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans Gregersen; Donghua Liao

    2006-01-01

    The motor function of the gastrointestinal tract has primarily been studied using manometry and radiography,though more indirect tests have also been applied. Manometry and radiography do not provide detailed information about the muscle properties as can be assessed from studies of muscle properties in muscle strips in vitro. In recent years a technique based on impedance planimetric mEasurement of pressure-cross-sectional area relations in a distending bag has proven to provide more detailed information about the muscle function in vivo. This review shows examples of new muscle function analysis such as length-tension diagrams, forcevelocity curves and preload-afterload diagrams.

  4. Adaptive Filters for Muscle Response Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Biering-Soerensen, Fin; Hansen, Steffen Duus;

    1996-01-01

    are proposed, based on the observation that the shape of the muscle responses only exhibits moderate changes during a time window of up to 300 ms. The filters are derived and compared with a conventional fixed comb filter on both simulated and real data. For variations in amplitude of the muscle responses......To be able to use the voluntary EMG-signal from an electrically stimulated muscle as control signal for FES-applications, it is necessary to eliminate the muscle response evoked by the stimulation. The muscle response is a non-stationary signal, therefore a set of linear adaptive prediction filters...

  5. Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Scott

    2012-07-01

    This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

  6. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Squarzoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  7. Sternalis Muscle: An Unexpected Finding during Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash K. Sasmal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sternalis muscle also called rectus sternalis, rectus thoracis, or episternalis is an anomalous muscle of the anterior chest wall with unknown anatomical function. It is regularly observed in lower animal but infrequently in humans. Presence of this muscle can create confusion with tumours of the anterior chest wall during routine mammography. Although less is known about its origin and innervations, knowledge about this muscle can have many clinical implications. A case of unilateral sternalis muscle detected during mastectomy, in a female with carcinoma of the right breast, is being reported with a brief review of the literature and highlighting its clinical significance.

  8. A variation of the palmaris profundus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the anterior compartment of the forearm region, a tendinous-musculo-tendinous muscle was found on the right forearm originating from the medial aspect of the radial shaft and inserting into the palmar aponeurosis. The muscle coursed deep to pronator teres muscle, parallel and lateral to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and deep to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis. Distally, the muscle tendon coursed under the flexor retinaculum and it was invested with the median nerve by a common fascial sheath. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact palmaris longus muscle. Because of its attachments and course, the muscle was classified as a palmaris profundus muscle. Several subtypes of palmaris profundus muscles have been reported. To our knowledge this is the first case of a palmaris profundus with a tendon originating from the medial aspect of the radial diaphysis, a muscular portion and a distal tendon inserting in the palmar aponeurosis. Anatomical variations of muscles in the flexor compartment of the forearm may have functional, diagnostic, and surgical implications.

  9. [Nosological classification and assessment of muscle dysmorphia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Túry, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a recently described psychiatric disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. In spite of their huge muscles, muscle dysmorphia sufferers believe that they are insufficiently large and muscular therefore would like to be bigger and more muscular. Male bodybuilders are at high-risk for the disorder. The nosological classification of muscle dysmorphia has been changed over the years. However, consensus has not emerged so far. Most of the ongoing debate has conceptualized muscle dysmorphia as an eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. There are a number of arguments for and againts. In the present study the authors do not take a position on the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmorphia. The purpose of the study is to review the present approaches relating to the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmporphia. Many different questionnaires were developed for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia. Currently, there is a lack of assessment methods measuring muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Hungary. As a secondary purpose the study also presents the Hungarian version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (Mayville et al., 2002). PMID:21799218

  10. Impact of weightlessness on muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

  11. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...... the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point towards the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  12. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I;

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), pmitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  13. Topographic study of the sphenomandibular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino Naves Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal muscle is housed in the fossa of the bone bearing its name – the temporal bone. Its origin, body, and insertion have been well studied, and it has been described as a muscle consisting of three bundles and responsible for various functions. The advancement of technology has allowed the observation of yet another muscle next to this bundle of fi bers and above the temporal muscle, namely the sphenomandibular muscle. The present study was designed to study the topography of the sphenomandibular muscle. Ten anatomical sets (fi ve cadavers were dissected with the intention of displaying the topography of the temporal and sphenomandibular muscles using the techniques of cutting and folding and conventional cross cuts. The folding of the structures and mapping of the muscles was carried out on four cadavers, analyzing their origins and describing their bodies and insertions. On another cadaver, cross-sectional (horizontal, 2 mm-thick slices were made in a sequential manner. We observed the topography of the muscle and its relationship with adjacent structures. The sphenomandibular muscle was found to be independent of the temporal muscle, for its origin is in the zygomatic-frontal complex, lateral to the orbit and overlaying the fi ber of the anterior bundle of the temporal muscle. Its body is separated from the body of the temporal muscle by a thin fascia and is inserted on an oblique line external to the mandible presenting, therefore, its origin, body, and insertion independent of the origin, body, and insertion of the temporal muscle.

  14. Postinjection Muscle Fibrosis from Lupron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Everest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 6.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty (CPP, which signifies the onset of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of eight in females and the age of nine in males as a result of stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Her case is likely related to her adoption, as children who are adopted internationally have much higher rates of CPP. She had left breast development at Tanner Stage 2, adult body odor, and mildly advanced bone age. In order to halt puberty and maximize adult height, she was prescribed a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog, the first line treatment for CPP. She was administered Lupron (leuprolide acetate Depot-Ped (3 months intramuscularly. After her second injection, she developed swelling and muscle pain at the injection site on her right thigh. She also reported an impaired ability to walk. She was diagnosed with muscle fibrosis. This is the first reported case of muscle fibrosis resulting from Lupron injection.

