WorldWideScience

Sample records for ascaris lumbricoides ova

  1. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  2. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  3. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  4. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leles Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species are possible: 1 Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2 Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3 Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4 Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  5. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  6. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    OpenAIRE

    Leles Daniela; Gardner Scott L; Reinhard Karl; Iñiguez Alena; Araujo Adauto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event fro...

  7. Pancreatitis secondary to Ascaris Lumbricoides: A case series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ab hameed Raina, Ghulam Nabi Yattoo, Feroz Ahmad Wani, Reyaz Ahmad Para, Khaild Hamid Changal, Arshed Hussain Parry

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infestations are endemic in tropical countries. Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis secondary to ascaris is more common in females. We describe three cases who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis and all of them were females and were diagnosed on ultrasonography. In t...

  8. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  9. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  10. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.

  11. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world’s population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumb...

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides: an unusual aetiology of gastric perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shahana; Kumar, Sanjeev; Satapathy, Ayusman; Ray, Udipta; Chatterjee, Souvik; Choudhury, Tamal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in the tropical countries, particularly in children. A wide range of clinical presentations are reported for GI ascariasis in both adults and children. We report a case of gastric perforation due to Ascaris, a rare presentation.

  13. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection. PMID:27066982

  14. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  15. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eser Kilic; Süleyman Yazar; Recep Saraymen; Hatice Ozbilge

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, I.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls.RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P<0.05)and for males (P<0.05). In the patient and control groups,no correlation was found between age and malondialdehyde levels (P>0.05) both in females and in males. In addition,no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

  16. [Comparative studies on the difference between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Pei-lan; Peng, Wei-dong

    2006-04-30

    There has been continued controversy on the taxonomy of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 from humans and Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 from pigs. This article reviews a range of comparative studies related to host susceptibility, morphology, karyotype, immunology and biochemistry, as well as molecular genetics in recent years.

  17. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China)

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient...

  18. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  19. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report Absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.Se presenta el caso de una mujer que vivía en zona rural con una enfermedad...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of human parasitic roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yung Chul; Kim, Won; Park, Joong-Ki

    2011-08-01

    The genome length of the Ascaris lumbricoides, human parasitic roundworm, is 14,281 bp with a nucleotide composition of 22.1% A, 49.8% T, 7.8% C, and 20.3% G. The genome consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.

  1. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  2. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  3. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Zheng; Bing-Yuan Wang; Fei Wang; Ran Ao; Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man,which can lead to various complications because of its mobility.As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris,the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare.An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies.The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus.Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning.The patient fasted,and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate.Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb.The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis.The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus.Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up.Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus,emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  4. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Background: The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results: We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the ...

  5. Chronic intussusception in children caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Harry; Palčevski, Goran; Saina, Giordano; Peršić, Mladen

    2011-05-01

    Chronic intussusception (CI) is defined as an intussusception lasting for 14 days or more. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, sometimes an abdominal mass is palpable and there is a marked weight loss. Diagnosis is based on typical features revealed by ultrasound or barium enema and CT investigations. Therapy is surgical with obligatory exclusion of possible underlying lesions. We report a case of a 3.5-year-old girl with chronic intussusception. Laboratory blood findings revealed sideropenic anemia and stools positive for Ascaris lumbricoides. Anti-parasitic therapy with mebendazole was repeatedly administered with early improvements but soon after symptoms relapsed. During surgery an ileocolic chronic intussusception extending to hepatic flexure was found. Postoperative control examinations proved complete healing. We suspected that Ascaris lumbricoides infestation was an etiologic factor for the development of chronic intussusception in the child.

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Isabel; Giusti, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    A. lumbricoides is the largest of the common nematode parasites of man and has been associated with intestinal pathology, respiratory symptoms and malnutrition in children from endemic areas. Current anthelmintic treatments have proven to be safe. However, a reduced efficacy of single dose drugs has been reported. In veterinary practice, anthelmintic drug resistance is an irreversible problem. Thus, research and development of sensitive tools for early detection of drug resistance as well as new anthelmintic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we summarized data providing information about current drug therapy against A. lumbricoides and other intestinal helminths, new drugs in experimental trials, future drugs perspectives and the identification of immunogenic parasite molecules that may be suitable vaccine targets. In addition to the WHO recommended drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate), new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. Also, some new drugs for veterinary use, monepantel and cyclooctadepsipeptides (e.g., PF1022A), will probably expand future drug spectrum for human treatments. The development of genomic technology has provided a great amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data that may lead to the identification of new drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. On the other hand, the identification of nematode antigens involved in different parasite vital functions as well as immunomodulatory molecules in animals and humans may contribute to future studies of new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Kanneganti; Makker, Jasbir S.; Prospere Remy

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infec...

  8. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  9. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the refer...

  10. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the reference geno...

  11. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  12. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  13. Elektroforetska analiza proteina iz spolnih organa i kutikule glista Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Julisar Elaine; Normandee Comia, Mary; Oyong, Glenn; Claveria, Florencia

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum bili su analizirani radi utvrđivanja sličnosti i razlike u elektroforetskoj pokretljivosti proteina iz njihove kutikule i spolnih organa. U obje vrste dokazana je znatna sličnost proteinskoga profila. Elektroforezom iscrpka kutikule ženki ustanovljeno je deset zajedničkih vrpci za obje vrste, dok je elektroforezom proteina kutikule mužjaka dobiveno 12 zajedničkih vrpci proteina od čega je najmanje pet proteina bilo zajedničko za oba spola. Usporedbom protei...

  14. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  15. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  16. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  17. The Half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides Prevalence in Japanese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Da-Hong; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takaki, Jiro; Ito, Takehiko; Kurosawa,Carmen Miwa; Takigawa,Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearsonʼs correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children...

  18. Ascaris lumbricoides-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Diagnosis during EUS for a Suspected Small Pancreatic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Mangiavillano; Silvia Carrara; Maria Chiara Petrone; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2009-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Case report We describe the case of a 37- year-old man, with a history of travelling in Eastern countries who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking a small pancreatic cancer, diagnosed during an upper EUS. The endoscopy revealeda roundworm floating i...

  19. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  20. Obstrução nasolacrimal em criança: Ascaris lumbricoides como uma causa incomum Nasolacrimal obstruction in a child: Ascaris lumbricoides as an unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Helder Palma Araújo; Sérgio Schneider Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo descreve um caso incomum de obstrução de vias lacrimais por Ascaris lumbricoides em uma criança de 1 ano de idade e faz um breve relato de outros casos semelhantes na literatura, enfatizando a necessidade de se pensar em helmintíase como provável causa de obstrução lacrimal em crianças desnutridas que moram em áreas de alta prevalência de parasitose intestinal.This article describes an unusual case of an obstruction of the tear ducts caused by Ascaris lumbricoides in an one-year-o...

  1. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  2. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Geostatistical modeling of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.The following study intends to model the spatial distribution of ascariasis, through the use of geoprocessing and geostatistic analysis. The database used in the study was taken from the PAISQUA project, including a coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey, conducted in 19 selected census tracts of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, randomly selecting a group of 1,550 children aged 1 to 9 years old plotting them in their respective domicile's centroids. Risk maps of Ascaris lumbricoides were generated by indicator kriging. The estimated and observed values from the cross-validation were compared using a ROC curve. An isotropic spherical semivariogram model with a range of 30m and nugget effect of 50% was employed in ordinary

  3. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008. Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquellas donde la gente acostumbra a defecar a ras del suelo, pues no tiene el recurso económico necesario para construir baños, ni dispone de agua potable. Esta parasitosis afecta a 25 a 35% de la población mundial (Biagi, 2004 (Becerril, 2008. Generalmente los pacientes infectados por este nematodo cursan asintómaticos, pero en caso contrario la sintomatología dependerá de la fase del ciclo vital en la que el parásito se encuentre pudiendo existir síntomas pulmonares o gastrointestinales, incluso en ciertas poblaciones como la pediátrica podría incluso ocasionar la muerte por múltiples mecanismos dentro de los cuales se incluyen la migración errática y/o la obstrucción intestinal (MS., 1996

  4. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  5. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  6. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Martha E Chico; Nutman, Thomas B.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Ascaris lumbricoides may have important effects on allergy and susceptibility to infectious diseases that start in early life. To investigate if sensitization to Ascaris occurs in utero, we measured IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in Ascaris antigen-stimulated cord blood of newborns of infected and non-infected mothers using flow cytometry. There was evidence of elevated frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers compared to those of n...

  7. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  8. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  9. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  10. Cellular responses and cytokine profiles in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stefan M; Massara, Cristiano L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Soboslay, Peter T; Carvalho, Omar S; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    The impact of intestinal helminth infection, i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, on cellular responsiveness and cytokine production was investigated in young adults. Ascaris-specific cellular responsiveness was higher in parasite-free endemic controls than in patients infected with T. trichiura, or A. lumbricoides, or patients co-infected with both parasites. Also, mitogen-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was higher in negative endemic controls than in infected individuals. Ascaris antigen-specific production of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IFN-gamma was low in singly Ascaris as well as in co-infected patients, whereas secretion of IL-10 and IL-13 was elevated and similarly high in all patient groups. The detection of Trichuris-specific and Ascaris-specific IgG4 revealed significantly higher serum antibody levels in Trichuris or Ascaris patients when compared to endemic controls (P Trichuris patients with a high parasite load presented reduced cellular reactivity and lower type 1 TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses when compared with endemic controls, whereas type 2 IL-10 and IL-13 productions were similar in all groups from the endemic area. The former may support parasite persistence, whereas substantial type 2 cytokine release may promote protective immunity, suggesting an adaptation of the host to control the parasite burden while minimizing immune-mediated host self-damage.

  11. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  12. Massive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides of the biliary tract: report of a successfully treated case Infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides nas vias biliares: relato de um caso tratado com sucesso

    OpenAIRE

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior; José Abi Karam; Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes Warth; Alexandre Frederico de Marca; José Jukemura; Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado; Antonino dos Santos Rocha

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of a 25 years old black woman from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who developed acute obstructive cholangitis of Ascaris lumbricoides with septicemia and multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient had sickle cell trait and normal delivery 3 months ago. Massive infestation of the biliary tract by Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Sixty worms were removed from the common bile duct and hepatic abscesses were d...

  13. Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively.

  14. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  15. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  16. P System antigenic determiners expression in Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce De León Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The P System antigens have been detected in numerous parasites, bacterias and viruses, nevertheless the clinical significance is still unknown. The aim was to study the presence of P1 antigenic determiners in A. lumbricoides extracts by means of the use of 6 different monoclonal antibodies of well-known concentrations and Ig class. We worked with 14 A. lumbricoides extracts. Inhibition Agglutination Test was made in a bromelin enzymatic medium and 4 masculineC temperature. Titre, Score and Sensitivity Parameter were determined for each monoclonal antibody against red cells suspension used as revealing system. Ten extracts inhibited the agglutination of all anti P1 monoclonal antibodies. The 4 remaining extracts only inhibited the agglutination of some of them. It is demonstrated that the extracts have P1 activity. This activity is independent of titre, Score, Sensitivity Parameter, concentration and Ig class and it depends on the epitope at which the monoclonal antibody is directed.

  17. New Allergens of Relevance in Tropical Regions: The Impact of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    One of the many aspects of the relationships between parasite infections and allergic diseases is the possibility that allergens from parasites enhance the TH2 responses, especially IgE production, in allergic diseases such as asthma. In this review we discuss about the allergenic composition of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and their potential impact on allergy sensitization and asthma pathogenesis and prevalence in populations living in the tropics and naturally exposed to both, mite al...

  18. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Acevedo; Jens Mohr; Josefina Zakzuk; Martin Samonig; Peter Briza; Anja Erler; Anna Pomés; Huber, Christian G.; Fatima Ferreira; Luis Caraballo

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and compa...

  19. A Community Based Survey of the Burden of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu

    OpenAIRE

    Chijioke, IR; Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, GCA; Okafor, CI; Ekejindu, IM; Sridhar, MKC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is common in our environment and antihelminthic drugs are specie specific. Thus, need to identify and characterize the species cannot be overemphasized. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 361 subjects in Enugu metropolis was carried out in this study. A single stool sample was collected for examination from the subjects, using appropriately labelled clean specimen contain...

  20. Management of biliary Ascaris lumbricoides in Kabul, Afghanistan: crossroads of advancing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Richard Gerard; Tani, Mohammad Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The case is presented of the successful removal of a dead Ascaris lumbricoides from the right hepatic duct of a middle aged woman from a rural province in Afghanistan. The case was started laparoscopically, but converted to an open procedure because of difficulty identifying the anatomic landmarks required to safely perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After worm removal, the common bile duct (CBD) was reconstructed with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The patient was discharged on postoper...

  1. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby NM

    2016-01-01

    Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and asc...

  2. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  3. The role of dogs in transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, H A; Abdel-Shafy, S; Derbala, A A

    2010-04-01

    The dog's role as a definitive host for a number of zoonotic parasites has been widely studied and recognized as being a significant public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to report, for the first time, our investigation into the role of dogs as a biological transmitter for Ascaris lumbricoides, via necropsy of a sample of rural stray dogs in a developing community in Giza governorate, Egypt, where promiscuous defecation by human was common, and examination for A. lumbricoides worms as well as other ascaridiod nematodes of dogs. The recovered worms were identified in the laboratory after observing cephalic alae and egg morphology under a microscope, as well as scanning electron microscopy of their anterior ends. Of the 25 dogs examined, 14 were infected with Toxocara canis (56.0%), two with Toxascaris leonina (8.0%), and two with A. lumbricoides (8.0%). One dog was co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina. A. lumbricoides eggs were shown to be viable and 75-80% of eggs embryonated following 3 weeks of incubation at 28 degrees C. The present study suggested that dogs could act as reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides and environmental contaminators that increase risk of infection in humans.

  4. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  5. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  6. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  7. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Spatial distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Luis Iván Ortiz Valencia; Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes; Ricardo Cerqueira Campos Braga; Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As téc...

  8. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  9. Changes in plasma cytokines after treatment of ascaris lumbricoides infection in individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blish, Catherine A; Sangaré, Laura; Herrin, Bradley R; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2010-06-15

    Albendazole treatment of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Ascaris lumbricoides co-infection has led to significantly improved CD4(+) cell counts and a trend for lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. To define mechanisms by which deworming contributed to changes in markers of HIV-1 disease progression, plasma cytokine levels were evaluated. Albendazole treatment, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly decreased plasma interleukin (IL) 10 levels (P = .01)ot associated with significant changes in levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Treatment of A. lumbricoides co-infection may delay HIV-1 disease progression by reducing helminth-induced, IL-10-mediated immunosuppression.

  10. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  11. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout ...

  12. A related moderately repetitive DNA family in the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and Panagrellus silusiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, T; Pasternak, J J

    1988-01-01

    Digestion of genomic DNA from the nematodes Panagrellus silusiae and Ascaris lumbricoides with restriction endonuclease BamH1 releases a 0.7 kilobase (kb) fragment. The 0.7 kb fragment from both nematodes was cloned onto E. coli plasmid pUC19. Using representative clones as DNA hybridization probes, it was found that (i) the BamH1 fragments cross-hybridize; (ii) a ladder-effect with multiples of 0.7 kb was evident in both species after hybridization to genomic DNA and (iii) the genomic copy n...

  13. DAMPAK PENGELOLAAN TINJA TERPADU TERHADAP INFEKSI ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DI DAERAH KOTA (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinardi Hadidjaja; Sri S. Margono; Adi Sasongko; Rumsah Rasad

    2012-01-01

    A study on the health impact of integrated environmental sanitary management was done in the village of Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. As an indicator of health status, Ascaris lumbricoides infection in school children was used. The result of the study before the intervention showed that the prevalence of A. lumbircoides infec­tion in school children who lived in RW 06 Pisangan Baru was 46.3% and 45.7% who lived in RW 013. Ex­amination of sewage water in ditches showed 42% positive with A. lumb...

  14. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes; Luis Iván Ortiz Valencia; Simone do Vale Ribeiro; Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    2004-01-01

    O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validaçã...

  15. Type I-like intervening sequences are found in the rDNA of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, H; Müller, F.; Etter, A; Tobler, H

    1987-01-01

    The intervening sequences in the large ribosomal RNA gene of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum show many similarities to the type I insertions, previously found only in some insect species. They include structural features, but also a presumed transcriptional inactivity in vivo: No transcript of the rDNA intervening sequence in A. lumbricoides could be detected in Northern and dot blot hybridizations. However, the primary structure of the Pol I promoter region is well conserved in interrupted an...

  16. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid Javed; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Sultan, Nabeel; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Mehraj, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) is one of the most common helminthic infections of humans, affecting mainly children and malnourished individuals residing in developing countries. It is estimated the 25% of the world’s population is infected with this nematode. Infection occurs via ingestion of water and food contaminated by Ascaris eggs, causing asymptomatic infection to disease with abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and faecal passage of worms. The present report concerns an unusual case in ...

  17. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  18. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  19. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Spatial distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rodrigues Campos

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As técnicas de geoestatística permitiram a análise exploratória espacial, variografia e krigagem ordinária. A análise estatística inclui teste "t" de Student, odds ratio e intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada para A. lumbricoides foi de 27,5%. A renda familiar, o nível de escolaridade da dona de casa e as condições peridomiciliares foram identificados como fatores significativamente associados à ocorrência de ascaríase. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 150 metros, contribuição de 0,45 e efeito pepita de 0,55 foi empregado na krigagem ordinária. CONCLUSÕES: A continuidade espacial de aproximadamente 150 metros corrobora a influência do peridomicílio na ascaríase. Pela krigagem ordinária, foi possível estimar a ocorrência da doença em toda a área de estudo e construir um mapa de risco.OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk areas for Ascaris lumbricoides parasitic overload, using geoprocessing and geostatistic methods of analysis. METHODS: A coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey was conducted in 19 selected census districts of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A sample of 1,664 children aged between 1--9 years was selected and plotted in their own home' centroid. Geostatistics techniques allowed spatial exploratory analysis, variographic study, and ordinary kriging. Student t-test, odds ratio and confidence intervals were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS

  20. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  1. Confirmation of the protective effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Plasmodium falciparum infection: results of a randomized trial in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2007-12-01

    A controlled randomized trial of anti-helminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Plasmodium falciparum, and Schistosoma mansoni. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 107 subjects, whereas 105 were controls. Levamisole was highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P 15 years of age. This study confirms the results of a randomized trial, which showed a negative interaction in those > 5 years of age between Ascaris and malaria parasite density in another Malagasy population, submitted to a higher malaria transmission.

  2. Chemokines responses to ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection with hookworm among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorodion Oriri Asemota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geohelminth infections are predominant in Nigeria and communities at greatest risks are those with poor environmental/sanitary conditions and unhygienic habits. Chemokine ligands (CXCL a class under chemokine group play important roles in the immune system by either mediating susceptible or protective immune responses to parasitic infections. Aim: This study was to assess the impact of Ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection on some serum chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11 in infected Nigerians. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 individuals attending Agbor general hospital were examined for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Thereafter, sera were obtained from positive volunteers and control group using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to examine the impact of these helminth infections on the serum concentration of some chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11. Results: The mean sera levels of CXCL5 and CXCL9 in infected volunteers were higher than the control subjects. Also, positive correlation was recorded for CXCL9 (P > 0.05, while negative responses were seen for CXCL5 and CXCL11 (P > 0.05 in relation to increase in the intensities of infections. CXCL9 was more expressed in A. lumbricoides + hookworm co-infections than single. Furthermore, the mean concentration of CXCL5 was higher in infected females than males (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The proinflammatory responses of CXCL5 and CXCL9 to A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections could be an indication of the meditating roles of these chemokines in the immune system to either confer some form of host/parasite immunity or susceptibility.

  3. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  4. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Mônica Rodrigues; Valencia Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Braga Ricardo Cerqueira Campos; Medronho Roberto de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As téc...

  5. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kosuke Kaji; Mitsuteru Kitade; Hideto Kawaratani; Masahito Uemura; Junichi Yamao; Masao Fujimoto; Akira Mitoro; Masahisa Toyohara; Motoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Fukui; Hitoshi Yoshiji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Masaharu Yamazaki; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Ryuichi Noguchi; Masayoshi Sawai; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Tsuyoshi Mashitani

    2007-01-01

    Although the etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, the postulated causes include allergies,parasites, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. It is sometimes accompanied by several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rares. A 28-year-old woman complained of acute right hypocondrial pain and dyspnea associated with systemic eruption. Several imaging modalities revealed acute cholecystitis and pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion. A marked peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, and the eruption was diagnosed as urticaria. Her serum had a high titer of antibody against Ascaris lumbricoides. Treatment with albendazole drastically improved all clinical manifestations along with normalization of the imaging features and eosinophilia. We report herein a rare case of simultaneous onset of acute cholecystitis and pericarditis associated with a marked eosinophilia caused by parasitic infection.

  6. Structural basis for the immunomodulatory function of cysteine protease inhibitor from human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs.

  7. Aspectos imunológicos na infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Ana Catarina Rodrigues Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Ascaris lumbricoides é um parasita, geo-helminta, a sua prevalência é maior em zonas quentes e húmidas, em que as condições de saneamento e higiene são precárias. É o principal responsável por parasitoses intestinais, principalmente em crianças, manifestando-se por náuseas, vómitos e dor abdominal. Em casos mais graves pode causar défice no desenvolvimento físico e cognitivo. O sistema imun...

  8. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  9. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (Plumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  10. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (Plumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far.

  12. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.A. de; Del Caro, S.R.; Bender Lamego, C.M.; Mercon de Vargas, P.R.; Vervloet, V.E.C.

