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Sample records for ascaris suum infection

  1. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F.van

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides lar

  2. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  3. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leles Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species are possible: 1 Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2 Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3 Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4 Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  4. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

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    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  5. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  6. Development of patent Ascaris suum infections in pigs following intravenous administration of larvae hatched in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Fagerholm, H.P.; Nansen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The normal tissue migration of Ascaris suum in the pig host involves larval development in the liver accompanied by considerable pathological changes. The vast majority of larvae that reach the small intestine are later expelled by unknown mechanisms. We show that when migration through the liver...

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  8. Intestinal parasites in swine in the Nordic countries: multilevel modelling of Ascaris suum infections in relation to production factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Nilsson, O; O'Callaghan, C J; Oksanen, A; Gjerde, B; Richter, S H; Ortenberg, E O; Christensson, D; Nansen, P; Eriksen, L; Medley, G F

    1999-11-01

    In Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 413 sow herds were randomly selected for sampling. Faeces from pigs of 7 age groups/categories were examined for helminth eggs (11,233 individual samples), and an accompanying questionnaire was completed at each visit. In total, 1138 pigs on 230 farms were found to be positive for Ascaris suum. Considerable differences in the occurrence of A. suum could be observed directly for several of 20 independent variables at the herd or category level. However, given that univariate analyses may be severely affected by confounding of covariates resulting in spurious inference, additional multivariate analyses were undertaken. An ordinary logistic regression on Ascaris positive/negative farms showed that Denmark had the highest frequency of infected herds, while Iceland and Finland had the lowest frequencies and that herds using 'late weaning' and 'Class 2' drugs (pyrantel, levamisole) were most often infected. Because many herds were found to be totally negative for A. suum, mixed hierarchical logistic-normal regression models (both the penalized quasi-likelihood and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods) were developed for both a full (all herds) and a reduced (the 230 infected herds) data set using either a cut-off of > 0 eggs per gram (epg) or > 200 epg to counter for false-positive egg counts. Estimates for identical models, but where the animal level variance was constrained to the binomial assumption, were also calculated. Significant covariates were robust to model development with 'Age group', 'Country', 'Weaning age', 'Water system' and simple interactions between the latter two and 'Age group' being significantly associated with the occurrence of A. suum, while all variables concerning anthelmintic drug, anthelmintic strategy, floor type, bedding, dung removal, washing and disinfection were not. These findings are discussed in the light of the complex relationship between A. suum and its pig host.

  9. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  10. Ascaris suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-05-14

    Ascariasis caused by Ascaris is the most common parasite problem in humans and pigs worldwide. No vaccines are available for the prevention of Ascaris infections. In the present study, the gene encoding Ascaris suum enolase (As-enol-1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that As-enol-1 was highly conserved between different nematodes and shared the highest identity (87%) with enolase from Anisakis simplex s.l. The recombinant pVAX-Enol was successfully expressed in Marc-145 cells. The ability of the pVAX-Enol for inducing immune protective responses against challenge infection with A. suum L3 was evaluated in Kunming mice. The immune response was evaluated by lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, and the reduction rate of recovery larvae. The results showed that the mice immunized with pVAX-Enol developed a high level of specific antibody responses against A. suum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production, compared with the other groups immunized with empty plasmid or blank controls, respectively. There was a 61.13% reduction (P<0.05) in larvae recovery compared with that in the blank control group. Our data indicated that A. suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against A. suum infection.

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Differentially Expressed Gene (07E12 in the Infective Larvae of the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum.

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    Cuiqin Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes cause animal and human diseases of major socio-economic importance worldwide. The suppression of parasite development at particular developmental stages could provide an alternative approach for nematode control. In this study, Ascaris suum was used as a model system in the study of the differentially expressed genes in the infective L3 stage.The gene (07E12 was screened and identified from the subtractive cDNA library for the infective larvae of Ascaris suum using real-time quantitative PCR. Then, the full-length cDNA of 07E12 was characterized by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The characteristics of the gene were further analyzed using bioinformatic analyses.The results showed that the gene 07E12 was differentially expressed in the third-stage larvae of A. suum and its expression level in the infective larvae was much higher than in other stages. It was shown that the gene 07E12 had 99% identity with the corresponding sequences of the A. suum whole genome shotgun sequence containing the homologous sequences with conserved sequences of Neuropeptide-Like Protein family member. Likewise, by performing BLASTN and BLASTP searches in the GenBank™, it was shown that this gene had 99 % identity with A. suum cre-nlp-2 protein.This gene 07E12 which is differentially expressed in the third-stage larvae of A. suum may encode a neuropeptide-like protein family member, a very important molecule in the process of infecting a host.

  12. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    starting week 3 post partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum specific antibodies. Weaning took place week 7 p...

  13. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  14. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  15. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

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    Joseph F Urban

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Indoor transmission of Ascaris suum partly depends on the physico-chemical conditions in bedding material. Temperature, pH, aqueous ammonia, moisture, occurrence and development of A. suum eggs were therefore compared in different areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of two deep litter...... larval stages. The large majority of A. suum eggs appear to die and only few become infective while in the deep litter. However, a large fraction of eggs may remain viable for some time and could thus contaminate agricultural land and develop to infectivity, if the manure is not composted appropriately....

  18. Profiling gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to profile the immune response mounted by pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes following an A. suum infection. We selec...

  19. Structure of the ascarosides from Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J P; Bennett, E A; Darben, P A

    1996-10-01

    Six glycosides have been identified from the nematode Ascaris suum. The glycon part of all six glycosides is alpha L-3,6-dideoxymannose, previously known as ascarylose. The major components (4 and 5) and the minor components (8 and 9) have been shown by NMR and electrospray MS to involve a mixture of two homologous aglycons: the 2, omega-1 diols of hentriacontane and tritriacontane. Compounds 4 and 5 are glycosylated on only one of the hydroxy groups, while 8 and 9 are glycosylated on both. These compounds resemble ascarosides B and C previously isolated from Parascaris equorum. However, these aglycons are reported to be based on the 2,6-diol of hentriacontane. Compounds 6 and 7 are based on 2-hydroxy-nonacosane and 2-hydroxy-28-methylnonacosane glycosylated at C-2 with the same sugar. Although 6 and 7 are related to ascaroside A, previously isolated from P. equorum, these earlier reports suggest the chain in ascaroside A to be unbranched.

  20. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  1. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with p...

  2. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by Short-Chain Fatty Acids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Butkus, Michael A.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Bowman, Dwight D; Liotta, Janice L.; Jenkins, Michael B.; Labare, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (short-chain fatty acids [SCFA]) were effective only when protonated and at sufficient concentrations. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an inhibition model (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships were congruent with inactivation data.

  3. A novel technique for identification of Ascaris suum cohorts in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a fast, cheap and reliable technique for identifying different cohorts of the swine parasite, Ascaris suum. A polymerase chain reaction linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique on mt-DNA was used to identify unique...... post-infection using an agar technique. Single larvae from each pig were transferred to 96-well PCR plates and a simple DNA extraction using a worm lysis buffer was carried out and followed by the PCR-RFLP analysis. More than 100 larvae from each of the four pigs were analysed and all were found...... to have the same haplotype as the parental female. We conclude that unique haplotypes of female A. suum and offspring can be identified by means of PCR-RFLP on mt-DNA and suggest that this method can be used in future research on Ascaris population biology using cohorts with distinct mt-DNA profile....

  4. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.;

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...

  5. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  6. Immunoproteomic approach for identification of Ascaris suum proteins recognized by pigs with porcine ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Gussoni, Stefania; Bossetti, Erika; Hormaeche, Marta; Kramer, Laura Helen; Simón, Fernando

    2014-07-14

    Ascaris suum, the causative agent of porcine ascariasis, is responsible for marked economic losses in pig farms worldwide. Despite recent advances in research, including the characterization of the genome of A. suum, knowledge about the parasite/host relationship in porcine ascariasis at the molecular level is scarce and chemotherapy is the only effective option for parasite control. The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins of A. suum somatic antigens associated with the pathogenicity/survival mechanisms of the parasite, by using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, 2-D Western blot and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 24 parasite proteins recognized by serum samples from pigs naturally infected with A. suum were identified. Most of them (23/24) were identified as being involved in parasite survival mechanisms, including functions related to energy generation (12 proteins) and redox processes (5 proteins). These results may aid the search for effective chemo-therapeutic targets in porcine ascariasis. Further studies are needed, however, to illustrate the effect of the host immune response on the survival mechanisms of A. suum.

  7. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  8. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  9. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  10. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    or viral infections, related to the migratory and immune-modulatory capacity of A. suum. Losses due to ascariasis in pigs can thus be summarized as (1) farm economic losses due to clinical effects (although limited), reduced growth and feed conversion efficiency and costs of control (e.g. use...

  11. Evaluation of a serodiagnostic test using Ascaris suum haemoglobin for the detection of roundworm infections in pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Nejsum, Peter; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric;

    2012-01-01

    the results obtained in the artificial infection trials, showing a higher sensitivity of the serologic method compared to faecal examination. Finally, the ELISA was used to investigate Ascaris infection rates on 101 conventional Flemish pig farms. The results showed that on 38.6% of the farms less than 20...

  12. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  13. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  14. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  15. Survival of model helminth eggs and larvae (Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum sp.) in the ensilaging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, P; Rataj, D; Ilavská, I; Ziláková, J; Knotek, S; Vasilková, Z

    1997-06-01

    Ascaris suum nonembryonated eggs remained viable for the most part even after 42 days of ensilaging. At the end of the anaerobic fermentation, mean of damaged eggs was 15.2 +/- 4.02 (min. 11, max. 21), 32.9%. Conversely, the viability of Oesophagostomum sp. nonembryonated eggs and infective L3 larvae was reduced-eggs: mean number 23.6 +/- 3.64 (min. 20. max. 28) specimens (93.3%), L3 larvae: mean number 24.2 +/- 4.38 (min. 19, max. 28) specimens (96.7%), during the period of study (42 days). Control group of the same helminth propagative stages, was kept under optimum aerobic conditions. After 42 days of exposition, 9.0 +/- 3.46 (min. 5, max. 11) nonembryonated Ascaris suum eggs (12.9%), 17.33 +/- 2.51 (min. 15, max. 20) Oesophagostomum sp. eggs (36.4%) and 3.66 +/- 1.15 (min. 3, max. 5) Oesophagostomum sp. larvae L3 (6.3%) were damaged on average. Helminth eggs, thick-walled and more resistant to the environment in particular, are able to survive the anaerobic process of ensilaging. To protect animals against parasitic diseases, it is necessary to consider the epidemiological hazard of silages and silage juices, which are potentially contaminated by helminth propagative stages. Silages and silage juices under certain conditions may become harmful to polygastric animals.

  16. Immunoblot for the detection of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in patients with visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Obwaller, Andreas; Auer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome caused by Toxocara canis larvae was first described in the 1950s. The role of other nematode larvae, i.e. the pig roundworm Ascaris suum as a causative agent of visceral larva migrans-associated symptoms like general malaise, cough, liver dysfunction, hypereosinophilia with hepatomegaly and/or pneumonia, was discussed controversially during the last decades. Recent serological screening studies for specific A. suum antibodies carried out in the Netherlands and Sweden yielded remarkable high seroprevalences, while a number of case reports from Japan report pulmonal, hepatic and cerebral symptoms caused by A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected raw meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We present here a sensitive and specific larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen-based immunoblot (As-IB) for the serodiagnosis of A. suum-infected patients suffering from symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome. In total, 34 sera from patients with hypereosinophilia and other clinical symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome tested negative for Toxocara sp. antibodies but positive in our newly established As-IB, 30 sera from healthy volunteers, 53 sera from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed toxocarosis and other helminthoses as well as 3 sera from patients with intestinal ascariosis due to Ascaris lumbricoides were included in the study. When evaluated with 30 sera from healthy volunteers and 53 sera from patients suffering from different helminthoses, the calculated specificity of our new As-IB is 95%. Problems hampering the establishment of simple serological screening tests for specific A. suum antibodies, like extensive antigenic similarities between the nematodes Ascaris and Toxocara or the absence of suitable experimental animals, are discussed. We assume that specific serological testing for antibodies of A. suum is very important for the treatment of individual patients on one hand and seroepidemiological

  17. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  18. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  19. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  20. Histomorphology Studies on Ascaris Suum%猪蛔虫组织形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum usually are parasitic on small intestine of the pigs .The study using the HE staining technique ,shows the tissue structure of Ascaris suum and discusses latest research progress of Ascaris suum .The research provides the theoretical basis for class of ascarid and prevention of ascariasis .%  猪蛔虫寄生于猪的小肠,是猪最主要的寄生虫之一。利用连续石蜡切片 H .E染色技术,对猪蛔虫的组织结构进行观察研究,并对蛔虫的最新研究进展进行了讨论。为蛔虫的分类提供一定的组织形态学证据,也为蛔虫病的防治提供参考。

  1. Patent infections of Ascaris suum in pigs: effect of previous exposure to multiple, high doses of eggs and various treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, M; Jonas, W; Froe, D L

    1992-08-01

    Fifty-four crossbred, 4-week-old pigs divided into nine equal groups were used to test whether multiple inoculations with high numbers of A. suum eggs with or without anthelmintic would result in patent infections. All pigs exposed to multiple prechallenge inoculations of 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 and challenged orally 2 weeks later with 10,000 eggs harboured adult worms. When prechallenge infections were removed by pyrantel tartrate treatment the animals were more susceptible to challenge than controls not previously exposed to infections. The same drug used from 2 days before until 10 days after the last prechallenge infection eliminated that effect. Pigs subjected to the same multiple egg dosing regimen but given feed containing fenbendazole immediately before, during and for 10 days after multiple dosing developed significantly more adult intestinal worms after challenge than any other group. These worms were, however, significantly shorter than those that developed in any group of pigs. Adult worms from all these groups produced eggs that after embryonation were infective to mice.

  2. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  3. DNA extraction from Ascaris suum muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mito, Carmela; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of DNA from Ascaris suum muscle has been developed. It combines a standard SDS-based extraction with a plant DNA extraction procedure. The use of SDS and proteinase K allows the elimination of proteins, while CTAB and polyclar AT eliminate glycogen and polyphenols. The DNA thus obtained can easily be digested by endonucleases and amplified by PCR.

  4. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  5. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...

  6. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  7. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Betson, M; Bendall, R P; Thamsborg, S M; Stothard, J R

    2012-06-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.

  8. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  9. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  10. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B

    1992-01-01

    developed more severe pneumonia and septicaemia than did parasite-free mice. The parasite-induced effect on bacterial pathogenicity was more marked for a non-toxin-producing P. multocida as compared with a toxin-producing strain of P. multocida, possibly due to the higher spontaneous pathogenicity......In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs...

  11. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance...... the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV...

  12. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    molecular biology and genetics. Recently, we reported the 273 megabase (Mb) draft genome of Ascaris suum (sequenced from the reproductive tract of a single adult female worm) and explored transcription in different organs, stages, and both sexes of this nematode using advanced sequencing and computer......Parasitic nematodes cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally and major losses to food production annually. Ascaris is among the commonest geohelminths of swine and people worldwide, and causes major disease and socioeconomic losses, particularly in developing...

  13. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  14. Genomes of parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi) have a reduced complement of small RNA interference pathway genes: knockdown can reduce host infectivity of M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sadia; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as an endogenous mechanism of gene regulation in a range of eukaryotes has resulted in its extensive use as a tool for functional genomic studies. It is important to study the mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon in different organisms, and in particular to understand details of the effectors that modulate its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic sequences encoding genes involved in the RNAi pathway of four parasitic nematodes: the plant parasites Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita and the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi because full genomic sequences were available-in relation to those of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The data generated was then used to identify some potential targets for control of the root knot nematode, M. incognita. Of the 84 RNAi pathway genes of C. elegans used as model in this study, there was a 42-53 % reduction in the number of effectors in the parasitic nematodes indicating substantial differences in the pathway between species. A gene each from six functional groups of the RNAi pathway of M. incognita was downregulated using in vitro RNAi, and depending on the gene (drh-3, tsn-1, rrf-1, xrn-2, mut-2 and alg-1), subsequent plant infection was reduced by up to 44 % and knockdown of some genes (i.e. drh-3, mut-2) also resulted in abnormal nematode development. The information generated here will contribute to defining targets for more robust nematode control using the RNAi technology.

  15. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  16. Ovicidal activity of seven Pochonia chlamydosporia fungal isolates on Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião R; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Araujo, Juliana M; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Frassy, Luiza N; Freitas, Leandro G

    2011-03-01

    The ovicidal effect of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on eggs of Ascaris suum was tested under laboratory conditions. A. suum eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with seven fungal isolates (Isol. 5, Isol. 31, Isol. 1, VC1, Isol. 12, Isol. 22 and VC4) and control without fungus. After 5, 7, 10, 14, 15 and 21 days of incubation, approximately 100 eggs were removed from the plates and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell, type 2, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo and type 3, lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo showing hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. The isolates effectively destroyed A. suum eggs and all types of effects were observed during the experiment. There was no variation in ovicidal capacity (type 3 effect) among the isolates (p>0.05) throughout the experiment. After 21 days, isolate 5 showed the highest percentages of type 3 effect (58.33%). The results indicated that P. chlamydosporia (Isol. 5, Isol. 31, Isol. 1, VC1, Isol. 12, Isol. 22 and VC4) can destroy A. suum eggs and is, therefore, a potential biological control agent of nematodes.

  17. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  18. Genomic-bioinformatic analysis of transcripts enriched in the third-stage larva of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Qin Huang

    Full Text Available Differential transcription in Ascaris suum was investigated using a genomic-bioinformatic approach. A cDNA archive enriched for molecules in the infective third-stage larva (L3 of A. suum was constructed by suppressive-subtractive hybridization (SSH, and a subset of cDNAs from 3075 clones subjected to microarray analysis using cDNA probes derived from RNA from different developmental stages of A. suum. The cDNAs (n = 498 shown by microarray analysis to be enriched in the L3 were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatic analyses using a semi-automated pipeline (ESTExplorer. Using gene ontology (GO, 235 of these molecules were assigned to 'biological process' (n = 68, 'cellular component' (n = 50, or 'molecular function' (n = 117. Of the 91 clusters assembled, 56 molecules (61.5% had homologues/orthologues in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and/or other organisms, whereas 35 (38.5% had no significant similarity to any sequences available in current gene databases. Transcripts encoding protein kinases, protein phosphatases (and their precursors, and enolases were abundantly represented in the L3 of A. suum, as were molecules involved in cellular processes, such as ubiquitination and proteasome function, gene transcription, protein-protein interactions, and function. In silico analyses inferred the C. elegans orthologues/homologues (n = 50 to be involved in apoptosis and insulin signaling (2%, ATP synthesis (2%, carbon metabolism (6%, fatty acid biosynthesis (2%, gap junction (2%, glucose metabolism (6%, or porphyrin metabolism (2%, although 34 (68% of them could not be mapped to a specific metabolic pathway. Small numbers of these 50 molecules were predicted to be secreted (10%, anchored (2%, and/or transmembrane (12% proteins. Functionally, 17 (34% of them were predicted to be associated with (non-wild-type RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority being embryonic lethality (Emb (13 types; 58.8%, larval arrest

  19. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was not possible, and control programs should therefore include thorough cleaning......, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79 % of the eggs were viable. Conclusion: The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum...

  20. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative in...... have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.......SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative...... indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...

  1. Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.;

    2014-01-01

    trickle-infected with A. suum until necropsy at week 8 post first infection (PI), to test the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of the AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, faecal egg counts, number of liver white...... spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs. 19.3; P=0.06), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs. 70.1; P=0.06) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g faeces: 238 vs. 1259; P=0.14) than pigs...

  2. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity.

  3. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Jasmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM, and within the intestinal lumen (IL of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16 of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  4. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  5. Ascaris and ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Christina; Holland, Celia V

    2011-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  6. Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus.

  7. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  8. A genetic marker allele conferring resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.;

    2013-01-01

    of the AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, faecal egg counts, number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels) of which the first two traits were considered core traits and the last two traits were associated traits. Pigs of the AA genotype had...... lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs. 19.3), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs. 70.1) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 p.i. (mean number of eggs/g faeces: 238 vs. 1259) than pigs of the AB genotype. However, none of these differences were significant (P- values of 0.06, 0.06 and 0...... a similar trend. The data presented here provide suggestive evidence that resistant pigs can be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and that it is the B allele which is conferring susceptibility to A. suum infection. Our work confirmed that SNP ARNT is another diagnostic marker candidate for A. suum...