  15. The effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of taekwondo on muscle activation of paraspinal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jongmyeng; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jeonghun; Han, Dongwook; Byun, Sunghak

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions on muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy male students who listened to an explanation of the study methods and the purpose of the experiment, and agreed to participate in the study. [Methods] Muscle activation measurements of the paraspinal muscles at C3, T7, and L3 were taken while standing still and while performing Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi movements. The Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3 and T7 were significantly higher than those induced by just standing. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by Juchumseogi alone. The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motion in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by standing and Juchumseogi alone. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of Taekwondo could increase muscle activation of paraspinal muscles, and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were more effective for enhancing muscle activation of paraspinal muscles.

  16. An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R W

    2006-06-01

    An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in relation to muscle mass in mammalian (mouse, rat, guinea-pig, cat, human) skeletal muscles is presented. It is shown that the trend to increasing number as muscle mass increases follows an isometric (length) relationship between species, whereas within a species, at least for the only essentially complete sample (human), the number of spindles scales, on average, with the square root rather than the cube root of muscle mass. An attempt is made to reconcile these apparently discrepant relationships. Use of the widely accepted spindle density (number of spindles g(-1) of muscle) as a measure of relative abundance of spindles in different muscles is shown to be grossly misleading. It is replaced with the residuals of the linear regression of ln spindle number against ln muscle mass. Significant differences in relative spindle abundance as measured by residuals were found between regional groups of muscles: the greatest abundance is in axial muscles, including those concerned with head position, whereas the least is in muscles of the shoulder girdle. No differences were found between large and small muscles operating in parallel, or between antigravity and non-antigravity muscles. For proximal vs. distal muscles, spindles were significantly less abundant in the hand than the arm, but there was no difference between the foot and the leg. PMID:16761976

  17. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  18. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  19. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  20. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  1. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  2. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHC790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e 1061002067904 3', genomic survey sequence. 34 0.35 2 EJ747450 |EJ747450.1 1092963009397 Global-Ocean-Sampl...ing_GS-30-02-01-1P0-1P3KB marine metagenome genomic clone 1061002067904 5', genomic survey...e GM_WBb0088C10 5', genomic survey sequence. 44 0.89 1 ED478939 |ED478939.1 AUAC-aav30g12.b1 Ascaris suum wh...ole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequ...4 1.2 2 DU901293 |DU901293.1 414531 Tomato HindIII BAC Library Solanum lycopersicum genomic clone LE_HBa0221E15 5, genomic survey

  4. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  5. A decline in PABPN1 induces progressive muscle weakness in oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy and in muscle aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Raz, Yotam; Verway, Nisha;

    2013-01-01

    of skeletal muscles is predominantly affected. Genome-wide RNA expression profiles from Vastus lateralis muscles human carriers of expanded-PABPN1 at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages were compared with healthy controls. Major expression changes were found to be associated with age rather than...... with expression of expanded-PABPN1, instead transcriptomes of OPMD and elderly muscles were significantly similar (P...

  6. Evaluation of Muscle Function of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Ex vivo and Tibialis Anterior Muscle In situ in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Chady H.; Wasala, Nalinda B.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Body movements are mainly provided by mechanical function of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is composed of numerous bundles of myofibers that are sheathed by intramuscular connective tissues. Each myofiber contains many myofibrils that run longitudinally along the length of the myofiber. Myofibrils are the contractile apparatus of muscle and they are composed of repeated contractile units known as sarcomeres. A sarcomere unit contains actin and myosin filaments that are spaced by the Z disc...

  7. [Masticatory muscles. Part III. Biomechanics of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolstra, J H

    1997-08-01

    The masticatory muscles are able to produce forces. These forces may cause movements of the lower jaw. Furthermore, they can be applied by the teeth for the generation of bite or chewing forces. During these kind of processes the temporomandibular joints will be loaded also. The interaction between forces and movements in the masticatory system is complex but obeys the relatively simple laws of mechanics. By application of these laws the development of joint loading, force patterns and movements during masticatory function and dysfunction can be understood. This is illustrated by a few examples of both statical and dynamical masticatory performance.

  8. Effects of step exercise on muscle damage and muscle Ca2+ content in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben; Overgaard, Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Eccentric exercise often produces severe muscle damage, whereas concentric exercise of a similar load elicits a minor degree of muscle damage. The cellular events initiating muscle damage are thought to include an increase in cytosolic Ca. It was hypothesized that eccentric muscle activity in humans would lead to a larger degree of cell damage and increased intracellular Ca accumulation in skeletal muscle than concentric activity would. Furthermore, possible differences between men and women in muscle damage were investigated following step exercise. Thirty-three healthy subjects (18 men and 15 women) participated in a 30-minute step exercise protocol involving concentric contractions with 1 leg and eccentric contractions with the other leg. Muscle Ca content, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and muscle enzymes in the plasma were measured. In a subgroup of the subjects, T2 relaxation time was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. No significant changes were found in muscle Ca content in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens in women or in men. Following step exercise, MVC decreased in both legs of both genders. The women had a significantly larger strength decrease in the eccentric leg than the men had on postexercise day 2 (p adductor magnus muscle, peaking on day 3 (75%) (p muscle damage preferentially in the eccentrically working muscles, considerably more in women than in men. This indicates that gender-specific step training programs may be warranted to avoid excessive muscle damage. PMID:18545196