    1985-02-01

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-02-01

    The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  15. Serum cytokines profiles in Nigerian children withAscaris lumbricoides infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irior Dominic Osagie; Abu Maliki

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytokines profile in the serum of some Nigerian children with Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) infection and relations between the intensity of infection, age and the concentration of these cytokines.Methods: Feacal samples from consenting children were examined using formol ether concentration techniques and Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Sera of 96 children comprising 76A. lumbricoides infection and 20 controls were subjected to enzymes-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The mean sera concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were (16.7±7.6) pg/mL, (4.6±0.8)pg/mL, (391.6±52.0) pg/mL and (181.2±30.4) pg/mL, respectively. The control subjects had the following mean serum cytokines: TNF-α(2.9±1.8) pg/m, IL-4 (4.0±0.1) pg/mL, IL-5 (125.1±50.1) pg/mL, IL-10 (74.5±54.2) pg/mL, respectively. The difference between the sera cytokines concentration of theA. lumbricoides infected children and their controls were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL- 5 and IL-10(χ2= 9.99,P< 0.05;χ2 = 137.24,P < 0.05;χ2 = 44.30,P < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of infection correlated positively with TNF-α, and IL-5 (r = 0.93 and 0.98, respectively) while IL-4 and IL- 10 correlated negatively with the intensity of infection (r = -0.62 and 0.99, respectively). TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with age (r = 0.19, 0.33 and 0. 66, respectively). The mean cytokines between those with mild and moderate infections were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 (χ2 = 3.60, 4.52 and 5.30, respectively). The ratio of TNF-α: IL-10 was 0.092.Conclusions: Elevated IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α found in the sera of the volunteers with Ascariasis implicates these cytokines as key mediators in the host responses toA. lumbriocoides infection in our studied area.

  16. Possible Approach for Serodiagnosis of Ascariasis by Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G4 Response Using Ascaris lumbricoides Somatic Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Tanusree; Santra, Amal; Majumder, Debendra N. Guha; Chatterjee, Bishnu P.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides was purified to homogeneity (molecular mass, 34 kDa) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographic procedures, namely, gel permeation, ion exchange, and high-performance gel permeation liquid chromatographies. The antigen showed strong binding with immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Ascaris-infested patients and was cross-reactive with IgE and IgG in patients infested with other nematodes. It reacted specifically with IgG4 (P < 0.001) in 63 As...

  17. Co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides modulates protective immune responses against Giardia duodenalis in school Venezuelan rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (plumbricoides lightly parasitized children, G. duodenalis infection was associated to a significant increase (plumbricoides moderately parasitized group, being those levels similarly lower as those observed in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between the levels of anti G duodenalis antibodies, skin test hyper-reactivity and cytokines with the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection (p>0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.

  18. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (plumbricoides (plumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (plumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic areas and also that improved hygienic conditions in the urban environment is associated with increased responses to airborne allergens.

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  20. [Elimination of juvenile stages of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758) by mouth. Report of a case and some epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Pino Q, Gloria; Muñoz S, Nelson; Tobar C, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Ascariosis is a parasitic disease caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large geohelmint endemic in our country. At present, ascariosis is a rare infection in Chile. We present a case of an adult, resident of the Villa Alemana municipality, Valparaiso Region, who spontaneously expelled two juvenile nematodes by mouth. We review the manifestations produced by the larval and adult stages of this parasite including their diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological considerations.

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene.

  2. Multiparasitic Infection (Hydatid Cyst of the Spleen and Ascaris Lumbricoides Infestation) Mimicking an Acute Surgical Abdomen – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar Călin; Vizitiu Alexandru; Deak Karoly; Russu Cristian; Tudor Adrian; Suciu Bogdan; Stolnicu Simona; Hulub Marius; Molnar Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst involving the spleen is a rare clinical condition (0.5-4%). We report a case of multi-parasitic infection in a 62 year old female (hydatid cyst and ascaris lumbricoides infestation), confirmed during surgery. The purpose of the paper is to emphasize on the rare association of the two parasitic infections, affecting two different organs (spleen and jejunum). The combined symptomatology of the two parasites could mimic an acute surgical abdomen.

  3. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.

  4. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Anderson Roy M; Hall Andrew; Walker Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from ...

  5. Successful treatment of lipoid pneumonia associated with bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Sias, Selma; Oliveira Caetano, Regina; Dutra Comarella, Júlia; de Oliveira, Elen; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-08-01

    Partial bowel obstruction is a serious complication of ascariasis infestation generally treated with mineral oil. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) as a therapeutic strategy for reducing lung inflammation of lipoid pneumonia associated with ascariasis. The study included five children (mean age 25 months) with partial small-bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides, who underwent diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage for assessment of refractory pneumonia. Routine biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis were carried out in the BAL. Protein, lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) cytokine levels were determined in the serum before and after treatment. At admission, children consistently had respiratory symptoms, altered hematological function, increased immunoglobulin E serum level and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Chest tomography showed consolidation with air bronchogram (4/4), ground-glass infiltration (3/4) and decreased attenuation in the consolidation areas (2/4). Presence of marked pleocytosis with Sudan positive foamy alveolar macrophages, high protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL indicated presence of mixed alveolitis. One child with extensive consolidation and air bronchogram in both lungs died before treatment. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages efficiently removed alveolar oil deposits, restored BAL cellularity, improved clinical symptoms, radiological parameters and further reduced inflammatory reaction evidenced by marked decrease of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. This study presents a therapeutic strategy for management of lung complications caused by mineral oil administration to treat intestinal bowel obstruction associated with ascariasis. PMID:20026557

  6. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  7. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Morales; Luz Arelis Pino

    1988-01-01

    La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminació...

  8. Ascaris lumbricoides EGGS AND HUMAN-INTESTINAL PROTOZOAN CYSTS FOUND IN RIVER WATER OF ANGKE RIVER, JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Lisawati Sutanto; Rizal Subahar

    2008-01-01

    Fecal contamination is a serious environmental problem at Angke River Jakarta. A cross-sectional study was conducted during April-June 2007 and the aim of the study is to assess the water quality of Angke River by detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and the protozoan cysts. A total 24 L water of Angke River was collected from 8 sampling locations consisted of Kembangan/Duri Kosambi (upper reaches of river), Pesing Polgar (lower reaches of river), Teluk Gong (lower reaches of river), Pantai...

  9. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Andreas Schüle; Petra Clowes; Inge Kroidl; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Anthony Nsojo; Chacha Mangu; Helene Riess; Christof Geldmacher; Rüdiger Paul Laubender; Seif Mhina; Leonard Maboko; Thomas Löscher; Michael Hoelscher; Elmar Saathoff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sect...

  10. Follow-up of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in children living in a community treated with ivermectin at 3-monthly intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Ranque, S.; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Garcia, A.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Ivermectin treatment was administered every 3 months over a 1-year period (April 1993-April 1994) to the whole eligible population of a village in South Cameroon where both #Ascaris lumbricoides$ and #Trichuris trichiura$ were hyper-endemic. A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment. Thirty children, aged 5-15 years, were not only found egg-positive for #A. lumbricoides$ and/or #T. trichiura$ before the first treatment but were also each treated and examined in e...

  11. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  13. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth.

  14. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  15. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  16. Characterization and expression of a spliced leader RNA in the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, T W; Shambaugh, J; Denker, J.; Chubb, G; Faser, C; Putnam, L.; Bennett, K.

    1989-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris spp. contains a 22-nucleotide spliced-leader (SL) sequence identical to the trans-SL previously described in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The SL comprises the first 22 nucleotides of a approximately 110-base RNA and is transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The SL RNA contains a trimethylguanosine cap and a consensus Sm binding site. Furthermore, the Ascaris SL RNA has the potential to adopt a secondary structure which is nearly identical to potential ...

  17. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  18. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth. PMID:24818416

  19. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors.

  2. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Garn, JV; Mwandawiro, CS; Nikolay, B.; Drews-Botsch, CD; Kihara, JH; Brooker, SJ; Simiyu, EW; Okoyo, C; Freeman, MC

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children atte...

  3. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    Weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakKecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Penyakit ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan gizi, pertumbuhan dan penurunan produktifitas kerja. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen sebagai akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar IFN-γ dan IL-10 antara orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dan tidak terinfeksi...

  4. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Kecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen yang terjadi akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar IFN-γdan IL-10 pada orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dengan tidak terinfeksi yang diinduksi vaksi BCG.Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Muara Fajar Kecamatan...

  5. Hubungan Infeksi Cacing Ascaris Lumbricoides Dengan Indeks Massa Tubuh Pada Siswa Perempuan SD Salsabila Kecamatan Medan Marelan Kota Medan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides) merupakan salah satu penyebab infeksi dengan prevalensi mencapai 60-90% di Indonesia. Cacing ini dapat mengambil sumber karbohidrat dan protein di usus sebelum diserap tubuh. Infeksi cacing banyak diderita anak sekolah dasar, yaitu sekitar 40-60%. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan studi cross-sectional. Sampel diambil dengan metode consecutive sampling pada siswa perempuan kelas I sampai kelas VI SD Salsabil...

  6. Hubungan Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Terhadap Hasil Uji Tusuk Kulit (Skin Prick Test) dengan Alergen dari Cacing Ascaris pada Anak Sekolah Dasar Negeri 047/XI Koto Baru yang Memiliki Riwayat Atopi di Kecamatan Pesisir Bukit Kota Sungai Penuh Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, intestinal worms that are transmitted through the soil (Soil-transmitted helminthiasis) is a common infection that involves many people in the world. Estimates suggests Ascaris lumbricoides infects over one billion people. The number of most worm infections apply to sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, China and East Asia. Prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases in children has increased worldwide in recent years, but the reason behind the increase in prevalence is un...

  7. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  8. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H; Dekaminsky, R; Niwas, S; Soto, R; Jolly, P

    2001-04-01

    Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9) and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4) respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001), level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01), reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02), households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002), and the location of households (p=0.03). Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively), ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively) and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR)=22.2), children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8), and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0) were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively).

  9. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  10. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  11. Observação in vitro da ação dos isolados fúngicos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides (Lineu, 1758) In vitro observation of the action of isolates of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamydosporium on the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio R. Braga; Jackson V. Araújo; Artur K. Campos; Rogério O. Carvalho; André R. Silva; Alexandre O. Tavela; Alessandro S. Maciel

    2007-01-01

    Observou-se a ação in vitro dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides. Após sete, dez e quatorze dias de interação, o fungo promissor a ser utilizado no controle biológico de Asaris lumbricoides foi o Verticillium chlamydosporium (26-30%). Os outros fungos não foram satisfatórios.The in vitro action of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamyd...

  12. Analysis of clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices in hospitalized children with Ascaris lumbricoides infection from the northeastern region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Kaczmarski, Maciej G; Sawicka-Zukowska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Majewska, Anna; Plewa, Katarzyna; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Debkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common soil-transmitted helminth infection in the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices of ascariasis in hospitalized children from the northeastern region of Poland. Patients in the Pediatric Ward hospitalized in the Regional Hospital in Dabrowa Białostocka in the period of 2005-2007 were included in this retrospective study. The intestinal stage of ascariasis was diagnosed on the basis of positive coprological survey performed using the decantation technique. A total of 938 patients were included in the study, 1801 stool samples were evaluated, and A. lumbricoides-positive tests were obtained from 252 children. Ascaris-positive young children (Ascaris-positive preschool-aged children (4-7 yrs) accounted for 8.1% and school-aged children (8-18 yrs) for 15.8%. Seasonal patterns were observed in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides (maximum in August-December). There was no relationship between BMI z-score, hemoglobin levels and prevalence of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Significant predictors of intestinal stage ascariasis in a multivariate logistic regression model were: abdominal pain as a reason for hospital admission (OR-2.19; 95% CI 1.62-2.95; p < 0.001) and age from 4 to 7 years (OR-2.0; 95% CI 1.41-2.80; p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of ascariasis was not higher in the group of patients with atopic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) and co-existing ascariasis did not affect the eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. Ascariasis is still a current pediatric clinical problem characterized by non-specific clinical manifestations, which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of children's diseases.

  13. Prevalência e intensidade de infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides em amostra populacional urbana (São Paulo, SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira; Marcelo Urbano Ferreira; Marcos Roberto Nogueira

    1991-01-01

    Pesquisaram-se ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides em amostras fecais de 407 moradores (8,87% do total) de uma favela da cidade de São Paulo. Realizaram-se exames qualitativos (sedimentação por gravidade) e quantitativos (técnica de Kato & Miura adaptada a contagens). Discutem-se aspectos diferenciais da epidemiologia da ascaríase em áreas urbanas e rurais, com base em dados deste estudo e da literatura. Salienta-se a importância, em epidemiologia, da quantificação de exames de fezes.Prevalence and ...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite A. lumbricoides has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution.

  15. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.

  16. Current status of the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole for the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides in North-Western Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke Nadia Diniyanti Lubis; Syahril Pasaribu; Chairuddin Panusunan Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of albendazole and mebendazole in the treatment ofAscaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) in theNorth-WesternIndonesia.Methods:229 primary school children who were positive forA. lumbricoides in their stool were recruited in the study.123 children received single-dose of400 mg albendazole and106 children received single-dose500 mg of mebendazole.After1 week, their stools were examined for the cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate(ERR).Egg culture was also performed and observation was made on week-1, -3, -4.Results:have shown a non-significant difference inCR96.7%vs.100%; and ERR of99.3%vs.100.0% for albendazole and mebendazole groups respectively(P>0.05).In-vitro egg culture has shown trends of decrease in the percentage of the unfertilized eggs and in≥2 cell eggs in both treatment groups(P<0.05).The embryonated eggs from the albendazole groups has shown an increase from7.3% on week-1 to13.8% on week-4, whilst the mebendazole group has shown a constant increase during the whole4 weeks of culture from7.5% to28.3%(P<0.01). Conclusions:No evidence of drug resistance is noted so far from the area ofNorth-Western part ofIndonesia.In addition, although both drugs showed incomplete ovicidal effects, single-dose albendazole is better than mebendazole in sterilizingA. lumbricoideseggs.

  17. El grado de agregación de Ascaris lumbricoides según grupos de edad, después de una intervención antihelmíntica de masas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Ruíz; Guadalupe Ocampo; Araceli Soto; José, Marco V.

    1996-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir la heterogeneidad de la reinfección por Ascaris lumbricoides según grupos de edad, en distintos intervalos, después de un primer tratamiento antihelmíntico masivo. Material y métodos. A partir de datos de la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por A. lumbricoides obtenidos en un estudio epidemiológico de ascariasis, realizado en Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, México, se deriva el grado de agregación por medio del método de máxima verosimilitud, asumiendo una distribución bi...

  18. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji; Pedro Gutiérrez Castrellón; Marco Antonio Yamazaki Nakashimada; Juan Carlos Arredondo Suárez; Teresita Campos Rivera; Ignacio Martínez Barbosa

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66) of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133) children...

  19. Research on the immune mechanisms of Ascaris lumbricoides infection over the past decade%近10年似蚯蚓线虫感染的免疫机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 张冬丽

    2013-01-01

    本文从固有免疫、适应性免疫及疫苗研究等几方面论述似蚯蚓线虫(蛔虫)感染的免疫学研究新进展.%This paper describes recent advances in the induction of innate immunity and acquired immunity against Ascaris lumbricoides and it also discusses the development of vaccines.

  20. Parasitismo por Ascaris lumbricoides em crianças menores de dois anos: estudo populacional em comunidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Macedo Lêda Maria da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência e a intensidade da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides foram analisadas mediante um estudo transversal em crianças residentes no Município de Duque de Caxias, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre julho e dezembro de 1997. A população do estudo foi constituída por crianças com menos de dois anos de idade e as mães das crianças menores de um ano. As amostras fecais foram recolhidas nos domicílios em frascos contendo solução conservadora de MIF e processadas por meio das técnicas de MIFC e Kato-Katz. As prevalências de infecção por A. lumbricoides observadas foram 3,3% (I.C. 95% 1,0 - 7,8 para os menores de um ano, 30,7% (I.C. 95% 25,4 - 36,4 para as crianças com um ano de idade e 42,3% (I.C. 95% 33,0 - 51,9 para as mães. Infecção com carga parasitária moderada/pesada foi observada em cerca de 38% das crianças com um ano de idade e 36,0% das mães. Estes resultados demonstram a importância da ascariose já no primeiro ano de vida e indicam a necessidade de aprofundamento na investigação desta parasitose na população materno-infantil.

  1. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫同域种群DNA多态性研究%DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SYMPATRIC POPULATIONS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES AND ASCARIS SUUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民; 安德森; 肯尼迪

    1999-01-01

    @@ 在我国蛔虫感染遍布各地,受染人数达5亿多.而在多数农村流行区,生猪饲养十分普遍,人群和猪群的蛔虫感染往往并存,且人、猪接触密切.据作者在江西省新建县蔓湖村进行的一年纵向调查,当地人群蛔虫感染率和猪群蛔虫感染率比较接近(约60%-70%),土壤蛔虫卵污染普遍而严重,并长年稳定 ( Peng, W.D. et al. 1996 Ascaris, people and pigs in rural Jiangxi, China. Parasitology 113:547~557.). 因此这些地区人蛔虫和猪蛔虫交叉感染的机会是大量存在的.

  2. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  3. Ascaris and ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  4. THE EFFECT OF VARIOS CHEMICALS AND TEMPERATURE IN CESTRUCTION OF THE EGGS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES: A PROGRESS REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Arfaa

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of soil and night-soil with the eggs or larvae of soil-transmitted helminthes is very important factor in the transmission of these infections. The effect of various temperatures and different chemicals on the development of larva inside the eggs of Ascaris, which is the most resistant eggs or larvae of helminthes, or destruction of developed larvae inside the eggs has been evaluated by infecting white mice or by direct observations. In eggs with developed larva, temperature of 600C for one hour kills all larvae while in lower temperature, 40% or more larvae are still alive. In a temperature of 600C for 15 and 20 minutes no larvae is found in the liver of mice. Of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, sodium-nitrite and calcium superphophate, thiabendazole and mebendazole have higher effect in destruction of eggs. In eggs with undeveloped larva, it was shown that in a temperature of 600C for 15 minutes or more, development of larva does not take place, while in lower temperature development of larva in some eggs takes place. In a temperature of 700C for 10 minutes no development of larva has been observed. Evaluation of the effect of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, urea, iodine and potassium dichromate has shown that mebendazole with a concentration of 1/100,000 or more inhibit the development of larvae. Other chemicals have some effects on the development of larvae. Results of previous investigations have shown that although many chemicals are effective in the laboratory conditions, they are not very effective when used in the field. Therefore, more studies on this subject in the field are necessary, in order to find application of this control method.

  5. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-08-01

    The 13q33-34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy.

  6. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  7. Investigation on contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the different soil of three counties in Ganso Province%甘肃省三县土壤中人蛔虫卵污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 杨成明; 陈生邦; 杨俊克; 令晓兰; 华红玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解甘肃省农村居民生活环境中人蛔虫卵污染的现状. 方法 分别采集武山县、凉州区、岷县3个调查点10~20户居民4类环境中的土壤,应用饱和硝酸钠漂浮镜检法检查土样中人蛔虫卵,计算土壤样品的蛔虫卵阳性检出率,并对3地居民蛔虫感染率进行分析比较. 结果 土壤中人蛔虫卵总检出率为28%,菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房土壤的人蛔虫卵检出率依次为30%、36%、30%和16%. 结论 调查点环境蛔虫卵污染严重,应采取措施改善环境卫生,减少居民感染蛔虫.%Objective To investigate the different soil contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs at liv-ing environments in rural areas. Methods Wushan County, Liangzhou District and Min County were select-ed as 3 pilots for investigation. Ten samples of soil including 4 different environments from Min County and 20 samples from the others were randomly collected. A. lumbricoides eggs in the different soil were floated with sat-urated nitrate and counted by microscopy. Positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was then calculated and A. lumbricoides infection rates of inhabitants at 3 pilots were compared and analysed. Results The over-all positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was 28%, and among them the rates at the vegetable gar-dens, lavatory surroundings, courtyards in the countryside and kitchens were 30% ,36% ,30% and 16%, re-spectively. Conclusion The pilots were badly contaminated by A. lumbricoides eggs. Measures should be taken to improve the living environments and decrease the infection rate of Ascaris in the residents.

  8. Colecistite aguda por ascaris lumbricoides Acute cholecystites for ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Clemente da Rocha; Severino Lourenço da Silva Júnior; Rodrigo Fernando Lourenço de Amorim

    2006-01-01

    Biliary’s ascariasis is the most often ectopic site of this helminthiasis, but invasion of the worms into the gallbladder is quite rare. The autors report a case of a patient with clinical symptoms, compatible with cholecystitis induced by the worm, as shown by ultrasonography. Treatament was cholecystectomy and antihelmintic drug therapy with a good outcome.