  9. Effects of SDPNFLRF-amide (PF1) on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Robertson, A P; Martin, R J

    2009-02-01

    Helminth infections are of significant concern in veterinary and human medicine. The drugs available for chemotherapy are limited in number and the extensive use of these drugs has led to the development of resistance in parasites of animals and humans (Geerts and Gryseels, 2000; Kaplan, 2004; Osei-Atweneboana et al., 2007). The cyclooctadepsipeptide, emodepside, belongs to a new class of anthelmintic that has been released for animal use in recent years. Emodepside has been proposed to mimic the effects of the neuropeptide PF1 on membrane hyperpolarization and membrane conductance (Willson et al., 2003). We investigated the effects of PF1 on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle cells. The whole cell voltage-clamp technique was employed to study these currents. Here we report two types of voltage-activated inward calcium currents: transient peak (I(peak)) and a steady-state (I(ss)). We found that 1microM PF1 inhibited the two calcium currents. The I(peak) decreased from -146nA to -99nA (P=0.0007) and the I(ss) decreased from -45nA to -12nA (P=0.002). We also found that PF1 in the presence of calcium increased the voltage-activated outward potassium current (from 521nA to 628nA (P=0.004)). The effect on the potassium current was abolished when calcium was removed and replaced with cobalt; it was also reduced at a higher concentration of PF1 (10microM). These studies demonstrate a mechanism by which PF1 decreases the excitability of the neuromuscular system by modulating calcium currents in nematodes. PF1 inhibits voltage-activated calcium currents and potentiates the voltage-activated calcium-dependent potassium current. The effect on a calcium-activated-potassium channel appears to be common to both PF1 and emodepside (Guest et al., 2007). It will be of interest to investigate the actions of emodepside on calcium currents to further elucidate the mechanism of action.

  10. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  11. Microevolutionary Patterns and Molecular Markers: The Genetics of Geographic Variation in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Molecular markers have been used only rarely to characterize the population genetic structure of nematodes. Published studies have suggested that different taxa may show distinct genetic architectures. Isoenzyme and RAPD markers have been used to investigate geographic variation of Ascaris suum at the level of infrapopulations (nematodes within individual hosts), within localities, and among geographic regions. Independent estimates of genetic differentiation among population samples based on isoenzyme and RAPD data showed similar patterns and substantial correlation. Heterozygote deficiencies within infrapopulations and large values for inbreeding coefficients among infrapopulations suggested that the composition of these populations was not consistent with a model of random recruitment from a large panmictic pool of life-cycle stages. Both isoenzyme and RAPD markers revealed moderate levels of genetic differentiation among samples representing infrapopulations and localities. Of total gene diversity, 9.4% (isoenzyme) and 9.2% (RAPD) was partitioned among infrapopulations. Geographic localities accounted for 7.8% (isoenzyme) and 6.2% (RAPD) of total diversity. Only infrapopulations from the same farm had low levels of differentiation. PMID:19277145

  12. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie; Nansen, P.;

    2001-01-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver; lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during...... larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile...

  13. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fudan Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16, as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of viability- and apoptosis-related genes in Ascaris suum eggs under different culture-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2012-09-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20°C, 50°C, and 70°C in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20°C until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50°C and day 1 at 70°C. At 20°C, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50° and 70°C, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20°C, for 3-5 days at 50°C, and for 2 days at 70°C. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress.

  15. Levamisole-activated single-channel currents from muscle of the nematode parasite Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. J.; Martin, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The patch-clamp technique was used to examine levamisole-activated channels in muscle vesicles from Ascaris suum. Cell-attached and isolated inside-out patches were used. 2. Levamisole (1-90 microM), applied to the extracellular surface, activated channels which had apparent mean open-times in the range 0.80-2.85 ms and linear I/V relationships with conductances in the range 19-46 pS. Ion-replacement experiments showed the channels to be cation selective. 3. The kinetics of the channels were analysed. Generally open- and closed-time distributions were best fitted by two, and three exponentials respectively, indicating the presence of at least two open states and at least three closed states. The distributions of burst-times were best-fitted by two exponentials. 4. Channel open- and burst-times were voltage-sensitive: at low levamisole concentrations (1-10 microM), they increased with hyperpolarization. At higher concentrations of levamisole (30 microM and 90 microM) flickering channel-block was observed at hyperpolarized potentials. Using a simple channel-block model, values for the blocking dissociation constant, KB were determined as 123 microM at -50 mV, 46 microM at -75 mV and 9.4 microM at -100 mV. 5. At the higher concentration of levamisole (30 microM and 90 microM) long closed-times separating 'clusters' of bursts were observed, at both hyperpolarized and depolarized membrane potentials and this was interpreted as desensitization. PMID:7679027

  16. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors (II): An electrophysiological study in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Robertson, Alan P.; Clark, Cheryl L.; Martin, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to antinematodal drugs like levamisole has increased and there is a need to understand what factors affect the responses to these anthelmintics. In our previous study, we examined the role of ryanodine receptors in muscle contraction pathways. Here we have examined interactions of levamisole receptors, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the excitatory neuropeptide AF2, and coupling to electrophysiological responses. We examined the effects of a brief application of levamisole on Ascaris suum body muscle under current-clamp. The levamisole responses were characterized as an initial primary depolarization, followed by a slow secondary depolarizing response. We examined the effects of AF2 (KHEYLRFamide), 1 μM applied for 2 min. We found that AF2 potentiated the secondary response to levamisole and had no significant effect on the primary depolarization [1]. Further, the reversal potentials observed during the secondary response suggested that more than one ion was involved in producing this potential. AF2 potentiated the secondary response in the presence of 30 μM mecamylamine suggesting the effect was independent of levamisole sensitive acetylcholine receptors. The secondary response, potentiated by AF2, appeared to be dependent on cytoplasmic events triggered by the primary depolarization. Ion-substitution experiments showed that the AF2 potentiated secondary response was dependent on extracellular calcium and chloride suggesting a role for the calcium-activated anion channel. Caffeine mimicked the AF2 secondary response and 0.1 μM ryanodine inhibited it. 1.0 μM ryanodine increased spiking showing that it affected membrane excitability. A model is proposed showing ryanodine receptors mediating effects of AF2 on levamisole responses. PMID:20064567

  17. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors (I): A contraction study in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan P.; Clark, Cheryl L.; Martin, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Cholinergic anthelmintics (like levamisole) are important drugs but resistance with reduced responses by the parasite to these compounds is a concern. There is a need to study and understand mechanisms that affect the amplitude of the responses of parasites to these drugs. In this paper, we study interactions of levamisole and ryanodine receptors on contractions of Ascaris suum body muscle flaps. In our second paper, we extend these observations to examine electrophysiological interactions of levamisole, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and AF2. We report that the maximum force of contraction, gmax, was dependent on the extracellular concentration of calcium but the levamisole EC50(0.8 μM) was not. The relationship between maximum force of contraction and extracellular calcium was described by the Michaelis-Menten equation with a Km of 1.8 mM. Ryanodine inhibited gmax without effect on EC50; ryanodine inhibited only 44% of the maximum contraction (Ki of 40 nM), revealing a ryanodine-insensitive component in the levamisole excitation-contraction pathway. Dantrolene had the same effect as ryanodine but was less potent. The neuropeptide AF2 (1 μM) decreased the levamisole EC50 to 0.2 μM without effect on gmax; 0.1 μM ryanodine and 100 μM dantrolene, inhibited the gmax of the AF2-potentiated levamisole response. High concentrations of caffeine, 30 mM, produced weak contraction of the body flap preparation. Caffeine behaved like ryanodine in that it inhibited the maximum force of contraction, gmax, without effects on the levamisole EC50. Thus, RyRs play a modulatory role in the levamisole-excitation contraction pathway by affecting the maximum force of contraction without an effect on levamisole EC50. The levamisole-excitation contraction coupling is graded and has at least two pathways: one sensitive to ryanodine and one not. PMID:20064566

  18. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

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    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  19. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  20. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  1. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse.

  2. Presynaptic and postsynaptic regulation of muscle contractions in the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum: a target for drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, S M; Zurovac, Z; Gruborović, S; Marjanović, D S; Nedeljković-Trailović, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role in contractions of postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, in the bag region of Ascaris suum muscle cells, as well as the role of synaptic receptors between interneurons and motor neurons in the dorsal and ventral nerve cord. We have measured the isometric contractions of isolated segments of A. suum, with or without the nerve cord (dorsal or ventral). Contractions were caused by increasing concentrations of ACh or by electrical field stimulation (EFS). Based on our results, the presence of the nerve cord is essential for the contractile effects of ACh. The EC50 value of ACh for innervated muscle strips was 10.88 μm. Unlike intact (innervated) preparations, there was no contraction of the muscle flaps when the nerve cord was mechanically removed. Furthermore, continuous EFS produced stable contractions of innervated muscle strips, but they are not sensitive to mecamylamine (100 μm). However, GABA (30 μm) significantly inhibited the EFS-induced contractions. EFS with the same characteristics did not cause muscle contractions of denervated muscle strips, but EFS with a wider pulse induced the increasing of tone and irregular contractions. These contractions were completely insensitive to the effect of GABA. The EC50 for ACh did not differ between the dorsal and ventral segments (9.83 μm and 9.45 μm), while GABA exhibited features of competitive and non-competitive antagonists, regardless of whether it acted on the dorsal or ventral segments of A. suum. It is obvious that drugs will be more effective if they act on both the synaptic and extrasynaptic nACh and GABA receptors.

  3. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  4. Intestinal transcriptomes of nematodes: comparison of the parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of approximately 350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241, each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for approximately 20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA

  5. In vitro evaluation of the effect of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium sinense, and Pochonia chlamydosporia on Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Araujo, J M; Tavela, A O

    2008-03-01

    The in vitro effect of four isolates of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC 001), Monacrosporium sinense (SF 53), and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC 1 and VC 4) on eggs of Ascaris suum was evaluated. One hundred thousand A. suum eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with the grown isolates and control without fungus. After 7, 14, and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, lytic effect without morphological damage to eggshell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell; and type 3, lytic effect with morphological alteration of embryo and eggshell, besides hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity (p suum eggs in the studied intervals of 13.3% (isolate VC 1) and 17.3% (isolate VC 4), 13.9% (VC 1) and 17.7% (VC 4), and 19% (VC 1) and 20% (VC4), respectively, at 7, 14, and 21 days. The other fungi showed no type 3 effect. P. chlamydosporia is a potential biological control agent of A. suum eggs.

  6. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  7. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse......, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects...

  8. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations.

  9. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to ...

  10. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae...... allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38 degreesC. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very...

  11. Genome-wide tissue-specific gene expression, co-expression and regulation of co-expressed genes in adult nematode Ascaris suum.

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    Bruce A Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus. We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis

  12. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  13. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

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    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  14. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  15. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eser Kilic; Süleyman Yazar; Recep Saraymen; Hatice Ozbilge

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, I.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls.RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P<0.05)and for males (P<0.05). In the patient and control groups,no correlation was found between age and malondialdehyde levels (P>0.05) both in females and in males. In addition,no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

  16. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  17. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world’s population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumb...

  18. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫同域种群DNA多态性研究%DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SYMPATRIC POPULATIONS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES AND ASCARIS SUUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民; 安德森; 肯尼迪

    1999-01-01

    @@ 在我国蛔虫感染遍布各地,受染人数达5亿多.而在多数农村流行区,生猪饲养十分普遍,人群和猪群的蛔虫感染往往并存,且人、猪接触密切.据作者在江西省新建县蔓湖村进行的一年纵向调查,当地人群蛔虫感染率和猪群蛔虫感染率比较接近(约60%-70%),土壤蛔虫卵污染普遍而严重,并长年稳定 ( Peng, W.D. et al. 1996 Ascaris, people and pigs in rural Jiangxi, China. Parasitology 113:547~557.). 因此这些地区人蛔虫和猪蛔虫交叉感染的机会是大量存在的.

  19. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all bimonthly visits), subjects more than 5 years of age, treated with levamisole had a significant increase in their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.02), whereas there was no effect of anti-helminthic treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age. The demonstration of a clear negative interaction between Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  20. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  1. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  2. Cellular responses and cytokine profiles in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stefan M; Massara, Cristiano L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Soboslay, Peter T; Carvalho, Omar S; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    The impact of intestinal helminth infection, i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, on cellular responsiveness and cytokine production was investigated in young adults. Ascaris-specific cellular responsiveness was higher in parasite-free endemic controls than in patients infected with T. trichiura, or A. lumbricoides, or patients co-infected with both parasites. Also, mitogen-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was higher in negative endemic controls than in infected individuals. Ascaris antigen-specific production of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IFN-gamma was low in singly Ascaris as well as in co-infected patients, whereas secretion of IL-10 and IL-13 was elevated and similarly high in all patient groups. The detection of Trichuris-specific and Ascaris-specific IgG4 revealed significantly higher serum antibody levels in Trichuris or Ascaris patients when compared to endemic controls (P Trichuris patients with a high parasite load presented reduced cellular reactivity and lower type 1 TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses when compared with endemic controls, whereas type 2 IL-10 and IL-13 productions were similar in all groups from the endemic area. The former may support parasite persistence, whereas substantial type 2 cytokine release may promote protective immunity, suggesting an adaptation of the host to control the parasite burden while minimizing immune-mediated host self-damage.

  3. Advances in the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infections in pigs and their possible applications in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in both humans and pigs. It has been shown to cause growth deficits in both species and to impair cognitive development in children. Notwithstanding its substantial impact on pig economy and public health, diagnosis of ascariasis has mostly relied on the detection of eggs in stool and further development of novel, more sensitive methods has been limited or non-existent. Here, we discuss the currently available techniques for the diagnosis of ascariasis in pigs, their caveats, and the implications of a new serological detection technique for the evaluation of both pig and human ascariasis.

  4. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays.

  5. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression.

  6. 负载人蛔虫和猪蛔虫抗原树突状细胞影响T细胞亚群活性研究%Comparative analysis of T cell subsets response induced by DC fused with Ag of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟; 黄川; 黄艳琴; 胡银英; 戴志芳; 袁芳; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    respectively by flow cytometry (FCM),ELISA and real time PCR.And the LCs were isolated from bone marrow cells cultured with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 in vitro.The FCM results showed that DCs isolated from bone marrow cells were with high expression of kinds of surface molecules (CD86,85.5 %; CD83 38.24%; CD80,94 %).CD80 and CD83 declined after heing cultured with ascaris extract for 2 days and that of the groups fused separately with Ag of A.lumbricoides and A.suum was respectively higher and lower than the control group.ELISA showed the level of expression of TNF-α in each period of each experimental group was lower than the control group (P<0.05); IL-10 in each group increased over time,and the groups with ascaris antigen were higher than groups with same concentration of A.suum antigen (P< 0.05) in each time except the time point of 24 hours.The qPCR results showed that the levels of the groups with A.lumbricoides Ag were declined over time but significantly higher than the control groups and the groups with A.suum Ag in different time points (P<0.05).The differences between the groups with A.suum Ag and the control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).In conclusion,DC fused with the Ag of A.lumbricoides promoted a stronger Th2 type response and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in vitro.

  7. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby NM

    2016-01-01

    Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and asc...

  8. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko;

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis p...

  9. Confirmation of the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Plasmodium falciparum infection: results of a randomized trial in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2007-12-01

    A controlled randomized trial of anti-helminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Plasmodium falciparum, and Schistosoma mansoni. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 107 subjects, whereas 105 were controls. Levamisole was highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P 15 years of age. This study confirms the results of a randomized trial, which showed a negative interaction in those > 5 years of age between Ascaris and malaria parasite density in another Malagasy population, submitted to a higher malaria transmission.

  10. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. METHODOLOGY: 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single

  11. Comparison of methodologies for enumerating and detecting the viability of Ascaris eggs in sewage sludge by standard incubation-microscopy, the BacLight Live/Dead viability assay and other vital dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkashan, Alaa; Khallaf, Basma; Morris, Jacqueline; Thurbon, Nerida; Rouch, Duncan; Smith, Stephen R; Deighton, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Live/Dead BacLight viability kit as a method for enumerating viable eggs of Ascaris suum in sewage sludge as a surrogate for the human roundworm. The number and viability status of eggs of A. suum were accurately measured directly in sewage sludge samples by the BacLight method, compared to the conventional incubation-microscopy procedure. BacLight stains were not toxic to A. suum eggs, in contrast to some conventional vital dyes which disrupted viable eggs. The method was effective for the direct examination of eggs in heavily contaminated samples or seeded sludge containing ∼200 eggs/g DS in sludge with 5% DS content. However, a recovery method would be necessary to examine samples with small numbers of eggs, for instance in sludge from regions where the prevalence of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is low. The BacLight technique may therefore be an effective alternative to conventional incubation-microscopy for enumerating Ascaris eggs in contaminated field samples or to validate sludge treatment processes by examining decay rates of inoculated A. suum eggs in laboratory simulations. Most field samples would require recovery from an appropriate number of composite samples prior to vital staining.

  12. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    unreported 10 kDa band, specific to the L2 larval stage and egg hatch fluid, emerged in all pigs after challenge, while the major adult body fluid constituent, ABA-1, remained unrecognized. No significant effect of an intestinal adult worm burden on the larval recovery after a challenge inoculation...

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF ALBENDAZOLE (ABZ),ALBENDAZOLE-SULFOXIDE (ABZSX) AND AIBENDAZOLE-SULFONE(ABZSN) ON THE ENZYME COMPLEXES ACTIVITIES IN MITOCHONDRIA OF ASCARIS SUUM MUSCLE%阿苯哒唑及其代谢物对猪蛔虫肌肉线粒体酶复合体活性作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冠宏; 许炽标; 辛文芬

    2000-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of ABZ,ABZSX and ABZSN on Ascaris Suum. Methods The activities of enzyme complexes in mitochondria were detected by spectrophotometer for the study of effects of ABZ, ABZSX and ABZSN on the anaerobic respiratory chain of enzyme complexes in mitochondria of Ascaris Suum muscle and rat liver. Results The activity of succinate CoQ reductase in Ascaris muscle mitochondria was apparently suppressed by ABZ ,ABZSX. Conclusion Preliminary study on the mechanism and toxicity of ABZ through enzyme studies,in order to find a more effective and satisfactory drug with low toxicity for clinical use.%目的初步了解阿苯哒唑(albendazole,ABZ)及其主要代谢物亚砜(albendazole-sulfoxide,ABZSX)和砜(albenda-zole-sulfone,ABZSN)对猪蛔虫的作用机制。方法应用紫外分光光度计扫描系统对猪蛔虫肌肉线粒体中四种酶复合体(com-plex I-NADH细胞色素C脱氢酶complex Ⅱ-琥珀酸CoQ脱氢酶complex Ⅲ-CoQ细胞色素还原酶;complex Ⅳ-细胞色素C氧化酶)活性进行测定,以鼠肝线粒体作对照,再经ABZ及其代谢物ABZSX,ABZSN作用后观察其活性改变。结果 ABZ及其代谢物ABZSX对猪蛔虫肌肉线粒体中琥珀酸脱氢酶(complex Ⅱ)的活性有明显的抑制作用,而对鼠肝线粒体中四种酶复合体均无明显抑制作用。结论 ABZ及其代谢物主要抑制了蛔虫肌肉线粒体中琥珀酸脱氢酶的活性,使其不能完成呼吸链的氧化磷酸化过程,从而达到杀虫效果。

  14. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaby NM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interleukin-5 (IL-5 in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01 between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, children, rural, Egypt, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α

  15. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B B Barnabas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serious challenges to global health care delivery. Moreoever, in developing countries, the cost of orthodox medication is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. This is coupled with the adulterated drugs and emergences of drug resistant strains have led to an intensive search for natural products of higher plants, which are biologically active against parasitic infections. Many plants are used locally in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections. Nigeria offers a rich floral diversity that are used traditionally to treat worm infections. Nigerian medicinal plants (Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides used commonly used in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria for the treatment of worm infections were screened for anthelminthic activity. The extracts exhibited varying degree of anthelminthic activities against Ascaris lumbricoides. The extract of C. laxa display potent anthelminthic property. The extract of C. laxa with pronounced activity against A. lumbricoides may contain metabolites that have pharmacologically active principles with promising anthelminthic properties. This indicates the medical potential of C. laxa in the treatment of helminthiasis.

  16. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    2015-01-01

    or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p...

  17. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  18. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  19. Serum cytokines profiles in Nigerian children withAscaris lumbricoides infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irior Dominic Osagie; Abu Maliki

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytokines profile in the serum of some Nigerian children with Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) infection and relations between the intensity of infection, age and the concentration of these cytokines.Methods: Feacal samples from consenting children were examined using formol ether concentration techniques and Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Sera of 96 children comprising 76A. lumbricoides infection and 20 controls were subjected to enzymes-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The mean sera concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were (16.7±7.6) pg/mL, (4.6±0.8)pg/mL, (391.6±52.0) pg/mL and (181.2±30.4) pg/mL, respectively. The control subjects had the following mean serum cytokines: TNF-α(2.9±1.8) pg/m, IL-4 (4.0±0.1) pg/mL, IL-5 (125.1±50.1) pg/mL, IL-10 (74.5±54.2) pg/mL, respectively. The difference between the sera cytokines concentration of theA. lumbricoides infected children and their controls were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL- 5 and IL-10(χ2= 9.99,P< 0.05;χ2 = 137.24,P < 0.05;χ2 = 44.30,P < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of infection correlated positively with TNF-α, and IL-5 (r = 0.93 and 0.98, respectively) while IL-4 and IL- 10 correlated negatively with the intensity of infection (r = -0.62 and 0.99, respectively). TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with age (r = 0.19, 0.33 and 0. 66, respectively). The mean cytokines between those with mild and moderate infections were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 (χ2 = 3.60, 4.52 and 5.30, respectively). The ratio of TNF-α: IL-10 was 0.092.Conclusions: Elevated IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α found in the sera of the volunteers with Ascariasis implicates these cytokines as key mediators in the host responses toA. lumbriocoides infection in our studied area.