  9. THREE INTERMITTENT SESSIONS OF CRYOTHERAPY REDUCE THE SECONDARY MUSCLE INJURY IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M. L. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cryotherapy associated to compression is recommended as immediate treatment after muscle injury, the effect of intermittent sessions of these procedures in the area of secondary muscle injury is not established. This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (30 min of ice pack each 2h and muscle compression (sand pack in the muscle-injured area. Twenty-four Wistar rats (312 ± 20g were evaluated. In three groups, the middle belly of tibialis anterior (TA muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following treatments: a three sessions of cryotherapy; b three sessions of compression; c not treated. An uninjured group received sessions of cryotherapy. Frozen muscles were cross- sectioned (10 µm and stained for the measurement of injured and uninjured muscle area. Injured muscles submitted to cryotherapy showed the smallest injured area (29.83 ± 6.6%, compared to compressed (39.2 ± 2.8%, p= 0.003 and untreated muscles (41.74 ± 4.0%, p = 0.0008. No difference was found between injured compressed and injured untreated muscles. In conclusion, three intermittent sessions of cryotherapy applied immediately after muscle damage was able to reduce the secondary muscle injury, while only the muscle compression did not provide the same effectiveness

  10. Muscle biopsy findings in inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2002-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of acquired muscle diseases characterized clinically, by muscle weakness, and histologically, by inflammatory infiltrates within the skeletal muscles. The group of these myopathies comprise three major and discrete subsets: polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Each subset retains its characteristic clinical, immunopathologic, and morphologic features regardless of whether it occurs separately or in connection with other systemic diseases. Although the diagnosis of these disorders is based on the combination of clinical examination, electromyographic data, serum muscle enzyme levels, various autoantibodies, and the muscle biopsy findings, the muscle biopsy offers the most definitive diagnostic information in the majority of the cases. This article summarizes the main histologic features that characterize PM, DM, or IBM and emphasizes the main pitfalls associated with interpretation of the biopsies.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  12. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  13. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria;

    2005-01-01

    muscle. Three incubation solutions were used: 20 mm Na-lactate (which acidifies internal pH), 12 mm Na-lactate +8 mm lactic acid (which mimics the pH changes during muscle activity), and 20 mm lactic acid (which acidifies external pH more than internal pH). All three solutions improved force in K+-depressed......Lactic acid accumulation is generally believed to be involved in muscle fatigue. However, one study reported that in rat soleus muscle (in vitro), with force depressed by high external K+ concentrations a subsequent incubation with lactic acid restores force and thereby protects against fatigue...... rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na+-K+ pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force...

  14. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  15. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  16. Etiological factors for muscle tension dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kušar, Rozalija

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses muscle tension dysphonia and etiological factors for its emergence. Muscle tension dysphonia is a consequence of irregular formation of the sound and is connected to increased and unnecessary muscle tension and phonation, and is usually without any anatomical and peripheral neurological irregularities and also without any changes on the mucous membrane. In the theoretical part of this thesis voice disorders and various classifications of voice disorders that occur in the...

  17. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Duno, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study wa...... was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration....

  18. Forever young: rejuvenating muscle satellite cells

    OpenAIRE

    Madaro, Luca; Latella, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of aging is alteration of organismal homeostasis and progressive decline of tissue functions. Alterations of both cell intrinsic functions and regenerative environmental cues contribute to the compromised stem cell activity and reduced regenerative capability occurring in aged muscles. In this perspective, we discuss the new evidence supporting the hypothesis that skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are intrinsically defective in elderly muscles. In particular, we review three recen...

  19. Muscle fibre ontogenesis in farm animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Berri, Cécile; Duclos, Michel

    2002-01-01

    International audience In farm animals (bovine, ovine, swine, rabbit and poultry), muscle fibre characteristics play a key role in meat quality. The present review summarises the knowledge on muscle fibre characteristics and ontogenesis in these species. Myofibre ontogenesis begins very early during embryonic life, with the appearance of two or three successive waves of myoblasts which constitute the origin of the different types of muscle fibres. In small animals (rodents and poultry), a ...

  20. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  1. The transduction properties of intercostal muscle mechanoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Richard D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercostal muscles are richly innervated by mechanoreceptors. In vivo studies of cat intercostal muscle have shown that there are 3 populations of intercostal muscle mechanoreceptors: primary muscle spindles (1°, secondary muscle spindles (2° and Golgi tendon organs (GTO. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical transduction properties of intercostal muscle mechanoreceptors in response to controlled length and velocity displacements of the intercostal space. Mechanoreceptors, recorded from dorsal root fibers, were localized within an isolated intercostal muscle space (ICS. Changes in ICS displacement and the velocity of ICS displacement were independently controlled with an electromagnetic motor. ICS velocity (0.5 – 100 μm/msec to a displacement of 2,000 μm and displacement (50–2,000 μm at a constant velocity of 10 μm/msec parameters encompassed the full range of rib motion. Results Both 1° and 2° muscle spindles were found evenly distributed within the ICS. GTOs were localized along the rib borders. The 1° spindles had the greatest discharge frequency in response to displacement amplitude followed by the 2° afferents and GTOs. The 1° muscle spindles also possessed the greatest discharge frequency in response to graded velocity changes, 3.0 spikes·sec-1/μm·msec-1. GTOs had a velocity response of 2.4 spikes·sec-1/μm·msec-1 followed by 2° muscle spindles at 0.6 spikes·sec-1/μm·msec-1. Conclusion The results of this study provide a systematic description of the mechanosenitivity of the 3 types of intercostal muscle mechanoreceptors. These mechanoreceptors have discharge properties that transduce the magnitude and velocity of intercostal muscle length.

  2. Gene and cell therapy for muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Stilhano, Roberta Sessa; Martins, Leonardo; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Pesquero, João Bosco; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury and healing are multifactorial processes, involving three steps of healing: (1) degeneration and inflammation, (2) regeneration, and (3) fibrosis. Fibrous tissue hinders the muscle’s complete recovery and current therapies fail in achieving total muscle recovery. Gene and cell therapy (or both) are potential future treatments for severe muscular injuries. Stem cells’ properties associated with growth factors or/and cytokines can improve muscle healing and permit long-te...