  9. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  10. Preparation and Identification of a Human Single Chain Fv Antibody Against Ascaris lumbricoides%抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 高英; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 王乾宇; 黄高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct humanize phage antibody library against Ascaris lumbricoides and to screen specificity scFv to Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Total RNA was abstracted from peripheral blood lympho-cytes of 20 persons, and was used to amplify VH and VL gene by RT-PCR. The amplified VH and VL genes were spliced to form scFv gene which was cloned into pCANTAB-SE phagemid, and the constructed recombinant phage-mid was transformed to E. Coli TC1 to construct human natural single-chain antibody library from which positive clones were screened. Results A primary library of 1.5 × 106 and a second library of 1.2 × 106 were constructed. Conclusion This study was to provide us the basis for radionuclide imaging and therapy for ascariasis.%目的:构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,从中筛选建抗蛔虫人源特异性单链抗体.方法:分离10个患蛔虫病人的淋巴细胞,提取总RNA反转录为cDNA,PCR扩增人抗体重链(VH)和轻链(VL)可变区基因,采用SOE-PCR法将VH和VL片段随机拼接成scFv片段,并克隆入噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E中,构建噬菌体单链抗体库.结果:初级库库容量为1.8×106,在大肠杆菌TG1中重组后得到1.6×106的次级抗体库.结论:本研究成功构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,拟在为蛔虫病的预防、诊断、治疗奠定基础.

  11. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  12. 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞的细胞毒性作用%Cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on LLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小军; 彭卫东; 徐友妹; 袁铿

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞(LLC)的细胞毒作用. 方法 选用8种浓度的蛔虫提取物诱导小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞.分别在诱导后24、48、72 h采用四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)测A492值,计算细胞存活率和抑制率.结果 不同浓度的蛔虫提取物分别作用LLC细胞24、48和72 h,对LLC细胞的增殖均有明显的抑制作用,呈剂量依赖.且以48 h抑制作用最强,之后随着作用时间的延长,BEAL对肿瘤细胞的抑制作用降低. 结论 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞具有细胞毒性作用,能够诱导LLC细胞发生凋亡.%Objective To investigate the cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides (BEAL) on a lewis lung carcinoma cell (LLC) line in vitro.Methods Eight concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides were chosen to induce cytotoxicity in LLC.Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction, the cell survival rate and inhibition rate were calculated according to the A492 results of a microculture tetrazolium test (MTT).Results Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction with different concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides, the inhibition rate behaved in a concentration-dependent manner.The inhibition rate peaked 48 h after induction but decreased afterwards.Conclusion A whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides had varying levels of cytotoxicity on LLC and induced cell apoptosis.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  14. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  15. Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arther, R.G.; Fitzgerald, P.R.; Fox, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage lagoons, using a system of continuous sucrose solution gradients. The mean number of ova per 100 g of dry sludge was 203 Ascaris spp., 173 Toxocara spp., 48 Toxascaris leonina, and 36 Trichuris spp. An assessment of the viability of these ova was determined by subjecting the ova to conditions favorable for embryonation. Recovered ova were placed in 1.5% formalin and aerated at 22 degrees Celcius for 21 to 28 days. Development of ova isolated from freshly digested sludge occurred in 64% of the Ascaris spp., 53% of the Toxocara, 63% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 20% of the Trichuris spp. Viability was also demonstrated in ova recovered from sludge samples held in storage lagoons for a period of up to 5 years; embryonation occurred in 24% of the Ascaris spp., 10% of the Toxocara spp., 43% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 6% of the Trichuris spp. (Refs. 24).

  16. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim; Ary Pires de Souza; Edison Iglesias Vidal; José Geraldo Menezes; Patrícia Gomes Bittencourt Valentim

    2009-01-01

    Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  17. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  18. Toxic effect of Ascaris lumbricoides body fluid on intestinal epithelial cells%人蛔虫体腔液对人肠上皮细胞的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 袁铿; 彭卫东; 周宪民

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫体腔液(Ascaris bodyfluid,ABF)对人肠上皮细胞株(HCT-8)的毒性作用及作用浓度和时间的关系.方法以体外细胞培养方法观察ABF对HCT-8细胞的毒性作用,比较不同浓度ABF作用下不同时间HCT-8细胞的死亡率和形态结构.结果HE染色显示,当ABF浓度为800μg/ml时,HCT-8细胞的毒性作用最大,除浓度为12.5μg/ml的实验组,各实验组(25~8μg/ml)的毒性均高于对照组.结论ABF对HCT-8细胞所产生毒性作用在一定程度上表现出浓度和作用时间的依赖关系,并诱导细胞凋亡的发生.

  19. 负载人蛔虫和猪蛔虫抗原树突状细胞影响T细胞亚群活性研究%Comparative analysis of T cell subsets response induced by DC fused with Ag of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟; 黄川; 黄艳琴; 胡银英; 戴志芳; 袁芳; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    respectively by flow cytometry (FCM),ELISA and real time PCR.And the LCs were isolated from bone marrow cells cultured with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 in vitro.The FCM results showed that DCs isolated from bone marrow cells were with high expression of kinds of surface molecules (CD86,85.5 %; CD83 38.24%; CD80,94 %).CD80 and CD83 declined after heing cultured with ascaris extract for 2 days and that of the groups fused separately with Ag of A.lumbricoides and A.suum was respectively higher and lower than the control group.ELISA showed the level of expression of TNF-α in each period of each experimental group was lower than the control group (P<0.05); IL-10 in each group increased over time,and the groups with ascaris antigen were higher than groups with same concentration of A.suum antigen (P< 0.05) in each time except the time point of 24 hours.The qPCR results showed that the levels of the groups with A.lumbricoides Ag were declined over time but significantly higher than the control groups and the groups with A.suum Ag in different time points (P<0.05).The differences between the groups with A.suum Ag and the control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).In conclusion,DC fused with the Ag of A.lumbricoides promoted a stronger Th2 type response and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in vitro.

  20. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F.van

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides lar

  1. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  2. Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection%人群蛔虫感染调查粪检与驱虫结果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜唯声; 曾小军; 李华忠; 陈颖丹; 洪献林; 胡神助; 兰炜明; 陈奕杨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship hetween fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Methods A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Results Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumhricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41 % and 23,75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher ihe probability to got egg in the feees. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. Conclusion The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.%目的 探讨社区人群蛔虫感染调查中粪检与驱虫结果的关系.方法 选择江西省南昌县塘南乡张溪村为试点,采用Kato-Katz法粪检,双羟萘噻嘧啶化疗驱虫后收集虫体,对两者结果进行比较分析.结果 共检测1019名村民,人群实际蛔虫感染率为30.23%,其中粪检阳性率为20.41%,淘虫阳性率为23.75%.淘虫阳性感染者平均虫荷2.64条,虫荷数高的感染者所占比例较低.感染者虫荷数越多,检出虫卵的概率越高,当感染者寄生7条以上蛔虫,虫卵检出率为100%.粪检虫卵假阴性者中,感染雄虫者占61.00%,感染雌虫

  3. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    B B Barnabas; Mann, A.; T S Ogunrinola; P E Anyanwu

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serio...

  4. Ascaris lumbricoides-induced suppression of total and specific IgE responses in atopic subjects is interleukin 10-independent and associated with an increase of CD25(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Giovanni; Giancotti, Aida; Scalise, Sonia; Pulicari, Maria Concetta; Maselli, Rosario; Piizzi, Chiara; Pelaia, Girolamo; Tancrè, Valentina; Muto, Valentina; Doldo, Patrizia; Cosco, Vincenzo; Cosimo, Paola; Capicotto, Renata; Quirino, Angela; Scalzo, Rosaria; Liberto, Maria Carla; Parlato, Giuseppe; Focà, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Ascaris presence in humans has been associated with high levels of blood eosinophils and serum IgE. This study was designed to address the influence of Ascaris infection on allergic and inflammatory parameters of atopic subjects. A cross-sectional design was used, and atopic individuals to be assessed were divided into 3 groups including Ascaris-infected, anti-Ascaris IgG-positive (seropositive), and control subjects. All subjects enrolled had positive skin test reactivity to at least 1 perennial or seasonal allergen; however, levels of C-reactive protein, C3, and C4 were within normal range values. Eosinophil percentage was not significantly different among the groups studied. Total IgE and specific anti-Ascaris IgE levels in the seropositive group were significantly higher than concentrations found in both control and infected groups. Interleukin (IL)-4 release in Ascaris-infected patients was significantly increased versus seropositives, who were able to produce more IL-4 than controls. The levels of IL-10 were lower in the seropositives as well as infected subjects in comparison with controls. CD25(+) lymphocyte populations were significantly increased in the infected group versus the seropositives as well as the controls. Lung function tests of some selected seropositive subjects were significantly impaired. The same parameters of a representative infected patient were not different from controls. Our data on T helper type 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) features, as well as CD25(+) lymphocyte increase, suggest an Ascaris-induced mechanism leading to parasite survival. Moreover, the stable control of both T helper type 1 cells (Th1) and Th2 immunity cascades, paralleled by the absence of overwhelming inflammatory systemic reactions and lack of allergic syndromes, may result in a favorable host condition.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis: a global perspective on the transmission dynamics of Ascaris in people and pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Betson, M.; Nejsum, P; Bendall, RP; Deb, RM; Stothard, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. Methods.  Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mito...

  6. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides larven op geschiktheid voor het opwekken van beschermende immuniteit in muizen. Tevens werd gekeken naar het gebruik van deze antigenen voor het verrichten van serodiagnostiek. Uit het onderzoek is naar v...

  7. Tube within Tube: Ascaris in Bowel and Biliary-Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Ankur; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sriram, Jaganathan

    2010-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common human helminthic diseases worldwide. On ultrasound, it is seen as linear non-shadowing echogenic structures with target appearance in cross section, and the live worm may show writhing movements in real time. On barium meal follow through, it appears as radiolucent tubular filling defects within the bowel lumen. Though not sensitive, direct real-time visualization of Ascaris on ultrasound is quick, non-invasive, and definitive.

  8. Application of zero-inflated negative binomial model to study the pattern of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection%零膨胀的负二项模型在蛔虫与钩虫再感染模式研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 梁松; 陈颖丹; 李华忠; 汤林华

    2014-01-01

    Objective Use zero-inflated negative binomial model for modeling the pattern of Ascoris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection.Methods Field survey was carried out in three villages:Qiuchang in Yibin City of Sichuan Province,Tangnan in Jinxian County of Jiangxi Province,and Sanhe in Yueyang County of Hunan Province.The survey consisted of baseline stool examination and treatment,re-examination after one month and one year,and questionnaire survey.Zero-inflated negative binomial model was applied to fit the egg count data collected after one year,meanwhile,the risk factors for the re-infection occurrence and intensity were evaluated.Results Totally 374 subjects were recruited in the survey after one year.The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm at baseline 38.08%(139/365) and 39.17%(141/360).The re-infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm one year after treatment were 15.89% (58/365) and 8.89% (32/360),respectively.A.lumbricoides model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence(OR=1.94,95%CI:1.33~2.81),high level of household electrical appliances and not drinking un-boiled water were protective factors.The risk of re-infection in age group 15~44 years and 45~64 years was lower than that in group 5~14 years significantly.The higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of high re-infection intensity after treatment (OR=1.56,95%CI:1.10~2.23).Compared to age group 5~14 years,15~44 years and 65~70 years had low risk of getting high re-infection intensity.Not drinking unboiled water was also a protective factor for acquiring high intensity.Hookworm model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence (OR =3.97,95%CI:2.07~7.60),living in brick house opposed to adobe house was protective factor for re-infection.Compared to age group 5~14 years,the other 3 age groups had higher risk of getting

  9. 改水改厕和环境整治控制土壤蛔虫虫卵及鞭虫虫卵污染的纵向观察%Longitudinal observation of contamination with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and control efforts through improved drinking water, latrine improvements and environmental improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴坤教; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 洪献林; 葛军; 谢曙英; 兰炜明; 陈红根

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the level of contamination with eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes and the effects of efforts to control infection in the population through improved drinking water, latrine improvements, and environmental improvements. Methods In two villages of Jinxian County, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura eggs in soil were tested using saturated magnesium sulfate flotation, and the population was tested for infection with soil-transmitted nematodes using the Kato-Katz method. Results After drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were implemented . The rate at which eggs of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura were detected in soil tended to decrease in both villages. One year after drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were made, the rate at which Ascaris eggs were detected in yards, living rooms, latrines, and vegetable farms and the overall rate at which these eggs were detected decreased; respective rates decreased 76. 48% (P 0.05), and 59. 03%(P<0.01). Rates remained relatively low afterwards. The rate at which Trichuris eggs were detected in those locations and the overall rate of detection decreased 68. 74%, 62.50% (P<0.01), 64.71%, 64.71%, and 65. 15%. The rate of dead Ascaris eggs and Trichuris eggs increased from 2. 57% and 0. 61% in 2005 to 69. 81% and 78. 13% in 2006, respectively, and the rate if dead eggs remained at about 70% two years later. Conclusion Control measures to improve drinking water and implement latrine improvements and environmental improvements significantly affected contamination of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura eggs in soil and also proved to be an effective strategy for control of geohelminth infection in the human population.%目的 了解农村地区实施改水改厕和环境整治等综合措施后土壤中土源性线虫虫卵污染情况、变化规律及对人群土源性线虫感染的控制效果.方法 在江西省进贤县2个村,用饱和硫酸镁离心浮聚法检查

  10. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.;

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...... pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human...

  11. Leveraging rural energy investment for parasitic disease control: schistosome ova inactivation and energy co-benefits of anaerobic digesters in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Remais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased

  12. Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz; Alberto Bustamante Gallego; Blair Ortiz Giraldo; Elvia Góez Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    La ascariasis es una parasitosis ampliamente diseminada en el mundo, especialmente en los niños de los países en vías de desarrollo, ligada a condiciones de pobreza, desnutrición y mala higiene. Se acepta que es la geohelmintiasis más frecuente entre todas las parasitosis humanas. Dado el complejo ciclo de vida del parásito causal, se pueden producir muchas y variadas complicaciones intestinales y extraintestinales, entre ellas la peritonitis. El tratamiento oportuno y las medidas preventivas son factores importantísimos para evitar las muertes por esta enfermedad.

    Se presenta el caso de una niña de 3 años de edad, procedente de una zona rural colombiana quien presentó una peritonitis por áscaris, manifestada por diarrea persistente, dolor y masa abdominal, en quien se hizo el diagnóstico en forma casual mediante laparotomía y biopsia peritoneal, ante la sospecha de un linfoma.

  1. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  2. Evaluating the efficacy of a centrifugation-flotation method for extracting Ascaris ova from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranston, Imogen; Teoh, Penelope J.; baker, Sarah M.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH) continue to be associated with high burdens of disease, with an estimated 1.45 billion people infected with STH globally. The promotion and construction of latrines is considered the first barrier to prevent transmission of STH. The absence of a reliab...

  3. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis: looking to the future from an analysis of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Betson, M; Bendall, R P; Thamsborg, S M; Stothard, J R

    2012-06-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research.

  4. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  5. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  7. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. METHODOLOGY: 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single

  8. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  9. Prevalence of Toxocara ova in some schools and public grounds in northern and central Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N

    1989-02-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six soil samples were collected from school playgrounds and public places in four cities and 17 villages in northern and central Jordan. Toxacara eggs were found in 35 (15.45%) of the samples. Viable eggs were found in 18 samples, with viability ranging from 20 to 78%, and among these 18 samples the mean number of viable eggs per 5 g soil was 5.5 +/- 4.58 S.D. (range one to 15 eggs). Nine of 94 samples collected from public places and five of 86 samples collected from schools contained Toxocara eggs. Viable eggs were found in higher proportions of soils collected from villages around Jerash (three of 21) and Irbid (five of 44), and from Yarmouk University campus (four of 37), than of soils collected from cities (six of 124), but the differences are not significant (P less than 0.05). Eggs of Taenia spp., Hymenolepis diminuta and Ascaris lumbricoides were also recovered, in 34, 15 and nine samples respectively of the 226 examined. PMID:2596905

  10. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in soil by microwave treatment compared to UV and ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungmin; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek; Yoon, Jeyong

    2009-09-01

    This study reports on the effect of microwave radiation for inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in 25 g of soil compared to ultraviolet irradiation and ozone expose. Microwave radiation at 700 W with 14% water content (w/w) achieved approximately 2.5 log inactivation of eggs in soil within 60s. On the other hand, UV irradiation at 3 mW cm(-2) with and without shaking soil for 3600 s achieved approximately 0.32 and 0.01 log inactivation of eggs, respectively. In ozone treatment, 0.13 log inactivation of eggs was achieved with 5.8+/-0.7 mg L(-1) of dissolved ozone dose for 30 min in a continuous diffusion reactor. In addition, the inactivation of eggs by three disinfection techniques was conducted in water in order to compare the inactivation efficiency of eggs in soil. The inactivation efficiency of microwave radiation was found to be no significant difference between in soil and water. However, the inactivation efficiency of UV irradiation was significantly increased in water while in ozone expose there was no significant difference between in soil and water. Microwave treatment thus proved to be the most efficient method in controlling A. lumbricoides eggs in soil.

  11. 蛔虫重度流行区人群化疗策略的研究%Research on chemotherapy strategy for population in heavy epidemic areas with ascaris iumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢峰; 陈红根; 曾小军; 林丹丹; 姜唯声; Jong-YilChai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different chemotherapy strategies for Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Four chemotherapy strategies with Albendazole,which were mass chemotherapy once a year,mass chemotherapy once in two years,se-lective chemotherapy once a year and selective chemotherapy twice a year,were carried out in four control villages,respectively. The effects of strategies on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides were observed continuously for 4 years ,and compared with the dada of a control village. Results The average positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 44.37%(4850/10931) in 5 pilot villages in 2001. The infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased maximally,from 45.2%in 2001 to 6.3%in 2005 with the reduction of 86.1% in villages where the strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year was implemented. Conclusion The strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year has the best effect on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides.%目的:评价不同化疗措施控制蛔虫的效果。方法在4个控制村用阿苯哒唑分别进行1年1次全民化疗、2年1次全民化疗、1年1次选择性化疗和1年2次选择性化疗措施后,连续4年观察其对控制居民蛔虫的效果,并和对照村进行比较。结果2001年5个试点村蛔虫平均阳性率为44.37%(4850/10931),采取每1次/年全民化疗人群蛔虫感染率下降最大,由2001年的45.2%下降到2004年的6.3%,降幅为86.1%。结论1次/年全民化疗策略对于控制蛔虫感染的效果佳。

  12. A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorazy, Margaret L; Richardson, Dennis J

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in the United States to quantify the potential risk associated with encountering zoonotic ascarid ova in the environment. In an effort to raise awareness and to better understand the risk of acquiring visceral larva migrans in south central Connecticut, this environmental survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of ascarid ova (Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Baylisascaris columnaris, and Baylisascaris procyonis) in public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut, to compare prevalence levels among these public areas, and to determine what host species are primarily responsible for environmental contamination. A preliminary study was conducted to determine if ascarid ova of different species could be identified by size and appearance utilizing light microscopy alone; results did not support the differentiation of species via these methods. To determine the prevalence of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, samples of approximately 250 g of soil were collected from park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. Ova were detected in 46 (14.4%) of 319 samples collected. Ova were collected from three of the 60 (5.0%) park green area samples, 11 of the 40 (27.5%) playground samples, six of the 98 (6.1%) public housing samples, and 26 of the 96 (27.1%) parkway samples. Public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut are frequently contaminated by potentially infectious ascarid ova. Of particular concern is the high degree of contamination of playgrounds and the potential risk these areas pose to children's health.

  13. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary.

  14. Synthesized OVA323-339MAP octamers mitigate OVA-induced airway inflammation by regulating Foxp3 T regulatory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-specific immunotherapy (SIT has been widely practiced in treating allergic diseases such as asthma. However, this therapy may induce a series of allergic adverse events during treatment. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT was explored to overcome these disadvantages. We confirmed that multiple antigen peptides (MAPs do not cause autoimmune responses, which led to the presumption that MAPs intervention could alleviate allergic airway inflammation without inducing adverse effects. Results In this study, synthesized OVA323-339MAP octamers were subcutaneously injected into ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized and -challenged Balb/c mice to observe its effect on allergic airway inflammation, Th2 immune response, and immune regulating function. It was confirmed that OVA sensitization and challenge led to significant peritracheal inflammatory, cell infiltration, and intensive Th2 response. Treatment of OVA323-339MAP octomers in the airway inflammation mice model increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg cells and their regulatory function in peripheral blood, mediastinal draining lymph nodes, and the spleen. Furthermore, OVA323-339MAP increased IL-10 levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF; up-regulated the expression of IL-10, membrane-bound TGF-β1, as well as Foxp3 in lung tissues; and up-regulated programmed death-1 (PD-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 on the surface of Treg cells. These results were further correlated with the decreased OVA specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE level and the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and lymphocytes in BALF. However, OVA323-339 peptide monomers did not show any of the mentioned effects in the same animal model. Conclusions Our study indicates that OVA323-339MAP had significant therapeutic effects on mice allergic airway inflammation by regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 response through Treg cells in vivo.

  15. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫差异的比较研究%Comparative Studies on the Difference Between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 彭卫东

    2006-01-01

    人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的分类地位一直存在争议.本文就人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的形态学、宿主感染特异性、免疫学、生化学和核型进行比较研究,对近年来分子遗传学方面的有关进展进行了综述.