  20. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  1. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  2. Co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides modulates protective immune responses against Giardia duodenalis in school Venezuelan rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (p0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.

  3. Severity of atopic dermatitis and Ascaris lumbricoides infection: an evaluation of CCR4+ and CXCR3+ helper T cell frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ascaris lumbricoides-infected patients present lower prevalence of severe atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Peripheral blood of infected children with atopic dermatitis was assessed by flow cytometry of the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cells through the expression of CXCR3 and CCR4 chemokine receptors, respectively. RESULTS: Helminth-free patients with atopic dermatitis presented a high frequency of CCR4+Th2 cells. Parasitized patients with atopic dermatitis showed a lower frequency of CXCR3+Th1 cells compared to infected individuals only. CONCLUSIONS: Ascariasis modifies the blood traffic of Th2 cells in atopic dermatitis patients, while the allergic disease down-regulates the traffic of Th1 cells in parasitized patients.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    Full Text Available Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda, one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs, can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock, in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  6. [Intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a geriatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Alfredo; Arteaga, Kovy; Resurrección, Cristhian; Ñavincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is considered the largest intestinal nematode with a higher incidence in the childhood, representing a truly medical and public health problem, principally in undeveloped countries. We present the case of an 83 year old man, born and coming from the amazon region, without any relevant previous history of disease, admitted in the emergency department of our hospital for presenting intestinal obstruction and also presumptive biliary obstruction due to multiple balls of parasites, requiring immediate surgical intervention. We emphasize the need of consider this etiologic possibility in the differential diagnosis, that in this particular case, wasn't suspected in the first place.

  7. Epidemiology and chemotherapy of parasitic infections in wild omnivores in the Mahendra Choudhury Zoological Park, Chhat Bir, Punjab

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    P. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the occurrence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminthic infections along with chemotherapeutic response in 13 different omnivore species belonging to Primate, Ursidae, Suidae and Viverridae at M.C Zoological Park, Chhatbir in Punjab, India. The overall occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites based on copro-parasitoscopic analysis (CPS of 317 samples for helmithic eggs was found to be 29.02 per cent. The various parasitic eggs detected were Trichuris spp, Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides spp, Ascaris suum and Ascaris spp. The most common parasitic infection found in omnivores specially the primates was of Trichuris spp. (86.96%. Mixed infection of Trichuris spp. and H. diminuta was recorded in assamese monkeys with highest intensity of Trichuris spp. The EPG for Trichuris spp varied from 1800-7500. The EPG ranging from 100-750 was recorded for H. diminuta and Strongyloides spp which was followed by that of Trichuris spp. in rhesus monkeys, Ascaris suum in wild boar, Trichuris spp in capped langur, Trichuris spp in common langur, and Ascaris spp. in sloth bear. In assamese monkeys the infection was concurrent to tuberculosis. Treatment of animals with appropriate drug based on the species of parasites present was found to be 100 per cent effective as indicated by faecal egg count reduction test which reached zero level 5-30 days post treatment. There was no re-occurrence of parasitic infection till day 55 post treatment.

  8. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum......, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer....

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF COLLARED PECCARY ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) WITH SWINE KIDNEY WORM ( Stephanurus dentatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, G M; Davis, D S; Robinson, R M; Galvin, T J

    1977-10-01

    Two captive-born juvenile collared peccaries ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) were given 3000 infective larvae of Stephanurus dentatus per os. One peccary harbored viable S. dentatus sub-adults in the liver 50 days post-infection. The other peccary had no larvae but did have diffuse fibrotic hepatic lesions and bile duct hyperplasia 213 days post-infection; however, the lesions may have been partially due to a concurrent Ascaris suum infection. A domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) infected as a control was severely but non-patently parasitized 170 days postinfection.

  10. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (plumbricoides (plumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (plumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic areas and also that improved hygienic conditions in the urban environment is associated with increased responses to airborne allergens.

  11. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  12. Albendazole therapy reduces serum zinc in elementary school children with Ascaris lumbricoides infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Buana

    2016-12-01

    Albendazole treatment produces lower serum zinc concentration in elementary school children with A.lumbricoides infections. A profound understanding of the interaction between helminth infections and zinc may assist in guiding integrated and sustainable intervention strategies among affected children throughout the world.

  13. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H; Dekaminsky, R; Niwas, S; Soto, R; Jolly, P

    2001-04-01

    Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9) and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4) respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001), level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01), reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02), households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002), and the location of households (p=0.03). Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively), ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively) and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR)=22.2), children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8), and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0) were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively).

  14. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  15. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  16. Analysis of clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices in hospitalized children with Ascaris lumbricoides infection from the northeastern region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Kaczmarski, Maciej G; Sawicka-Zukowska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Majewska, Anna; Plewa, Katarzyna; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Debkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common soil-transmitted helminth infection in the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices of ascariasis in hospitalized children from the northeastern region of Poland. Patients in the Pediatric Ward hospitalized in the Regional Hospital in Dabrowa Białostocka in the period of 2005-2007 were included in this retrospective study. The intestinal stage of ascariasis was diagnosed on the basis of positive coprological survey performed using the decantation technique. A total of 938 patients were included in the study, 1801 stool samples were evaluated, and A. lumbricoides-positive tests were obtained from 252 children. Ascaris-positive young children (Ascaris lumbricoides. Significant predictors of intestinal stage ascariasis in a multivariate logistic regression model were: abdominal pain as a reason for hospital admission (OR-2.19; 95% CI 1.62-2.95; p < 0.001) and age from 4 to 7 years (OR-2.0; 95% CI 1.41-2.80; p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of ascariasis was not higher in the group of patients with atopic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) and co-existing ascariasis did not affect the eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. Ascariasis is still a current pediatric clinical problem characterized by non-specific clinical manifestations, which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of children's diseases.

  17. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  18. Pancreatitis secondary to Ascaris Lumbricoides: A case series analysis

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    Ab hameed Raina, Ghulam Nabi Yattoo, Feroz Ahmad Wani, Reyaz Ahmad Para, Khaild Hamid Changal, Arshed Hussain Parry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides infestations are endemic in tropical countries. Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis secondary to ascaris is more common in females. We describe three cases who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis and all of them were females and were diagnosed on ultrasonography. In two patients the sphicterotomy was done while in third patient the worm came out after two days of conservative management.

  19. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Zani Luciana Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al, Trichuris trichiura (Tt and hookworms (Hook in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62 or mebendazole (n = 57. Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05 one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%; Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8% and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%. One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%, Hook (68.3% but not for Tt (45.5%, and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  20. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  1. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-08-01

    The 13q33-34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-04

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors.

  3. 21 CFR 558.315 - Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Treatment of the following gastrointestinal worms and lung worm infections; stomach worms (Haemonchus.... Treatment of the following nematode infections: large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular...

  4. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  5. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and ha...

  6. Penetration of ovicidal fungi through altered egg-shells of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupová, V; Solcová, D

    1985-01-01

    Ovicidal activity was studied in microscopic fungi penetrating into and destroying eggs of geohelminths surviving in the soil. The character of penetration was compared in eggs obtained mechanically with those obtained by means of a chemical process. A total of 13 strains of ovicidal fungi of 4 species were studied. The shells of eggs obtained by the chemical process were so altered that under the same conditions they were attacked and penetrated by the fungi much more than the eggs obtained by a mechanical way. The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods of eggs isolation are discussed.

  7. Some aspects of the neuromuscular system of Ascaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, J; Rivera, A; Solórzano, S; Serrato, J

    1989-12-01

    1. The structure and physiological properties of the somatic neuromuscular system of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum are discussed taking into account early work from this laboratory, the results of other workers, and experiments in progress. 2. Anatomically, the central feature of the somatic musculature is the presence of a specialized muscular, but not contractile, structure: the syncytium or sarcopile, formed by the terminal processes of the muscle cell arms that contact the nerve cord. In this region, they are electrically coupled to one another and form chemical synapses with the nerve fibres. 3. The syncytium serves, primarily, as a nerve-muscle manifold, or device which allows the neural control of the muscle fields with great economy in the amount of nervous tissue, numbers of chemical junctions and quantities of synaptic transmitters. 4. The structure of the syncytium is being studied with the scanning electron microscope. The results reveal the convergence of the arms on discrete sites as they approach the cords, as well as a longitudinal arrangement of the terminal processes as they course over the cords, at least in the posterior region of the animal. 5. The characteristics of the electrical coupling between the muscle cells are being investigated. A pattern has been observed that is dependent on the position of the cell pairs with respect to the longitudinal axis of the animal. 6. A study of signal propagation in the arms has revealed that the morphology of the muscle cells contributes to the extent and preferential direction of propagation.

  8. Respiratory arrest from Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Kevin; Warner, Petra

    2010-09-01

    We report here the successful treatment of a 9-year-old boy who suffered a high-voltage electrical injury and a hospital course complicated by unexpected airway obstruction from Ascaris lumbricoides. Review of the literature revealed 4 previous reports of this complication. We also discuss options for prevention and treatment of this rare complication of a common infestation.

  9. Ascaris lumbricoides-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Diagnosis during EUS for a Suspected Small Pancreatic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Mangiavillano; Silvia Carrara; Maria Chiara Petrone; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2009-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Case report We describe the case of a 37- year-old man, with a history of travelling in Eastern countries who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking a small pancreatic cancer, diagnosed during an upper EUS. The endoscopy revealeda roundworm floating i...

  10. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Zheng; Bing-Yuan Wang; Fei Wang; Ran Ao; Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man,which can lead to various complications because of its mobility.As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris,the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare.An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies.The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus.Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning.The patient fasted,and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate.Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb.The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis.The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus.Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up.Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus,emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  11. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-07

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  13. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric

  14. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  15. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  16. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Jeandron

    Full Text Available The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate] and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC. A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1% also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6% was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness.

  17. Medical image of the week: ascaris lumbridoies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 25 year-old man was admitted to the ICU with acute renal failure and acute respiratory failure from fluid overload after attempting to cross the border. The patient was successfully extubated after five days of mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. Following extubation, the patient had a bowel movement and passed a 23cm adult Ascaris lumbricoides. He was treated with a single dose of albendazole 400 mg. Ascariasis is a very common helminthic infection, particularly in pediatric populations, and affects mostly the gastrointestinal tract. When infective eggs are swallowed by the host, larvae hatch in the GI tract. The larvae invade the GI mucosa and then are brought into the lungs via portal circulation. The larvae can then move up the tracheobronchial tree and then are swallowed into the GI tract where the mature worms form (1. While our patient had a simple gastrointestinal infection, several pulmonary complications of ascariasis ...

  18. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  19. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  20. Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection%人群蛔虫感染调查粪检与驱虫结果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜唯声; 曾小军; 李华忠; 陈颖丹; 洪献林; 胡神助; 兰炜明; 陈奕杨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship hetween fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Methods A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Results Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumhricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41 % and 23,75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher ihe probability to got egg in the feees. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. Conclusion The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.%目的 探讨社区人群蛔虫感染调查中粪检与驱虫结果的关系.方法 选择江西省南昌县塘南乡张溪村为试点,采用Kato-Katz法粪检,双羟萘噻嘧啶化疗驱虫后收集虫体,对两者结果进行比较分析.结果 共检测1019名村民,人群实际蛔虫感染率为30.23%,其中粪检阳性率为20.41%,淘虫阳性率为23.75%.淘虫阳性感染者平均虫荷2.64条,虫荷数高的感染者所占比例较低.感染者虫荷数越多,检出虫卵的概率越高,当感染者寄生7条以上蛔虫,虫卵检出率为100%.粪检虫卵假阴性者中,感染雄虫者占61.00%,感染雌虫

  1. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation...

  2. [Diagnosis and treatment of CNS parasite infection with special reference to parasitic myelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoegawa, Manabu

    2004-11-01

    The occurrence of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Toxocara canis (T. canis) has occasionally been reported in Japan, although parenchymatous involvement of the CNS is extremely rare in A. suum/T. canis visceral larvae migrans. Recently we experienced 7 cases with myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans due to A. suum/T. canis (parasite myelitis). The characteristics of this myelitis are: (1) sensory disturbances (Lhermitte's sign, paresthesia, and hypesthesia) are predominant symptoms, while severe motor weakness is rare, (2) spinal cord lesions on T2-weighted MRI show more extensive lesions compared with mild symptoms, (3) Gadolinium enhancement of spinal cord lesions are limited as compared with spinal cord lesions on T2-weighted MRI lesions, (4) Some cases show the presence of eosinophils in CSF, while others show Th2 deviation in CSF supernatant, and (5) Tests for anti-A. suum/T. canis IgG antibody are strongly positive in serum and CSF. Moreover, 6 percent of 108 consecutive cases with non-compression myelopathy presenting at the Department of Neurology at Kyushu University Hospital from January, 1998 to December, 2002 had parasitic myelitis. Myelitis from visceral larva migrans due to A. suum/T. canis might be overlooked because of its mild neurologic impairment without systemic symptoms, but should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in non-compression myelopathy.

  3. Studies on the induction of permeability in Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J

    1976-08-01

    The initial process in the hatching mechanism of Ascaris eggs is the sudden onset of permeability in the previously impermeable ascaroside membrane. During this change the ascaroside membrane remains intact and no chemical changes can be detected. Using the molecular probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulphonic acid no conformational changes were detected in the ascaroside membrane during the induction of permeability. It is suggested that either the permeability change is due to a very localized chemical or conformational change, not detectable by conventional analytical techniques, or the change is due to mechanical damage of the ascaroside membrane, brought about by the activity of the infective larva.

  4. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  5. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  6. Research on the immune mechanisms of Ascaris lumbricoides infection over the past decade%近10年似蚯蚓线虫感染的免疫机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 张冬丽

    2013-01-01

    本文从固有免疫、适应性免疫及疫苗研究等几方面论述似蚯蚓线虫(蛔虫)感染的免疫学研究新进展.%This paper describes recent advances in the induction of innate immunity and acquired immunity against Ascaris lumbricoides and it also discusses the development of vaccines.

  7. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  8. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫差异的比较研究%Comparative Studies on the Difference Between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 彭卫东

    2006-01-01

    人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的分类地位一直存在争议.本文就人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的形态学、宿主感染特异性、免疫学、生化学和核型进行比较研究,对近年来分子遗传学方面的有关进展进行了综述.

  9. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  10. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, Agola L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Mugambi, Robert M.; Mwandi, Jackson M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns. PMID:27882242

  11. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraho, Esther A; Eric, Agola L; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mutuku, Martin W; Mugambi, Robert M; Mwandi, Jackson M; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns.

  12. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm Ascaris suum larvae: a new tool for anthelmenthic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is a key component of discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’) that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiologic...

  13. Ascaris suum: diagnóstico, controle alternativo e levantamento na microrregião de Ponte Nova - Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto, Mariana Costa

    2015-01-01

    O setor suinícola brasileiro tem enfrentado nos últimos anos, barreiras para exportação da carne, principalmente relacionadas a questões sanitárias e ao bem-estar animal. Em relação às questões sanitárias, grande destaque tem sido dado às parasitoses intestinais causadas por helmintos e às falhas no processo de vermifugação decorrentes da resistência a antiparasitários. Portanto, é crescente a necessidade de se estudar o perfil epidemiológico dos parasitas que acometem os animais e a partir d...

  14. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  15. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  16. A slaughter slab survey for extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Willingham, A L

    2004-05-01

    A survey on extra-intestinal porcine helminths was conducted at three slaughter slabs that receive pigs from Mbulu, a district endemic for porcine cysticercosis in northern Tanzania. Seventy carcases of pigs between 1 and 2 years old were examined between December 1997 and March 1998. The examination involved ante-mortem lingual examination for Taenia solium cysticercosis followed by post-mortem inspection. In addition, a laboratory procedure was performed to determine whether any of these domestic pigs were infected with Trichinella species. Parasites detected were Ascaris suum (44.3%), Echinococcus granulosus (4.3%) and Taenia hydatigena (1.4%). The lack of cases of porcine cysticercosis in this study compared to previous studies suggests that pig traders are conducting their own ante-mortem lingual examinations before purchasing pigs in the rural communities where the parasite is still highly prevalent. It is concluded that improved meat inspection could prove useful in reducing the local population's risk of infection with these parasites. The results of this study have revealed the parasites of agricultral and public health importance in the targeted communities. Further epidemiological investigations are required to better determine parasite prevalence and impact in order to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for control.

  17. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraho, Esther A.; Agola L. Eric; Ibrahim N Mwangi; Geoffrey M Maina; Joseph M Kinuthia; Mutuku, Martin W.; Mugambi, Robert M.; Mwandi, Jackson M.; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA....

  18. Hubungan Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Terhadap Hasil Uji Tusuk Kulit (Skin Prick Test) dengan Alergen dari Cacing Ascaris pada Anak Sekolah Dasar Negeri 047/XI Koto Baru yang Memiliki Riwayat Atopi di Kecamatan Pesisir Bukit Kota Sungai Penuh Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, intestinal worms that are transmitted through the soil (Soil-transmitted helminthiasis) is a common infection that involves many people in the world. Estimates suggests Ascaris lumbricoides infects over one billion people. The number of most worm infections apply to sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, China and East Asia. Prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases in children has increased worldwide in recent years, but the reason behind the increase in prevalence is un...

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kanneganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  2. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  3. In situ characterisation of a microorganism surface by Raman microspectroscopy: the shell of Ascaris eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilès, Fabienne; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Capizzi-Banas, Sandrine

    2006-09-01

    Intestinal nematodes are very common human parasites and a single species, Ascaris lumbricoïdes, is estimated to infect a quarter of the world's population. A sticky external layer covers their eggs. This work shows that Raman vibrational confocal spectroscopy is able to give information on the biochemical composition of the shell of Ascaris eggs. The biochemical localised characterisation of Ascaris eggs was performed directly on the eggs in their aqueous environment. The studied parasites came from two origins: dissections of adult females and extractions from biosolid sludges. The presence of mucopolysaccharides, proteins and chitin in the shell was demonstrated. The presence of ascaroside compounds was shown particularly via the narrow and intense bands from the organised long CH2 chains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the latter have been observed in Raman vibrational spectra of microorganisms. Hydration of the shell was different depending on the intensity of the colour of the sludge eggs. Knowledge of the biochemical structural properties of egg surfaces would be useful to understand the egg adhesion phenomena on vegetables contaminated by reused wastewater.

  4. Application of zero-inflated negative binomial model to study the pattern of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection%零膨胀的负二项模型在蛔虫与钩虫再感染模式研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 梁松; 陈颖丹; 李华忠; 汤林华

    2014-01-01

    Objective Use zero-inflated negative binomial model for modeling the pattern of Ascoris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection.Methods Field survey was carried out in three villages:Qiuchang in Yibin City of Sichuan Province,Tangnan in Jinxian County of Jiangxi Province,and Sanhe in Yueyang County of Hunan Province.The survey consisted of baseline stool examination and treatment,re-examination after one month and one year,and questionnaire survey.Zero-inflated negative binomial model was applied to fit the egg count data collected after one year,meanwhile,the risk factors for the re-infection occurrence and intensity were evaluated.Results Totally 374 subjects were recruited in the survey after one year.The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm at baseline 38.08%(139/365) and 39.17%(141/360).The re-infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm one year after treatment were 15.89% (58/365) and 8.89% (32/360),respectively.A.lumbricoides model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence(OR=1.94,95%CI:1.33~2.81),high level of household electrical appliances and not drinking un-boiled water were protective factors.The risk of re-infection in age group 15~44 years and 45~64 years was lower than that in group 5~14 years significantly.The higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of high re-infection intensity after treatment (OR=1.56,95%CI:1.10~2.23).Compared to age group 5~14 years,15~44 years and 65~70 years had low risk of getting high re-infection intensity.Not drinking unboiled water was also a protective factor for acquiring high intensity.Hookworm model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence (OR =3.97,95%CI:2.07~7.60),living in brick house opposed to adobe house was protective factor for re-infection.Compared to age group 5~14 years,the other 3 age groups had higher risk of getting

  5. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  6. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  7. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  8. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla,Análida Elizabeth; Myriam Consuelo LÓPEZ; Ricaurte, Orlando; CASTILLO,Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; OROZCO Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.