  3. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  4. Physical activity, muscle function, falls and fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Study design: A thematic review. Objectives: To evaluate if physical activity enhances muscle strength, improves balance, and reduces the fall frequency and the fracture incidence. Background: One of the major medical problems of today is the increasing incidence of fragility fractures. Muscle strength and fall is one of the major determinants of a fracture. If physical activity could increase muscle strength, improve balance and reduce the fall frequency, then training could be recommended a...

  5. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  6. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  7. Traumatic avulsion of extraocular muscles: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Minguini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the clinical, surgical details and results (motor and sensory of the retrieving procedure of traumatically avulsed muscles in three patients with no previous history of strabismus or diplopia seen in the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, Brazil. The slipped muscle portion was reinserted at the original insertion and under the remaining stump, which was sutured over the reinserted muscle. For all three cases there was recovery of single binocular vision and stereopsis.

  8. Glucogeno sintasa en helmintos parasitos: inhibicion por benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomez-Banqueri; M. A. Garcia Ruiz; M. Monteoliva; Sanchez-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    Se ha determinado el effecto inhibidor sobre la actividad Glucogeno sintetasa (E.C.2.41.11) por parte de cuatro antihelminticos: Albendazol, Mebendazol, Parbendazol y Tiabendazol. Observandose que en todos los casos, es el Parbendazol quien ha demostrado un mayor poder inhibidor sobre la glucógeno sintetasa de Ascaris suum, Fasciola hepatica y Moniezia expansa. El Tiabendazol es el anti-helmintico que menor efecto inhibidor ha presentado sobre la enzima en los tres parasitos objeto de nuestro...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris...

  10. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  11. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helena; Mølbak, Lars; Langkjær, Maria; Jensen, Tim Kaare; Angen, Øystein; Martinussen, Torben; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The restrictions on the use of antibiotic and anthelmintic treatments in organic pig farming necessitate alternative non-medical control strategies. Therefore, the antibiotic and parasite-reducing effect of a fructan-rich (prebiotic) diet of dried chicory was investigated in free-ranging piglets. Approximately half of 67 piglets from 9 litters were experimentally infected with Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis in the suckling period (1 to 7 weeks of age) and 58 of the piglets were challenged da...

  12. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

  13. Ocho diferentes especies de parásitos gastrointestinales fueron identificadas en cerdos de traspatio en El Municipio de El Sauce - León. Nicaragua (Eight different species gastrointestinal parasites were identified in free roaming pigs in EL Sauce - Leon. Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Luna

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con cerdos criados en traspatio en el municipio de El Sauce, Departamento de León, Nicaragua En el primer estudio se determinó la prevalencia de Parásitos Gastrointestinales (PGI en 60 cerdos de patio sacrificados en matadero. Se identificaron 6 tipos de especies de parásitos gastrointestinales: Macrachantorinchus hirudinaceu, Oesophagustomun spp, Áscaris suum, Trichuris suis e Hyostrongylus rubidus, siendo este ultimo el de mayor prevalencia. Se determinó la prevalencia de PGI en heces de cerdos en dos grupos de edades. Se identificaron los helmintos Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus, rubidus, Strongiloides ransomi, Oesophagostomun spp, y Trichuris suis. Los protozoos encontrados fueron Isospora suis y Eimeria sp. Con una mayor frecuencia se encontró Ascaris suum (42.86% e Hyostrongylus (39.80%, en el grupo mayor de seis meses, en el grupos menor de seis meses los más frecuentes eran Áscaris suum (48.98% y Trichuris (45.92%. La intensidad de infestación de H. rubidus fue significativamente más alto en grupo de cerdos mayores de seis y T. suis e Isospora suis tuvieron diferencia significativa en el grupo menor de seis meses. En resumen identificamos ocho especies de parásitos gastrointestinales en los cerdos de traspatio, que son de importancia económica.

  14. Magnetic stimulation of muscle evokes cerebral potentials in assessment of paraspinal muscle spasm.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Objectlve: To assess the muscle spasm by magnetic stimulation of muscle evokes cerebral potentials (MMSEP). Methods: Paraspinal MMSEP and function assessment was recorded in detail before and after treat-

  15. Direct optical activation of skeletal muscle fibres efficiently controls muscle contraction and attenuates denervation atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magown, Philippe; Shettar, Basavaraj; Zhang, Ying; Rafuse, Victor F

    2015-10-13

    Neural prostheses can restore meaningful function to paralysed muscles by electrically stimulating innervating motor axons, but fail when muscles are completely denervated, as seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or after a peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. Here we show that channelrhodopsin-2 is expressed within the sarcolemma and T-tubules of skeletal muscle fibres in transgenic mice. This expression pattern allows for optical control of muscle contraction with comparable forces to nerve stimulation. Force can be controlled by varying light pulse intensity, duration or frequency. Light-stimulated muscle fibres depolarize proportionally to light intensity and duration. Denervated triceps surae muscles transcutaneously stimulated optically on a daily basis for 10 days show a significant attenuation in atrophy resulting in significantly greater contractile forces compared with chronically denervated muscles. Together, this study shows that channelrhodopsin-2/H134R can be used to restore function to permanently denervated muscles and reduce pathophysiological changes associated with denervation pathologies.

  16. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pirogov, S

    2007-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  17. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2012-01-01

    was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...... mass of muscle compared to fat. An understanding of the role that leptin plays in skeletal muscle metabolism may prove important in light of several late-phase trials with recombinant leptin as an anti-obesity drug...