  16. Ascaris lumbricoides L. in een dorpspraktijk; een onderzoek naar graad en wijze der besmetting en naar mogelijkheden ter bestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jan Jacob

    1963-01-01

    In het dorp Tange-Alteveer, liggend op de grens van de Groninger Veenkolonien en Westwerwolde, in het Noord-Oosten van Nederland, blijkt besmetting met ascariden veel voor te komen, vooral onder de jongere bevolkingsgroepen. Het uitblijven van resultaat op langere termijn met de gebruikelijke behand

  17. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  18. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of single subnanoliter ova

    CERN Document Server

    Grisi, Marco; Guidetti, Roberto; Harris, Nicola; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is, in principle, a promising candidate to study the intracellular chemistry of single microscopic living entities. However, due to sensitivity limitations, NMR experiments were reported only on very few and relatively large single cells down to a minimum volume of 10 nl. Here we show NMR spectroscopy of single ova at volume scales (0.1 and 0.5 nl) where life development begins for a broad variety of animals, humans included. We demonstrate that the sensitivity achieved by miniaturized inductive NMR probes (few pmol of 1H nuclei in some hours at 7 T) is sufficient to observe chemical heterogeneities among subnanoliter ova of tardigrades. Such sensitivities should allow to non-invasively monitor variations of concentrated intracellular compounds, such as glutathione, in single mammalian zygotes.

  20. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable

    OpenAIRE

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without ...

  1. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  2. Establishment and identification of OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice regulated by Cre recombinase

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu-mei LI; Guang-ze LIU; Mei-juan CHEN; Xie, Yong; Kong, Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To breed OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice regulated by Cre recombinase in order to provide a better animal model for the study of HBV prevention and therapy. Methods The OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of OVA-HBsAg gene with LoxP sites into the pronucleus of C57BL/6J×DBA zygotes. Pups of F1 OVA-HBsAg female mice cross-fertilized with Alb-Cre male mice were assayed for the expression of HBsAg induced by Cre recombinase. PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemical methods w...

  3. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  4. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  5. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Feng-sen Li; Nan-nan Pang; Ge Tian; Min Jiang; Hong-ping Zhang; Jian-bing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration o...

  6. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices. PMID:26358269

  7. Investigation on the ascaris lumbricoides infection of the high school students%高校学生蛔虫感染情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新力; 单颖; 张蕾

    2001-01-01

    蛔虫感染是人体寄生虫感染中较高的一种.本研究对355名在校大学生进行了调查,目的在于了解高校学生这个特定人群的蛔虫感染情况及城市化对其的影响.结果表明:高校学生蛔虫的感染率较低,与城市化有关.因为生活环境和个人卫生知识的提高,不良卫生习惯的纠正,以及定期保健性的化学驱虫治疗,对降低蛔虫感染有着重要作用.

  8. One child case infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis%儿童同时感染蛔虫及肝吸虫1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 姜晓杰; 王学武

    2007-01-01

    患者,男性,11岁,莱州市某小学五年级学生。因长期消瘦,上腹部阵发性疼痛、恶心、夜磨牙而到当地医院就诊,进行了肝功、乙肝五项、粪便寄生虫感染等检查,结果均为“正常”。2006年9月上述症状加重,特别是腹痛频繁,疼痛后出现一身虚汗,再次就诊,被诊断为儿童生长性腹痛症。

  9. 江西省蛔虫感染条件Logistic回归分析%Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis on Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢曙英; 陈红根; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 杭春琴

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨江西省蛔虫感染的危险因素.方法 采用1:1匹配的病例对照研究,选择改良加藤厚涂片法检查蛔虫卵阳性者为病例组,同一调查县粪检虫卵阴性者为对照组,按性别、年龄(±5)配对,共收集255对病例和对照.Epi Info 6.0建立数据库,SAS8.2软件进行单因素和多因素条件Logistic回归分析.结果 单因素及多因素条件Logistic回归分析表明,饭前、便后洗手是蛔虫病的保护因素,OR值分别为0.352和0.474;瓜果不洗即食、喝生水是蛔虫病的危险因素,OR值为1.753和1.722;使用卫生厕所是可能的保护因素,单因素Logistic回归OR值为0.375.结论 饭前、便后洗手,瓜果不洗即食和喝生水是江西省蛔虫感染的主要影响因素.

  10. 人蛔虫幼虫分离制备的动态观察%Dynamic observation of Ascaris lumbricoides larval isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚; 罗佛全; 严涛; 刘玉琳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨L2期和L3/4人蛔虫幼虫分离制备的方法.方法运用肠液消化法、25%NaClO(次氯酸钠)处理法分离感染期(第二期:L2)人蛔虫幼虫,对其结果进行了动态观察;并运用网筛悬挂法分离第三/四期(L3/4)人蛔虫幼虫,对分离结果进行了观察.结果 4h为肠液消化法分离L2期人蛔虫幼虫的最佳分离时间,分离率为90.97±0.08%.3h是NaClO处理法的最佳分离时间,分离率为49.22±0.12%,肠液消化法的分离效率明显高于后者(P<0.01).5h是网筛悬挂法分离L3/4期蛔虫幼虫的合适时间.结论肠液消化法是分离L2期人蛔虫幼虫的一种较为理想的方法;网筛悬挂法是分离L3/4期人蛔虫幼虫的一种有效方法.

  11. 青海省人群蛔虫感染状况的调查分析%Investigation on status of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海青; 韩秀敏

    2000-01-01

    @@蛔虫病是一种严重危害人群健康的寄生虫病。为摸清青海省该病的分布状况,于1988~1991 年按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,对青海省4个片区,20个县(市)32个点进行了调查。

  12. 148例小儿胆道蛔虫症临床分析%A Clinical Analysis of 148 Children With Biliary Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建宁; 祝俊峰

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨小儿胆道蛔虫并感染的防治.方法回顾性分析1984年1月~2003年12月收治的148例小儿胆道蛔虫症病例.结果148例患儿中146例采用非手术治疗,2例手术治疗,所有患儿均获治愈,108例获随访3个月~10年,有10例复发,8例合并胆石症.结论在农村胆道蛔虫仍属常见,大剂量注射维生素C是一种较简便有效的治疗方法并可减少并发症.

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of ALAg antigen gene from Ascaris lumbricoides%蛔虫抗原基因ALAg克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 韩洁; 王乾宇; 刘安胜; 安传伟; 查高武; 张鹏; 田维毅; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 曹峰; 黄高; 蔡琨

    2011-01-01

    为了确定蛔虫基因工程疫苗的候选基因,试验以蛔虫幼虫的RNA为模板,利用RT - PCR方法扩增出ALAg基因,扩增产物克隆到pMD18 -T载体,筛选阳性克隆测序并进行Blast分析.结果表明:该基因与GenBank公布的猪蛔虫As37抗原基因(AB078971)的同源性为95%,与西式贝蛔虫Ag3抗原基因(EU927450)的同源性为92%.说明ALAg基因是线虫特有的抗原基因.

  14. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum represent the same species based on sequence analysis of mitochondrial nad5 gene%人蛔虫和猪蛔虫线粒体nad5基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌义; 林瑞庆; 朱艳平; 刘国华

    2014-01-01

    以采自中国不同地方的人蛔虫与猪蛔虫为研究对象,PCR扩增其线粒体烟酰胺脱氢酶亚基V基因(nad5)的部分序列(pnad5)并进行序列测定,应用ClustalX 1.81程序对序列进行比对.结果显示:所获得的pnad5序列长度一致,均为556 bp;人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的pnad5序列差异仅为0.0%~2.6%,本研究结果支持人蛔虫与猪蛔虫是同一个种的结论.

  15. Recombinant E.coli LLO/OVA Vaccination Effectively Inhibits Murine Melanoma Metastasis to Lung by CD8+T Cells Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Xu; Ming-shen Dai; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct recombinant E.coli LLO/OVA and investigate its tumor metastatic inhibition effect in B16 OVA melanoma challenged mice.Methods: Recombinant E.coli LLO/OVA was constructed and the expression of listeriolysin O (LLO) and ovalbumin (OVA) of the vaccine was determined by coomassie brilliant blue staining and western blotting. After 3 subcutaneous injections of E.coli LLO/OVA, the percentages of CD3+CD4+T, CD4+CD25+T, CD3+CD8+T and OVA257(264 SIINFEKL specific CD8+T cells were determined by flow cytomytry, and the tumor metastatic inhibition effect in B16 OVA melanoma challenged mice was observed.Results: Recombinant E.coli LLO/OVA was successfully constructed, and the expression of LLO and OVA of the vaccine was confirmed. After 3 subcutaneous injections of E.coli LLO/OVA and E.coli OVA in mice, the percentages of CD3+CD4+T, CD4+CD25+T and CD3+CD8+T cells were equivalent in the two groups of mice. However, there were significantly more OVA257(264 SIINFEKL specific CD8+T cells in E.coli LLO/OVA vaccinated mice than that in E.coli OVA vaccinated mice. The prophylactic E.coli LLO/OVA vaccination effectively prevented the tumor metastasis to lungs in B16 OVA melanoma challenged mice. Depletion of CD8+T cells significantly impaired the tumor inhibition effect of the vaccine in B16 OVA challenged mice. The therapeutic vaccination of E.coli LLO/OVA significantly prevented melanoma metastasis to lungs in B16 OVA challenged mice too.Conclusion: Recombinant E.coli LLO/OVA vaccination is highly effective in inhibiting murine malignant melanoma metastasis by promoting CD8+T cell immunity.

  16. Characterization and Comparison of Ochratoxin A-Ovalbumin (OTA-OVA) Conjugation by Three Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-chun; BAO Ming; WU Jin-jie; LUO Ying; MA Liang-you; WANG Ying; ZHANG Ai-hua; HE Cheng-hua; ZHANG Hai-bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate an antibody against a small hapten molecule, the hapten is cross-linked with carrier protein to make it immunogenic. In this study, the hapten (ochratoxin A, OTA) was coupled to ovalbumin (OVA) by an active ester reaction. To develop a technique for detecting the conjugation, the hapten-protein conjugate (OTA-OVA) was characterized thoroughly by immunoarray technology, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. The molecular weight of OTA-OVA was 50 350.141 Da, and the molecular weight of OVA was 44 887.506 Da, which were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. In OTA-OVA, the molecular coupling ratio was 13:1 by MALDI-TOF-MS while the molecular coupling ratio was 10:1 by UV. In this experiment, UV and MALDI-TOF-MS were selected as the efifcient methods to evaluate the cross-linking effect and calculate the molecular coupling ratio.

  17. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  18. Establishment and identification of OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice regulated by Cre recombinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-mei LI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To breed OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice regulated by Cre recombinase in order to provide a better animal model for the study of HBV prevention and therapy. Methods The OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of OVA-HBsAg gene with LoxP sites into the pronucleus of C57BL/6J×DBA zygotes. Pups of F1 OVA-HBsAg female mice cross-fertilized with Alb-Cre male mice were assayed for the expression of HBsAg induced by Cre recombinase. PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the integration and expression of HBsAg gene and Cre gene in the transgenic mice. Results 491 fertilized eggs were injected and a total of 337 survived. The survival rate of injection was 68.6%. 29 F0 pups were produced with 4 PCR-positive mice, and the positive rate was 13.8%. Up to now, F4 pups were obtained. The positive rates from F1 to F4 were 27.5%, 32.0%, 22.9% and 25.0%, respectively. No HBsAg-positive mice were found among these pups. Furthermore, among 16 pups of F1 OVA-HBsAg female mice crossed with Alb-Cre male mice, 6 were positive for both HBsAg and Cre as detected by PCR. There were 2 pups showed positive HBsAg by ELISA assay. The expression rate of HBsAg after Cre recombinase induction was 33.3%. Conclusion OVA-HBsAg transgenic mice has been reproduced successfully, and it can be stably passaged. Cre recombinase can induce the expression of HBsAg in vivo. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.08

  19. OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate variability and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Jasmin Domnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered autonomic (ANS tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Since antigen (Ag-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported, we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA on, heart rate variability (HRV in a murine model. Heart rate (HR, body temperature (TB and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM, and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006. Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001. Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF power: P = 0.042, and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039. Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P < 0.001; LF: P < 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P < 0.001. We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.

  20. Enhancement of anti-OVA IgG2c production in vivo by enalapril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors have non-hemodynamic, pleiotropic effects on the immune response. The effects of ACE inhibitors on the production of cytokines and T-cell functions are well established. However, little is known on the effects of these medicines on humoral response to foreign antigens. In this study, we investigated the effect of enalapril treatment on ovalbumin (OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2c production in mice determined by ELISA. Two groups of 8-week-old C57BL/6 females mice (3–4/group were subcutaneously immunized with OVA (10 μg/animal in presence of Alhydrogel (1 mg/mouse and boosted at day 21. The mice were treated with enalapril (5 mg/kg daily, po or were left without treatment for one month. The animals were bled from the orbital plexus on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the first immunization and the sera were stored at –20°C until usage. OVA-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2c were determined by ELISA using serum from each individual animal. The results showed that enalapril significantly increased anti-OVA serum IgG2c in the secondary response without affecting IgG1 synthesis. These data expand our understanding on the properties of enalapril on the immune response, including antibody production.

  1. Enhancement of anti-OVA IgG2c production in vivo by enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L C; Muraro, L S; Albuquerque, D A

    2016-07-11

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have non-hemodynamic, pleiotropic effects on the immune response. The effects of ACE inhibitors on the production of cytokines and T-cell functions are well established. However, little is known on the effects of these medicines on humoral response to foreign antigens. In this study, we investigated the effect of enalapril treatment on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG1 and IgG2c production in mice determined by ELISA. Two groups of 8-week-old C57BL/6 females mice (3-4/group) were subcutaneously immunized with OVA (10 μg/animal) in presence of Alhydrogel (1 mg/mouse) and boosted at day 21. The mice were treated with enalapril (5 mg/kg daily, po) or were left without treatment for one month. The animals were bled from the orbital plexus on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the first immunization and the sera were stored at -20°C until usage. OVA-specific serum IgG1 and IgG2c were determined by ELISA using serum from each individual animal. The results showed that enalapril significantly increased anti-OVA serum IgG2c in the secondary response without affecting IgG1 synthesis. These data expand our understanding on the properties of enalapril on the immune response, including antibody production. PMID:27409332

  2. Multiple stool examinations for ova and parasites and rate of false-negative results.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, H; Koella, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model that shows the relationship between the number of stool examinations for ova and parasites and the rate of false-negative results is described. An analysis of 1,869 patients with three stool examinations revealed various sensitivities for different parasites.

  3. Ova collection in Japan: making visible women’s experience in male spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kato; M. Sleeboom-Faulkner

    2013-01-01

    The role of women is essential in embryo creation and donation, as they undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment for ova collection. Yet, it has often been pointed out that in the process of embryo donation women's role is largely neglected, as if embryos come from nowhere. The procedure of em

  4. Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, Stephen J; Crump, John A; Johnstone, Maree C; Krause, Kurt L; Hill, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths. PMID:26572870

  5. The relationship of park maintenance and accessibility to dogs to the presence of Toxocara spp. ova in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, K E; Platt, T R

    1989-05-01

    Three parks in St. Joseph/Benton Harbor, Michigan were examined for the presence of Toxocara spp. ova in the soil. Nineteen per cent (22/114) of the samples contained ova, and mean density (eggs/5 g soil) was 0.73. The density of two samples, collected at the base of playground equipment in one park, was greater than 2.1, which is considered sufficient for human infection. Subjective assessments of park maintenance and accessibility to dogs were not good indicators of the presence of Toxocara spp. ova.

  6. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) affects T cell differentiation in OVA induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirav, Eitan M; Henegariu, Octavian; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Clynes, Raphael; Herold, Kevan C

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for glycation end products (RAGE) has been previously implicated in shaping the adaptive immune response. RAGE is expressed in T cells after activation and constitutively in T cells from patients with diabetes. The effects of RAGE on adaptive immune responses are not clear: Previous reports show that RAGE blockade affects Th1 responses. To clarify the role of RAGE in adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms of its effects, we examined whether RAGE plays a role in T cell activation in a Th2 response involving ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice. WT and RAGE deficient wild-type and OT-II mice, expressing a T cell receptor specific for OVA, were immunized intranasally with OVA. Lung cellular infiltration and T cell responses were analyzed by immunostaining, FACS, and multiplex bead analyses for cytokines. RAGE deficient mice showed reduced cellular infiltration in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and impaired T cell activation in the mediastinal lymph nodes when compared with WT mice. In addition, RAGE deficiency resulted in reduced OT-II T cell infiltration of the lung and impaired IFNγ and IL-5 production when compared with WT mice and reduced infiltration when transferred into WT hosts. When cultured under conditions favoring the differentiation of T cells subsets, RAGE deficient T cells showed reduced production of IFNγ but increased production of IL-17. Our data show a stimulatory role for RAGE in T activation in OVA-induced asthma. This role is largely mediated by the effects of RAGE on T cell proliferation and differentiation. These findings suggest that RAGE may play a regulatory role in T cell responses following immune activation.

  7. Long-term outcome of symptomatic severe ostial vertebral artery stenosis (OVAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karameshev, Alexander [University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Neurology, Bern (Switzerland); Medical University of Sofia, Department of Neurology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Schroth, Gerhard; Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan; Brekenfeld, Caspar [University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Arnold, Marcel; Mono, Marie-Luise; Mattle, Heinrich P. [University of Bern, Neurology, Bern (Switzerland); Do, Do-Dai [University of Bern, Angiology, Bern (Switzerland); Nedeltchev, Krassen [University of Bern, Neurology, Bern (Switzerland); Triemli Hospital, Department of Neurology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    The optimal management of patients with symptomatic severe ostial vertebral artery stenosis (OVAS) is currently unclear. We analyzed the long-term outcome of consecutive patients with OVAS who received either medical treatment (MT) or vertebral artery stenting (VAS). Thirty-nine (>70%) patients with severe OVAS were followed for a mean period of 2.8 years. The decision for VAS (n=10) or MT (n=29) was left to the clinician. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the risk of recurrent stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or death over the study period. Patients in the VAS group were significantly younger and more likely to have bilateral VA disease (P=0.04 and P=0.02). VAS was successfully performed in all ten patients. The periprocedural risk within 30 days was 10% (one TIA). The overall restenosis rate was 10%. One restenosis occurred after 9 months in a patient treated with bare-metal stent. At 4 years of follow-up, VAS showed a nonsignificant trend toward a lower risk for the combined endpoint of TIA and stroke in posterior circulation compared to medical treatment (10% vs. 45%, P=0.095; relative risk (RR)=0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.031-1.85). Patients with bilateral VA disease had a significantly lower recurrence risk after VAS compared with medical treatment (0% vs. 91% at 4 years, P=0.004; RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.022-0.49) VAS was performed without permanent complications in this small series of patients with symptomatic severe OVAS. The long-term benefit seems to be confined to patients with bilateral but not to those with unilateral VA disease. (orig.)

  8. Radioimmunoassay for Ascaris specific protein and its clinical approach to gastro-intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for Ascaris specific protein (ASP) and measured the serum levels in control subjects average; 5.94 +- 5.94 ng/ml) and in patients with Ascaris and a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In all Ascaris carriers, very high concentration of ASP (average; 151.4 ng/ml) was observed. 12 out of 38 patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly high serum levels of ASP. The high titer of ASP and the presence of antibody to ASP, previously described, may suggest the close relationship between ASP and ulcerative colitis. RIA for ASP, also provides simple method for screening the patients with Ascaris and hence may open the new field in parasitology. (author)

  9. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The percentage of disapproved livers of growing and finishing pigs has been increased significantly during the last years. In organic pig farms, this percentage is often higher than in conventional pig farms. In most cases, disapproved livers are the result of an infection with Ascaris suum. Usually, an infection of Ascaris suum is treated or controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs belonging to the benzimidazoles, levamisole and macrocyclic lactones. Organic farmers, howev...

  10. Study on Manual Ova Hatching of Rana chinensis%中国林蛙卵人工孵化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立忠; 孔祥文; 周永斌; 殷有

    2001-01-01

    his paper deals with the manual ova hatching of Rana chinensis.It is eviden that there are three different periods in the ova eclosion. The first period is at 75~80℃of effective water cumulative temperature. The peak period is at 100~120℃. The end is at 120~140℃. The most suitabale temperature of ova eclosion is 11~13℃. In this case, the eclosion speed is 1.6~2.2, and incubation period is 9~12 days,with the rate of eclosion over 80%. Manual hatching can increase the eclosion speed of ova. It is 10%~60% higher than CK, and also 25%~100% higher than the outdoor.

  11. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  12. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  13. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  14. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-Sen; Pang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ding, Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  15. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  16. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil. PMID:22944771

  17. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  18. Germ cells and ova in dysgenetic gonads of a 46-XY female dizygotic twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, L J; MacMahon, R A

    1979-04-01

    The frequency of germ cell neoplasms in girls with 46-XY gonadal dysgenesis suggests that germ cells may persist in the dysgenetic gonads for many years. A phenotypic female infant with a karyotype of 46-XY in blood, skin, and gonads had a few ova in primordial follicles and numerous germ cells in her dysgenetic gonads at the age of 3 months. At 3 years and 10 months of age her gonads contained no primordial follicle and the only remaining germ cells were in a gonadoblastoma. We propose that germ cells are lost from dysgenetic gonads much more rapidly than from normal gonads, but that the rate of loss in patients with a karyotype of 46-XY may be less than the rate of loss in patients with a karyotype of 45-XO. PMID:433851

  19. Late Bronze Age in Alcáçova de Santarém (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda, Ana Margarida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The field work that took place in the restaurant area in Jardim das Portas do Sol (Alcáçova de Santarém recovered well-preserved archaeological layers dated to the Late Bronze Age, lying directly underneath the Iron Age phase. The excavation made it possible to collect an important set of ceramics that incorporate printed and incised decoration, which can be easily decoration related to the Cogotas 1 cultural background. Burnished decorations, with grooves on the inner surface and outer strips, are less common. The formal repertoire does not deviate from what is known about the Late Bronze Age in central and southern Iberian Peninsula. The data allow us to propose a chronology centered in the early 1st millennium BCE for this occupation.Durante los trabajos de campo, realizados en el área del restaurante del Jardim das Portas do Sol, se documentaron, por primera vez en Alcáçova de Santarém, niveles conservados del final de la Edad del Bronce, inmediatamente infrapuestos a los de la Edad del Hierro. Su excavación permitió recoger un conjunto de materiales cerámicos que incorpora varios fragmentos decorados por impresión e incisión, que pueden ser fácilmente relacionados con el universo cultural de Cogotas 1. Las decoraciones bruñidas con surcos en la superficie interna y con franjas al exterior son mucho menos frecuentes. El repertorio formal no difiere del conocido para el Bronce Final del centro y sur de la Península Ibérica. Los datos permiten proponer una cronologia del inicio del 1 milenio a.n.e. (siglo IX para esta ocupación.