  9. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng,Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei(Physics Department, Zhengzhou University, Henan, 450001, China); Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient...

  10. Point-of-care sonographic detection of intestinal ascaris lumbricoides in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David O; Gurwitz, Avrahom; Tsung, James W

    2010-08-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound use is rapidly growing in acute-care settings such as pediatric emergency departments, and new applications are continually being explored. This is especially true in the developing world where the World Health Organization estimates that 75% of people have no access to any imaging or availability of more costly imaging technology may be limited (Essential Health Technologies Strategy 2004-2007). We report a case of intestinal roundworm infection in a 3-year-old boy and describe the ultrasound findings of Ascaris lumbricoides.

  11. The epidemiology of A.suum at swines in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Juka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available About 300 000 swines are bred in Albania, out of which 120 000 under intensive growth conditions and 180 000 under ½ intensive and extensive growth conditions. In the study we included 738 swines out of which 372 in extensive growth and 356 samples from intensive growth spread all over the territory of the Republic. 10 samples were collected from imported pigs. 120 samples from these belonged to piglets 0-3 months old, 224 to piglets 3-7 months old, 163 samples to sow about to be substituted, 78 sows a week before farrowing, 126 samples of sows within 2 weeks of lactation, and 27 samples were taken from uncastrated pigs. The quantitative and qualitative sedimentation was the coproscopic method used in the study. To evaluate the parasitic load we applied the Mc Master technique. The post Mortum diagnose was proved in 37 heads. For the first time in Albania we define accurately the presence of A. sum among all age groups of swines. The average parasite load resulted 83 v/g/f in piglets 0-3 months old, 180 v/g/f in piglets 3-7 months old, 210 v/g/f in sows about to be substituted, 190 v/g/f in sows before farrowing, 284 v/g/f during lactation 90 v/g/f in uncastrated pigs. By evaluating the efficiency and parasitic load for other parasites, we conclude that A. suum is the main cause of hypoefficiency in swines of extensive and intensive growth. Considering the conditions of extensive and ½ intensive growth we notice a higher parasitic load. The periodic controls of the feces and at least 3 dehelmentisations per year would keep under control infestations and the damages in the conditions of extensive economies of swine growth. The observed parasitic load requires necessarily a dehelmentisation of the show's 2 weeks before farrow

  12. [Elimination of juvenile stages of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758) by mouth. Report of a case and some epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Pino Q, Gloria; Muñoz S, Nelson; Tobar C, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Ascariosis is a parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large geohelmint endemic in our country. At present, ascariosis is a rare infection in Chile. We present a case of an adult, resident of the Villa Alemana municipality, Valparaiso Region, who spontaneously expelled two juvenile nematodes by mouth. We review the manifestations produced by the larval and adult stages of this parasite including their diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological considerations.

  13. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  14. Does meatiness of pigs depend on the level of gastro-intestinal parasites infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Popiołek, Marcin; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine an influence of the presence and a level of intestine parasites infection on the quality of pork carcass expressed by the content of meat in carcass (meatiness) in pigs. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm produced in a closed cycle. The population in the study included 120 fattening pigs maintained in two keeping systems: group I--60 individuals kept on slatted floor, and group II--60 individuals kept on deep litter. All the experimental animals were treated in the same manner. The analysed fatteners were slaughtered in Meat Processing Plant when their body mass reached 110 kg, and the post-slaughter assessment was conducted according to the EUROP classification of pigs carcass using the Ultra-Fom 300 device. The study concerning the internal parasites were conducted basing on coproscopic quantitative McMaster method. As a results, the eggs of three nematode taxa were isolated and identified: Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi. Overall prevalence of infection of fatteners kept on litter was lower (25%±11.2) as compared to those kept on slatted floor (38.3%±12.6), however the differences were not statistically significant (χ(2)=2.465; df=1; P=0.116). The mean value of meatiness for pigs free from parasites was 53.68, while in the case of infected pigs the meatiness was statistically lower and was 52.12 (t=2.35; P=0.02). The analysed pigs were classified into three categories and conducted analysis of an influence of parasites on meatiness demonstrate the relationship that is statistically significant. The analysis of correlation between meatiness and an average number of helminth eggs also demonstrated the negative, statistically significant, relationship (F=5.52; P=0.020), i.e. in fatteners with higher EPG value the meatiness was lower.

  15. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  16. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  17. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report Absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla,Análida Elizabeth; Myriam Consuelo LÓPEZ; Ricaurte, Orlando; CASTILLO,Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; OROZCO Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.Se presenta el caso de una mujer que vivía en zona rural con una enfermedad...

  18. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  19. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    . In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h...

  20. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  2. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  3. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report Absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Análida Elizabeth PINILLA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.Se presenta el caso de una mujer que vivía en zona rural con una enfermedad crónica consistente en pérdida de peso y dolor epigástrico y del cuadrante superior derecho del abdomen. El diagnóstico inicial fue de masa hepática izquierda a estudio, demostrándose luego por frotis directo y por histopatología que se trataba de un absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides. Huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides y abundantes cristales de Charcot-Leyden fueron encontrados.

  4. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum represent the same species based on sequence analysis of mitochondrial nad5 gene%人蛔虫和猪蛔虫线粒体nad5基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌义; 林瑞庆; 朱艳平; 刘国华

    2014-01-01

    以采自中国不同地方的人蛔虫与猪蛔虫为研究对象,PCR扩增其线粒体烟酰胺脱氢酶亚基V基因(nad5)的部分序列(pnad5)并进行序列测定,应用ClustalX 1.81程序对序列进行比对.结果显示:所获得的pnad5序列长度一致,均为556 bp;人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的pnad5序列差异仅为0.0%~2.6%,本研究结果支持人蛔虫与猪蛔虫是同一个种的结论.

  5. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  6. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  7. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  8. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kosuke Kaji; Mitsuteru Kitade; Hideto Kawaratani; Masahito Uemura; Junichi Yamao; Masao Fujimoto; Akira Mitoro; Masahisa Toyohara; Motoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Fukui; Hitoshi Yoshiji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Masaharu Yamazaki; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Ryuichi Noguchi; Masayoshi Sawai; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Tsuyoshi Mashitani

    2007-01-01

    Although the etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, the postulated causes include allergies,parasites, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. It is sometimes accompanied by several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rares. A 28-year-old woman complained of acute right hypocondrial pain and dyspnea associated with systemic eruption. Several imaging modalities revealed acute cholecystitis and pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion. A marked peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, and the eruption was diagnosed as urticaria. Her serum had a high titer of antibody against Ascaris lumbricoides. Treatment with albendazole drastically improved all clinical manifestations along with normalization of the imaging features and eosinophilia. We report herein a rare case of simultaneous onset of acute cholecystitis and pericarditis associated with a marked eosinophilia caused by parasitic infection.

  9. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  10. Efficacy of a single high oxfendazole dose against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Saumell, Carlos; Fusé, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Domingue, Gilbert; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Lanusse, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current experiment was to assess the clinical efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) administered as a single oral dose (30 mg/kg) to pigs naturally parasitized with Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Metastrongylus spp. and Trichuris suis. Thirty-six local ecotype piglets were divided into three independent experiments, named I, II and III (n=12 each), respectively. Each experiment involved two different groups (n=6): Untreated Control and OFZ treated. Animals were naturally parasitized with A. suum (Experiments I, II and III), Oesophagostomum spp. (Experiments I and II), T. suis (Experiments II and III) and Metastrongylus spp. (Experiment I). Pigs in the treated group received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30 mg/kg dose. At five (5) days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed and the clinical efficacy of the OFZ treatment was established following the currently available WAAVP guidelines for a controlled efficacy test. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse events during the study. OFZ treatment given as a single 30 mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against all the nematode parasites present in the three experiments. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions, OFZ orally administered to naturally parasitized piglets at a single dose of 30 mg/kg was safe and highly efficacious (100%) against adult stages of A. suum, Oesophagostomum spp., T. suis and Metastrongylus spp.

  11. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  13. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  14. Chronic intussusception in children caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Harry; Palčevski, Goran; Saina, Giordano; Peršić, Mladen

    2011-05-01

    Chronic intussusception (CI) is defined as an intussusception lasting for 14 days or more. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, sometimes an abdominal mass is palpable and there is a marked weight loss. Diagnosis is based on typical features revealed by ultrasound or barium enema and CT investigations. Therapy is surgical with obligatory exclusion of possible underlying lesions. We report a case of a 3.5-year-old girl with chronic intussusception. Laboratory blood findings revealed sideropenic anemia and stools positive for Ascaris lumbricoides. Anti-parasitic therapy with mebendazole was repeatedly administered with early improvements but soon after symptoms relapsed. During surgery an ileocolic chronic intussusception extending to hepatic flexure was found. Postoperative control examinations proved complete healing. We suspected that Ascaris lumbricoides infestation was an etiologic factor for the development of chronic intussusception in the child.

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFJ593 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available artial sequence. 36 0.004 5 BI594773 |BI594773.1 As_tgz_43G10_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal z...gz_66A08_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz_66

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1768 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 |CB014241.1 As_tgz_76E05_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cD...e. 58 1e-04 1 CB014129 |CB014129.1 As_tgz_74G07_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan

  17. Dicty_cDB: SFH324 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aris suum adult male testis germinal zone fromAlan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz_62C11 5', mRNA seque...nce. 28 8e-04 5 BM278527 |BM278527.1 As_tgz_62F06_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Ala...33 |BM278533.1 As_tgz_63A07_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum c...8817.1 As_tgz_67H02_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clon...e As_tgz_67H02 5', mRNA sequence. 32 0.006 3 BM278613 |BM278613.1 As_tgz_65A09_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal

  18. Dicty_cDB: SFA575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 0.004 6 CB014921 |CB014921.1 As_tgz_87C04_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Sc...L Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA ...clone As_tgz_65H08 5', mRNA sequence. 40 0.009 2 CB013972 |CB013972.1 As_tgz_72F05_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal...BM278019 |BM278019.1 As_tgz_52A06_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris ...s_tgz_24B05_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz

  19. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  20. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...

  1. The role of dogs in transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A

    2010-04-01

    The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.

  2. ASCARI KZ-1:不是很完美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom; Ford

    2006-01-01

    看过Ascari KZ-1的性能参数,你或许会觉得它肯定是某种需要出卖身体器官——不是小手指.而是真正有用的东西.如肾或眼睛(千万不能近视)——才能换得回来的东西。不过在你动身前往买卖人体器官的黑市之前.最好认真阅读一下我们对它的剖析。

  3. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  4. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  5. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  6. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLE714 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M278527 |BM278527.1 As_tgz_62F06_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone fromAlan Scott Ascaris su...tgz_63A07_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz_6...rst finger stage. 42 0.003 2 BM278817 |BM278817.1 As_tgz_67H02_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal ....004 3 BM278613 |BM278613.1 As_tgz_65A09_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott A...aris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone

  8. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Acosta Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR and digital PCR (dPCR were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  9. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    -infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...

  10. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  11. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  12. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  13. Infarkte an mesenterischen Lymphknoten und intestinale Gangrän durch Ascaris lumbricoides bei einem Kind

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene. In Entwicklungsländern ist der Befall mit Ascaris lumbricoi...

  14. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  15. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  16. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  17. Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Ascariasis is one of the most prevalent and widespread human helminthic infections, especially in children of

  18. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008. Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquellas donde la gente acostumbra a defecar a ras del suelo, pues no tiene el recurso económico necesario para construir baños, ni dispone de agua potable. Esta parasitosis afecta a 25 a 35% de la población mundial (Biagi, 2004 (Becerril, 2008. Generalmente los pacientes infectados por este nematodo cursan asintómaticos, pero en caso contrario la sintomatología dependerá de la fase del ciclo vital en la que el parásito se encuentre pudiendo existir síntomas pulmonares o gastrointestinales, incluso en ciertas poblaciones como la pediátrica podría incluso ocasionar la muerte por múltiples mecanismos dentro de los cuales se incluyen la migración errática y/o la obstrucción intestinal (MS., 1996

  19. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  20. Ocho diferentes especies de parásitos gastrointestinales fueron identificadas en cerdos de traspatio en El Municipio de El Sauce - León. Nicaragua (Eight different species gastrointestinal parasites were identified in free roaming pigs in EL Sauce - Leon. Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Luna

    2005-10-01

    were found were Isospora suis and Eimeria sp. The frequency of Ascaris suum (42.86%, Hyostrongylus rubidus (39.80% was most prevalent in the pigs older than 6 months, while Ascaris suum (48.98% and Trichuris suis (45.92 % was most prevalent in pigs younger than 6 months. The infection rate of H. rubidus was significantly higher in the group with pigs older than 6 months, while T. suis and I. suis were the most significant in the group with pigs younger than 6 months. As a conclusion we have identified eight species of gastrointestinal parasites of economic importance in free roaming pigs.

  1. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  2. DAMPAK PENGELOLAAN TINJA TERPADU TERHADAP INFEKSI ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DI DAERAH KOTA (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the health impact of integrated environmental sanitary management was done in the village of Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. As an indicator of health status, Ascaris lumbricoides infection in school children was used. The result of the study before the intervention showed that the prevalence of A. lumbircoides infec­tion in school children who lived in RW 06 Pisangan Baru was 46.3% and 45.7% who lived in RW 013. Ex­amination of sewage water in ditches showed 42% positive with A. lumbircoides eggs in RW 06 and 30% in RW 013. The result of soil examination in RW06 was 18% positive while in RW 013 was 20% positive with tion of sewage water in ditches showed 42% positive with A. lumbricoides eggs in RW 06 and 30% in RW 013. The result of soil examination in RW06 was 18% positive while in RW 013 was 20% positive with A. lumbricoides eggs. The result of a post - intervention study showed a prevalence of 33.7% in school children from RW 06 and 25.8% from RW 013, whereas the sewage water examination in ditches around RW 06 was 14% positive with A. lumbricoides eggs and 24% in RW 013. The soil ecamination in RW 06 revealed 6% positive while in RW 013 was 16% positive with A. lumbricoides eggs. The result of the study showed that the impact of intervention was clearly evident on the waste water contamination but not on the reinfection of school children with A. lumbricoides as well as the degree of soil contamination.

  3. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique...

  4. 蛔虫重度流行区人群化疗策略的研究%Research on chemotherapy strategy for population in heavy epidemic areas with ascaris iumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢峰; 陈红根; 曾小军; 林丹丹; 姜唯声; Jong-YilChai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different chemotherapy strategies for Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Four chemotherapy strategies with Albendazole,which were mass chemotherapy once a year,mass chemotherapy once in two years,se-lective chemotherapy once a year and selective chemotherapy twice a year,were carried out in four control villages,respectively. The effects of strategies on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides were observed continuously for 4 years ,and compared with the dada of a control village. Results The average positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 44.37%(4850/10931) in 5 pilot villages in 2001. The infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased maximally,from 45.2%in 2001 to 6.3%in 2005 with the reduction of 86.1% in villages where the strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year was implemented. Conclusion The strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year has the best effect on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides.%目的:评价不同化疗措施控制蛔虫的效果。方法在4个控制村用阿苯哒唑分别进行1年1次全民化疗、2年1次全民化疗、1年1次选择性化疗和1年2次选择性化疗措施后,连续4年观察其对控制居民蛔虫的效果,并和对照村进行比较。结果2001年5个试点村蛔虫平均阳性率为44.37%(4850/10931),采取每1次/年全民化疗人群蛔虫感染率下降最大,由2001年的45.2%下降到2004年的6.3%,降幅为86.1%。结论1次/年全民化疗策略对于控制蛔虫感染的效果佳。

  5. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.

  6. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  7. Microsatellite markers for the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides: development and assessment of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Charles D; Anderson, Joel D; Raby, Kyle; Sudimack, Dan; Subedi, Janardan; Rai, Dev R; Upadhayay, Ram P; Jha, Bharat; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Anderson, Timothy J C

    2007-06-01

    We describe 35 microsatellite markers from the human parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. We found 7 sex-linked markers and demonstrate that 26 autosomal loci can be scored reliably. These markers have high genetic variability and provide the tools to address multiple questions concerning the epidemiology, fine-scale genetic structure, host specificity, and mating systems of this parasite.

  8. Atividade ovicida do fungo Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre ovos de Ascaris suum e atividade predatória de fungos nematófagos sobre formas infectantes de Oesophagostomum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    A carne suína é uma das principais fontes de proteína animal consumida no mundo e a forte demanda por carne suína no continente Asiático tem estimulado o desenvolvimento do mercado interno, entretanto, têm se exigido um sistema de produção que vise o bem estar animal e a produção orgânica. Contudo, em dadas situações as parasitoses intestinais continuam a ser um problema para criação destes animais, principalmente quando essa se faz pelo sistema de manejo extensivo. Entre estas parasito...

  9. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  10. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  11. [Volvulus of the small bowel due to ascaris lumbricoides package: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We report an exceptional case of a 7 year-old patient with necrotic small bowel volvulus due to adult ascaris lumbricoides. At the admission, the child had intestinal obstruction evolving since two days with alteration of general state. Abdominal radiography without preparation showed small bowel air-fluid levels and tiger-stripe appearance evoking the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction associated with abdominal mass. After resuscitation, the surgical treatment consisted of laparotomy which showed necrotic volvulus of the terminal ileum containing adult ascaris lumbricoides. The patient underwent small bowel resection, approximately one meter of affected section was removed and then an ileostomy was performed. The evolution was favorable. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis four weeks later. After a 2 year follow-up period the child had no symptoms.

  12. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  13. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...

  14. A rare cause of acute abdomen in adults: Parasitic infection-related acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Aydın Hakan; Özdemir, Murat; Topuz, Sezgin; Sözütek, Alper; Paksoy, Tuğba

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common parasitic disease all over the world, especially in less developed countries. Acute appendicitis related to parasitic infection is a rare condition. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients who are admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen, especially in endemic areas.

  15. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  16. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, RL; Smith, JL; Jasrasaria, R; Brooker, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use di...

  17. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating.

  18. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also

  19. THE EFFECT OF VARIOS CHEMICALS AND TEMPERATURE IN CESTRUCTION OF THE EGGS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES: A PROGRESS REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Arfaa

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of soil and night-soil with the eggs or larvae of soil-transmitted helminthes is very important factor in the transmission of these infections. The effect of various temperatures and different chemicals on the development of larva inside the eggs of Ascaris, which is the most resistant eggs or larvae of helminthes, or destruction of developed larvae inside the eggs has been evaluated by infecting white mice or by direct observations. In eggs with developed larva, temperature of 600C for one hour kills all larvae while in lower temperature, 40% or more larvae are still alive. In a temperature of 600C for 15 and 20 minutes no larvae is found in the liver of mice. Of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, sodium-nitrite and calcium superphophate, thiabendazole and mebendazole have higher effect in destruction of eggs. In eggs with undeveloped larva, it was shown that in a temperature of 600C for 15 minutes or more, development of larva does not take place, while in lower temperature development of larva in some eggs takes place. In a temperature of 700C for 10 minutes no development of larva has been observed. Evaluation of the effect of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, urea, iodine and potassium dichromate has shown that mebendazole with a concentration of 1/100,000 or more inhibit the development of larvae. Other chemicals have some effects on the development of larvae. Results of previous investigations have shown that although many chemicals are effective in the laboratory conditions, they are not very effective when used in the field. Therefore, more studies on this subject in the field are necessary, in order to find application of this control method.

  20. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  1. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary.

  2. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-BK15 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz_67G12 5', mRNA sequence...enomic survey sequence. 32 0.068 3 BM278816 |BM278816.1 As_tgz_67G12_SKPL Ascaris

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHK263 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNA sequence. 50 0.039 1 BF050079 |BF050079.1 As_tgz_22C04_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal...9 1 BM278751 |BM278751.1 As_tgz_66H01_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Asca

  5. Helmint eggs elimination performance during lammelar settling and sand filters in Beniel WWTP (Murcia, Spain); Rendimiento en la eliminacion de huevos de helminto en la decantacion lamelar y filtracion por arena en la EDAR de Beniel (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Cardin Mifsut, C.; Pacheco Ballarin, S.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Vicente Gonzalez, J. A.; Llosar Llacer, C.

    2010-07-01

    With this study, it was observed Ascaris suum eggs elimination yield of tertiary treatment in Beniel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Murcia Region (Spain). It was inoculated a sample of Ascaris suum eggs in the treatment in maximum flow conditions and it was calculated the retention yield of the lamellar settling and sand filters. (Author) 3 refs.