  18. Artificial Muscle Kits for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "artificial muscles," electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are lightweight strips of highly flexible plastic that bend or stretch when subjected to electric voltage. EAP materials may prove to be a substitution for conventional actuation components such as motors and gears. Since the materials behave similarly to biological muscles, this emerging technology has the potential to develop improved prosthetics and biologically-inspired robots, and may even one day replace damaged human muscles. The practical application of artificial muscles provides a challenge, however, since the material requires improved effectiveness and durability before it can fulfill its potential.

  19. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P

    1992-01-01

    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  20. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  1. Evaluation of the influence of muscle deactivation on other muscles and joints during gait motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Taku; Prokopow, Przemyslaw; Nagano, Akinori

    2004-04-01

    When any muscle in the human musculoskeletal system is damaged, other muscles and ligaments tend to compensate for the role of the damaged muscle by exerting extra effort. It is beneficial to clarify how the roles of the damaged muscles are compensated by other parts of the musculoskeletal system from the following points of view: From a clinical point of view, it will be possible to know how the abnormal muscle and joint forces caused by the acute compensations lead to further physical damage to the musculoskeletal system. From the viewpoint of rehabilitation, it will be possible to know how the role of the damaged muscle can be compensated by extra training of the other muscles. A method to evaluate the influence of muscle deactivation on other muscles and joints is proposed in this report. Methodology based on inverse dynamics and static optimization, which is applicable to arbitrary motion was used in this study. The evaluation method was applied to gait motion to obtain matrices representing (1) the dependence of muscle force compensation and (2) the change to bone-on-bone contact forces. These matrices make it possible to evaluate the effects of deactivation of one of the muscles of the musculoskeletal system on the forces exerted by other muscles as well as the change to the bone-on-bone forces when the musculoskeletal system is performing the same motion. Through observation of this matrix, it was found that deactivation of a muscle often results in increment/decrement of force developed by muscles with completely different primary functions and bone-on-bone contact force in different parts of the body. For example, deactivation of the iliopsoas leads to a large reduction in force by the soleus. The results suggest that acute deactivation of a muscle can result in damage to another part of the body. The results also suggest that the whole musculoskeletal system must go through extra retraining in the case of damage to certain muscles. PMID:14996554

  2. Effects of Reduced Muscle Glycogen on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR), Muscle and Exercise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Batts, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue during exercise is associated with reduced muscle glycogen. However, evidence linking glycogen content to fatigue is lacking. In this study we examined whether reduced muscle glycogen content limited SR function or muscle performance. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 24 hr and exercised for 90 min to reduce muscle glycogen; rats fasted after exercise formed the low glycogen (LG) group. Rats in the high glycogen (HG) group were allowed free access to food and...

  3. Effects of Early Muscle Strengthening of Hip Abductor and Adductor Muscles after Surgery for Pelvic Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    久保田, 雅史; 小久保, 安朗; 佐々木, 伸一; 嶋田, 誠一郎; 北出, 一平; 松村, 真裕美; 亀井, 健太; 北野, 真弓; 野々山, 忠芳; 鯉江, 祐介; 松尾, 英明; 成瀬, 廣亮; 小林, 茂; 馬場, 久敏; KUBOTA, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of muscle strengthening of hip abductor and adductor muscles just after surgery on gait at discharge. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were twelve patients who had open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for unstable unilateral fractures of the pelvis. Six patients started muscle strengthening exercises at two weeks after surgery (regular rehabilitation group, RR), and another six patients started muscle strengthening of hip ab...

  4. The number and choice of muscles impact the results of muscle synergy analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Muterspaugh Steele

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One theory for how humans control movement is that muscles are activated in weighted groups or synergies. Studies have shown that electromyography (EMG from a variety of tasks can be described by a low-dimensional space thought to reflect synergies. These studies use algorithms, such as nonnegative matrix factorization, to identify synergies from EMG. Due to experimental constraints, EMG can rarely be taken from all muscles involved in a task. However, it is unclear if the choice of muscles included in the analysis impacts estimated synergies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the number and choice of muscles on synergy analyses. We used a musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle activations required to perform an isometric upper-extremity task. Synergies calculated from the activations from the musculoskeletal model were similar to a prior experimental study. To evaluate the impact of the number of muscles included in the analysis, we randomly selected subsets of between 5 and 29 muscles and compared the similarity of the synergies calculated from each subset to a master set of synergies calculated from all muscles. We determined that the structure of synergies is dependent upon the number and choice of muscles included in the analysis. When five muscles were included in the analysis, the similarity of the synergies to the master set was only 0.57 ± 0.54; however, the similarity improved to over 0.8 with more than ten muscles. We identified two methods, selecting dominant muscles from the master set or selecting muscles with the largest maximum isometric force, which significantly improved similarity to the master set and can help guide future experimental design. Analyses that included a small subset of muscles also over-estimated the variance accounted for (VAF by the synergies compared to an analysis with all muscles. Thus, researchers should use caution using VAF to evaluate synergies when EMG is measured from a small

  5. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of the larynx is critical to swallowing function, an observation supported by the fact that radiation therapy-induced dysphagia is associated with reduced laryngeal elevation. We investigated muscles underlying hyolaryngeal elevation by using muscle functional MRI. We acquired scans from 11 healthy subjects to determine whole-muscle T2 signal profiles pre-swallowing, post-swallowing, and after performing swallowing exercises. Results demonstrate muscles essential to laryngeal elevat...

  6. Truncated dystrophins reduce muscle stiffness in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of mdx mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Chady H.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is a major clinical feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common lethal inherited muscle-wasting disease in boys, and it is caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein. We recently showed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mdx mice (a DMD mouse model) exhibits disease-associated muscle stiffness. Truncated micro- and mini-dystrophins are the leading candidates for DMD gene therapy. Unfortunately, it has never been clear whether these t...