  20. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre...

  1. Atkinsiella hamanaensis sp. nov isolated from cultivated ova of the mangrove crab, Scylla serrata ( Forsskal )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Z.BIAN; S.EGUSA

    1986-01-01

    Atkinsiella hamanaensis sp. nov. a marine mastigomycete isolated from ova of the mangrove crab. scylla serrata (Forsskal). is described and illustrated The fungus grew over a temperature range of 15-32℃. with an optimum of 29-32℃ Its growth was observed in peptone-yeast extract glucose broth containing 1-5%NaCl.

  2. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this stud...

  3. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...

  4. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  5. DNA extraction from Ascaris suum muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mito, Carmela; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of DNA from Ascaris suum muscle has been developed. It combines a standard SDS-based extraction with a plant DNA extraction procedure. The use of SDS and proteinase K allows the elimination of proteins, while CTAB and polyclar AT eliminate glycogen and polyphenols. The DNA thus obtained can easily be digested by endonucleases and amplified by PCR.

  6. Development of patent Ascaris suum infections in pigs following intravenous administration of larvae hatched in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Fagerholm, H.P.; Nansen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The normal tissue migration of Ascaris suum in the pig host involves larval development in the liver accompanied by considerable pathological changes. The vast majority of larvae that reach the small intestine are later expelled by unknown mechanisms. We show that when migration through the liver...

  7. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Het doel van het onderzoek was na te gaan wat de preventieve werking is van drie enkelvoudige kruiden, elk met een verschillend vermeend werkingsmechanisme (proteolytische enzymen, alkaloïden, bitterstoffen), op een milde besmetting met spoelwormen (Ascaris suum) bij vleesvarkens. Het besmettingsniv

  8. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  9. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...

  10. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  11. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices. PMID:26297680

  12. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

  13. Salmo salar: morfología ultraestructural de la pared del corion en ovas normales y con problemas de eclosión Salmo salar: ultrastructural morphology of chorion, from normal and with hatching problems ova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jaramillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El “corion duro” es un fenómeno de reciente ocurrencia y se caracteriza porque algunos alevines con ojo no son capaces de degradar el corion que les rodea o lo hacen sólo de manera parcial, produciéndose en ambos casos la muerte del alevín. Este fenómeno ha causado fracasos reproductivos importantes en algunas pisciculturas del sur de Chile, desconociéndose hasta ahora la razón de su ocurrencia. En este estudio se realizaron mediciones del grosor del corion de Salmo salar así como de las fibras que forman parte de éste en ovas fertilizadas, no fertilizadas, con desarrollo normal y ovas que no lograron eclosionar. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las leves variaciones observadas en el grosor del corion entre los diferentes estados de desarrollo de las ovas estudiadas no explican la ocurrencia del “corion duro”. Sin embargo, la disposición de las fibras proteicas que forman el estrato interno del corion parece ser la respuesta a este fenómeno. Las ovas que no eclosionan presentan “corion duro” y exhiben un estrato interno carente de poros a diferencia de lo que se observa en las ovas que desarrollan normalmente y que logran la eclosión. Se propone que problemas en la síntesis de alguna de las sub-unidades que forman la coriogenina serían los responsables de la formación de un estrato interno carente de poros, siendo ésta la razón del “corion duro”.Either eyed alevins unable to digest the chorion or those digesting it partially, are both suffering the “hard chorion” phenomenon; in both cases alevins can not survive producing high mortality rates. During recent years, the salmon farming industry in Southern Chile has been facing massive mortality events caused by “hard chorion”. Since “hard chorion” is a recently observed phenomenon there are no literature reporting its origin. The aim of this study was to find differences in the ultrastructure of chorion fibers from Salmo salar ova at different

  14. Archaeometric studies of Byzantine pottery from Hârşova-Carsium, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoi, Roxana, E-mail: bugoi@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Mǎgurele 077125 (Romania); Talmaţchi, Cristina, E-mail: ctalmatchi@gmail.com [Museum of National History and Archaeology, Constanţa 900745 (Romania); Haitǎ, Constantin, E-mail: costel_haita@yahoo.com [National Museum of Romania History, Bucharest 030026 (Romania); Ceccato, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.ceccato@lnl.infn.it [Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Padova 35131 (Italy); INFN – LNL, Legnaro 35020 (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    A set of 36 ceramic shards excavated at Hârşova, Romania, dated to the 11th century A.D., was investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission). The study aimed at revealing the raw materials and the manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine period and to distinguish the local products from the supposedly imported ones. The division of the ceramic shards based on stylistic grounds was refined by the petrographic observations that identified four types of fabrics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the PIXE data singled out two categories of ceramic: one made from kaolinitic clays and another produced from local sedimentary resources, with or without temper addition. Micro-PIXE scans of the interfaces between the green glaze and the underlying ceramic body indicated a high Pb content in the decorative layers. Glazing was made through the application of PbO onto a non-calcareous clay body. The petrographic and compositional data interpreted in correlation with archaeological information led to the characterization of a representative assemblage of ceramic finds from the Byzantine period, subject rarely tackled in the scientific literature.

  15. Hydraulický přidržovač/vyhazovač

    OpenAIRE

    Škarvada, Radoslav

    2008-01-01

    Diplomová práce řeší návrh hydraulického přidržovače/vyhazovače pro mechanický klikový lis. Na základě zadaných parametrů je provedena analýza klikového mechanismu, potřebné výpočty, analýza a návrh možných variant řešení, návrh hydraulického obvodu a stanovení hydraulických prvků. Konzultace probíhaly ve firmě ŽĎAS, a.s. a řešení je provedeno dle připomínek, rad a doporučení konstrukce hydrauliky v této firmě. Diploma thesis solves project of the hydraulic blankholder/ejector for the mech...

  16. Archaeometric studies of Byzantine pottery from Hârşova-Carsium, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of 36 ceramic shards excavated at Hârşova, Romania, dated to the 11th century A.D., was investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission). The study aimed at revealing the raw materials and the manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine period and to distinguish the local products from the supposedly imported ones. The division of the ceramic shards based on stylistic grounds was refined by the petrographic observations that identified four types of fabrics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the PIXE data singled out two categories of ceramic: one made from kaolinitic clays and another produced from local sedimentary resources, with or without temper addition. Micro-PIXE scans of the interfaces between the green glaze and the underlying ceramic body indicated a high Pb content in the decorative layers. Glazing was made through the application of PbO onto a non-calcareous clay body. The petrographic and compositional data interpreted in correlation with archaeological information led to the characterization of a representative assemblage of ceramic finds from the Byzantine period, subject rarely tackled in the scientific literature

  17. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and

  18. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and

  19. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Traub, Rebecca J.; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and

  20. Mitochondrial ultrastructural and atpase changes during the life cycle of Ascaris Suum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrick, G E; S. D. Long; W. A. Sodeman Junior; Smith, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural morphology and ATPase specific activities of mitochondria isolated from 1-celled fertilized egg, 10-day embryo, 21-day infective larvae and adult body wall muscle of Ascaris suum and rat liver were determined and compared. Although cristae of both muscle and egg mitochondria contained numerous elementary particles with head pieces of conventional diameter (85 A), each muscle mitochondrion contained relatively few, short cristae with a diminished frequency of elementary particl...

  1. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Oshiro; A. Rafael; C.S. Enobe; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized an...

  2. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating.

  3. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1) dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  4. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berendes

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1 dry weight. In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.

  5. Report of treating Ascaris lumbricoides linn in the bile passages by zhong xi medicine in 52 cases%中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫52例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何本道; 冯铁准

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫的临床疗效.方法:运用中药利胆安蛔汤配合西药治疗52例胆道蛔虫患者,并将其结果进行分析.结果:52例患者,除2例有继发感染,加抗菌素治疗五天后治愈,其余病例全部治愈.结论:中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫付作用少,效果好.

  6. ON Cleanliness of Hands in Diminution of Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Children%儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许隆祺; 肖东华; 周长海; 张雪强; 兰水根; 郑秀香; 张文玲; 付洁平; 叶波; 党辉; 诸宪祖; 黄时兰

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染之间关系.方法基线调查中所有蛔虫感染者均予一次性驱虫治疗.实验组开展洗手活动,对照组不开展洗手活动.1年中每2个月用加藤(Kato)厚涂片法检查受试者粪便1次,比较实验组和对照组中,试验前蛔虫感染阴性者,每次复查的新感染率(即两组新感染率比较);试验前蛔虫感染阳性治毕半月复查转阴者,每次复查的再感染率(即两组再感染率比较). 结果每2个月复查1次,按每次复查累计计算的新感染率与再感染率,实验组均非常显著低于对照组(P《0.001).1年后复查,蛔虫感染率实验组为35.2%,比项目前的68.3%下降48.5%;对照组为73.7%,比项目前的41.4%上升了78.0%.结论每日用香皂洗手保持手部清洁卫生,可以显著降低蛔虫感染率.

  7. 江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化及影响因素%Changes of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in rural residents of Jiangsu Province and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉钧; 孙凤华; 钱益新; 沈明学; 徐祥珍; 陈锦英

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化情况及其影响因素,为制定控制蛔虫感染对策提供依据.方法统计苏南、苏中和苏北1990~2002年间3次调查的农村人群蛔虫感染率、集体服药率、人均收入和自来水及卫生厕所使用率,探讨影响蛔虫感染率下降的主要因素.结果 13年来,3个片区人群蛔虫感染率均持续大幅度下降,2002年平均感染率2.14%,下降率为94.58%.苏中感染率最低,仅0.41%,下降率达98.92%;苏北感染率最高,为5.09%,下降率最低,为89.97%.累计集体服药率苏中为159.00%,显著高于苏南的103.00%和苏北的105.00%.居民人均收入、自来水和卫生厕所使用率由北向南逐渐升高,3个片区间差异有统计学意义.结论集体服药防治和经济卫生条件共同影响农村人群蛔虫感染率变化,尤其集体服药防治的作用更显著.

  8. Comparison of four floatation methods for separating human Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from soil%4种漂浮法分离土壤中人蛔虫卵的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱颖骏; 诸廷俊; 王聚君; 周长海; 陈颖丹

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较4种不同漂浮法从土壤中分离人蛔虫卵的效果,从而摸索出一种行之有效的、适用于现场的从土壤中分离人蛔虫卵的方法. 方法 在不含人蛔虫卵的土壤中按一定比例加入人蛔虫卵(包括受精蛔虫卵和未受精蛔虫卵),分别用4种漂浮法检查,比较检出效果. 结果 硫酸锌溶液漂浮法、饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法、饱和柠檬酸三钠溶液漂浮法及饱和盐水漂浮法的受精蛔虫卵检出率依次为6.89%、26.85%、8.46%和0.21%(F=221.45,P<0.01);总蛔虫卵检出率依次为6.29%、25.49%、7.77%和0.19%(F=223.41,P<0.01). 结论 4种漂浮法均能分离出土壤中的人蛔虫卵,以饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法的效果最佳,且操作简便,适合大批量土壤样本的人蛔虫卵分离检查.

  9. Effect of ultraviolet ray radiation on the development of ascaris lumbricoides seminal eggs%紫外线辐射对受精蛔虫卵发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞; 刘年猛; 冯芳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨紫外线辐射对受精蛔虫卵发育的影响.方法自然沉淀法收集受精蛔虫卵,用紫外线辐射不同时间后恒温培养.结果紫外线辐射时间越长对受精蛔虫卵发育影响越明显,400μW·min/cm2,5~10min即能杀死受精蛔虫卵.结论紫外线辐射明显影响蛔虫受精卵的发育,可用来净化蠕虫卵污染食物、预防食物源性蛔虫感染.

  10. 平顶山市875名中小学生蛔虫感染率调查%Survey of Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in 875 primary school pupils and middle school students in Pingdingshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红英; 王素琴; 李丽

    2005-01-01

    目的了解平顶山市中小学生寄生虫带虫情况. 方法采用改良加藤涂厚法. 结果小学生寄生虫感染率高于中学生,男性高于女性. 结论中小学生寄生虫感染情况不容忽视.

  11. Family clustering analysis of human infections of ascaris lumbricoides enterobius vermicularis and trichuris trichura in Qinghai province%青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何多龙

    2002-01-01

    目的 了解青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性。方法 调查和粪检方法按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,统计分析应用二项分布配合X2检验。结果 对青海省2803个家庭的14189人肠道蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫感染情况的分析表明,蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫的家庭聚集率分别为67.44%、22.60%和10.26%;蛔虫和蛲虫的感染户比率与家庭人口数呈正相关关系,随家庭人口数增加而上升;而家庭内人群感染率则与家庭人口数无关;鞭虫的感染户比率和人群感染率均与家庭人口数无关。结论 青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的感染均有家庭聚集性。

  12. Apoptosis of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Extraction of the Second Stage Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides%人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国华; 袁铿; 周宪民; 彭卫东

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导体外培养的人肺上皮细胞A549凋亡,以及提取物浓度和作用时间与细胞凋亡的相互关系.方法根据四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)结果,选用5种不同浓度的提取物诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡.分别在诱导后的5个时间段,采用苏木素-伊红(HE)染色盲法计数和二苯胺法检测DNA断裂率,观察肺上皮细胞凋亡情况.同时对某个时间和浓度组的样本,用DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳和流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果不同浓度人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导A549细胞凋亡,在5 h之内细胞凋亡率随提取物浓度增加而增加,两者呈正相关关系,且细胞凋亡率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),5 h细胞凋亡率达高峰(65.2%).结论人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物可诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡,细胞凋亡与其提取物浓度呈明显的相关关系.在时间上表现为双向变化关系,其变化程度同时受提取物浓度的影响.

  13. Analysis of the influencing factors of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs detection in soil%影响土壤中蛔虫卵检测因素的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳; 王敏; 郭晓英; 王慧明

    2014-01-01

    目的 对检测土壤中蛔虫卵的影响因素进行分析,从而摸索出一种可行的检测方法,进而获得科学的检测结果.方法 连续3年采集锦州市凌海60份农村土壤样品,在统一采样方法的前提下,采用饱和硝酸钠漂浮法进行实验室检测.结果 采样季节对蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率均有一定影响,8月份采集的土壤样品中蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率为60%和45%,11月份采集的样品为55%和22%;对5份平行样品采用2种不同振荡方式进行检测,手动振荡的检测出数量均高于XH-C漩涡混匀器;操作过程中操作手法不科学会影响检测结果.结论 随着土壤温度降低,蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率均有所下降;在有限实验条件下,振荡工具的选择对检测结果有影响;操作手法及镜检计数等因素对检测结果有影响.

  14. Anti-tumor Effect of the Whole Worm Extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Mice%人蛔虫提取物对Lewis肺癌小鼠的抑瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小军; 杨军平; 黄艳琴; 梁华; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    为探讨人蛔虫提取物对肿瘤的作用及其免疫学机制,将45只C57BL/6小鼠随机分为A、B、C、D和E等5组,每组9只,其中B、D组分别为A、C组的实验对照组,E组为阴性对照组,不做任何处理.A组每鼠隔天腹腔注射0.1 ml蛔虫提取物(BEAL),10d后每鼠右前肢腋下皮下接种0.1 ml Lewis肺癌细胞(LLC),进行肿瘤造模;B组小鼠注射等量生理盐水,10d后进行肿瘤造模.C组每鼠注射0.1 ml LLC细胞悬液进行肿瘤造模,2d后腹腔注射0.1 ml BEAL,隔天1次,共注射5次;D组小鼠肿瘤造模2d后,注射等量生理盐水,隔天1次.记录各组小鼠成瘤时间,称瘤重,计算抑瘤率.结果显示,A、B、C和D组小鼠的成瘤时间分别为(7.0±1.1)、(6.0±0.7)、(9.0±1.2)和(7.0±0.9)d.BEAL提前干预的A组小鼠肿瘤重量为(722.2±413.5) mg,显著重于其对照组B组[(338.9±282.2) mg](P<0.05).小鼠荷瘤后BEAL干预的C组抑瘤率最强,为33.3%,其肿瘤重量[(237.8±101.8)mg]明显轻于对照组D组[(356.7±176.9) mg] (P<0.05).提示BEAL可影响肿瘤的形成,在一定条件下具有明显的抑瘤作用.

  15. Reinfection after different chemotherapy measures carried out in heavy epidemic areas with Ascaris lumbricoides%蛔虫重度流行区实施不同化疗措施后人群再感染的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌英; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 陈红根; 洪献林; 胡神助; 杭春琴; 谢曙英

    2006-01-01

    目的 了解蛔虫重度流行区采取不同方案的全民化疗措施后,居民个体和群体的蛔虫再感染状况. 方法 选择鹿塘、大园和杨墅塘3个自然村,全体居民用噻嘧啶首次化疗后,分别间隔3、6和12个月进行重复化疗,并在每年的春、秋季用Kato-Katz法各粪检1次. 结果 化疗后鹿塘、大园、杨墅塘3个自然村居民蛔虫感染率分别下降53.43%、41.93%和22.62%,人群受精蛔虫卵的比率分别下降50.02%、35.73%和38.30%,化疗1年后的再感染率分别为35.62%、35.48%和50.00%,新感染率分别为16.39%、21.05%和31.94%.人群蛔虫再感染1次和2次的发生率杨墅塘村>大园村>鹿塘村. 结论 1)试点村人群蛔虫再感染率均比同期新感染率高,蛔虫感染人群比未感染人群表现出更容易发生再感染的倾向;2)间隔6个月的全民化疗方案对控制人群蛔虫的再感染和新感染较经济、有效.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON INFECTION OF HUMAN ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES IN RURAL DISTRICT OF HEBEI PROVINCE%河北省农村人群蛔虫感染的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霞; 刘洪斌; 马洪生; 李月平; 甄素娟; 孙克勤

    2006-01-01

    目的:了解当前我省人体重要寄生虫中蛔虫的流行特征,为今后有计划、有重点的开展蛔虫病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:应用分层整群随机抽样方法,2002年选择了6个中签县15个调查点,对调查对象采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便中蛔虫虫卵.结果:调查了7316人,检出蛔虫感染者117例,感染率为1.60%.蛔虫感染呈全省广泛性.分布,不同地区间差异有统计学意义(χ2=90.69,P<0.005),丰宁县感染率最高为4.60%;以10岁以下儿童感染较为严重,感染率为2.24%;不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.42,P<0.05),学龄前儿童最高,感染率为2.07%;性别间差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.00,P>0.05);由于感染率最高的丰宁县满族人口占98.60%,致使调查的民族分布,以满族感染率最高.蛔虫感染具有明显的家庭聚集性.结论:该省卫生条件较差的地区人群中蛔虫感染率较高,应作为今后蛔虫病防治的重点地区.

  17. THE IMPACT OF HANDS CLEANLINESS ON DIMINUTION OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES REINFECTION IN PUPILS%小学生手部清洁卫生对蛔虫再感染影响的进一步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨手部清洁卫生对小学生蛔虫再感染的影响. 方法将基线调查中查出的蛔虫感染者给予驱蛔治疗,半月复查阴性者作为观察对象.实验组开展洗手活动,对照组不开展洗手活动,每2个月用Kato法复查1次,连续观察1年.比较实验组与对照组蛔虫累计再感染率,计算相对危险度(RR)及措施保护率(PR). 结果小学生蛔虫累计再感染率从开展洗手活动后第4个月开始实验组低于对照组 (P <0.001),手部清洁卫生防止蛔虫感染的效果指数IE=2.25,保护率PR=55.55%. 结论保持手部清洁卫生可减少小学生蛔虫再感染.

  18. Analysis on Cases of Ascaris Lumbricoides From Northwest Highland Area of Sichuan in a Parasitic Clinic%某寄生虫门诊四川省西北高原地区蛔虫病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙黎; 李彦; 陈闯

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨四川省西北(川西北)高原地区蛔虫发病的特点、原因分析、诊断、治疗及预防措施.方法 回顾性分析四川省疾病预防控制中心(疾控中心)寄生虫专科门诊从2003-2011年明确诊断为蛔虫病的川西北高原地区蛔虫病患者共102例.结果 川西北高原地区感染蛔虫病患者藏族农牧民比例高于其他民族人群,且在本组病例与平原城市相比,蛔虫病的临床表现复杂多样,重症比例达13.7%,并发症的比例高.结论 为了降低川西北高原地区尤其是农牧民人群蛔虫病感染率,应加强健康教育,普及卫生知识.

  19. Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burden setting: a cross-sectional community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    van Soelen Nelda; Mandalakas Anna M; Kirchner H; Walzl Gerhard; Grewal Harleen M S; Jacobsen Marc; Hesseling Anneke C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background M.tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with enhanced T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses while helminth infection is associated with T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to investigate whether helminth infection could influence the ability to generate an appropriate Th1 immune response that is characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), in M.tb exposed children. Methods We completed a community-based, cross sectional household contact t...