  6. Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  7. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  8. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  9. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Interactions between biofilms and the environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1997;20:291–303. 4. Webb LX, Wagner W, Carroll D, et al. Osteomyelitis and...treatment of osteomyelitis . Biomed Mater. 2008;3: 034114. 6. Gristina AG. Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration...vertebral osteomyelitis . Spine. 2007;32: 2996–3006. 15. Beckham JD, Tuttle K, Tyler KL. Reovirus activates transforming growth factor ß and bone

  10. Follow-up study of prevalence and control of ascariasis in swine populations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Tasić, Aleksandar; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2013-09-01

    The cause of the most significant helminth diseases in swine - Ascaris suum, can also causes infections in humans. The use of swine manure in agriculture renders the eggs of this ascaridida an accessible source of infection, thus posing a significant risk factor for human health. With the objective of proving the prevalence of infection with A. suum nematodes in the territory of Serbia, investigations were carried out in the period between 2007-2011 in the territories of five districts: North Bačka, South Banat, Braničevo, Zlatibor and Nišava. The investigations covered coprological examinations of 1031 feces samples of swine originating from farms owned by individual breeders. The samples were examined using the standard flotation method with a saturated water solution of NaCl. The established prevalence of ascariasis infection amounted to 47.62% (1031/491). The biggest prevalence of infection was determined in the territory of the Braničevo District, 65.78% (301/198), and the smallest in the territory of the Nišava District, 32.24% (183/59). In spite of its prevalence and vast economic importance, there is still insufficient information about the key aspects of the biology and epidemiology of A. suum. Viewed from the aspect of epizootiology, it is very important to know the prevalence of swine infections with Ascaris because of the possible infection of humans by its migrating larvae.

  11. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  12. The effect of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the Ascaris-sensitive monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, R. P.; Greenwood, B.; Jackson, D. M.; Orr, T. S.; Wells, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium inhibited the bronchoconstriction caused by antigen challenge in Ascaris-sensitive monkeys and in addition it prevented the release of histamine from mast cells lavaged from sensitive monkeys. Sodium cromoglycate was relatively inactive in both these systems. It is suggested that nedocromil sodium can stabilize both mucosal and connective tissue mast cells and may represent a new type of drug. PMID:2992657

  13. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  14. Pharmacodynamics of Procaine Penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate Suspension against Experimentally Induced Streptococcosis suum in Pigs%普鲁卡因青霉素—硫酸双氢链霉素混悬剂对猪链球菌病的临床药效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晓雄; 贾慧勤; 王林; 赵宁; 丁焕中

    2012-01-01

    本研究报道了普鲁卡因青霉素—硫酸双氢链霉素混悬剂对试验性感染猪链球菌病的临床药效学.以试管2倍稀释法测得兰氏C群类马链球菌对青霉素,恩诺沙星的最小抑菌浓度( MIC)分别是0.0313、0.5 mg/L.肌注给药对猪链球菌病的试验性治疗结果表明,低、中、高剂量普鲁卡因青霉素—硫酸双氢链霉素混悬剂组(0.05、0.1、0.2 mL/kg体重,每毫升混悬剂含普鲁卡因青霉素、硫酸双氢链霉素200000 IU和250000 IU)及恩诺沙星组(2.5mg/kg体重)用药3d,对猪链球菌病的治愈率分别是60%、80%、90%及60%,而链球菌感染对照的死亡率为70%.%The clinical pharmacodynamics of procaine penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin sulfate suspension against Streptococcosis suum experimentally induced in swine was studied in this paper. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin and enrofloxacin for Streptococcus equisilis were determined to be 0.0313 and 0. 5 mg/L by two-fold dilution method in vitro, respectively. Following the treatment with three different dosage of procaine penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin sulfate suspension (0.05 mL/kg o bw, 0.1 mL/kg o bw and 0. 2 mL/kg o bw) and enrofloxacin (2. 5 mg/kg o bw) against Streptococcosis suum for 3 consecutive days, the curative rates of the infected swine were 60%, 80% ,90% and 60%, respectively. The mortality of the infected but untreated group was 70%.

  15. Early developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides featured by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Miné, Júlio César; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is responsible for a highly disseminated helminth parasitic disease, ascariosis, a relevant parasitosis that responds for great financial burden on the public health system of developing countries. In this work, metabolic fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed to identify marker molecules from A. lumbricoides in different development stages. We have identified nine biomarkers, such as pheromones and steroidal prohormones in early stages, among other molecules in late development stages, making up four molecules for fertilized eggs, four marker molecules for first larvae (L1) and one marker molecule for third larvae (L3). Therefore, our findings indicate that this approach is suitable for biochemical characterization of A. lumbricoides development stages. Moreover, the straightforward analytical method employed, with almost no sample preparation from a complex matrix (feces) using high-resolution mass spectrometry, suggests that it is possible to seek for an easier and faster way to study animal molding processes.

  16. Effectiveness of single doses of Fenbendazole Hoe 88I against Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, K; Haas, J

    1976-06-01

    Fenbendazole (Hoe 881) 5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazolecarbaminicacidmethylester in doses of 1-0 g and 1-5 g per person were effective against Ascaris and gave substantial egg count reductions against hookworm (mainly Necator americanus). The 1-5 g dose gave good results against Trichuris. In a trial with a suspension of Hoe 881 with a high specific surface of 25 m2/g there was no advantage over tablets with a specific surface of approximately 8 m2/g. Two doses of 500 mg given with an interval of 24 hours were no more effective than one dose of 1-0 g. In a comparative trial using Hoe 881 1-5 g, Pyrantel 10 mg/kg and placebo respectively Hoe 881 showed equal potency against hookworms and Acsaris as Pyrantel and good effectiveness against Trichuris. Pyrantel showed only moderate activity against Trichuris in this trial.

  17. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.A. de; Del Caro, S.R.; Bender Lamego, C.M.; Mercon de Vargas, P.R.; Vervloet, V.E.C.

    1985-02-01

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis.

  18. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal infections among people living along the major wastewater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Nauta, Maarten; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    and aquaculture. The QMRA was developed on the basis of measured concentration of . Escherichia coli and . Salmonella spp. and . Ascaris spp. eggs in water samples. Published ratios between measured organisms and pathogenic strains of norovirus, rotavirus, . Campylobacter spp. ., pathogenic . E. . . coli......, pathogenic . Salmonella spp., . Cryptosporidium spp. and . Ascaris lumbricoides were employed to estimate annual risk of gastrointestinal infection and disease burden. Results: The QMRA estimated a disease burden of 0.011 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year in urban farmers, 0...

  19. Massive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides of the biliary tract: report of a successfully treated case Infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides nas vias biliares: relato de um caso tratado com sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a 25 years old black woman from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who developed acute obstructive cholangitis of Ascaris lumbricoides with septicemia and multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient had sickle cell trait and normal delivery 3 months ago. Massive infestation of the biliary tract by Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Sixty worms were removed from the common bile duct and hepatic abscesses were drained by surgery. The infectious process was polymicrobial. The patient's recovery was complete after a long evolution with a wide spectrum antibiotic therapy. New surgeries were needed to remove residual worms in the biliary tract. The diagnostic methods, clinical-biochemical features and also the clinical and surgical management are presented. The biliary ascariasis pathophysiology is commented.Descrito caso de mulher de 25 anos, negra, procedente da cidade de São Paulo - Brasil, que desenvolveu quadro agudo de colangite obstrutiva por Ascaris lumbricoides, com septicemia e múltiplos abscessos hepáticos. Era portadora de traço falciforme e tinha tido um parto normal há 3 meses. Foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides em vias biliares com ultrasonografia abdominal e colangiografia retrógrada endoscópica. Sessenta vermes foram retirados do colédoco e drenados os abscessos hepáticos por cirurgia. O quadro infeccioso era polimicrobiano. Houve recuperação total da paciente após longa evolução, com antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro e novas cirurgias com extração de vermes residuais. Os autores apresentam os métodos diagnósticos empregados, o quadro clínico-bioquímico e a abordagem terapêutica. A fisiopatologia da ascaridíase biliar é discutida.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  1. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

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    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  2. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

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    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  3. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  4. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

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    Loreille Odile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.

  5. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  6. Rapid Genotyping of β-tubulin Polymorphisms in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Nour; Scott, Marilyn; Prichard, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment. It is important to be able to investigate the presence of resistance-associated SNPs in STHs before resistance becomes clinically established. Methods The objective of this study was to develop new genotyping assays to screen for the presence of β-tubulin SNPs in T. trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Rapid, simple and accurate genotyping assays were developed based on the SmartAmp2 method. Primer sets were optimized and selected to distinguish the SNP-variant genotypes. After initial optimization on control plasmids, the feasibility of the assay was assessed in field samples from Haiti and Panama. Finally, spiked fecal samples were assessed to determine the tolerance of Aac polymerase to fecal inhibitors. Findings Rapid SNP genotyping assays were developed to target β-tubulin polymorphisms in T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides. The assays showed high sensitivity and specificity in field samples and also demonstrated high tolerance to PCR inhibitors in fecal samples. Conclusion These assays proved to be robust and efficient with the potential to be used as field tools for monitoring SNPs that could be associated with BZ resistance. However, further work is needed to validate the assays on large numbers of field samples before and after treatment. PMID:28081124

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

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    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected.

  10. [Case report: Löffler's syndrome due to Ascaris lumbricoides mimicking acute bacterial community--acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ali; Oncül, Oral; Cavuşlu, Saban; Okutan, Oğuzhan; Kartaloğlu, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a patient with Loeffler's syndrome caused by Ascaris lumbricoides who presented with the clinical findings of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our patient, who was twenty-five years old, and who had had symptoms such as coughing, expectorating, dyspnea and fever for approximately ten days, was hospitalized. We auscultated polyphonic rhonchuses at the both hemithoraxes. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral lower zone patch consolidation. Acute bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP) was diagnosed due to these findings and empirical antibiotic treatment was begun. Repeated sputum Gram stains were negative, and both sputum and blood cultures were sterile. A sputum smear was negative for acid-fast bacilli. The patient's fever and respiratory complaint did not respond to the empirical antibiotics therapy. During the course of advanced investigations, we measured peripheric eosinophilia, and high levels of total Eo and total IgE, and observed Ascaris lumbricoides eggs during stool examination. The patient was given a diagnosis of Loeffler's syndrome. Thereupon the patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazol 400 mg. In conclusion, we suggest that Loeffler's syndrome must be considered early in the differential diagnosis for CAP when peripheric eosinophilia is seen in patients if they live in an endemic area for parasitic disease.

  11. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan Rachel L; Brooker Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookwo...

  12. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amsalu Arota Amado; Fiseha Wadilo Wada; Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegn; Yishak Abreham Leka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections amongHIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted onHIV-infected individuals attending anti-retroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formal-ether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Socio-demographic variables were collected by using questionnaire.Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected wasAscaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed byGiardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence ofStrongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species,Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar,Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions:Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected inHIV-infected individuals.Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  13. INFESTAÇÃO MACIÇA POR Ascaris lumbricoides: RELATO DE CASO

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    Gustavo Barbosa Fernandes de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ascaridíase é endêmica em países em desenvolvimento e está relacionada a baixas condições socioeconômicas. É a helmintíase mais prevalente, principalmente nos pacientes pediátricos, sendo assintomática na maioria dos casos. Na infestação maciça, pode evoluir com complicações tais como obstrução intestinal e invasão das vias biliares. Radiografia abdominal e ultrassonografia são os principais exames médicos diagnósticos. Inicialmente o tratamento é conservador, no entanto pode se tornar cirúrgico. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar a apresentação clínica, o diagnóstico e o tratamento de infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides através do relato de um caso de ascaridíase maciça em criança de Macapá – AP, que evoluiu com suboclusão intestinal e invasão da vesícula e das vias biliares. Os dados foram coletados do prontuário médico e foi feita revisão da literatura nos principais acervos médicos digitais no período de 2000 a 2014. Uma vez conhecendo suas formas de apresentação e complicações, os médicos estarão aptos a manejá-la apropriadamente, contribuindo para diminuir sua morbimortalidade nas regiões endêmicas. Palavras-chave: Ascaridíase maciça, migração errática, suboclusão intestinal, invasão das vias biliares, invasão da vesícula biliar. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p102-107

  14. Investigation on contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the different soil of three counties in Ganso Province%甘肃省三县土壤中人蛔虫卵污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 杨成明; 陈生邦; 杨俊克; 令晓兰; 华红玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解甘肃省农村居民生活环境中人蛔虫卵污染的现状. 方法 分别采集武山县、凉州区、岷县3个调查点10~20户居民4类环境中的土壤,应用饱和硝酸钠漂浮镜检法检查土样中人蛔虫卵,计算土壤样品的蛔虫卵阳性检出率,并对3地居民蛔虫感染率进行分析比较. 结果 土壤中人蛔虫卵总检出率为28%,菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房土壤的人蛔虫卵检出率依次为30%、36%、30%和16%. 结论 调查点环境蛔虫卵污染严重,应采取措施改善环境卫生,减少居民感染蛔虫.%Objective To investigate the different soil contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs at liv-ing environments in rural areas. Methods Wushan County, Liangzhou District and Min County were select-ed as 3 pilots for investigation. Ten samples of soil including 4 different environments from Min County and 20 samples from the others were randomly collected. A. lumbricoides eggs in the different soil were floated with sat-urated nitrate and counted by microscopy. Positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was then calculated and A. lumbricoides infection rates of inhabitants at 3 pilots were compared and analysed. Results The over-all positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was 28%, and among them the rates at the vegetable gar-dens, lavatory surroundings, courtyards in the countryside and kitchens were 30% ,36% ,30% and 16%, re-spectively. Conclusion The pilots were badly contaminated by A. lumbricoides eggs. Measures should be taken to improve the living environments and decrease the infection rate of Ascaris in the residents.

  15. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

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    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  16. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsalu Arota Amado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections among HIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected individuals attending antiretroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formalether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Sociodemographic variables were collected by using questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed by Giardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected in HIVinfected individuals. Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  17. Epidemiological study on the influence of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis%猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染和传播作用的实验流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民

    2001-01-01

    Objective An experimental epidemiological study was designed to investigate possible relations of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis which might be caused by cross-infection between the pig and humans. Methods In Xinjian County, Jiangxi province, two adjacent villages, Laozhi and Panzhi, with similar baseline of ascariasis in pig and human populations were selected as the study sites with a one-year longitudinal epidemiological follow-up study. People in the two villages received mass chemotherapy. Pigs received mass chemotherapy only in Panzhi village and was twice repeated with two months interval, while pigs in Laozhi village were not treated at all. In the following year after treatment on humans, ascariasis among villagers was studied cross-sectionally five times with Kato-katz technique.Results No significant difference of the re-infection patterns of human ascariasis was found between the two villages in terms of prevalence and intensity during the following year in all the five surveys (χ2<0.658,F<1.658 and P>0.1).Conclusion The results suggested that pig-derived Ascaris were mainly transmitted among pigs but had no important role on the transmission of human ascariasis. The results were in good accordance with the findings through a recent molecular genetic research on the local human-and pig-derived Ascaris worms. Possible confounding factors were discussed.%目的 了解在人蛔虫和猪蛔虫感染并存的农村社区内因交叉感染发生的可能性,猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染传播的作用。方法 选择两个基线情况基本相同的自然村,即江西省新建县樵舍乡蔓湖行政村的老支村和畔支村为实验现场。在对两村所有人群进行相同药物治疗处理的同时,对其中1个村的猪群也进行治疗,并以约2个月的间隔重复对猪治疗2次,但对另一村的猪群不作治疗处理。在随后1年内,约每2个月1次,用改良加藤法观察

  18. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  19. 我国农村土壤蛔虫卵污染状况监测及SWOT分析%Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧慧; 周长海; 臧炜; 张雪强; 陈颖丹

    2014-01-01

    eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. Results A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%,and the detection rates of fertilized,unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%,26.42%and 20.28%,respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden,toilet periphery,courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%,13.49%,14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages,and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. Conclusion The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots,and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool,improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  20. Hubungan Infeksi Cacing Ascaris Lumbricoides Dengan Indeks Massa Tubuh Pada Siswa Perempuan SD Salsabila Kecamatan Medan Marelan Kota Medan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides) merupakan salah satu penyebab infeksi dengan prevalensi mencapai 60-90% di Indonesia. Cacing ini dapat mengambil sumber karbohidrat dan protein di usus sebelum diserap tubuh. Infeksi cacing banyak diderita anak sekolah dasar, yaitu sekitar 40-60%. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan studi cross-sectional. Sampel diambil dengan metode consecutive sampling pada siswa perempuan kelas I sampai kelas VI SD Salsabil...

  1. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    Weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakKecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Penyakit ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan gizi, pertumbuhan dan penurunan produktifitas kerja. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen sebagai akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar IFN-γ dan IL-10 antara orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dan tidak terinfeksi...

  2. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  3. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of a centrifugation-flotation method for extracting Ascaris ova from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranston, Imogen; Teoh, Penelope J.; baker, Sarah M.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH) continue to be associated with high burdens of disease, with an estimated 1.45 billion people infected with STH globally. The promotion and construction of latrines is considered the first barrier to prevent transmission of STH. The absence of a reliab...

  5. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...

  6. Maternal geohelminth infections are associated with an increased susceptibility to geohelminth infection in children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj S Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of mothers infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH may have an increased susceptibility to STH infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a case-control study nested in a birth cohort in Ecuador. Data from 1,004 children aged 7 months to 3 years were analyzed. Cases were defined as children with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura, controls without. Exposure was defined as maternal infection with A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura, detected during the third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to households with a documented infection to control for infection risk. Children of mothers with STH infections had a greater risk of infection compared to children of uninfected mothers (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.63, p<0.001. This effect was particularly strong in children of mothers with both STH infections (adjusted OR: 5.91, 95% CI: 3.55-9.81, p<0.001. Newborns of infected mothers had greater levels of plasma IL-10 than those of uninfected mothers (p=0.033, and there was evidence that cord blood IL-10 was increased among newborns who became infected later in childhood (p=0.060. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that maternal STH infections increase susceptibility to infection during early childhood, an effect that was associated with elevated IL-10 in cord plasma.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  8. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  10. Parasitism in Children Aged Three Years and Under: Relationship between Infection and Growth in Rural Coastal Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Desiree LaBeaud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections, which are among the most common infections worldwide, disproportionately affect children; however, little is known about the impact of parasitic disease on growth in very early childhood. Our objective was to document the prevalence of parasitic infections and examine their association with growth during the first three years of life among children in coastal Kenya.Children enrolled in a maternal-child cohort were tested for soil transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm, Strongyloides, protozoa (malaria, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, filaria, and Schistosoma infection every six months from birth until age three years. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE models to examine the relationship between parasitic infections experienced in the first three years of life and growth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference. Of 545 children, STHs were the most common infection with 106 infections (19% by age three years. Malaria followed in period prevalence with 68 infections (12% by three years of age. Filaria and Schistosoma infection occurred in 26 (4.8% and 16 (2.9% children, respectively. Seven percent were infected with multiple parasites by three years of age. Each infection type (when all STHs were combined was documented by six months of age. Decreases in growth of weight, length and head circumference during the first 36 months of life were associated with hookworm, Ascaris, E. histolytica, malaria and Schistosoma infection. In a subset analysis of 180 children who followed up at every visit through 24 months, infection with any parasite was associated with decelerations in weight, length and head circumference growth velocity. Multiple infections were associated with greater impairment of linear growth.Our results demonstrate an under-recognized burden of parasitism in the first three years of childhood in rural Kenya. Parasitic

  11. THE IMPORTANCE AND INCIDENCE OF FOOD BORN HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN MAN, IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Neshat

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.

  12. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P < 0.05). The tumor inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth.

  13. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples exhibiting polyparasitism. The superior performance of multiplex PCR to detect...... of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity...... of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two...

  14. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  15. Pattern of intestinal helminth infections among school chil-dren in an urban community in Ibadan,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiregun AA; Oluwatoba OA

    2008-01-01

    Despite a substantial reduction in the incidence and prevalence of parasitic diseases in the industrialized world, they continue to be an important public health problem in many developing African countries,including Nigeri-a.However,estimates of the prevalence of such infections among school age children,who bear the greatest health burden due to these diseases,are hard to come by.The objective of this study was therefore to deter-mine the prevalence and type of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils.The study was cross-sectional in design.The participants included 266 pupils recruited from three government primary schools in the Mokola area of Ibadan,Nigeria.The pupils were interviewed and their stool samples examined for eggs of common helminths.The mean age of the pupils was 9.8 ±2.6 years,and 128 (48.1%)were males.Nine-teen pupils (7.1%)had intestinal helminth infestations.Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 17 pupils (6. 4%)and was the most prevalent helminth among the children,while Trichuris trichiura was found in only two subjects (0.8%).Previous infestations and the use of public toilets were found to be significantly associated with current infections (P <0.05).This study demonstrated that the prevalence of intestinal infections was low among the pupils studied,and that Ascaris infection was the commonest infestation.