  7. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity to muscle heating during dynamic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Jonathan S.; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that altering muscle temperature of the exercising forearm can elicit changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during ischemic isometric handgrip. The purpose of the current study was to determine the interactive effect of muscle temperature and blood flow on MSNA responses during dynamic handgrip (DHG). Eight subjects performed two bouts of graded DHG to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). Local h...

  8. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia‐dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and re...

  9. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, R; Gray, S. R.; Schwarzbauer, C.; Dawson, D; Frenneaux, M; He, J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia‐dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishme...

  10. Effects of skeletal muscle lipotoxicity on muscle protein synthesis: implications for athletic and ageing populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guillet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is linked to reduced insulin sensitivity in various groups of subjects. The increased lipid content within muscle in older people is independently associated with insulin resistance. Physical exercise improves muscle lipid infiltration and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Beside the consequence of muscle fat accumulation on insulin sensitivity, some evidences clearly show that high fat feeding in young mice influences the ability of mus...

  11. Chronic Stimulation-Induced Changes in the Rodent Thyroarytenoid Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Colleen A.; Butterfield, Timothy A.; Dietrich, Maria; Andreatta, Richard D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Fry, Lisa; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Therapies for certain voice disorders purport principles of skeletal muscle rehabilitation to increase muscle mass, strength, and endurance. However, applicability of limb muscle rehabilitation to the laryngeal muscles has not been tested. In this study, the authors examined the feasibility of the rat thyroarytenoid muscle to remodel as a…

  12. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in skeletal muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Martin J; Bolster, Ferdia; Foran, Paul; Crosbie, Ian; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    The evaluation of muscle diseases has traditionally integrated clinical with biochemical findings, occasionally resorting to muscle biopsy. This article reviews the role and imaging appearances of muscle diseases at MRI, specifically emphasising the role of WBMRI in global assessment of muscle abnormality, and in particular its role in determining distribution and extent of muscle abnormality.

  13. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente;

    1996-01-01

    (kg wet weight)-1 min-1). The rate of muscle glycogen breakdown was the same in C and HL (8.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 1.0 mmol (kg wet weight)-1 min-1). 5. The present data suggest that elevated muscle acidity does not reduce muscle glycogenolysis/glycolysis and is not the only cause of fatigue during...

  14. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this stud), was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) (lu...

  15. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.;

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-s...

  16. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  17. Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A John; Duxson, Marilyn J; Butler, Jane E; Hodges, Paul W; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-14

    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is strap-like, up to 600 mm in length, and contains five to seven neurovascular compartments, each with a neuromuscular endplate zone. Some of its fibers terminate intrafascicularly, whereas others may run the full length of the muscle. To assess the location and timing of activation within motor units of this long muscle, we recorded electromyographic potentials from multiple intramuscular electrodes along sartorius muscle during steady voluntary contraction and analyzed their activity with spike-triggered averaging from a needle electrode inserted near the proximal end of the muscle. Approximately 30% of sartorius motor units included muscle fibers that ran the full length of the muscle, conducting action potentials at 3.9 +/- 0.1 m/s. Most motor units were innervated within a single muscle endplate zone that was not necessarily near the midpoint of the fiber. As a consequence, action potentials reached the distal end of a unit as late as 100 ms after initiation at an endplate zone. Thus, contractile activity is not synchronized along the length of single sartorius fibers. We postulate that lateral transmission of force from fiber to endomysium and a wide distribution of motor unit endplates along the muscle are critical for the efficient transmission of force from sarcomere to tendon and for the prevention of muscle injury caused by overextension of inactive regions of muscle fibers.

  18. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) duri...

  19. Lack of CFTR in skeletal muscle predisposes to muscle wasting and diaphragm muscle pump failure in cystic fibrosis mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Divangahi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients often have reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm, the primary muscle of respiration. Here we show that lack of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays an intrinsic role in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In normal murine and human skeletal muscle, CFTR is expressed and co-localized with sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins. CFTR-deficient myotubes exhibit augmented levels of intracellular calcium after KCl-induced depolarization, and exposure to an inflammatory milieu induces excessive NF-kB translocation and cytokine/chemokine gene upregulation. To determine the effects of an inflammatory environment in vivo, sustained pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was produced, and under these conditions diaphragmatic force-generating capacity is selectively reduced in Cftr(-/- mice. This is associated with exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression as well as upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1 and atrogin-1 involved in muscle atrophy. We conclude that an intrinsic alteration of function is linked to the absence of CFTR from skeletal muscle, leading to dysregulated calcium homeostasis, augmented inflammatory/atrophic gene expression signatures, and increased diaphragmatic weakness during pulmonary infection. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for CFTR in skeletal muscle function that may have major implications for the pathogenesis of cachexia and respiratory muscle pump failure in CF patients.

  20. Comparison between muscle activation measured by electromyography and muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography for effective muscle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Choi, Jong-Duk; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Ji-Whan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the intrarater reliability and validity of muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography (US) and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) during manual muscle testing (MMT) of the external oblique (EO) and lumbar multifidus (MF) muscles. The study subjects were 30 healthy individuals who underwent MMT at different grades. EMG was used to measure the muscle activity in terms of ratio to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and root mean square (RMS) metrics. US was used to measure the raw muscle thickness, the ratio of muscle thickness at MVC, and the ratio of muscle thickness at rest. One examiner performed measurements on each subject in 3 trials. The intrarater reliabilities of the % MVC RMS and raw RMS metrics for EMG and the % MVC thickness metrics for US were excellent (ICC=0.81-0.98). There was a significant difference between all the grades measured using the % MVC thickness metric (pEMG measurement methods than with the others (r=0.51-0.61). Our findings suggest that the % MVC thickness determined by US was the most sensitive of all methods for assessing the MMT grade.