  20. Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Widmer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matrix. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella were undetectable following 2 hours of lime stabilization, demonstrating a 7-log reduction. Adenovirus, MS-2 and rotavirus were below detectable levels following 2 h of liming, demonstrating a 4-log reduction. G. lamblia cysts were also inactivated. A. lumbricoides ova remained viable following 72 hours of liming as did C. parvum oocysts. While this study confirmed that Ascaris ova are resistant to liming, their scarcity in sludge and low recovery efficiencies limit their use as indicator. The persistence of C. parvum oocysts after exposure to lime, suggests that this parasite would be a better choice as indicator for evaluating biosolids intended for land application. The studies done with adenovirus Type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific bacteriophage provided preliminary data demonstrating similar inactivation rates. Monitoring anthropogenic viruses is a time consuming, labor intensive and expensive process. If further studies could demonstrate that phage could be used as an indicator of other enteric viruses, enhanced monitoring could result in greater acceptance of land application of biosolids while demonstrating no increased public health threat.

  1. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  2. Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15-18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow

  3. Effects of post-ovulatory food deprivation on the hormonal profiles, activity of the oviduct and ova transport in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, A M; Englund, P; Kindahl, H; Lundeheim, N; Einarsson, S

    2000-05-31

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of post-ovulatory food deprivation on the hormonal profiles and consequently on the activity of the oviduct and ova transport in sows. Sows were randomly allocated to the control (C-group, n=6) or fasted (F-group, n=5) group. The F-group sows were fasted for four meals starting with the morning meal after detection of ovulation in the second oestrus after weaning. Ovulation was checked by transrectal ultrasonography. Blood was collected for the analyses of progesterone, oestradiol-17beta, prostaglandin F(2 approximately ) metabolite, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Oviductal isthmic motility was monitored on Polyview before and after ovulation until the time of slaughter. After slaughter, the isthmus opposite the side with transducer was divided into three equal segments and flushed separately and a third of the uterine horn part from the utero-tubal-junction (UTJ) was also flushed. A high proportion of ova in the F-group was found in the first and second parts of the isthmus. In the C-group, a high proportion of ova was found in the third part of the isthmus and the uterus. The mean isthmic pressure in the C-group decreased significantly (Ppressure remained unchanged. The frequency of phasic pressure fluctuations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the F- than in the C-group 13 to 24 h after ovulation. No significant differences in progesterone concentrations were seen between the two groups of sows. Prostaglandin metabolite levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the F-group than in the C-group. Oestradiol-17beta levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased earlier in the F- than in the C-group. Serum insulin levels were significantly (p=0.05) lower in the F- than in the C-group while free fatty acids were significantly (p<0.01) higher in the F- than in the C-group. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of triglycerides between the F- and the C-group. Therefore, it

  4. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  5. [Paragonimus westermani infection confirmed by the detection of Paragonimus ova in the sputum with bilateral pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanijiri, Tsutomu; Yonezu, Seibun; Torii, Yoshitaro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Takashi; Fukuhara, Shirou

    2009-12-01

    A 28-year-old man had a 1-year history of hemoptysis. Consequently, he underwent a medical examination. A right pleural effusion, left hydropneumothorax, and multiple pulmonary nodular shadows were found on chest radiography. During a detailed interview, he reported that the hemoptysis began after eating "kejang" (a raw crab preparation) with a friend a year previously. His peripheral blood eosinophil count and serum IgE level were elevated. In addition, ova were detected in the sputum and bilateral pleural effusion. Morphological examination of the ova and immunoserological examination led to the diagnosis of Paragonimus westermani infection. The pleural effusion could be partially drained, and his symptoms and radiographic results showed improvement after treatment with Praziquantel administered at a dose of 75 mg/(kg x day) for 3 days. After one month, he and his friend ate seasoned raw crabs, Paragonimus was diagnosed in his friend. This case suggests that on encountering a paragonimus infection, everyone who ate food prepared in the same kitchen should be contacted because of possible infection with paragonimus.

  6. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  7. Early stages of Ascaris suum induce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enobe, C S; Araújo, C A; Perini, A; Martins, M A; Macedo, M S; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2006-09-01

    The inflammatory and functional changes that occur in murine lung after infection with 2500 infective Ascaris suum eggs were studied in this work. A sequential influx of neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils occurred into airways concomitantly with migration of larvae from liver to the lungs. Histological analysis of the lung showed a severe intra-alveolar haemorrhage at the peak of larval migration (day 8) and the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate on day 14. Ascaris L3 were found in alveolar spaces and inside bronchioles on day 8. The number of eosinophils was elevated in the blood on days 8 and 14. The peak of eosinophil influx into the lung was at day 14, as indicated by the high levels of eosinophil peroxidase activity, followed by their migration into the airways. The antibody response against egg and larval antigens consisted mainly of IgG1 and IgM, and also of IgE and anaphylactic IgG1, that cross-reacted with adult worm antigens. Total IgE levels were substantially elevated during the infection. Measurement of lung mechanical parameters showed airway hyperreactivity in infected mice. In conclusion, the murine model of A. suum infection mimics the Th2-induced parameters observed in pigs and humans and can be used to analyse the immunoregulatory properties of this helminth. PMID:16916369

  8. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. PMID:25486916

  9. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  10. Effect of oral administration of Propionibacterium acnes on growth performance, DTH response and anti-OVA titers in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Ferrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunostimulants are susbstances that stimuli the response of effector cells to activate the immune response such as antigen uptake, cytokine release or antibody response. These substances can increase resistence to infection by different types of microorganisms, reducing dependence of antibiotics used in livestock animals. Recent reports have demonstrated the positive effect of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes to control animal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the non-specific immunostimulant P. acnes on immunological functions and growth performance in goat kids. Twenty five goat kids served as control group (A and another 25 animals received P. acnes being the experimental group (B. Kids were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to assess humoral immunity. To assess in vivo cell immunity, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH test with phytohemagglutinin (PHA was used, clinical signs and body weight were recorded each week until 9 weeks of age when the experiment ended. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum proteins fractions and anti-OVA specific antibodies. No clinical signs of disease and no differences (p>0.05 on body weight between groups were recorded (7.32±0.81 kg in group A, 7.13±0.65 kg in group B. Goat kids from group B had more total protein (59.8±5g/l and albumin levels (32.8±3.3g/l than goat kids from group A (56.6±5.7 g/l, 29.6±3.9 g/l respectively (p<0.05. DTH response in goat kids from group B on day 42 was higher (p<0.05 than group A. At day 63, goat kids from group receiving P. acnes had higher percentage (85.4 of anti-OVA IgM titers (p<0.05 than control group (57.7. In conclusion, the results showed that oral administration of P. acnes to goat kids improved some aspects of the immune system of the animals and it could be used to control goat diseases.

  11. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    molecular biology and genetics. Recently, we reported the 273 megabase (Mb) draft genome of Ascaris suum (sequenced from the reproductive tract of a single adult female worm) and explored transcription in different organs, stages, and both sexes of this nematode using advanced sequencing and computer...

  12. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus;

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens ...

  13. Profiling gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna;

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to profile the immune response mounted by pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes following an A. suum infection. We selec...

  14. Numerical modelling of Triple Junction Tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey: implications for the mechanism of magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoǧlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). Suitably stressed crustal materials of the extruded block on the Karlıova-type triple junctions are potential regions for magma ascent. The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple junction tectonic settings is, however, poorly understood. This study discusses the mechanism of magma propagation in the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) tectonic regime. We aim to demonstrate how the geometry and mechanical properties of faults and rock units affect magma propagation under a variety of tectonic boundary loads. We discuss the geologic setting of the KTJ and the manifestations of shallow and deeper magma chambers within the crustal segment. Our numerical modelling study aims to quantify the crustal response of various tectonic regimes in Eastern Turkey. The region is characterised by lithological heterogeneity which is considered in our models. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models to help constrain evolving ideas regarding inversion and transtensional tectonics in an east-west direction along the KTJ. We also consider a north to south striking profile which is subjected to regional compression and local extensional tectonic phases which likely operated in the region ~3 My. A three-dimensional model is presented to investigate the effect of regional differential stresses. Our numerical models demonstrate that the regional tectonic stresses that are capable of encouraging magma-chamber failure and dyke propagation. Turnadaǧ volcanism at the western part of this triple junction has been fed by a shallow magma chamber located at 8-10 km depth during E-W extension. The Varto caldera is also fed by a shallow magma chamber at 8-10 km depth. Numerical results show that if the region were to be

  15. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were nonviable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates...... that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion: By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated...

  16. Comparação antigênica entre extratos de Toxocara canis e Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Zyngier

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta a comparação de dois extratos de Toxocara canis e um de Ascaris suum do ponto de vista antigênico. O método usado foi a imunodifusão em gel segundo Ouchtehlöny. O extrato de T. canis obtido pela técnica de Jeska mostrou 7 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo. O extrato de A. suum obtido pela mesma técnica apenas revelou 3 faixas, uma das quais com identidade parcial com o antígeno anterior. O extrato de T. canis segundo Woodruff e Thacker revelou 3 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo, todas elas com identidade total com o outro extrato do mesmo parasita.

  17. Studies on the fungal diseases in Crustaceans.1. Lagenidium Scyllae sp. nov. isolated from cultivated ova and larvae of the mangrove crab Seylla Serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongBian; KishioHatait; GiklaL.po; SyuzoEgusa

    1986-01-01

    Lagenidium scyllae a marine mastigomycete from ova and larvae of the mangrove crab, is described and illustrated as new. The fungus grew at a temperature range of 16 to 42℃, with the optimum of 22.5—31.8℃. It grew well in peptone-veast-glucose(PYG) broth containing 2—3%NaCl.

  18. LF-15 & T7, synthetic peptides derived from tumstatin, attenuate aspects of airway remodelling in a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karryn T Grafton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumstatin is a segment of the collagen-IV protein that is markedly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Tumstatin can play an important role in the development of airway remodelling associated with asthma due to its anti-angiogenic properties. This study assessed the anti-angiogenic properties of smaller peptides derived from tumstatin, which contain the interface tumstatin uses to interact with the αVβ3 integrin. METHODS: Primary human lung endothelial cells were exposed to the LF-15, T3 and T7 tumstatin-derived peptides and assessed for cell viability and tube formation in vitro. The impact of the anti-angiogenic properties on airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR was then examined using a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airways disease. RESULTS: The LF-15 and T7 peptides significantly reduced endothelial cell viability and attenuated tube formation in vitro. Mice exposed to OVA+ LF-15 or OVA+T7 also had reduced total lung vascularity and AHR was attenuated compared to mice exposed to OVA alone. T3 peptides reduced cell viability but had no effect on any other parameters. CONCLUSION: The LF-15 and T7 peptides may be appropriate candidates for use as novel pharmacotherapies due to their small size and anti-angiogenic properties observed in vitro and in vivo.

  19. N-glycans of the porcine nematode parasite Ascaris suum are modified with phosphorylcholine and core fucose residues

    OpenAIRE

    Pöltl, Gerald; Kerner, Denise; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the glycoconjugates of many parasitic nematodes have attracted interest due to their immunogenic and immunomodulatory nature. Previous studies with the porcine roundworm parasite Ascaris suum have focussed on its glycosphingolipids which were found, in part, to be modified by phosphorylcholine. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we have now analysed the PNGase A-released N-glycans of adults of this species. The presence of hybrid, bi- and triantennary N-glycans, so...

  20. Graptopetalum paraguayense Ameliorates Airway Inflammation and Allergy in Ovalbumin- (OVA- Sensitized BALB/C Mice by Inhibiting Th2 Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of inflammation-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammatory airways diseases has received increasing attention in recent years. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is the primary transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther, a vegetable consumed in Taiwan, has been used in folk medicine for protection against liver injury through elevating antioxidation. Recently, we found that gallic acid is an active compound of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther, which has been reported to inhibit T-helper 2 cytokines. Currently, we assumed that Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther may potentially protect against ovalbumin-induced allergy and airway inflammation. Results demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther ethanolic extracts (GPE clearly inhibited airway inflammation, mucus cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilia in OVA-challenged mice. Additionally, GPE also prevented T-cell infiltration and Th2 cytokines, including interleukin- (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 generations in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. The adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were substantially reduced by GPE treatment mediated by Nrf2 activation. Moreover, GPE attenuated GATA3 expression and inhibited Th2 signals of the T cells. These findings suggested that GPE ameliorated the development of airway inflammation through immune regulation.

  1. In vivo micro-CT assessment of airway remodeling in a flexible OVA-sensitized murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lederlin

    Full Text Available Airway remodeling is a major pathological feature of asthma. Up to now, its quantification still requires invasive methods. In this study, we aimed at determining whether in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is able to demonstrate allergen-induced airway remodeling in a flexible mouse model of asthma. Sixty Balb/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin or saline at 3 different endpoints (Days 35, 75, and 110. All mice underwent plethysmography at baseline and just prior to respiratory-gated micro-CT. Mice were then sacrificed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. From micro-CT images (voxel size = 46×46×46 µm, the numerical values of total lung attenuation, peribronchial attenuation (PBA, and PBA normalized by total lung attenuation were extracted. Each parameter was compared between OVA and control mice and correlation coefficients were calculated between micro-CT and histological data. As compared to control animals, ovalbumin-sensitized mice exhibited inflammation alone (Day 35, remodeling alone (Day 110 or both inflammation and remodeling (Day 75. Normalized PBA was significantly greater in mice exhibiting bronchial remodeling either alone or in combination with inflammation. Normalized PBA correlated with various remodeling markers such as bronchial smooth muscle size or peribronchial fibrosis. These findings suggest that micro-CT may help monitor remodeling non-invasively in asthmatic mice when testing new drugs targeting airway remodeling in pre-clinical studies.

  2. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  3. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  4. Phellinus linteus Extract Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects by Suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK Activity in an OVA-induced Mouse Model of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Guang Hai; Choi, Yun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, the protective effects of P. linteus against experimental asthma have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether P. linteus ethanol extract (PLE) suppresses inflammatory response in an OVA-induced asthma model. As expected, the oral administration of PLE significan...

  5. Postovulatory effect of repeated intravenous administration of ACTH on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport and endocrine status of recently ovulated and unrestrained sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, A M; Madej, A; Kindahl, H; Lundeheim, N; Einarsson, S

    2000-11-01

    The effect of repeated intravenous administration of ACTH (Synacthen depot) on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport and endocrine status was studied in 11 Swedish crossbred (Landrace x Yorkshire) multiparous sows. In the second estrus after weaning, the ACTH group (Group A, n=6) sows were administered 0.01 mg/kg body weight of ACTH every 6 h commencing 4 to 8 h after ovulation, whereas the control group (Group C, n=5) sows were administered saline solution. Immediately after standing estrus, a Millar pressure transducer was placed about 3 cm into the isthmus via a laparotomy. Blood samples for hormonal analyses and pressure recordings of the oviduct were collected from all sows until slaughter. After slaughter, the genital tract opposite to the side with the transducer was retrieved, and 3 equal isthmic segments and the first third of the uterine horn portion adjacent to the UTJ were flushed separately for ova recovery. Cortisol levels were significantly (P0.05) were seen in the mean pressure and frequencies of phasic pressure fluctuations either before or after every ACTH administration between Groups A and C. No significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in the proportion of ova recovered in the different segments between Groups A and C. It can be concluded from the present study that the administration of ACTH (0.01 mg/kg body weight) to sows at 4 to 8 h after ovulation, and after each subsequent ACTH administration, elevates cortisol levels, whereas progesterone and PGF2alpha metabolite levels are elevated only after the first treatment, and that this has no effect on the mean isthmic pressure, the frequency of phasic pressure fluctuations or ova transport. PMID:11192189

  6. A genetic marker allele conferring resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.;

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has helped dissecting the genetics underlying the variation in resistance to helminth infections. In pigs, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with Ascaris suum worm burden...... of the AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, faecal egg counts, number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels) of which the first two traits were considered core traits and the last two traits were associated traits. Pigs of the AA genotype had...... lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs. 19.3), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs. 70.1) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 p.i. (mean number of eggs/g faeces: 238 vs. 1259) than pigs of the AB genotype. However, none of these differences were significant (P- values of 0.06, 0.06 and 0...

  7. γ-Aninobutyric acid (GABA suppresses antigen-specific immune responses in ovalbumin γ(OVA-immunized BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Sakai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutruic acid (GABA is known to be a ubiquitous inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that GABA modulates cardiovascular and respiratory functions. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on antigen (Ag-specific immune responses and elucidated the mechanisms underlying those effects in ovalbumin (OVA-immunized BALB/c mice. OVA-specific proliferative responses were decreased in mice that had been administered 20 mg/kg GABA compared to those in control mice without reduction in responses to anti-CD3 monoclonal (mAb. The levels of OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were also decreased in mice that had been administered GABA. However, GABA administration did not influence the TNP-specific IgM and IgG levels. Ag-presenting activity of CD11c+ dendritic cells from GABA-treated mice was less than that of cells from control mice. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of GABA on Ag-specific immune responses contributes to the reduction of antigen-presenting function on CD11c+ dendritic cells.

  8. Composición de ácidos grasos en ovas de trucha arco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rosado Puccini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan con parámetros de composición 58 puestas de trucha arcoiris obtenidas, manejadas y monitoreadas individualmente en desempeño desde la fertilización hasta finalizar la etapa de reabsorción de vesícula. Además de los valores reproductivos, el contenido de ácidos grasos en las ovas se determinó en fresco, mediante cromatografía de gases. En el perfil medio se destacan los ácidos palmítico (C16, oleico (C18:1n-9 y docosahexaenoico (C22:6n-3 como los más representativos, con casi el 60% del total y, en general, en concentraciones estables entre las hembras. Tanto para cada ácido determinado como para el conjunto de contenidos integrados de las series n-3 y n-6, y los colectivos de saturados (SAF, monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA, se define un patrón de composición similar al reportado para la especie en otros esquemas de manejo y bajo regímenes nutricionales variables. Se analizó la condición conservativa en la incorporación de ácidos grasos al huevo, y se discutió su utilidad como posibles definitorios de calidad, teniendo como referente la alta variabilidad registrada en la supervivencia al final del proceso de incubación.

  9. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chuangeng; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-08-01

    Peptides with Ascaris-type fold are a new kind of toxins founded from venomous animals recently. Functionally, these unique toxin peptides had been identified as potent protease inhibitors, which was similar to other known Ascaris-type peptides from non-venomous animals. Whether Ascaris-type peptides from venom animals have neurotoxin activities remains unclear. Here, a scorpion toxin SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type fold was characterized to have a neurotoxin activity, which can selectively inhibit KCNQ1 potassium channel. SjAPI-2 had 62 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteine residues. Charged residue analyses showed that two acidic residues of SjAPI-2 were regionally distributed, and 10 basic residues were distributed widely throughout the whole peptide, which was similar to classical potassium channel toxins. Pharmacological studies confirmed that SjAPI-2 was a selective KCNQ1 potassium channel inhibitor with weak effects on other potassium channels, such as Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels. Concentration-dependent studies showed that SjAPI-2 inhibited the KCNQ1 potassium channel with an IC50 of 771.5±169.9 nM. To the best of our knowledge, SjAPI-2 is the first neurotoxin with a unique Ascaris-type fold, providing novel insights into the divergent evolution of neurotoxins from venomous animals. PMID:26014142

  10. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, T M; Rafael, A; Enobe, C S; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2004-02-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10) M-1, 7.1 x 10(9) M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7) M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3) were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others. PMID:14762577

  11. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Oshiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10 M-1, 7.1 x 10(9 M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7 M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3 were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others.

  12. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko;

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis...... posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...

  13. Determination of impact of urbanization on agricultural land and wetland land use in Balçovas' delta by remote sensing and GIS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Mustafa; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Kurucu, Yusuf; Altinbas, Unal; Esetlili, M Tolga; Gulgun, Bahriye

    2007-08-01

    Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of greet attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, deltas, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the Balçova Delta, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1957 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1957, 1976 and 1995 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2005, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Through this study, which aimed to reveal the characteristics of the areas of land already lost as well as the types of land use in the Balçova delta and to determine geographically the remaining areas in need of protection, local authorities were provided with the required data support. Balçova consists of flat and fertile wetland with mainly citrus-fruit orchards and flower-producing green houses. The marsh and lagoon system situated in the coastal areas of the delta provides a habitat for wild life, in particular birds. In the Balçova Delta, which provides feeding and resting for migratory birds, freshwater sources are of vital importance for fauna and flora. The settlement area, which in 1957 was 182 ha, increased 11-fold up to the year 2005 when it reached 2,141 ha. On the other hand, great losses were determined in farming land, olive groves, forest and in the marsh and lagoon system. This unsystematic and rapid urbanization occurring in the study region is not only causing the loss of important agricultural land and wetland, but also lasting water and soil pollution. PMID:17180418

  14. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  15. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anette; Magnussen, P.; Ouma, J.H.;

    1998-01-01

    hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency......hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency...

  16. 78 FR 44512 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Ascaris lumbricoides) would not qualify as a Table injury. Proof of these alternate causes may be... as Ascaris lumbricoides), which may be demonstrated by clinical signs and symptoms and need not be... category of rotavirus vaccines was added to the Table, it was added with ``no condition specified.'' 64...