  16. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  17. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  18. [Longitudinal investigation on intestinal parasite infections among rural people in West Dongting Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guo-Hong; Xiao, Zeng; Yao, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Jun-Wen; Zhou, Ying-Cai; Xie, Zhao-Mei; Yu, Qiu-Lan; Guo, Feng-Ying; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The nylon pocket concentration method and modified Kato-Katz technique were used to detect the eggs of intestinal parasites and the iodine smear method was used for the detection of protozoa among the rural population in West Dongting Lake region. The infection rate of parasites in 2006 was 11.84%, and it declined by 86.63%, 81.34%, and 47.28%, respectively, compared to the rates in 1983, 1993, and 2003. Six major parasites were detected including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciolopsis buski, hookworm, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and their infection rates were 8.60%, 6.41%, 1.75%, 0.14%, 2.50%, and 1.22%, respectively. The rate of multiple infections was 22.98%. The infection rates in the 5-9 years age group and 10-14 years age group were higher than those in other age groups.

  19. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state.

  20. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  1. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Araujo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S antigens from Ascaris suum (AES and Toxocara canis (TES within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9% and children (28.6%. When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002. Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous.

  2. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.;

    2014-01-01

    ., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs......., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species...

  3. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum.

  4. 四川省土源性线虫病监测点土壤蛔虫卵污染情况报告%Contaminative Situation of Soil Ascaris Eggs in Geohelminthiasis Monitoring Sites in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红; 田洪春; 周小轲; 刘常华; 郑德福; 陈漪澜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the contaminative situation of the ascaris eggs in vegetabale gardens, lavatory surroundings, kitchens and courtyards in geohelminthiasis monitoring sites in Sichuan province, provide scientific evidence for developing control meatures. Method The saturated sodium nitrate flotation method was used to check ascaris eggs of the soil samples. Results The detection rate of ascaris eggs in the soil of geohelminthiasis monitoring sites in Sichuan province was 10% , the detection rate of live fertilized ascaris eggs was 5.50%. The detection rates of ascaris eggs in vegetable gardens, lavatory surroundings, kitchens and courtyards were 13. 00% , 10. 00% , 9. 00% and 8. 00% respectively. Conclusion The contaminative situation of the ascaris eggs in soil situation of Sichuan province is not optimism, which should be paid more attentions in further prevention and control works.%目的 了解四川省土源性线虫监测点农村菜园、厕所周边、厨房和庭院土壤中蛔虫卵的污染情况,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采用饱和硝酸钠漂浮法检查土壤蛔虫卵污染情况.结果 四川省土源性线虫监测点土壤中蛔虫卵检出率10%,活受精蛔虫卵检出率5.50%.菜园、厕所周边、厨房和庭院4种场所土壤中蛔虫卵检出率分别为13.00%、10.00%、9.00%和8.00%.结论 四川省农村土壤环境中有蛔虫卵污染,今后防治工作中应引起重视.

  5. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  6. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  8. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  9. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The infection is caused by infestation with any of the following ... Ancylostoma duodenale Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma ...

  10. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  11. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  12. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  13. Investigation on the ascaris lumbricoides infection of the high school students%高校学生蛔虫感染情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新力; 单颖; 张蕾

    2001-01-01

    蛔虫感染是人体寄生虫感染中较高的一种.本研究对355名在校大学生进行了调查,目的在于了解高校学生这个特定人群的蛔虫感染情况及城市化对其的影响.结果表明:高校学生蛔虫的感染率较低,与城市化有关.因为生活环境和个人卫生知识的提高,不良卫生习惯的纠正,以及定期保健性的化学驱虫治疗,对降低蛔虫感染有着重要作用.

  14. 江西省蛔虫感染条件Logistic回归分析%Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis on Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢曙英; 陈红根; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 杭春琴

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨江西省蛔虫感染的危险因素.方法 采用1:1匹配的病例对照研究,选择改良加藤厚涂片法检查蛔虫卵阳性者为病例组,同一调查县粪检虫卵阴性者为对照组,按性别、年龄(±5)配对,共收集255对病例和对照.Epi Info 6.0建立数据库,SAS8.2软件进行单因素和多因素条件Logistic回归分析.结果 单因素及多因素条件Logistic回归分析表明,饭前、便后洗手是蛔虫病的保护因素,OR值分别为0.352和0.474;瓜果不洗即食、喝生水是蛔虫病的危险因素,OR值为1.753和1.722;使用卫生厕所是可能的保护因素,单因素Logistic回归OR值为0.375.结论 饭前、便后洗手,瓜果不洗即食和喝生水是江西省蛔虫感染的主要影响因素.

  15. One child case infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis%儿童同时感染蛔虫及肝吸虫1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 姜晓杰; 王学武

    2007-01-01

    患者,男性,11岁,莱州市某小学五年级学生。因长期消瘦,上腹部阵发性疼痛、恶心、夜磨牙而到当地医院就诊,进行了肝功、乙肝五项、粪便寄生虫感染等检查,结果均为“正常”。2006年9月上述症状加重,特别是腹痛频繁,疼痛后出现一身虚汗,再次就诊,被诊断为儿童生长性腹痛症。

  16. 青海省人群蛔虫感染状况的调查分析%Investigation on status of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海青; 韩秀敏

    2000-01-01

    @@蛔虫病是一种严重危害人群健康的寄生虫病。为摸清青海省该病的分布状况,于1988~1991 年按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,对青海省4个片区,20个县(市)32个点进行了调查。

  17. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  18. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

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    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides in neonate: evidence of congenital transmission of intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides em neonato: evidências da transmissão congênita de nematóides intestinais

    OpenAIRE

    Leda Maria da Costa-Macedo; Luís Rey

    1990-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological study of a forty-days-old infant with a diarrheic condition and insufficient development led to the coprological diagnosis of ascariasis and possible congenital infection. Specific treatment with levamizole, resulted in clinical and parasitological cure, in addition to gain of weight up to normal levels. Maternal parasitism had been diagnosed two months before labor and proved beyond doubt during the ensuing epidemiological inquiry.O estudo clínico e epidemiológic...

  20. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  1. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  2. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

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    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine:a 10-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Jenin Governorate (Northern Palestine) population.Methods:A retrospective laboratory analysis of stool specimens was carried out for intestinal parasite examination in Jenin Governmental Hospital, Jenin Governorate, Northern Palestine. The records were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Jenin Governmental Hospital between January2000and December2009. Results: Our retrospective study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection during10 years ranged from32.0-41.5%. There are at least7 different parasitesencountered. The most common pathogenic parasites identified were:Entamoeba histolytica(8.2-18.2%),Enterobius vermicularis(15.6-28.9%). The other parasites present wereGiardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis,Taenia species andAncylostoma duodenale (Hookworms).Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Jenin governorate, Palestine. It is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies including health education and environmental sanitation improvement.

  4. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  5. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  6. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

  7. 2006-2009年勐海县国家级监测点人体土源性线虫感染监测%Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Menghai County, Yunnan Province from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽波; 张老三; 张祖翔; 吴方伟; 杜尊伟; 姜进勇; 陈然; 马龙; 陈绍秋; 倪坎; 王学忠; 刀宏祥

    2011-01-01

    In the national monitoring point, Menghai County, Yunnan Province, the total prevalence rate of soil-transmitted nem-atode infections was 88.12%, of which the rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and cestode infections were 69.70%, 59.79%, 36.79%, and 1.30% respectively from 2006 to 2009. The infection intensities were slight. The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in soil of vegetable garden was 44.5%. In conclusion, the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes is high in the monitoring point.%2006-2009年监测发现,勐海县国家级监测点土源性线虫总感染率平均为88.12%,其中蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫和绦虫感染率分别为69.70%、59.79%、36.79%、1.30%;感染者均以轻度感染为主.以菜园土样的蛔虫卵阳性率为最高,达44.5%.当地人群土源性线虫感染水平较高.

  8. Experimental and field studies with thiophanate in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, D M; Dalton, S E; Eichler, D A

    1976-08-14

    Thiophanate, administered at a dosage of 50 mg per kg to artifically infected pigs, removed 96 to 99 per cent of adult Oesophagostomum spp, Hyostrongylus rubidus and Trichuris suis. Activity was also high against larval stages of these nematodes, except for 26-day-old T suis. Thiophanate also showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H rubidus and Oesophagostomum spp. At 50 mg per kg thiophanate administered alone was inactive against Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri, the former species also being refractory at 200 mg per kg. Field trials confirmed these efficacy results in naturally infected animals. Pellet formulations providing mean dosages of 63 mg thiophanate per kg for adult pigs and 75 mg thiophanate per kg with 83 mg piperazine base per kg for growing pigs were highly effective in reducing the faecal output of Oesophagostomum spp, H rubidus and T suis eggs. In growing pigs, A suum was controlled by the thiophanate/piperazine product. No palatability or tolerance problems were observed when thiophanate or thiophanate/piperazine mixtures were administered at recommended dosage or multiples thereof in experimental or field studies.

  9. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

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    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  10. Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amahmid, O; Bouhoum, K

    2005-04-01

    To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the risks associated with raw wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes, and the incidence of geohelminthic infections among the children of the wastewater spreading area of Marrakech as compared to a control group. Faecal samples from 610 individuals were examined for Ascaris spp. ova and Trichuris spp. ova (323 children for the exposed group and 287 for the control group). The study duration was two months and a half, and was carried out in the summer period. A questionnaire-interview with children and parents was used to collect data on possible demographic, hygiene and behavioural-contact factors such as gender, age, family size, source of water supply, parental occupation. The investigations resulted in the detection of Ascaris spp. ova in 43 samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group versus 1.7% for the control group. Trichuris spp. ova was detected in 43 faecal samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group, and 3.8% in the control group. The Chi-square test showed that the differences observed between the exposed and control group are statistically significant (p < 0.01). Males are more infected with ascariasis and trichuriasis than females and children of 2-8 years of age are heavily infected as compared to 9 - 14-year-old children. Based upon the findings of this study, it is concluded that wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes presents an increased risk of infection in the exposed group.

  11. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

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    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  12. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Shigella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Shigella Infections Print A ... the Doctor en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  13. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections may occur following surgery or spontaneously in patients with certain risk factors. Risk factors for spinal infections include poor nutrition, immune suppression, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes and obesity. Surgical risk factors ...

  14. Toxic effect of Ascaris lumbricoides body fluid on intestinal epithelial cells%人蛔虫体腔液对人肠上皮细胞的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 袁铿; 彭卫东; 周宪民

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫体腔液(Ascaris bodyfluid,ABF)对人肠上皮细胞株(HCT-8)的毒性作用及作用浓度和时间的关系.方法以体外细胞培养方法观察ABF对HCT-8细胞的毒性作用,比较不同浓度ABF作用下不同时间HCT-8细胞的死亡率和形态结构.结果HE染色显示,当ABF浓度为800μg/ml时,HCT-8细胞的毒性作用最大,除浓度为12.5μg/ml的实验组,各实验组(25~8μg/ml)的毒性均高于对照组.结论ABF对HCT-8细胞所产生毒性作用在一定程度上表现出浓度和作用时间的依赖关系,并诱导细胞凋亡的发生.

  15. Viabilidade de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides após tratamento humano com medicamentos específicos: I— Levamisole e Pamoato de pirantel

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    Maria Suzana de Lemos Souza

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a viabilidade do ciclo biológico, 15 pacientes (masculinos, de quatro a 14 anos com Ascaris lumbricoides, foram selecionados ao acaso. Após tratamento clássico com sais básicos de levamisole (7 pacientes e de pamoato de pirantel (8, os ovos retirados das fêmeas expelidas ficaram incubados por 18 dias em de H2SO4 N/10. A seguir foram administrados per os a grupos de 5 camundongos por pacientes. Decorridos 8 dias da infecção, os animais foram sacrificados para pesquisas microscópica de larvas nos fragmentos pulmonares. Dos 75 animais, somente 1, pertencente ao grupo de tratados com levamisole, não apresentou larvas nos fragmentos pulmonares. Concluiu-se que as drogas, nas doses utilizadas, não possuem ação deletéria sobre os ovos de A. lumbricoides, mas promovem a eliminação de material infectivo, com possibilidade de incrementar a poluição onde vivem comunidades sem adequadas condições de saneamento básico.

  16. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

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    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  17. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia:a cross sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Aklilu Ambachew; Halima Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Results:Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0%(33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5%(9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9%and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (P< 0.000 1) higher aneamia prevalence compared to individuals without any infection. Conclusions:Prevalence of malaria and soil transmitted helminths is high and the disease is still major health problem in the study area. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve

  18. Parasitological and serological studies on amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in the rural sector around Recife, Northeast Brazil Estudos sorológicos e parasitológicos na amebíase e em outras infecções parasito-intestinais no setor rural dos arredores de Recife, nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José Felipe Gonçalves; Masanobu Tanabe; Francisco de Paula de Melo Medeiros; Fernando José Gonçalves; Ivanize da Silva Aca; Severa Regina Nunes da Motta; Seiki Tateno; Tsutomu Takeuchi

    1990-01-01

    Parasitological examinations were carried out during July to December, 1989, on 485 inhabitants of four villages in São Lourenço da Mata, 25 km northwest of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 99.6% of the inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasites. A high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni (82.1%), hookworm (80.2%) Trichuris trichiura (69.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides (61.9%) and Entamoeba coli (36.7%) infections were demonstrated. Test tube cultivation reve...

  19. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

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    VS Binu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children ( Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides in neonate: evidence of congenital transmission of intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides em neonato: evidências da transmissão congênita de nematóides intestinais

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    Leda Maria da Costa-Macedo

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological study of a forty-days-old infant with a diarrheic condition and insufficient development led to the coprological diagnosis of ascariasis and possible congenital infection. Specific treatment with levamizole, resulted in clinical and parasitological cure, in addition to gain of weight up to normal levels. Maternal parasitism had been diagnosed two months before labor and proved beyond doubt during the ensuing epidemiological inquiry.O estudo clínico e epidemiológico do caso de uma criança, com quarenta dias de idade, que apresentava quadro diarréico e desenvolvimento insuficiente desde o nascimento, conduziu ao diagnóstico coprológico de ascaríase e à hipótese de tratar-se de uma infecção congênita. O tratamento específico, com levamizol, produziu cura clínica e parasitológica, e um ganho de peso pelo qual a criança logo alcançou os níveis normais para a idade. O parasitismo materno havia sido diagnosticado dois meses antes do parto e foi confirmado, plenamente, por ocasião do inquérito epidemiológico que realizamos. As razões para se admitir a hipótese de transmissão congênita são apresentadas no trabalho.

  1. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

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    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and

  3. Current status of the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole for the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides in North-Western Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke Nadia Diniyanti Lubis; Syahril Pasaribu; Chairuddin Panusunan Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole in the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) in theNorth-WesternIndonesia.Methods:229 primary school children who were positive forA. lumbricoides in their stool were recruited in the study.123 children received single-dose of400 mg albendazole and106 children received single-dose500 mg of mebendazole.After1 week, their stools were examined for the cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate(ERR).Egg culture was also performed and observation was made on week-1, -3, -4.Results:have shown a non-significant difference inCR96.7%vs.100%; and ERR of99.3%vs.100.0% for albendazole and mebendazole groups respectively(P>0.05).In-vitro egg culture has shown trends of decrease in the percentage of the unfertilized eggs and in≥2 cell eggs in both treatment groups(P<0.05).The embryonated eggs from the albendazole groups has shown an increase from7.3% on week-1 to13.8% on week-4, whilst the mebendazole group has shown a constant increase during the whole4 weeks of culture from7.5% to28.3%(P<0.01). Conclusions:No evidence of drug resistance is noted so far from the area ofNorth-Western part ofIndonesia.In addition, although both drugs showed incomplete ovicidal effects, single-dose albendazole is better than mebendazole in sterilizingA. lumbricoideseggs.

  4. Efficacy of fenbendazole against five genera of swine parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T B; Marti, O G; Hale, O M

    1981-07-01

    Thirty-three pigs were sequentially infected with Oesophagostomum spp, Metastrongylus spp, and Trichuris suis while being maintained in lots contaminated with space Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, and other parasites. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of weight (6.8 to 25.9 kg), sex, and litter. Pigs in the 1st group were used as nontreated controls; pigs in the 2nd and 3rd groups were given fenbendazole in the feed at doses of 3 and 5 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, on 3 successive days. Pigs were necropsied either on the 4th of 5th day after completion of treatment, and worms were recovered and counted. Based on the mean numbers of worms in the control group, drug efficacies at 3 and 5 mg/kg were, respectively, 100% against A suum; 59% and 81% against S ransomi; 97% and 99.9% against Metastrongylus spp; 94% and 99.7% against T suis; and 99.9% against Oesophagostomum spp.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for gastrointestinal parasites in small-scale pig enterprises in Central and Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesel, Kristina; Dohoo, Ian; Baumann, Maximilian; Dione, Michel; Grace, Delia; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2017-01-01

    In Eastern Africa, small-scale pig keeping has emerged as a popular activity to generate additional household income. Infections of pigs with gastrointestinal helminths can limit production output, increase production costs, and pose zoonotic risks. A cross-sectional, community-based study in three districts in Eastern and Central Uganda examined the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors in 932 randomly sampled pigs. Using the combined sedimentation-flotation method, 61.4 % (58.2-64.5 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI]) tested positive for one or more gastrointestinal helminths, namely, strongyles (57.1 %, 95 % CI), Metastrongylus spp. (7.6 %, 95 % CI), Ascaris suum (5.9 %, 95 % CI), Strongyloides ransomi (4.2 %, 95 % CI), and Trichuris suis (3.4 %, 95 % CI). Coccidia oocysts were found in 40.7 % of all pigs sampled (37.5-44.0 %, 95 % CI). Significant differences across the three districts were observed for the presence of A. suum (p pig pens (p ≤ 0.05, odds ratio [OR] = 0.667) and the routine use of disinfectants (p ≤ 0.05, OR = 0.548).

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15433-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26.B7_M05 GQ031 - Xylem Scrapings (Normalize... 38 0.001 2 ( ED423031 ) AUAC-aas11a12.g1 Ascaris suum whole ...Q03514.B7_I12 GQ035 - Needles - End of season Pi... 38 0.001 2 ( EX358944 ) GQ031

  7. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select

  8. Met uitloop meer kans op parasitaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitaire infecties vormen een belangrijk probleem in de biologische- en scharrelhouderij. In een veldinventarisatie van het Praktijkonderzoek van ASG werden meer Ascaris suum (spoelwormen), coccidiën en Toxoplasma gondii gevonden op bedrijven met uitloop dan op bedrijven zonder uitloop. Nader ond

  9. 改水改厕和环境整治控制土壤蛔虫虫卵及鞭虫虫卵污染的纵向观察%Longitudinal observation of contamination with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and control efforts through improved drinking water, latrine improvements and environmental improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴坤教; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 洪献林; 葛军; 谢曙英; 兰炜明; 陈红根

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the level of contamination with eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes and the effects of efforts to control infection in the population through improved drinking water, latrine improvements, and environmental improvements. Methods In two villages of Jinxian County, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura eggs in soil were tested using saturated magnesium sulfate flotation, and the population was tested for infection with soil-transmitted nematodes using the Kato-Katz method. Results After drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were implemented . The rate at which eggs of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura were detected in soil tended to decrease in both villages. One year after drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were made, the rate at which Ascaris eggs were detected in yards, living rooms, latrines, and vegetable farms and the overall rate at which these eggs were detected decreased; respective rates decreased 76. 48% (P 0.05), and 59. 03%(P<0.01). Rates remained relatively low afterwards. The rate at which Trichuris eggs were detected in those locations and the overall rate of detection decreased 68. 74%, 62.50% (P<0.01), 64.71%, 64.71%, and 65. 15%. The rate of dead Ascaris eggs and Trichuris eggs increased from 2. 57% and 0. 61% in 2005 to 69. 81% and 78. 13% in 2006, respectively, and the rate if dead eggs remained at about 70% two years later. Conclusion Control measures to improve drinking water and implement latrine improvements and environmental improvements significantly affected contamination of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura eggs in soil and also proved to be an effective strategy for control of geohelminth infection in the human population.%目的 了解农村地区实施改水改厕和环境整治等综合措施后土壤中土源性线虫虫卵污染情况、变化规律及对人群土源性线虫感染的控制效果.方法 在江西省进贤县2个村,用饱和硫酸镁离心浮聚法检查

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alamneh Abera; Endalkachew Nibret

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren inTilili town, northwestEthiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving385 schoolchildren was conducted betweenNovember2011 toFebruary2012.Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method.Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors.Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique.Data were analyzed usingSPSS16.0 statistical software.Results:Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of44.2%(170 of385 schoolchildren).The predominant parasites wereAscaris lumbricoides(A. lumbricoides)153(39.7%) andTrichuris trichiura(T. trichiura)30(7.8%).One hundred thirty five(35.1%) had single infectionsand35(9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which32(8.4%) were double infections and3(0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables.Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly(P<0.05).Conclusions: intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area.