  1. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles we

  2. Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Andersen, Jesper L; Dalgas, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    Although the negative effects of bed rest on muscle strength and muscle mass are well established, it still remains a challenge to identify effective methods to restore physical capacity of elderly patients recovering from hospitalization. The present study compared different training regimes wit...

  3. Muscle biopsy in Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD can be diagnosed by measuring alpha-glucosidase levels or by identifying mutations in the gene enzyme. Muscle biopsies can aid diagnosis in doubtful cases. Methods: A review of muscle biopsy from 19 cases of PD (infantile, 6 cases; childhood, 4 cases; and juvenile/adult, 9 cases. Results: Vacuoles with or without glycogen storage were found in 18 cases. All cases had increased acid phosphatase activity. The vacuole frequency varied (almost all fibers in the infantile form to only a few in the juvenile/adult form. Atrophy of type 1 and 2 fibers was frequent in all forms. Atrophic angular fibers in the NADH-tetrazolium reductase and nonspecific esterase activity were observed in 4/9 of the juvenile/adult cases. Conclusion: Increased acid phosphatase activity and vacuoles were the primary findings. Most vacuoles were filled with glycogen, and the adult form of the disease had fewer fibers with vacuoles than the infantile or childhood forms.

  4. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, B J; Koopman, H F; Grootenboer, H J; Huijing, P A

    1998-04-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force-length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple geometric models such as a planimetric model and three-dimensional versions of this model. The capabilities of such models to adequately calculate muscle geometry and force-length characteristics were investigated. The planimetric model with elastic aponeurosis predicted GM muscle geometry well: maximal differences are 6, 1, 4 and 6% for fiber length, aponeurosis length, fiber angle and aponeurosis angle respectively. A slanted cylinder model with circular fiber cross-section did not predict muscle geometry as well as the planimetric model, whereas the geometry results of a second slanted cylinder model were identical to the planimetric model. It is concluded that the planimetric model is capable of adequately calculating the muscle geometry over the muscle length range studied. However, for modelling of force-length characteristics more complex models are needed, as none of the models yielded results sufficiently close to experimental data. Modelled force-length characteristics showed an overestimation of muscle optimum length by 2 mm with respect to experimental data, and the force at the ascending limb of the length force curve was underestimated. The models presented neglect important aspects such as non-linear geometry of muscle, certain passive material properties and mechanical interactions of fibers. These aspects may be responsible for short-comings in the modelling. It is argued that, considering the inability to adequately model muscle length-force characteristics for an isolated maximally activated (in situ) muscle, it is to be expected that prediction will fail for muscle properties in conditions of complex movement with many interacting factors. Therefore

  5. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  6. Gender differences in MR muscle tractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tractography of skeletal muscle can clearly reveal the 3-dimensional course of muscle fibers, and the procedure has great potential and could open new fields for diagnostic imaging. Studying this technique for clinical application, we noticed differences in the number of visualized tracts among volunteers and among muscles in the same volunteer. To comprehend why the number of visualized tracts varied so that we could acquire consistently high quality tractography of muscle fiber, we started to examine whether differences in individual parameters affected tractography visualization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender- and age-specific differences that differentiate the muscles by gender and age in MR tractography of skeletal muscle fiber. We divided 33 healthy volunteers by gender and age among 3 groups, A (13 younger men, aged 20 to 36 years), B (11 younger women, 25 to 39 years), and C (9 older men, 50 to 69), and we obtained from each volunteer tractographs of 8 fibers, including the bilateral gastrocnemius medialis (GCM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GCL), soleus (SOL), and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles. We classified the fibers into 5 grades depending on the extent of visualized tracts and used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare scores by gender (Group A versus B) and age (Group A versus C). Muscle tracts were significantly better visualized in women than men (median total visual score, 34 versus 24, P<0.05). In particular, the SOL muscles showed better visualization in the right (4.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05) and left (3.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05). Difference by age was not significant. The GCL was the highest scored muscle in all groups. Our results suggest that group differences, especially by gender, affected visualization of tractography of muscle fiber of the calf. (author)

  7. The nerves to the plantaris muscle and a bipennate part of the soleus muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Keishi; Wakebe, Tetsuaki; Saiki, Kazunobu; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We performed nerve fiber analysis of the nerve to the plantaris muscle in ten cases. Macroscopically, the nerve to the plantaris muscle has a tendency to branch off from the tibial nerve itself independent of the nerves to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (the triceps surae muscle). After removing the epineurium of the tibial nerve, it was revealed that, in all ten cases, the nerve to the plantaris muscle formed a common funicular trunk with the nerve to a bipennate part of the soleus. Th...

  8. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee join...

  9. Interleukin-6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in different tissues and organs. Skeletal muscle produces and releases significant levels of IL-6 after prolonged exercise and is therefore considered as a myokine. Muscle is also an important target of the cytokine. IL-6 signaling has b...

  10. Future perspectives: pathogenesis of chronic muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2007-06-01

    Chronic painful muscle conditions include non-inflammatory and inflammatory illnesses. This review is focused on chronic non-inflammatory pain conditions such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), and will not discuss metabolic, genetic or inflammatory muscle diseases such as McArdle's disease, muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or inclusion body myositis.