  17. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  18. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  19. Development of sensitisation or tolerance following repeated OVA inhalation in BALB/cJ mice. Dose-dependency and modulation by the Al(OH)3 adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Susanne Knoth; Bergqvist, Mette; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced exposures may, due to their adjuvant effect, promote development of sensitisation to commonly occurring aeroallergens. No generally accepted model exists for determination of adjuvant effect of airborne substances. Therefore, BALB/cJ mice were exposed for 10 consecutive....... In the range from 1.25 mg/l to 10 g/l, IgE production was time- and concentration-dependent. Both the IgE and IgG1 production were markedly promoted by Al(OH)(3). However, with aerosol exposures, the IgE antibody productions were not sufficient to increase the level of inflammatory cells in broncho...... full tolerance of the IgE response, whereas only partial tolerance was apparent with 25 mg/l OVA. The Al(OH)(3) adjuvant counteracted development of tolerance that was fully prevented at the 25 mg/l OVA concentration. Development of IgG1 was increased in a concentration-dependent manner with 500 mg...

  20. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + d...

  1. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  2. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  3. A comparison of the efficacy of two ivermectin formulations against larval and adult Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dendatum in experimentally infected piggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Nicoll, S.; Donanque, R.J.; Abbott, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two injectable formulations of ivermectin (IVM-1 and IVM-2) at a dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg bodyweight versus placebo in the treatment and control of larval and adult stages of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. in experimentally infected pi

  4. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha;

    to reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...

  5. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  6. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  7. Tyk2信号传导在表达OVA的重组卡介菌(rBCG-OVA)所致慢性胞内细菌感染小鼠模型的CD8+Tc1反应中的作用%Tyk2 signaling plays a critical role in the development of T cytotoxic 1 responses following chronic rBCG-OVA infections in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To elucidate potential roles of tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) in the generation and maintenance of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells. Methods We followed the fate of OVA-specific CD8 + T cells in Tyk2-deficient ( Tyk2 -/- ) mice after infection with recombinant OVA-expressing BCG ( rBCGOVA ). Because the immunostimulatory BCG-derived peptides recognized by CD8 + T cells have not been defined, and the OVA is definite peptide for specific CD8 + T cells that has been accepted widely, therefore we examine the kinetics of the OVA-Ag-specific CD8 + T cell response after rBCG-OVA infection in mice.Tyk2-/- and wild type(Tyk2+/+ ) mice were inoculated with rBCG-OVA by intra-trachea( i. t. ), after the examination of bacterial growth in the lung and spleen, the population of CD8 + T cells were detected by FACS analysis, the epitope-specific CD8 + T cells were followed with tetrameric H-2Kb molecule folding with OVA257 264 peptide, and the kinetics of Ag-specific CD8 + Tc1 cells were detected by intracellular IFN-γ production in response to OVA257-264 peptide by cytokine FACS analysis. Results After rBCG-OVA challenge,the bacteria number in spleen and lung of Tyk2 -/- mice were significantly larger than those in Tyk2 +/+ mice on days 14, 21 and 49. Almost as same as that in Tyk2+/+ mice, the size of epitope-specific CD8+ T cella with OVA257-264/Kb-tetramer-positive and the CD8 +Tc1 (T eytotoxic 1 )cells positive for intracellular IFN-γ could proliferate to its peak on day 21, then contract and maintain to the memory phase in spleen and lung of Tyk2-/- mice, but the population of CD8+ T cells in spleen and lung of Tyk2 -/- mice were significantly smaller than those in Tyk2+/+ mice on days 21 and 49, the number of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in spleen and lung of Tyk2 -/- mice were significantly decreased and the frequency of CD8 + Tc1 cells in spleen and lung of Tyk2 -/- mice significantly reduced on day 21,49 and 70 after rBCG-OVA infection. So correspond with the larger

  8. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P.; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27442134

  9. Adalimumab ameliorates OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice: Role of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsakkar, Mohamed G; Sharaki, Olla A; Abdallah, Dina M; Mostafa, Dalia K; Shekondali, Fadia T

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory heterogeneous disorder initiated by a dysregulated immune response which drives disease development in susceptible individuals. Though T helper 2 (TH2) biased responses are usually linked to eosinophilic asthma, other Th cell subsets induce neutrophilic airway inflammation which provokes the most severe asthmatic phenotypes. A growing evidence highlights the role of T regulatory (Treg) cells in damping abnormal Th responses and thus inhibiting allergy and asthma. Therefore, strategies to induce or augment Treg cells hold promise for treatment and prevention of allergic airway inflammation. Recently, the link between Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Treg has been uncovered, and TNF-α antagonists are increasingly used in many autoimmune diseases. Yet, their benefits in allergic airway inflammation is not clarified. We investigated the effect of Adalimumab, a TNF-α antagonist, on Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation in CD1 mice and explored its impact on Treg cells. Our results showed that Adalimumab treatment attenuated the OVA-induced increase in serum IgE, TH2 and TH1 derived inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ, respectively) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, suppressed recruitment of inflammatory cells in BAL fluid and lung, and inhibited BAL fluid neutrophilia. It also ameliorated goblet cell metaplasia and bronchial fibrosis. Splenocytes flow cytometry revealed increased percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells by Adalimumab that was associated with increase in their suppressive activity as shown by elevated BAL fluid IL-10. We conclude that the beneficial effects of Adalimumab in this CD1 neutrophilic model of allergic airway inflammation are attributed to augmentation of Treg cell number and activity. PMID:27262379

  10. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

  11. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  12. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3induced HDAC2 expression and reduced NF-κB p65 expression in a rat model of OVA-induced asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) may influence asthma pathogenesis; however, its roles in regulating specific molecular transcription mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression and enzyme activity of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its synergistic effects with dexamethasone (Dx) in the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion in a rat asthma model. Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, asthma, 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, Dx treatment, and Dx and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Pulmonary inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge (OVA/OVA). Inflammatory cells and cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and histological changes in lung tissue were examined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and HDAC2 expression levels were assessed with Western blot analyses and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Enzyme activity measurements and immunohistochemical detection of HDAC2 were also performed. Our data demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the airway inflammatory response and the level of inflammatory cytokines in BAL. Although NF-κB p65 expression was attenuated in the pretreatment and treatment groups, the expression and enzyme activity of HDAC2 were increased. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 and Dx had synergistic effects on the suppression of total cell infusion, cytokine release, and NF-κB p65 expression, and they also increased HDAC2 expression and activity in OVA/OVA rats. Collectively, our results indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3might be useful as a novel HDAC2 activator in the treatment of asthma

  13. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  14. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  15. Employment of anaerobic reactors in real scale and polishing ponds for removal of eggs Ascaris suum of swine effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Araujo Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The swine confinement farms and the improper disposal of their wastes carry result in contamination of water and soil. On many farms is common slurry application to soil as a means of fertilization, but without any control over the quality of the effluent being released. What is a parasite Ascaris suum from pigs can infect humans, but is not given due importance to the presence of this contaminant as soil and water. In this work the effluent of a pig was treated in a system composed of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a UASB followed by polishing ponds for removal of helminthes eggs. The experiment was conducted at the Hélio Barbosa Experimental Farm pig in the city of Igarapé / MG. Values found in the influent of helminthes eggs in the range from 2891 to 88,848 eggs L-1, while the effluent showed absence of eggs, showing the high efficiency of the treatment system. While the sludge ponds, it showed high concentration of viable eggs ranged from 10.1% to 59.8%, not being in conformity with the requirements for reuse in agriculture.

  16. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity.

  17. Carbonate inclusions in Lower Cretaceous picrites from the Hončova hůrka Hill (Czech Republic, Outer Western Carpathians): Evidence for primary magmatic carbonates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropáč, Kamil; Dolníček, Zdeněk; Buriánek, David; Urubek, Tomáš; Mašek, Vlastimil

    2015-07-01

    Porphyritic picrites from the Hončova hůrka site in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians) are composed mostly of olivine phenocrysts enclosed in a black fine-grained groundmass, which consists of clinopyroxene, biotite, magnetite, chlorite, feldspars, and zeolites. The rocks are variably affected by hydrothermal alteration. The freshest samples contain potentially primary igneous calcite and aragonite, which occur as globular inclusions hosted by olivine phenocrysts, or as fillings of the miarolitic cavities in the picrite groundmass. In this paper, we try to clarify the nature of investigated carbonates using the combination of several petrological methods. Based on the texture, mineral composition, and relationship to the alteration patterns of the host mineral, we distinguished three basic types of inclusions: carbonate inclusions, silicate inclusions, and a combined type consisting of both carbonate and silicate domains. Only the fresh olivine-hosted round carbonate globules can contain the primary igneous calcite. These globules cannot represent immiscible carbonatite melt since they lack Si, alkalis, and other essential components (e.g. P, F, Cl, and S) present in natural carbonate melts. Instead, they can be interpreted as product of equilibrium crystallization of calcite from carbonated silicate melt (i.e. crystal cumulates). In contrast, the calcite-aragonite assemblage in inclusions hosted by altered olivine and in miaroles most probably originated during recrystallization of primary calcite during late-magmatic or post-magmatic stages or is related to the superimposed hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Functional Effects of WNT1-Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein-1 on Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation in OVA-Induced Airway Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjin; Du, Yuejun; Xu, Zhibo; Jiang, Youfan

    2016-02-01

    Upregulation of WISP1 has been demonstrated in lung remodeling. Moreover, it has been recently found that some signaling components of WNT pathway can activate GSK3β signaling to mediate remodeling of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in asthma. Therefore, we hypothesized that WISP1, a signaling molecule downstream of the WNT signaling pathway, is involved in PI3K/GSK3β signaling to mediate ASM remodeling in asthma. Our results showed that WISP1 depletion partly suppressed OVA-induced ASM hypertrophy in vivo. In vitro, WISP1 could induce hBSMC hypertrophy and proliferation, accompanied by upregulation of levels of PI3K, p-Akt, p-GSK3β, and its own expression. TGF-β treatment could increase expression of PI3K, p-Akt, p-GSK3β, and WISP1. SH-5 treatment could partly suppress TGF-β-induced hypertrophy and proliferation of hBSMC, and depress expression of p-GSK3β and WISP1. In conclusion, WISP1 may be a potential inducer of ASM proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma. The pro-remodeling effect of WISP1 is likely due to be involved in PI3K-GSK3β-dependent noncanonical TGF-β signaling. PMID:26242865

  19. A Recombinant DNA Plasmid Encoding the sIL-4R-NAP Fusion Protein Suppress Airway Inflammation in an OVA-Induced Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fu, Guo; Ji, Zhenyu; Huang, Xiabing; Ding, Cong; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiaolong; Du, Mingxuan; Wang, Ting; Kang, Qiaozhen

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. It was prevalently perceived that Th2 cells played the crucial role in asthma pathogenesis, which has been identified as the important target for anti-asthma therapy. The soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R), which is the decoy receptor for Th2 cytokine IL-4, has been reported to be effective in treating asthma in phase I/II clinical trail. To develop more efficacious anti-asthma agent, we attempt to test whether the Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a novel TLR2 agonist, would enhance the efficacy of sIL-4R in anti-asthma therapy. In our work, we constructed a pcDNA3.1-sIL-4R-NAP plasmid, named PSN, encoding fusion protein of murine sIL-4R and HP-NAP. PSN significantly inhibited airway inflammation, decreased the serum OVA-specific IgE levels and remodeled the Th1/Th2 balance. Notably, PSN is more effective on anti-asthma therapy comparing with plasmid only expressing sIL-4R. PMID:27209195

  20. Changes of expression of IL-17 in OVA-induced food allergy model in BN rats%OVA致敏BN大鼠IL-17表达水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽莉; 杨芷菁; 马雅; 刘志刚; 陈思

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of IL-17 in OVA-induced food allergy in BN rats and to analyze the effect of IL-17 in egg allergies. Methods OVA-induced food allergy models were established. The PBS-treated rats were served as controls. The expression levels of IL-17A mRNA were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The corresponding protein levels of IL-17 were measured by ELISA. Results The expression level of IL-17A mRNA in OVA-treated BN rats was significantly higher than that in PBS-treated BN rats(P<0. 01). Consistently,the expression of IL-17 protein levels in OVA-treated BN rats was significantly higher than that in PBS-treated BN rats (P<0. 05). Conclusion The expression of IL-17 was significantly increased in OVA-induced food allergy model,which implies that IL-17 may play an important role in the mechanism of food allergy.%目的 研究卵清蛋白(OVA)致敏的Brown Norway(BN)大鼠外周血中白细胞介素(IL)-17表达水平的变化,探讨IL-17在鸡蛋所致食物过敏(FA)中的作用.方法 建立OVA致敏的大鼠模型(OVA组),并以仅给予PBS灌胃的大鼠(PBS组)作为对照,采用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测各组IL-17A mRNA表达水平,采用ELISA法检测各组血浆中IL-17蛋白水平.结果 OVA组IL-17A mRNA表达水平显著高于PBS组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且OVA组IL-17水平也明显高于PBS组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 OVA诱发FA动物模型中可检测到外周血IL-17表达水平上升,提示IL-17可能在FA的发病过程中起重要作用.

  1. Chronic OVA allergen challenged Siglec-F deficient mice have increased mucus, remodeling, and epithelial Siglec-F ligands which are up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Taylor A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we examined the role of Siglec-F, a receptor highly expressed on eosinophils, in contributing to mucus expression, airway remodeling, and Siglec-F ligand expression utilizing Siglec-F deficient mice exposed to chronic allergen challenge. Methods Wild type (WT and Siglec-F deficient mice were sensitized and challenged chronically with OVA for one month. Levels of airway inflammation (eosinophils, Siglec-F ligand expresion and remodeling (mucus, fibrosis, smooth muscle thickness, extracellular matrix protein deposition were assessed in lung sections by image analysis and immunohistology. Airway hyperreactivity to methacholine was assessed in intubated and ventilated mice. Results Siglec-F deficient mice challenged with OVA for one month had significantly increased numbers of BAL and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice which was associated with a significant increase in mucus expression as assessed by the number of periodic acid Schiff positive airway epithelial cells. In addition, OVA challenged Siglec-F deficient mice had significantly increased levels of peribronchial fibrosis (total lung collagen, area of peribronchial trichrome staining, as well as increased numbers of peribronchial TGF-β1+ cells, and increased levels of expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin compared to OVA challenged WT mice. Lung sections immunostained with a Siglec-Fc to detect Siglec-F ligand expression demonstrated higher levels of expression of the Siglec-F ligand in the peribronchial region in OVA challenged Siglec-F deficient mice compared to WT mice. WT and Siglec-F deficient mice challenged intranasally with IL-4 or IL-13 had significantly increased levels of airway epithelial Siglec-F ligand expression, whereas this was not observed in WT or Siglec-F deficient mice challenged with TNF-α. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the peribronchial smooth muscle layer in OVA challenged

  2. Investigation on prevalence and risk factors of HIV/AIDS and Schistosoma japonicum, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in a rural community of southwestern China%我国西南彝族农村地区HIV与血吸虫蛔虫及鞭虫感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏磊; 周艺彪; 史妍; 杨亚; 高建川; 宋秀霞; 姜庆五

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解我国西南彝族农村地区HIV、血吸虫、蛔虫及鞭虫感染状况,调查是否存在混合感染.方法 在我国西南部某山区随机选取一个彝族乡开展横断面调查,检测村民HIV、血吸虫、蛔虫及鞭虫感染情况;并对村民进行问卷调查,了解HIV及寄生虫感染的危险因素.结果 我国西南彝族农村地区居民HIV、血吸虫、蛔虫和鞭虫感染率分别为2.33% 、2.05%、13.47%和30.59%,鞭虫与蛔虫共同感染检出率为7.08%,HIV与蛔虫和鞭虫共同感染检出率均为0.23%.男性以及吸毒是HIV感染的危险因素[OR=3.26,95% CI:(0.97,10.95);OR=72.86,95% CI:(18.51,286.76)];厕所与蛔虫和鞭虫感染间均存在负相关关系[OR=0.51,95% CI:(0.27,0.98);OR=0.48,95% CI:(0.28,0.80)].与居住在村4的居民相比,村1村民感染蛔虫风险较高[OR=3.14,95% CI:(1.35,7.27)];与居住在村4的居民相比,居住在村2和村3的村民鞭虫感染风险较高[OR=3.73,95% CI:(1.92,7.26);OR=4.53,95% CI:(2.12,9.68)].此外,11~ 20岁年龄组村民鞭虫感染风险高于>50岁村民[OR=3.72,95% CI:(1.59,8.67)];蛔虫与鞭虫感染间存在相关关系[OR=3.11,95% CI:(1.63,5.93)],未发现与血吸虫感染相关的因素.结论 我国西南彝族农村居民HIV及寄生虫感染率尤其是鞭虫感染率较高;应进一步探索HIV与寄生虫感染,尤其是与血吸虫感染间的关系.

  3. 淄川区农村中、小学生服药前后蛔虫感染状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis on infection of Ascaris lumbricoides before and after chemotherapy in the students of middle and primary school in rural area of Zichuan District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司玉荣; 谭瑞红; 杨忠文

    2004-01-01

    淄川区有中、小学生6万多人,农村中、小学生占80%左右。为了解农村中、小学生蛔虫感染情况及服药驱虫效果,作者等于2001年9月~11月在10所农村学校进行了调查。

  4. 恩施州农村人群蛔虫感染及土壤蛔虫卵污染现状调查%Investigation on prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infections and contamination of soil with eggs in rural areas of Enshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳霞; 胡启托; 向诗非

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解恩施州农村蛔虫病的流行现状及土壤污染状况,为科学制定蛔虫病防治对策提供依据.方法 在来自8县市的8个村157户农户的菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房4处采集土壤,采用饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法检查土壤中的蛔虫卵,人群蛔虫感染检查采用Kato-Katz法.结果 8个村共调查645人,蛔虫总感染率为25.58%.土壤样本共检查157户,蛔虫卵总检出率为55.41%,其中未受精蛔虫卵、受精蛔虫卵和活受精蛔虫卵检出率分别为15.29%、46.50%、29.94%.土壤中蛔虫卵检出率与人群蛔虫感染率显著相关(r=0.783,P<0.05).结论 恩施州土壤蛔虫卵污染严重,人群蛔虫感染率高,应加强蛔虫病的防治.

  5. 使君子、香榧子和川楝子对人蛔虫感染小鼠的驱治效果观察%Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus by the Rangoon creeper fruit,grand Torreya seed,and Szechwan chinaberry fruit in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马祥洲; 苏畅

    2010-01-01

    采用中药使君子、香榧子和川楝子饲喂人蛔虫感染小鼠,给药不同时间后将小鼠剖杀,检查胃肠道、肝脏和肺脏内寄生虫感染情况.结果 表明,使君子、香榧子和川楝子对蛔虫感染小鼠均有一定的驱治作用,使君子驱蛔虫效果最好.

  6. СПЕЦИФИЧНОСТЬ КОПРОСКОПИЧЕСКИХ МЕТОДОВ ВЫЯВЛЕНИЯ ЯИЦ OPISTORCHIS FELINEUS И ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Долбин, Д.; Лутфуллин, М.; Тюрин, Ю.

    2010-01-01

    Проведено сравнение ряда копроскопических методов диагностики. Для диагностики аскаридоза наиболее эффективен метод разработанный авторами. Яйца описторхисов наиболее эффективно выявляются методом Котельникова-Вареничева. Для диагностики кишечных паразитозов оптимальны различные копроскопические методы и среди них невозможно выбрать универсальный пригодный во всех случаях....

  7. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-06-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  8. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie; Nansen, P.;

    2001-01-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver; lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during...... larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile...

  9. Postovulatory effect of intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (E. coli, O55:B5) on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, binding of accessory spermatozoa to the zona pellucida and embryo development in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, A M; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Kindahl, H; Einarsson, S

    2002-10-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli, O55:B5), administered 18 h after ovulation in the second oestrus after weaning, on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, sperm binding to zona pellucida (ZP) and embryo development, was studied in 14 Swedish crossbred (Landrace Yorkshire) multiparous sows. The endotoxin group (E-group) sows were administered with 300 ng/kg of LPS while the control group (C-group) sows were administered with 5 ml of saline i.v. via an indwelling jugular cannula. Immediately after evidence of standing oestrus, a Millar pressure transducer was placed intraluminally about 3 cm into the mid-isthmus, via laparotomy. Pressure recordings of the oviduct were collected from all conscious sows until slaughter. After slaughter, the genital tract opposite to the side with the transducer was retrieved, and three equal isthmic segments and the first third of the uterine horn part adjacent to the utero-tubal-junction (UTJ) were flushed separately to recover the ova. The intervals (mean+/-SD) from ovulation to slaughter (OS) and insemination to ovulation (IO) were not different between the E-group (44.5 +/- 5.7 h; 13.3 +/- 6.5 h) and the C-group (42.7 +/- 5.9 h; 14.8 +/- 4.1 h), respectively. Ova recovery rate (RR) in the E-group (80.2 +/- 22.9%) did not differ from that in the C-group (85.2 +/- 4.5%). The frequency distribution of ova recovered in the different segments did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the groups. The E-group showed higher cleavage rate than controls. A higher proportion of spermatozoa bound to the ZP was also found in the E-group compared with controls. The isthmic intraluminal pressure slightly increased (p = 0.07) 18 h after ovulation and immediately following LPS in the E-group, compared with the C-group. The frequencies of phasic pressure fluctuations were significantly (p pressure and the frequency of phasic pressure fluctuations, increased numbers of spermatozoa attached to the ZP and an

  10. Treatment with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}induced HDAC2 expression and reduced NF-κB p65 expression in a rat model of OVA-induced asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Wang, G.F.; Yang, L.; Liu, F.; Kang, J.Q.; Wang, R.L.; Gu, W.; Wang, C.Y. [Department of Gerontology Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiatong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-28

    Recent evidence indicates that a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25[OH]{sub 2}D{sub 3}) may influence asthma pathogenesis; however, its roles in regulating specific molecular transcription mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the expression and enzyme activity of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its synergistic effects with dexamethasone (Dx) in the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion in a rat asthma model. Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, asthma, 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} pretreatment, 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} treatment, Dx treatment, and Dx and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} treatment. Pulmonary inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge (OVA/OVA). Inflammatory cells and cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and histological changes in lung tissue were examined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and HDAC2 expression levels were assessed with Western blot analyses and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Enzyme activity measurements and immunohistochemical detection of HDAC2 were also performed. Our data demonstrated that 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} reduced the airway inflammatory response and the level of inflammatory cytokines in BAL. Although NF-κB p65 expression was attenuated in the pretreatment and treatment groups, the expression and enzyme activity of HDAC2 were increased. In addition, 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} and Dx had synergistic effects on the suppression of total cell infusion, cytokine release, and NF-κB p65 expression, and they also increased HDAC2 expression and activity in OVA/OVA rats. Collectively, our results indicated that 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}might be useful as a novel HDAC2 activator in the treatment of asthma.