  11. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  12. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  13. Demodex phylloides infection in swine reared in a peri-urban family farm located on the outskirts of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Josete Garcia; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Duarte, Fernanda Calvo; Del Fava, Claudia; de Oliveira, Sueli Moda; Filha, Elizabeth Spósito; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; de Castro Nassar, Alessandra Figueiredo; de Vasconcellos Bilynskyj, Maria Cristina; Ogata, Renato Akio; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique Selbmann; Genovez, Margareth Élide

    2016-10-30

    This paper reports the occurrence of porcine demodicosis caused by the mite Demodex phylloides in hogs reared in a peri-urban family farm located in Francisco Morato, a municipality of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, capital city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In a parcel of forty Landrace - Large White cross hogs, approximately four months old, four animals presented severe skin lesions in the form of small nodules over their entire body, especially in the periocular region, snout, lower abdomen and flanks. Two hogs had to be euthanized for animal welfare reasons, which enabled post-mortem examination. Skin scrapings revealed eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of D. phylloides. Purulent subcutaneous nodules with intense parasitic folliculitis and intense perifollicular inflammatory reaction were present. Enterobacteria and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the skin pustules. Necropsy revealed milk spotted liver, enteritis and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Protozoa (Eimeria spp. and Balantidium sp.), helminth eggs (Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and strongyles) and Brachyspira spp. were found in faeces. Staphylococcus spp. and enterobacteria were isolated from internal organs. All remaining hogs were treated with ivermectin at a daily oral dose of 0.45g/kg of feed, during seven days. Fifteen days after treatment, remission of symptoms was observed in the surviving animals with demodicosis; absence of mites was confirmed by skin scraping examinations. The hogs were reared under poor environmental, nutritional and sanitary conditions, resulting in multimorbidity and immunosuppression. Severe clinical porcine demodicosis was triggered when the animals were castrated. Family pig farmers had been suffering economic losses due to the stunted growth of the herd. In addition to that, the lesions found on the skin and in the internal organs would result in condemnation of meat and viscera for human consumption. As part of a Public

  14. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  15. The prevalence of internal and external parasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in Southeast District, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoso, S J; Mosala, K P; Ndebele, R T; Ramabu, S S

    2000-09-01

    Botswana imports most pig-based products from neighbouring countries. Pig farming is limited by, among other things, the negative effect of parasites and diseases on production. The object of this study was to determine the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in the Southeast District of Botswana. Thirty-nine pigs were sampled for endoparasites and 19 for ectoparasites during a period of 2 1/2 months. Of all the pigs sampled, 54,55% were infected with Ascaris suum, 20,45% with Trichostrongylus spp. and 6,82% with Trichuris suis. Ascaris suum was found to be the most common endoparasite infesting both mature, i.e. 12 months and older, and young, i.e. less than 12 months old, pigs. Although not significantly different (P > 0,05), the prevalence of this parasite species was slightly higher (68,42% with an average of 1,023 +/- 545 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces per pig) in mature than in young pigs (55% with an of average 1,500 +/- 846 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus spp. was lower in mature (5,26% with 20 +/- 14 EPG of faeces per pig) than in young pigs (25% with 22 +/- 9 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of T. suis was also lower in mature (0% infection) than in young pigs (15% with 9 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of the three endoparasite species was not significantly different between the sexes A. suum (1,020 +/- 883 v. 1,503 +/- 522 EPG of faeces per pig), Trichostrongylus spp. (24 +/- 14 v. 18 +/- 8 EPG of faeces per pig) and T. suis (11 +/- 6 v. 2 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig) for male and female pigs respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only ectoparasite identified on the pigs sampled for external parasites. It infested 40% of all pigs but the infestation on young pigs (70%) was higher than on the mature ones (33,33%). Since the infection of internal and external parasites was similar in young and old pigs of both sexes, controlling parasites is of great importance since these

  16. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  17. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or ... adults of all ages. The most common are dental infections, inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis), and abscesses ...

  18. Spinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bobby K-B; Deckey, Jeffrey; Hu, Serena S

    2002-01-01

    Spinal infections can occur in a variety of clinical situations. Their presentation ranges from the infant with diskitis who is unwilling to crawl or walk to the adult who develops an infection after a spinal procedure. The most common types of spinal infections are hematogenous bacterial or fungal infections, pediatric diskitis, epidural abscess, and postoperative infections. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of spinal infections, the cornerstone of treatment, requires a high index of suspicion in at-risk patients and the appropriate evaluation to identify the organism and determine the extent of infection. Neurologic function and spinal stability also should be carefully evaluated. The goals of therapy should include eradicating the infection, relieving pain, preserving or restoring neurologic function, improving nutrition, and maintaining spinal stability.

  19. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Tapeworm infection By Mayo Clinic Staff Tapeworm infection is caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs or larvae. If you ingest certain tapeworm eggs, they can migrate outside ...

  20. Hantavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  1. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Household Safety: Preventing Cuts Dealing With Cuts Osteomyelitis Tetanus First Aid: Skin Infections Toxic Shock Syndrome ... Abscess Paronychia Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Cellulitis Osteomyelitis Impetigo Staph Infections MRSA Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes ...

  2. Tinea Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The skin may become itchy and red, with blisters and cracking of the skin. The infection may ... my sheets and towels every day? ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Common Tinea Infections by SL Noble, Pharm. ...

  3. Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps ... of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective ...

  4. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... red rash on the body. Impetigo - a skin infection Toxic shock syndrome Cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test ...

  5. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  6. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  7. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  8. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  9. "THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN A VILLAGE, IN ISFAHAN AREA "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jalayer

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports on intestinal parasite from Isfahan area revealed wide distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the area. Since all studied areas were situated in the banks of Zayandeh rood river with lot of trees and a humid soil, it was suggested, for comparison, to undertake a similar study in a village with comparatively dry and district climate. The village Segzi (42 kilometer, east bf Isfahan city was selected for the study. 416 stool samples were collected from 1,400 villagers and were examined by the following methods: 1 direct saline smear 2 direct iodide smear, 3 saturated salt flotation, and 4 hydrochloric acid-ether sedimentation: The results revealed that the four most prevalent helminthic infections, were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura. Trichostronglylus spp. and Hymenolepis nana with 76.9.2, 69.95, 58.41 and 8.41 per cent, infection rates respectively. Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Giardia intestinalis, Endolimax nana and Chilomastix mesnili with 26.92, 12.74, 9'86, 5.53 and 3.61 per cent, infection rates respectively, were the prevalent intestinal protozoan infections comparison of the figures reported in this study with previously reported ones from other temperate zones of the province shows that dry and desert climate, at least in Segzi village, had no effect, on the transmission of the above mentioned parasites.

  10. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN ISFAHAN PROVICNCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jalayer

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on intestinal parasitic infections in different parts of Isfahan province revealed high infection rates and wide distribution of such infections in the province. To be added is the present report from Dortche-Piaz, a city with 14,000 population, where stool samples of 700 individual (1/20 of the whole population(, selected by random sampling, were collected the and examined by (1 direct saline, (2 direct iodine, (3 saturated salt concentration, and (4 hydrochloric acid – ether sedimentation method. The results indicated that the population of this city are infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Tricuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus spp., Hymenolepis nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, E. coli and Endolimax nana with prevalence of %79.71, %43.86, %34.86, %5.43, %8.29, %6.43, %0.14, %29 and %11.57 respectively. These figures are comparable with other figures reported from different parts of the province, and prove, once again, that intestinal parasitic infection should still be regarded as a major public health problem of the province.

  12. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  13. Risk factors and spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection among primary school children in Mbita District, Western Kenya.

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    Sachiyo Nagi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection.We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8% children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3% had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%. High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors.Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water.

  14. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  15. Structural Insights into the Molecular Design of Flutolanil Derivatives Targeted for Fumarate Respiration of Parasite Mitochondria

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    Daniel Ken Inaoka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic organisms, but also in some types of human cancer cells. Thus, enzymes of the pathway are potential targets for chemotherapy. We found that flutolanil is an excellent inhibitor for A. suum complex II (IC50 = 0.058 μM but less effectively inhibits homologous porcine complex II (IC50 = 45.9 μM. In order to account for the specificity of flutolanil to A. suum complex II from the standpoint of structural biology, we determined the crystal structures of A. suum and porcine complex IIs binding flutolanil and its derivative compounds. The structures clearly demonstrated key interactions responsible for its high specificity to A. suum complex II and enabled us to find analogue compounds, which surpass flutolanil in both potency and specificity to A. suum complex II. Structures of complex IIs binding these compounds will be helpful to accelerate structure-based drug design targeted for complex IIs.

  16. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa

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    Kvalsvig Jane D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN established in 1998 a programme for helminth control that aimed at regularly treating primary school children for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths. This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Maputaland in northern KZN were examined for infections with hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, treated twice with 400 mg albendazole and re-examined several times over one year after the first treatment in order to assess the impact of treatment and patterns of infection and re-infection. Results The hookworm prevalence in the study population (83.2% was considerably higher than in other parts of the province whereas T. trichiura and especially A. lumbricoides prevalences (57.2 and 19.4%, respectively were much lower than elsewhere on the KZN coastal plain. Single dose treatment with albendazole was very effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides with cure rates (CR of 78.8 and 96.4% and egg reduction rates (ERR of 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. It was exceptionally ineffective against T. trichiura (CR = 12.7%, ERR = 24.8%. Re-infection with hookworm and A. lumbricoides over 29 weeks after treatment was considerable but still well below pre-treatment levels. Conclusion High geohelminth prevalences and re-infection rates in the study population confirm the need for regular treatment of primary school children in the area. The low effectiveness of single course albendazole treatment against T. trichiura infection however demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches.

  17. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    cooked meat of infected animals, especially sheep and pigs. Toxoplasma infects one-third to one-half of normal humans by age 40, but causes...Toxoplasma in the first trimester, 30-50 per cent deliver an obviously affected infant. Congenital infection is associated with hydrocephalus...chorioretinitis, hepatosplenomegaly, and rash. In survivors, mental retardation, deaf- ness, and cardiac malformations may be noted. Chorioretinitis may also

  18. [Hand infections].

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    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  19. Rhinovirus Infections

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    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  20. Eye Infections

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    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  1. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  2. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

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    Jackson Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A, and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%. Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50 and 1740 (S.E. 291 in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237 and 1126 (S.E. 182 in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995.

  3. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

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    Soo Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar. Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171 compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98. Trichuris trichiura (46.2% was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7% and hookworm (4.1%. In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8% was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7% and finally hookworm (8.3%. There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0, followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5. In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8, Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8 and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8. In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  4. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

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    Patrick William Woodburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy. METHODS: The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  5. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized communities to prevent parasitic

  7. Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  8. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

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    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  9. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  10. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you should be familiar with include the following: Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that first affects the outer layers of the ... skin. Although other types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, Saureus ... may diagnose the infection by examining the area. The doctor may take ...

  11. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care.

  12. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  13. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  14. Iron status of schoolchildren with varying intensities of Trichuris trichiura infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdath, D D; Simeon, D T; Wong, M S; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    1995-04-01

    The relationship between varying intensities of Trichuris trichiura infection and iron status was examined in Jamaican schoolchildren, aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 409 children was identified with T. trichiura (epg > 1200). A control group comprised 207 uninfected children who were matched by school and class to every pair of infected subjects. Blood samples were obtained from 421 children: 264 infected and 157 controls. Compared to the rest of the children, those with heavy infections (epg > 10,000) had significantly lower (P < 0.05) Hb (11.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 12.1 +/- 1.1 g/dl), MCV (78.6 +/- 6.3 vs. 81.2 +/- 5.5 fl), MCH (26.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 27.5 +/- 2.5 pg) and MCHC (33.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 33.9 +/- 1.4 g/dl). Similarly, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) amongst heavily infected children (33%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest of the sample (11%). These differences remained significant after controlling for confounding variables including socio-economic status, age, gender, area of residence and the presence of Ascaris infections. Differences in red cell count, ferritin, and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin were not statistically significant and showed no association with the infectious load. These results suggest that in the Jamaican children studied, iron deficiency anemia is associated with Trichuris infections over 10,000 epg, but not with less intense infections.

  15. Preparation and Identification of a Human Single Chain Fv Antibody Against Ascaris lumbricoides%抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 高英; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 王乾宇; 黄高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct humanize phage antibody library against Ascaris lumbricoides and to screen specificity scFv to Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Total RNA was abstracted from peripheral blood lympho-cytes of 20 persons, and was used to amplify VH and VL gene by RT-PCR. The amplified VH and VL genes were spliced to form scFv gene which was cloned into pCANTAB-SE phagemid, and the constructed recombinant phage-mid was transformed to E. Coli TC1 to construct human natural single-chain antibody library from which positive clones were screened. Results A primary library of 1.5 × 106 and a second library of 1.2 × 106 were constructed. Conclusion This study was to provide us the basis for radionuclide imaging and therapy for ascariasis.%目的:构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,从中筛选建抗蛔虫人源特异性单链抗体.方法:分离10个患蛔虫病人的淋巴细胞,提取总RNA反转录为cDNA,PCR扩增人抗体重链(VH)和轻链(VL)可变区基因,采用SOE-PCR法将VH和VL片段随机拼接成scFv片段,并克隆入噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E中,构建噬菌体单链抗体库.结果:初级库库容量为1.8×106,在大肠杆菌TG1中重组后得到1.6×106的次级抗体库.结论:本研究成功构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,拟在为蛔虫病的预防、诊断、治疗奠定基础.

  16. Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children, use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. Salmonella infection can ... can use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. The U.S. Department ...

  17. Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  18. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  19. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman ... to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but ...

  20. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. Causes ... testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always goes away on ...

  1. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008050 The establishment of a rat model of chronic pulmonary infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. WANG Weifang(王炜芳), et al. Dept Respir, PLA General Hosp, Beijing 100853. Natl Med J China 2008;88(1):46-50. Objective To establish a rat model of chronic pulmonary infection by inoculating two different Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in minute seaweed algiante beads made by an ejection set with an acuminate hole to

  2. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  3. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIC INFECTION AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVEL (THE PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan tentang prevalensi dan intensitas dari "Soil transmitted helminthic infection" pada tiga golongan penduduk dengan perbedaan tingkat ekonomi-sosial telah dilakukan di Mundu, Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Dimulai dari penduduk dengan golongan ekonomi-sosial yang relatif terbaik sampai yang terburuk, maka prevalensi untuk Ascaris lumbricoides adalah: 31,5 persen, 59,0 persen dan 80,0 persen; Trichuris trichiura: 43,8 persen, 74,9 persen dan 98,5 persen; cacing tambang 21,7 persen, 44,1 persen dan 81,5 persen, sedang Stronglyloides stercoralis ditemukan hanya 0 persen, 0 persen dan 5.1 persen. Intensitas infeksi dari A. lumbricoides menunjukkan angka-angka: 8935, 18514 dan 20581; T. trichiura; 348,993 dan 2225 dan pada cacing tambang 407,677 dan 1461 telur per satu gram tinya. A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura menunjukkan prevalensi maupun intensitas yang lebih tinggi pada wanita, sedang cacing tambang baik prevalensi maupun intensitasnya adalah lebih tinggi pada pria. Berdasarkan pembagian menurut umur, maka prevalensi dan intensitas A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura didapatkan tertinggi pada umur-umur dibawah 14 tahun, sedang cacing tambang pada umur lebih tinggi dari 15 tahun.

  4. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  5. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny.

  6. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  7. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  8. High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a riparian population in Takeo Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-06-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.

  9. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  10. Anchoretic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gokkulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active and passive mouth opening exercises are a very common practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery especially for various conditions causing limited mouth opening like space infections, trauma, and ankylosis. But most of the practitioners do not follow basic principles while advocating these active mouth opening exercises and also take it for granted that it would benefit the patient in the long run. Because of this, the mouth opening physiotherapy by itself can at times lead to unwanted complications. We report a case wherein due to active physiotherapy, the patient had complications leading to persistent temporal space infection which required surgical intervention and hospitalization. This could have been because of hematoma formation during physiotherapy which got infected due to anchoretic infection of unknown etiology and resulted in temporal space infection. Hence, our conclusion is that whenever mouth opening exercises are initiated, it should be done gradually under good antibiotic coverage to avoid any untoward complications and for optimum results. According to the current English literature, such a complication has not been documented before.

  11. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic protozoa and helminths are responsible for some devastating and prevalent diseases of humans. Intestinal parasitic infections are a major health problem in India. While little study has been carried out regarding the problem in India, almost no study on the burden of intestinal infections has been done in Bihar. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI in the patients attending outdoor patient department in Katihar Medical College & Hospital. Fecal samples were examined for intestinal parasites by direct microscopy, and by microscopy following modified acid fast staining in HIV infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out from June 2011 to February 2013. The study population consisted of individuals of all age groups, belonging to both the sexes, including children, pregnant woman and elderly individuals. A total of 2780 samples were examined by saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation. The negative samples were examined by formol ether concentration technique. Modified acid fast staining of fecal samples in HIV infected patients was also done. RESULTS: The result showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.71%. Out of this ,86.6% were single infections, 12.8% were double infections and 0.67% showed triple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides (28.5% and Giardia lamblia (18.5% were the most common intesitinal helminthes and protozoans isolated. A single patient with HIV infection was co-infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. The infected cases were more in the age group between 1-10years, more commonly among the male population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the helminthic infections is more than the prevalence of protozoal infections in this geographic region. Clinical microbiologists must follow standard laboratory procedures when screening stool samples so as to improve the chances of finding the parasites. An integrated

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens.

  13. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  14. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Abate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.

  15. Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Munisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79 eggs per gram of stool (epg. Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4% and hookworms (1.4%. The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56 and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73 epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent’s level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent’s level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions.

  16. Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel A.; Kinung'hi, Safari M.

    2016-01-01

    In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent's level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent's level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions. PMID:27822385

  17. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  18. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/- or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/- displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb, whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3 by macrophages (MΦ and myofibroblasts (MF within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  19. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fecal matter from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and transmit the bacteria to their ... by the person with diarrhea. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands often and check ... lab tests also might be needed, especially if your child has blood in the stool. If your doctor ...

  20. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  1. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia. METHODS: Quantitative egg counts using the Kato-Katz method were determined for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma japonicum in 507 school-age children from helminth-endemic villages in The Philippines. Infection intensity was defined in three categories: uninfected, low, or moderate/high (M+. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI, and synergy index for pairs of concurrent infections. RESULTS: M+ co-infection of hookworm and S. japonicum (OR = 13.2, 95% CI: 3.82-45.5 and of hookworm and T. trichiura (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 1.76-16.2 were associated with higher odds of anemia relative to children without respective M+ co-infections. For co-infections of hookworm and S. japonicum and of T. trichiura and hookworm, the estimated indices of synergy were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6 and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0, respectively. CONCLUSION: Co-infections of hookworm and either S. japonicum or T. trichiura were associated with higher levels of anemia than would be expected if the effects of these species had only independent effects on anemia. This suggests that integrated anti-helminthic treatment programs with simultaneous deworming for S. japonicum and some geohelminths could yield a greater than additive benefit for reducing anemia in helminth-endemic regions.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients in local public hospitals of Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Hassen Amer; Ibraheem M Ashankyty; Najoua Al Sadok Haouas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients in Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 130 patients (69 females and 61 males) in Hail General Hospital. Each sample was examined by direct wet mount microscopic examination using both normal saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation and concentration techniques using salt and formol-ether solutions. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 45.38% (59 cases). Forty-four (33.84%) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal protozoa, 5 (3.84%) were infected with helminthes and 10 (7.69%) had mixed infection with both helminthes and protozoa. The most common intestinal helminth detected was Ancylostoma duodenale (n=5, 3.84%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp. and Trichuris trichiura (n=2 for each species, 1.5%). For intestinal protozoa, the coccidian Cryptosporidium parvum (n=25, 19.23%) was the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n=21, 16.15%), Giardia lamblia (n=15, 11.54%), Entamoeba coli (n=5, 3.85%) and Blastocystis hominis (n=3, 2.30%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in females was significantly higher than in males (P<0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study highlighting that intestinal parasites are still an important public health problem in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Therefore, health education would be the best way to prevent from intestinal parasite infections which are mainly food borne diseases.

  3. Knowledge and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among women in Makurdi, Benue State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amuta EU; Houmsou RS; Mker SD

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess women's perceptions and risk factors that could expose them to intestinal parasitic infections in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 750 faecal samples were collected from women at different reproductive stages (pre-menstrual, menstrual and post-menstrual), and the faeces were tested by the formol ether concentration technique. Results: A total of 426 (56.8%) samples were found positive for various intestinal parasites with hookworm (4.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3%), Taenia sp (2.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (18.9%) and Entamoeba coli (21.6%). Women at pre-menstrual and post-menstrual stages recorded higher prevalence rates with 72.8% and 63.9%, respectively. No significant difference in prevalence was observed between women at different reproductive stages and women infected by different parasites (χ2=30.6, P> 0.05). Sweet things, rotten fruits and improperly cooked meat were perceived as the causes of intestinal parasitic infections among the pre and post menstrual women. Sources of drinking water like river, well, water bought from vendors and patronizing food vendors were observed as risk factors contributing to the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among women. Factors like not washing hands before eating and after defaecation, use of leaves and ordinary papers for cleaning after defaecation were also observed to be contributing to the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions: Persuasive health education and rigorous hygiene measures should be employed in schools, maternity clinics and among the populace to reduce transmission and infection with intestinal parasites.