  11. Sleeve Muscle Actuator: Concept and Prototype Demonstration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tad Driver; Xiangrong Shen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and prototype demonstration results of a new sleeve muscle actuator,which provides a significantly improved performance through a fundamental structural change to the traditional pneumatic muscle.Specifically,the sleeve muscle incorporates a cylindrical insert to the center of the pneumatic muscle,and thus eliminates the central portion of the intemal volume.Through the analysis of the actuation mechanism,it is shown that the sleeve muscle is able to provide a consistent increase of force capacity over the entire range of motion.Furthermore,the sleeve muscle provides a significant energy saving effect,as a result of the reduced internal volume as well as the enhance force capacity.To demonstrate this new concept,a sleeve muscle prototype was designed and fabricated.Experiments conducted on the prototype verified the improvement in the force capacity and demonstrated a significant energy saving effect (20%-37%).Finally,as the future work on this new concept,the paper presents a new robotic elbow design actuated with the proposed sleeve muscle.This unique design is expected to provide a highly compact and powerful actuation approach for robotic systems.

  12. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  13. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  14. Return to sport after muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie; Ning, Anne; Lee, Carlin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related injuries that result in time lost from practice and competition. The cellular response to muscle injury can often result in changes made to the muscle fibers as well as the surrounding extracellular matrix during repair. This can negatively affect the force and range of the injured muscle even after the patient's return to play. Diagnosis of skeletal muscle injury involves both history and physical examinations; imaging modalities including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to assess the extent of injury. Current research is investigating potential methods, including clinical factors and MRI, by which to predict a patient's return to sports. Overall, function of acutely injured muscles seems to improve with time. Current treatment methods for skeletal muscle injuries include injections of steroids, anesthetics, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Other proposed methods involve inhibitors of key players in fibrotic pathways, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and angiotensin II, as well as muscle-derived stem cells.

  15. Sarcomeric dysfunction contributes to muscle weakness in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassche, S.; Stienen, G.J.; Irving, T.C.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Voermans, N.C.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Granzier, H.; Engelen, B.G. van; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether sarcomeric dysfunction contributes to muscle weakness in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Sarcomeric function was evaluated by contractile studies on demembranated single muscle fibers obtained from quadriceps muscle biopsies of 4 patients wit

  16. Genetics Home Reference: myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized by reduced body ...

  17. Changes following denervation to the masseter muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masseter muscle nerve is often injured in mandible osteotomy. What changes in food intake and masseter muscle will be brought after masseter muscle nerve injury?OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to selectively establish animal models of denervated masseter muscle and investigate the effects of severing masseter muscular nerve on masseter muscle and animal's food intake. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory Animal Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from September to November 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 50 healthy, adult, SPF-grade, New Zealand rabbits, of both genders, were used to develop an animal model of selectively denervated masseter muscle.METHODS: Five rabbits were randomly selected as normal controls. According to various mutilation methods, the remaining animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, with 15 rabbits in each group: masseter muscular neural stem denervated, masseter muscular neural superior branch-denervated, and masseter muscular neural inferior branch-denervated groups. Self-control comparison was performed on each animal. The right masseter muscle served as the experimental side, and the left masseter muscle served as the control side. In each group, 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 weeks post-surgery) were allotted for observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At the pre-set time points, masseter muscular thickness was measured with a Logic 500 color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. Masseter muscle tissue was resected for hematoxylin eosin staining. Masseter muscular fiber diameter and area were measured with an optical microscope. Masseter muscle tissue was sectioned and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium oxidoreductase (NADH-TR) and adenosine triphosphatase staining were performed. Following staining, the sections were quantitatively analyzed using an IBAS200 image analyzer.RESULTS: Post-surgery food intake: No abnormal

  18. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  19. Changes in Predicted Muscle Coordination with Subject-Specific Muscle Parameters for Individuals after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Knarr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is commonly seen in individuals after stroke, characterized by lower forces during a maximal volitional contraction. Accurate quantification of muscle weakness is paramount when evaluating individual performance and response to after stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of subject-specific muscle force and activation deficits on predicted muscle coordination when using musculoskeletal models for individuals after stroke. Maximum force generating ability and central activation ratio of the paretic plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and quadriceps muscle groups were obtained using burst superimposition for four individuals after stroke with a range of walking speeds. Two models were created per subject: one with generic and one with subject-specific activation and maximum isometric force parameters. The inclusion of subject-specific muscle data resulted in changes in the model-predicted muscle forces and activations which agree with previously reported compensation patterns and match more closely the timing of electromyography for the plantar flexor and hamstring muscles. This was the first study to create musculoskeletal simulations of individuals after stroke with subject-specific muscle force and activation data. The results of this study suggest that subject-specific muscle force and activation data enhance the ability of musculoskeletal simulations to accurately predict muscle coordination in individuals after stroke.

  20. Electric pulse stimulation of cultured murine muscle cells reproduces gene expression changes of trained mouse muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burch

    Full Text Available Adequate levels of physical activity are at the center of a healthy lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise remain enigmatic. This gap in knowledge is caused by the lack of an amenable experimental model system. Therefore, we optimized electric pulse stimulation of muscle cells to closely recapitulate the plastic changes in gene expression observed in a trained skeletal muscle. The exact experimental conditions were established using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha as a marker for an endurance-trained muscle fiber. We subsequently compared the changes in the relative expression of metabolic and myofibrillar genes in the muscle cell system with those observed in mouse muscle in vivo following either an acute or repeated bouts of treadmill exercise. Importantly, in electrically stimulated C2C12 mouse muscle cells, the qualitative transcriptional adaptations were almost identical to those in trained muscle, but differ from the acute effects of exercise on muscle gene expression. In addition, significant alterations in the expression of myofibrillar proteins indicate that this stimulation could be used to modulate the fiber-type of muscle cells in culture. Our data thus describe an experimental cell culture model for the study of at least some of the transcriptional aspects of skeletal muscle adaptation to physical activity. This system will be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise adaptation in muscle.