  4. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections among plantation sector schoolchildren in Sri Lanka: prevalence after ten years of preventive chemotherapy.

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    Kithsiri Gunawardena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plantation sector in Sri Lanka lags behind the rest of the country in terms of living conditions and health. In 1992, a sector-wide survey of children aged 3-12 years and women of reproductive age showed >90% prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Biannual mass de-worming targeting children aged 3-18 years started in 1994 and was continued until 2005. The present study was carried out to assess the status of infection four years after cessation of mass de-worming. METHODS/FINDINGS: A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out. Faecal samples from approximately 20 children from each of 114 schools in five districts were examined using the modified Kato-Katz technique. Data regarding the school, the child's family and household sanitation were recorded after inspection of schools and households. Multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression, to identify risk factors for infection. Faecal samples were obtained from 1890 children. In 4/5 districts, >20% were infected with one or more helminth species. Overall combined prevalence was 29.0%; 11.6% had infections of moderate-heavy intensity. The commonest infection was Ascaris lumbricoides, present in all five districts, as was Trichuris trichiura. Hookworm was not detected in two districts. Multivariate analysis identified low altitude and maternal under-education as risk factors for all three infections. Poor household sanitation was identified as a risk factor for A. lumbricoides and hookworm, but not T. trichiura infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that regular mass de-worming of plantation sector children should be resumed along with more emphasis on better sanitation and health education. They show that even after 10 years of mass chemotherapy, prevalence can bounce back after cessation of preventive chemotherapy, if the initial force of transmission is strong and other long-term control measures are not concomitantly

  7. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Aschalew Afework Bitew

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method.The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 82.1-89%. STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7-70.2%. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3-36.6%, 29.4% (25-31% and 3.1% (1.8-5.4%, respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1-18.1%. Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-5.5. Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13% and 18 (4.9% of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively.The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

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    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  9. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in pigs in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M; Zhou, R Q; Huang, H C; Hu, S J

    2011-12-01

    From 2007 to 2009, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in intensive and extensive pig farms in Chongqing, China. A total of 2971 samples from both sexes and five age categories (breeding boars, breeding sows, fatteners, growers and weaners) were evaluated by standard methods for the presence of helminth ova and protozoan oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites. Of the 2971 pigs sampled, 362(12.18%) were infected with Ascaris suum, 301(10.13%) with Trichuris suis, 301(10.13%) with Oesophagostomum spp., 491(16.53%) with Eimeria spp., 149(5.02%) with Isopora suis, 677(22.79%) with Balantidium coli and 196(6.60%) with Cryptosporidium spp. Growers had the highest infection rate while breeding boars had the lowest among the five age categories. B. coli was the most common protozoan in all pig age groups. Pigs infected with multiple parasites were common. Risk factors such as management methods, seasons, ages, etc. can influence the infection rate to a certain degree. This investigation provides relevant data about risk factors for pig farmers, thus allowing them to make more appropriate antiparasitic treatments according to farm conditions and local climate in Chongqing.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

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    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  12. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

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    Megbaru Alemu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total of 400 (240 male and 160 female pre-school children were eligible to provide stool samples. Wet mount preparations and Kato Katz technique were applied to process stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 29.3% in the study. Six protozoan and helminthic parasites were indentified and Hymenelopis nana was the predominant species (8.75% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.75, Entamoeba histolytica (5%, Enterobius vermicularis (5% and Ascaris lumbricoides (4%. Hookworms and Schistosomiasis mansoni were the least prevalent species. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitosis was high in the study area which indicates a need for provision of anti protozoan and anti helminthics, sanitation, provision of safe water supply and latrines accompanied by appropriate health education.

  13. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anette; Magnussen, P.; Ouma, J.H.;

    1998-01-01

    hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency......hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency...

  14. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar  belakang:  Infeksi  cacing  usus  yang  ditularkan melalui tanah  (Soil  Transmitted  Helminth-STH merupakan infeksi tersering dan terbanyak di antara infeksi-infeksi parasit. Kunci pemberantasan kecacingan adalah memperbaiki higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang meningkatkan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar (SD.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan sampel purposif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di  suatu SD di  wilayah kerja  Puskesmas  di Yogyakarta  pada  bulan Oktober  sampai Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan survei tinja dan wawancara. Pemeriksaan tinja menggunakan metode Kato Katz dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil:  Di antara  211  subjek,  52  (24,6%  murid  mengidap cacingan dan  yang  terbanyak  adalah  Trichusis trihiura, sedangkan cacingan  Ascaris  lumbricoides,  sedangkan infeksi campuran Trichuris  trichiura  dan Hookworm sangat jarang. Risiko tertinggi (2,8 kali lipat terjadi di antara murid yang mempuyai kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari dibandngkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai kebiasan ini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 2,80; 95% interval kepercayaan  (CI = 1,22-4,04]. Subjek yang tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan atau tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun setelah buang air besar mempunyai risiko 2,2 kali terhadap terinfeksi cacingan.Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari, tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan dan tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun  setelah buang  air  besar mempertinggi  risiko infeksi cacingan.  (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6.AbstractBackground: Intestinal worm infections transmitted through the soil are the most common infection among parasitic infections. The key to worm eradication is to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. This study aimed to identify several risk factors related to occurrence of Soil

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  16. Virus Infection

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    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  17. Toxoplasmosis infection.

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    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  18. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

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    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHC790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e 1061002067904 3', genomic survey sequence. 34 0.35 2 EJ747450 |EJ747450.1 1092963009397 Global-Ocean-Sampl...ing_GS-30-02-01-1P0-1P3KB marine metagenome genomic clone 1061002067904 5', genomic survey...e GM_WBb0088C10 5', genomic survey sequence. 44 0.89 1 ED478939 |ED478939.1 AUAC-aav30g12.b1 Ascaris suum wh...ole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequ...4 1.2 2 DU901293 |DU901293.1 414531 Tomato HindIII BAC Library Solanum lycopersicum genomic clone LE_HBa0221E15 5, genomic survey

  20. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  1. 江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化及影响因素%Changes of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in rural residents of Jiangsu Province and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉钧; 孙凤华; 钱益新; 沈明学; 徐祥珍; 陈锦英

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化情况及其影响因素,为制定控制蛔虫感染对策提供依据.方法统计苏南、苏中和苏北1990~2002年间3次调查的农村人群蛔虫感染率、集体服药率、人均收入和自来水及卫生厕所使用率,探讨影响蛔虫感染率下降的主要因素.结果 13年来,3个片区人群蛔虫感染率均持续大幅度下降,2002年平均感染率2.14%,下降率为94.58%.苏中感染率最低,仅0.41%,下降率达98.92%;苏北感染率最高,为5.09%,下降率最低,为89.97%.累计集体服药率苏中为159.00%,显著高于苏南的103.00%和苏北的105.00%.居民人均收入、自来水和卫生厕所使用率由北向南逐渐升高,3个片区间差异有统计学意义.结论集体服药防治和经济卫生条件共同影响农村人群蛔虫感染率变化,尤其集体服药防治的作用更显著.

  2. Family clustering analysis of human infections of ascaris lumbricoides enterobius vermicularis and trichuris trichura in Qinghai province%青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何多龙

    2002-01-01

    目的 了解青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性。方法 调查和粪检方法按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,统计分析应用二项分布配合X2检验。结果 对青海省2803个家庭的14189人肠道蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫感染情况的分析表明,蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫的家庭聚集率分别为67.44%、22.60%和10.26%;蛔虫和蛲虫的感染户比率与家庭人口数呈正相关关系,随家庭人口数增加而上升;而家庭内人群感染率则与家庭人口数无关;鞭虫的感染户比率和人群感染率均与家庭人口数无关。结论 青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的感染均有家庭聚集性。

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON INFECTION OF HUMAN ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES IN RURAL DISTRICT OF HEBEI PROVINCE%河北省农村人群蛔虫感染的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霞; 刘洪斌; 马洪生; 李月平; 甄素娟; 孙克勤

    2006-01-01

    目的:了解当前我省人体重要寄生虫中蛔虫的流行特征,为今后有计划、有重点的开展蛔虫病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:应用分层整群随机抽样方法,2002年选择了6个中签县15个调查点,对调查对象采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便中蛔虫虫卵.结果:调查了7316人,检出蛔虫感染者117例,感染率为1.60%.蛔虫感染呈全省广泛性.分布,不同地区间差异有统计学意义(χ2=90.69,P<0.005),丰宁县感染率最高为4.60%;以10岁以下儿童感染较为严重,感染率为2.24%;不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.42,P<0.05),学龄前儿童最高,感染率为2.07%;性别间差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.00,P>0.05);由于感染率最高的丰宁县满族人口占98.60%,致使调查的民族分布,以满族感染率最高.蛔虫感染具有明显的家庭聚集性.结论:该省卫生条件较差的地区人群中蛔虫感染率较高,应作为今后蛔虫病防治的重点地区.

  4. 平顶山市875名中小学生蛔虫感染率调查%Survey of Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in 875 primary school pupils and middle school students in Pingdingshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红英; 王素琴; 李丽

    2005-01-01

    目的了解平顶山市中小学生寄生虫带虫情况. 方法采用改良加藤涂厚法. 结果小学生寄生虫感染率高于中学生,男性高于女性. 结论中小学生寄生虫感染情况不容忽视.

  5. ON Cleanliness of Hands in Diminution of Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Children%儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许隆祺; 肖东华; 周长海; 张雪强; 兰水根; 郑秀香; 张文玲; 付洁平; 叶波; 党辉; 诸宪祖; 黄时兰

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染之间关系.方法基线调查中所有蛔虫感染者均予一次性驱虫治疗.实验组开展洗手活动,对照组不开展洗手活动.1年中每2个月用加藤(Kato)厚涂片法检查受试者粪便1次,比较实验组和对照组中,试验前蛔虫感染阴性者,每次复查的新感染率(即两组新感染率比较);试验前蛔虫感染阳性治毕半月复查转阴者,每次复查的再感染率(即两组再感染率比较). 结果每2个月复查1次,按每次复查累计计算的新感染率与再感染率,实验组均非常显著低于对照组(P《0.001).1年后复查,蛔虫感染率实验组为35.2%,比项目前的68.3%下降48.5%;对照组为73.7%,比项目前的41.4%上升了78.0%.结论每日用香皂洗手保持手部清洁卫生,可以显著降低蛔虫感染率.

  6. Investigation on intestinal ascaris infection and insect repellent effect analysis in Pingli County of 2012%平利县2012年肠道蛔虫感染调查和驱虫效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解平利县正常人群蛔虫感染情况,为今后开展群防群治提供科学依据.方法 平利县疾控中心相关技术人员于2012年在本县部分乡镇、学校及区域进行了蛔虫感染率的调查和集体服药驱虫的效果观察.结果 服药前人均蛔虫感染率为14.29%,服药后蛔虫感染率为2.85%.结论 服用阿苯达唑对驱虫有良好的效果.

  7. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  8. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

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    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  9. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-

  10. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  11. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

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    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  12. Glucogeno sintasa en helmintos parasitos: inhibicion por benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomez-Banqueri; Garcia Ruiz,M. A.; M. Monteoliva; Sanchez-Moreno, M

    1987-01-01

    Se ha determinado el effecto inhibidor sobre la actividad Glucogeno sintetasa (E.C.2.41.11) por parte de cuatro antihelminticos: Albendazol, Mebendazol, Parbendazol y Tiabendazol. Observandose que en todos los casos, es el Parbendazol quien ha demostrado un mayor poder inhibidor sobre la glucógeno sintetasa de Ascaris suum, Fasciola hepatica y Moniezia expansa. El Tiabendazol es el anti-helmintico que menor efecto inhibidor ha presentado sobre la enzima en los tres parasitos objeto de nuestro...

  13. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  14. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  15. HOSPITAL BASED SURVEILLANCE OF ENTERIC PARASITES AN D COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECT IONS IN THE HOSPITAL CHILDREN WITH RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN AT KANCHEEPURAM

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    Kumudavathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are prevalent in developing countries like India and have been the important cau se of morbidity and mortality especially in children. OBJECTIVES: Estimate prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in hospital as well as in rural school children to obtain an ac curate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infections in Kancheepuram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2654 stool samples were collected, processed, and mic roscopically examined for intestinal parasites. 2267 were adults and remaining 387 were c hildren. In addition, 314 rural school children were also included in the study. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IPIs was estimated as 32.59% (739/2267 in hospital adults an d 55.50% (215/387 in hospital children and 56.68% (178/314 in rural school children; high prevalence rate was found among hospital children and in school children when compared to adu lts. Among the protozoans E. histolytica was the highest, followed by Giardia and among the helminths hookworm was highest followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, H ymenolepis nana and Strongoloides larvae respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasitic infections spreads due to low s tandards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, open air defecatio n and an illiterate population, thus suggesting need for regular surveys to minimize the IPIs rate in the community.

  16. Study of enteroparasites infection frequency and chemotherapeutic agents used in pediatric patients in a community living in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Morrone Fernanda B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoan and helminths affect more than two billion people worldwide and chemotherapy is the most commonly used therapeutic procedure. Considering the problems created by parasitic infections and the incorrect use of drugs, the aim of this work was to detect the frequency of enteroparasites infection and to estimate the use of chemotherapeutic agents in children living in the periphery of the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Ninety-six preschool age children, who had parasitological exams and who used antiparasitic drugs, were analyzed. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by stool examination repeated six months after treatment. The same diagnostic test was used to evaluate parasitological cure, which was defined as absence of eggs and cysts in the stool. From these children, 79 (82.3% were contaminated by some species of parasite, the most prevalent were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia. The most commonly used drugs were mebendazole (86% of prescriptions and metronidazole (30.3%. The cure rate in the 79 children, examined 6 months after treatment, was 65.3% for A. lumbricoides and 66.1% for T. trichiura. This study suggests that a continuous education program regarding the prevention and treatment of parasitic infections is an essential tool for their eradication.

  17. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

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    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  18. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  19. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

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    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  20. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  1. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever,...

  2. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  3. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  4. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  5. Impact of health education on soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren of the Peruvian Amazon: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

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    Theresa W Gyorkos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, the World Health Organization recommends school-based deworming programs with a health hygiene education component. The effect of such health hygiene interventions, however, has not been adequately studied. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a health hygiene education intervention on the occurrence of STH re-infection four months post-de-worming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An open-label pair-matched cluster-randomized trial was conducted in Grade 5 schoolchildren of 18 primary schools (9 intervention and 9 control in the Peruvian Amazon. Baseline assessment included interview with a pre-tested questionnaire and collection of single stool specimens that were examined using the single Kato-Katz thick smear. All schoolchildren were then treated with single-dose albendazole (400 mg. Schoolchildren in intervention schools then received 1 an initial one hour in-class activity on health hygiene and sanitation and 30-minute refresher activities every two weeks over four months; and 2 a half-day workshop for teachers and principals, while children in control schools did not. Four months later, STH infection was re-assessed in all schools by laboratory technologists blinded to intervention status. From April 21-October 20, 2010, a total of 1,089 schoolchildren (518 and 571 from intervention and control schools, respectively participated in this study. Intervention children scored significantly higher on all aspects of a test of STH-related knowledge compared with control children (aOR = 18·4; 95% CI: 12·7 to 26·6. The intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection at follow-up was statistically significantly lower (by 58% in children in intervention schools compared with children in control schools (aIRR = 0·42; 95% CI = 0·21 to 0·85. No significant changes in hookworm or Trichuris trichiura intensity were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A

  6. [Hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  7. THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN RURAL AREAS OF TONEKABON, IRAN

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    M. Rezaiian

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in northern parts of Iran, especially in rural areas. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the effect of some factors such as age, sex, region on the prevalence of intestinal parasites, a study was carried out in rural areas of Tonekabon, Caspian littoral, from Jul. 1991 to Feb. 1992. A total of 2368 stool samples were randomly collected from different age groups in 27 plain and mountain village. The samples wee examined by direct and formalin – ether concentration methods. 74.6% of samples wee positive for at least one species of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminthes was: Trichuris trichiura 22.5%. Ascaris lumbricoides 16.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis 10.3%, Hook Worms 4.6%, Trichostrongulus. spp. 3.7% and Hymenolepis nana 3%. The prevalence on intestinal protozoa was: Giardia lamblia 29.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 9.6%, Dientamoeba fragilis 2.5%. The rates for Taenia saginata and Enterobius vermicularis (non specific method were 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively.

  8. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  9. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P pigs in Study 1, but rare in healthy pigs (P pig farms in Jayawijaya. Local pig husbandry practices, such as confining pigs and heat-treating pig feeds, may be practical solutions to help minimize infection in village pigs in Jayawijaya.

  10. Feasibility study for the detection of Trichinella spiralis in a murine model using mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MID-FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de Anda, Fabián; Gallardo-Velazquez, Tzayhri; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Calderon-Dominguez, Georgina; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis

    2012-12-21

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and soft independent modelling by class analogies (SIMCA) was used to assess the feasibility of detecting Trichinella spiralis in a murine model. The selected FTIR wavenumber range was 1700-900 cm(-1) and the first derivative of the spectra was subjected to SIMCA analysis. The SIMCA model developed for rat meat spiked with T. spiralis larvae was successfully apply to classify non-infected from infected rat meat with a limit of detection of 3 larvae/10 g rat meat and no false positives with 99% confidence limit. To avoid false positives arising from the presence of other parasites, another chemometric model was developed to demonstrate the capacity of the model to discriminate between Ascaris suum, Taenia solium and T. spiralis. Results confirmed that this method could correctly distinguish these parasites. Additional studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of this technique for other types of muscle meats, including those relevant to human consumption.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (p<0.001). Anaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (p<0.05). Conclusions S.mansoni, undernutrition and anaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should

  12. Gender variations in the prevalence of parasitic infections and the level of awareness in adolescents in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, B; Oda, Y; Basnet, R; Rijal, B; Parajuli, K; Gurung, C K; Sherchand, J B

    2001-09-01

    The study was conducted in rural school adolescent children to investigate the awareness and its association in parasitic infections in boys and girls. Of the 182 children examined 119 (65.3%) were male and 63 (34.6%) were female, age ranged 12-20 years with median age 15 years. Out of 182 stool samples examined 73 (40%) were found to be positive for parasites in which two or more parasites were found in 10 stool samples. Giardia lamblia 33 (18.1%) was the predominant parasite followed by hook worm 27 (14.8%) Entamoeba histolytica 13 (7.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides 05 (2.7%), Hyminolepis nana 02 (2.2%) and Trichuris trichiuria 01 (0.5%). Thirty-one (49.2%) in 63 females and 40 (33.6%) of the 119 males were positive for parasitic infections. The prevalence of worm infection was significantly higher in female children than male (p < or = 0.05). In contrast to the high parasitic prevalence rate in females they possessed significantly higher levels of awareness about parasitic infections. Out of 119 males 99 (83.2%) and 61 (96.8%) of the 63 females (p < or = 0.05) knew that worms suck food from host body. Similarly, 62.2% of males and 96.85 of females (p < or = 0.05) knew that parasites suck blood from human body. More study should be carried out to find out the gender difference in parasitic infection and level of exposure to risk factors.

  13. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  14. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  15. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  16. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

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    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

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    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  18. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  19. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  20. 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞的细胞毒性作用%Cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on LLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小军; 彭卫东; 徐友妹; 袁铿

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞(LLC)的细胞毒作用. 方法 选用8种浓度的蛔虫提取物诱导小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞.分别在诱导后24、48、72 h采用四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)测A492值,计算细胞存活率和抑制率.结果 不同浓度的蛔虫提取物分别作用LLC细胞24、48和72 h,对LLC细胞的增殖均有明显的抑制作用,呈剂量依赖.且以48 h抑制作用最强,之后随着作用时间的延长,BEAL对肿瘤细胞的抑制作用降低. 结论 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞具有细胞毒性作用,能够诱导LLC细胞发生凋亡.%Objective To investigate the cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides (BEAL) on a lewis lung carcinoma cell (LLC) line in vitro.Methods Eight concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides were chosen to induce cytotoxicity in LLC.Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction, the cell survival rate and inhibition rate were calculated according to the A492 results of a microculture tetrazolium test (MTT).Results Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction with different concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides, the inhibition rate behaved in a concentration-dependent manner.The inhibition rate peaked 48 h after induction but decreased afterwards.Conclusion A whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides had varying levels of cytotoxicity on LLC and induced cell apoptosis.