  11. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  12. PENGOBATAN DAN PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI ANAK SDN 1 LUWUS, BATURITI YANG MENDERITA CACINGAN (SOIL- TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. ASRI DAMAYANTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During public health services at Sekolah Dasar 1 (primary school Luwus, a number of 54 out of 140 schoolchildren were treated for helminthiases. Diagnoses of infections were based on their faecal samples examination by Kato-Katz smear technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infection was 38,57%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be more dominant than Trichuris trichiura. Albendazol 400mg as a single dose for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides and Albendazole 400 mg daily for two days for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Enterobius vermicularis. Treatment was done at school in the morning to prevent them from losing such treatment. No side effects were found during treatment.

  13. Diseño de un ova para la enseñanza de las funciones químicas inorgánicas con un enfoque metacognitivo dirigido a estudiantes de grado décimo

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Guerrero, Luis Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo diseñar y elaborar un objeto virtual de aprendizaje (OVA) que facilite la enseñanza de las funciones químicas inorgánicas desde un enfoque metacognitivo para estudiantes de grado décimo del colegio distrital La Merced. La herramienta de enseñanza usó diferentes recursos web para la construcción de videos, textos de consulta, animaciones, actividades de aprendizaje y construcción de mapas mentales colaborativos, aplicando la plataforma Moodle como gestor...

  14. PENGOBATAN DAN PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI ANAK SDN 1 LUWUS, BATURITI YANG MENDERITA CACINGAN (SOIL- TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS)

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. ASRI DAMAYANTI

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During public health services at Sekolah Dasar 1 (primary school) Luwus, a number of 54 out of 140 schoolchildren were treated for helminthiases. Diagnoses of infections were based on their faecal samples examination by Kato-Katz smear technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infection was 38,57%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be more dominant than Trichuris trichiura. Albendazol 400mg as a single dose for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides and Alben...

  15. Ascariasis as an Unexpected Cause of Acute Pancreatitis with Cholangitis: A Rare Case Report from Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pochamana Phisalprapa; Varayu Prachayakul

    2013-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human gastrointestinal tract. This parasiticinfestation might be asymptomatic and only few studies on extraintestinal ascariasis have been reported. Ascending cholangitis and acute pancreatitis as a result of the Ascaris lumbricoides migrating into the biliary system and pancreatic duct were very rare complications. Here, we presented a case report of biliary ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis with cholangitis...

  16. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in Nigerian children aged 0-25 months

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA; Jackson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0?25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation an...

  17. Ultrasonography findings of biliary ascariasis as a rare cause of acalculous cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Şalk, İsmail; Atalar, Mehmet H.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAscaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite to infect humans. The incidence of ascariasis is increasing in all part of the world because of world travel and population migration. Ascaris lumbricoides may cause various complications in the gastrointestinal system. Abdominal pain and tenderness with weight loss are the most common clinical presentations. The parasite can cause invagination at the intestinal segments and can enter the bile duct and cause cholangitis or bi...

  18. Dampak Tsunami terhadap Ketahanan Hidup Telur/Larva Soil Transmitted Helminthes di Banda Aceh dan Aceh Besar

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfida KA; Endang HG; Tumpal N

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura dan Strongyloides stercoralis adalah cacing-cacing yang sebagian dari siklus hidup dan penularannya ke manusia melalui tanah. Perkembangan dan daya tahan hidup telur atau larva cacing-cacing tersebut bergantung pada kondisis tanah. Misalnya, larva infektif hookworm dapat berkembang dengan baik di tanah berpasir. Sedangkan tanah liat merupakan media yang baik bagi perkembangan telur Ascaris lumbricoides dan telur Trichuris trichiura. Terjadin...

  19. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae...... allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38 degreesC. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very...

  20. 热休克E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes的抗肿瘤作用%Enhanced antitumor effects of exosomes derived from heat-shocked E.G7-OVA tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟海均; 杨云山; 马胜林; 毛伟敏; 张沂平; 修方明; 蔡志坚; 陈玮琳; 王青青

    2010-01-01

    目的 本研究探讨热休克E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes的体内抗肿瘤效应.方法 通过分级离心和蔗糖密度梯度离心法分离和纯化E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes.热休克E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes和未热休克E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes分别命名为Exo/HS和Exo.通过电镜观察exosomes的形态,Western blot检测exosomes的蛋白成分.以Exo、Exo/HS、PBS免疫小鼠,用E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞进行攻击,观察各组免疫保护效应;建立E.G7-OVA荷瘤小鼠模型,观察各组免疫治疗效应.通过LDH法检测各组免疫小鼠脾细胞CTL活性.结果 电镜下exosomes为双层膜的囊泡样结构,直径为40~100 nm.Western blot结果 表明:Exo和Exo/HS都含有HSC70、HSP70、HSP60、HSP90、MHC Ⅰ和OVA分子,而Exo/HS中HSP70和MHC Ⅰ分子的含量更高.免疫保护试验发现,Exo/HS组免疫小鼠90 d的无瘤率显著高于Exo组和PBS组(50%、20%、0%,P<0.01);对荷瘤小鼠的免疫治疗显示,Exo/HS对荷瘤小鼠的肿瘤抑制效应显著高于Exo组和PBS组(P<0.01).CTL结果 表明,Exo/HS免疫小鼠诱导的OVA抗原特异性的CTL活性显著高于Exo组和PBS组(P<0.01).结论 热休克E.G7-OVA肿瘤细胞来源的exosomes可作为有效的肿瘤疫苗.%Objective To study the antitumor effects of exosomes derived from heat-shocked E.G7-OVA tumor cells in vivo. Methods Exosomes derived from E.G7-OVA tumor cells were isolated and purified by serial centrifugation and sucrose gradients ultracentrifugation. Exosomes from heat-shocked or non-heat-shocked E.G7-OVA tumor cells were named as Exo/HS and Exo correspondingly. Exosomes were viewed by electron microscopy. Protein components of exosomes were detected by Western blot. Exo, Exo/ HS or PBS were injected into mice before injection of E.G7-OVA tumor cells, and antitumor effects were ob-served in each group. Mouse model bearing E.G7-OVA tumor cells were established to examine immunother-apy effects of Exo or Exo

  1. 两种夜蛾科昆虫卵的超微形态特征对比研究%Comparative Study on Morphological Characteristics of Ova from Two Species in Noctuidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会忠; 董钧锋; 宋月芹; 张友军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the morphological characteristics of ovum from Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis assulta. [Method]The ultra morphological characteristics of ovum was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). [Result] The ova from S. exigua and H. assulta are all spheroid, the former has net line decoration on surface, with some aeropyle distributed on the net line decoration; the micropyle is located in the center of polar and has plum flower-like engraving; the surface of chorien of the latter has the parallel crowns through two polar. Between the parallel crown, the surface of chorion has the decorated trapezium line, all crowns of second polar zone have breast-tuber that distributes in parallel at the same latitude in line, and there is no aeropyle distributing on chorion. [Conclusion] The ultra morphological characteristics of the ova from two Noctuidae species showed significant difference to each other, which enriched ontogenesis data and also provided reference for the accurate identification of two kinds of ova.%[目的]探索甜菜夜蛾和烟青虫卵的形态学特征,为卵的发育及种群鉴定积累资料.[方法]运用扫描电子显微镜对两种昆虫卵的超微结构特征进行观察.[结果]甜菜夜蛾和烟青虫的卵均为球状,前者卵壳表面具网状纹饰,且分布有较多的呼吸空,卵孔外围的梅花状刻纹卵石状;后者卵壳表面隆起贯穿两极,隆起间具梯形纹饰,亚极区的隆起上分布有乳突,未见呼吸孔的分布.[结论]甜菜夜蛾和烟青虫卵的超微结构特征存在种间特异性,超微特征丰富了两种昆虫的个体发育资料,也为两种昆虫的卵及其外类群的准确鉴定提供参考.

  2. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs ([i]Ascaris[/i], [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Trichuris[/i] in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dąbrowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the [i]Ascaris [/i]spp., [i]Trichuris [/i]spp. [i]and Toxocara [/i]spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labourintensive methods for assessing viability of [i]Ascaris [/i]spp[i]., Toxocara [/i]spp[i]. and Trichuris [/i]spp[i].[/i] eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green ([i]Ascaris and Trichuris[/i] and green-blue ([i]Toxocara[/i]. However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Ascaris[/i] and [i]Trichuris[/i] eggs occurring in the sludge.

  3. Ascariasis Presenting as Acute Abdomen—A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Hirdaya H.; Ji, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Prevalence of ascariasis is related to poverty, poor hygiene and poor fecal sanitation. This helminth usually lives harmlessly in small intestine but can also cause intestinal obstruction or perforation peritonitis which is common in childhood. Ascaris can also migrate through ampulla of vater to produce cholangitis, pancreatitis,cholecystitis and rarely hepatic abscess. Ascaris induced hepatic abs...

  4. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  5. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  6. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  7. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  8. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Joseph F. Urban

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observatio...

  9. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel , Stool Culture , Giardia , Cryptosporidium , and Entamoeba histolytica Antigen Tests All content on Lab Tests Online ... healthcare practitioner may order a Giardia , Cryptosporidium , or Entamoeba histolytica antigen test if it is suspected that one ...

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  11. AKTİF İŞGÜCÜ PİYASASI POLİTİKALARININ BELEDİYELERCE KADIN İSTİHDAMINI ARTTIRMAYA YÖNELİK KULLANIMI: BALÇOVA SEMTEVLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Nur Germir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OECD, Aktif işgücü piyasası politikalarını işçilerin işle ilgili yeterliliklerini geliştirmek ve daha etkin bir işgücü piyasası oluşumunu motive etmeye yönelik önlemler olarak tarif etmektedir. 5393 sayılı Belediyeler Kanunu ile faaliyet alanları belirlenen belediyeler, gerek kırsalda gerekse metropolde hemşehrilerinin nitelik/beceri kazanmasıyla mesleki ve teknik olarak yeterliliğe kavuşmasını, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’ndan onaylı sertifikalı ücretsiz olarak düzenlediği kurslarla gerçekleştirmektedirler. Ekonomik şartlar nedeniyle özel kurslara bütçe ayıramayan, yeni bir meslek sahibi olmayı, beceri kazanmayı isteyen, örgün eğitimden herhangi bir nedenle yararlanamamış olan, mesleğinde ilerlemek daha donanımlı hale gelmek isteyen kişiler bu kursların hedef kitlesini oluşturmaktadır. Semtevleri Balçova Belediyesi’nin “Eğitim, üretim için olmalıdır” sloganıyla şekillenen ve ilçedeki yedi mahallede açtığı kurs merkezlerinin adıdır. Proje, üreterek, paylaşarak ve dönüştürerek insanların kendi kendinin farkına varmalarını sağlamak; birliktelik, katılım ve sorumluluk duygularını geliştirmek ve de güzel sanatlara ilgilerini arttırmak şeklinde amaçlara yöneliktir. Bu kurslar vasıtasıyla kadınlara çeşitli beceriler kazandırılmakta, kendi el becerileriyle ürettiklerini kazanca dönüştürme imkanı sağlanmaktadır.

  12. Effect of the injection of an extract of Ascaris suum on macrophage activation during the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in C57Bl/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of an Ascaris suum extract (Asc affects both the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens when it is co-administered with these antigens. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Asc on macrophage activation in the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur strain TMCC 1173 infection in C57Bl/6 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip with 0.1 mg BCG (BCG group or BCG plus 1 mg Asc (BCG + Asc group. The peritoneal exudates were obtained at 2, 7 and 14 days after infection. The numbers of IFN-g-secreting cells were assessed by the ELISPOT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured by the Griess method and by the evaluation of NADPH diaphorase activity in the peritoneal exudates. The administration of Asc extract increased NADPH diaphorase activity (2 days: control = 0, BCG = 7%, BCG + Asc = 13%, and Asc = 4%; 7 days: control = 4, BCG = 13%, BCG + Asc = 21%, and Asc = 4.5% and TNF-a levels (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 169 ± 13, BCG + Asc = 202 ± 37, and Asc = 0; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 545 ± 15.5, BCG + Asc = 2206 ± 160.6, and Asc = 126 ± 26; 14 days: control = 10 ± 1.45, BCG = 9 ± 1.15, BCG + Asc = 126 ± 18, and Asc = 880 ± 47.67 pg/ml in the early phase of BCG infection. Low levels of NO production were detected at 2 and 7 days after BCG infection, increasing at 14 days (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 3.7 ± 1.59, BCG + Asc = 0.82 ± 0.005, Asc = 0.48 ± 0.33; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 2.78 ± 1.54, BCG + Asc = 3.07 ± 1.05, Asc = 0; 14 days: control = 0, BCG = 9.05 ± 0.53, BCG + Asc = 9.61 ± 0.81, Asc = 10.5 ± 0.2 (2 x 106 cells/ml. Furthermore, we also observed that Asc co-injection induced a decrease of BCG-colony-forming units (CFU in the spleens of BCG-infected mice during the first week of infection (mean ± SD; 2 days: BCG = 1.13 ± 0.07 and BCG + Asc = 0.798 ± 0.305; 7 days: BCG = 1.375 ± 0.194 and BCG + Asc = 0.548 ± 0.0226; 14 days: BCG

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance. PMID:22308652

  14. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intestinal parasitic infections have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Aim : The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to sex and age as well as seasons of the year in Benin city, Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The stool samples were processed using saline and iodine mounts and examined microscopically for ova and cysts of parasites. Results : The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 3.9% while gender and season had no correlation with the prevalence of intestinal parasites (P = 0.548, P = 0.696. There was a significant relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and age (P < 0.033. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (51.4% while Entamoeba histolytica had the least prevalence (5.4%. Conclusion : The results of this study concluded that 36 patients were infected with various intestinal parasites and that age significantly affected the prevalence of parasitic infections. Effective treatment of infected patients and improved sanitary habits is advocated.

  16. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  17. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy for Ascariasis performed in rural areas of Hamadan province for a five years period but, no any intervention was done for control of this parasite in the Hamadan city. Therefore, an epidemiological study of Ascariasis in this town was necessary. A cross sectional study carried out by cluster random sampling in Hamadan and 580 stool specimens collected from different parts of city. The stools were examined by formalin ether concentration technique for ova and parasites and intensity of infection was determined by quantitative modified Stoll method. Mean infection rate of Ascariasis was 19.5%. The Farhangian suburb (northern part had higher infection rate than other parts(28.5% and central parts of city showed lower infection rate(12.7%. The highest infection rate were found in the 31-40 years age group (33.8% and in the females(23.9%.In view of intensity, 59.3% of infections were moderate and 48.3% had low intensity. No any high intensity were found. Mean egg per gram(epg were 7129 and 48.7% of eggs were infertile. This study indicated that , prevalence of Ascaris in Hamadan city is considerable at present and a suitable intervention, like health education and selective chemotherapy is necessary to decrease the infection.

  18. Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Tatfeng, M.U. Usuanlele, A. Orukpe, A.K. Digban, M. Okodua,F. Oviasogie & A.A. Turay

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cockroaches (Diploptera punctata are basically tropical insects and willdo their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. Their involvement in the transmission oftropical diseases is poorly investigated in Africa.Methods: A study on the bacterial, fungal and parasitic profile of cockroaches trapped in and aroundhouses in Ekpoma was carried out using standard microbiological techniques.Results: Of a total of 234 cockroaches trapped from different sites (toilets, parlours, kitchens andbedrooms in houses with pit latrines and water system, the bacterial, fungal and parasitic isolateswere identical irrespective of the site, these included: E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris,Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Serretia marcescens, S. aureus, S. feacalis, S. epidermidis, Aeromonas sp, Candida sp,Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, cysts of E. hystolitica, oocysts of C. parvum, C. cayetenensisand Isospora belli, cysts of Balantidium coli, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunalae,Enterobius vermicularis, ova Trichuris trichura, larva of Strongyloides stercoralis. Cockroachestrapped in the toilets of houses with pit latrines had a mean bacterial and parasites count of12.3 × 1010 org/ml and 98 parasites/ml respectively, while those trapped in the houses with watersystem had a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 89.5 × 107 org/ml and 31 parasites/ml respectively.A bacterial count of 78.9 × 107 org/ml was recorded from cockroaches trapped from the kitchens ofhouses with pit latrines. On the other hand a mean bacterial and parasitic count of 23.7 × 106 org/mland 19 parasites/ml were recorded from kitchens of houses with water system.Interpretation & conclusion: Cockroaches represent an important reservoir for infectious pathogens,therefore, control of cockroaches will substantially minimise the spread of infectious diseases

  19. Estudo comparativo entre os métodos de Stoll e Kato quantitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogvalda Devay

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available A autora realizou a contagem de ovos por gr. de fezes em 129 amostras de fezes pelos métodos de Kato e de Stoll, incluindo 100 casos de parasitismo por Ascaris lumbricoides, 100 por Trichuris trichiura, 70 por ancilostomideos e 40 por S. mansoni. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente, evidenciando-se idênticos com as duas técnicas no que se refere a Ascaris lumbricoides, T. trichiuris e S. mansoni, mostrando-se, no entanto, o método de Stoll mais adequado para a contagem de ovos de ancilostomideos.

  20. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Loreille Odile; Bouchet Françoise

    2003-01-01

    The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively sepa...

  1. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in children from Verón, a rural city of the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geers Childers KA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristin A Geers Childers, James R Palmieri, Mindy Sampson, Danielle Brunet Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Gastrointestinal infections impose a great and often silent burden of morbidity and mortality on poor populations in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR is a nation on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Verón is located in La Alta Grácia province in the southeastern corner of the DR. Dominican and Haitian migrant workers come to Verón to work in Punta Cana, a tourist resort area. Few definitive or comprehensive studies of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections have been published in the DR. Historically, most of the definitive studies of water-borne or soil-transmitted parasites in the DR were published more than 30 years ago. Presently, there is a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections throughout the poorest areas of the DR and Haiti. In this study we report the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminth parasites from children recruited from the Clínica Rural de Verón during 2008 through 2011. Each participant was asked to provide a fecal sample which was promptly examined microscopically for protozoan and helminth parasites using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC fecal flotation technique to concentrate and isolate helminth ova and protozoan cysts. Of the 128 fecal samples examined, 127 were positive for one or more parasites. The age of the infected children ranged from 2–15 years; 61 were males and 66 were females. The only uninfected child was a 9 year old female. Percent infection rates were 43.8% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 8.5% for Enterobius vermicularis, 21.1% for Entamoeba histolytica, and 22.7% for Giardia duodenalis. Of the children examined, 7.8% had double infections. Any plan of action to reduce gastrointestinal parasites in

  2. Ulinastatin induces Nrf2/HO-1 axis and protects against oxidative stress in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model%乌司他丁通过 Nrf2/HO-1抗氧化途径在 OVA 诱导的支气管哮喘小鼠中发挥治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冬梅; 牛英豪; 于磊; 王宝山

    2014-01-01

    目的:课题组之前的研究已证实在 OVA 诱导的哮喘小鼠模型中,乌司他丁通过抑制 ROS 的产生、诱导抗氧化酶的表达,起到治疗哮喘的作用,但具体机制尚不清晰;此研究将以 Nrf2/HO-1这一氧化应激的关键通路为切入点,深入探讨乌司他丁抗氧化作用的潜在机制。方法建立 OVA 诱导的小鼠哮喘模型,腹腔注射乌司他丁(100 kU·kg -1·d -1)进行治疗,对照组用 PBS(pH 7.4)代替;检测气道高反应性;ELISA 法检测小鼠 BALF 中 IL-4、IFN-γ、总 IgE 及特异性 IgE的表达水平;双氢罗丹明(DHR)-123方法检测小鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)细胞中 ROS 含量;检测小鼠肺组织中蛋白羰基含量(protein carbonyl)和丙二醛(MDA)水平;抗氧化酶试剂盒检测小鼠 BALF 中的抗氧化酶;Western blot 及 Re-al-time PCR 检测小鼠肺组织中 HO-1在蛋白和基因的表达水平;Western blot、IF 及 EMSA 检测 Nrf2核转移及结合活性。结果乌司他丁治疗组明显降低气道高反应;降低BALF 中 IL-4、特异性 IgE 及 ROS 的表达水平,降低小鼠肺组织 Protein carbonyl 含量和 MDA 水平,提高 IFN-γ、SOD、GSH和 TAOC 等抗氧化酶的表达水平,其治疗作用可被 HO-1抑制剂 Znpp 逆转;乌司他丁诱导小鼠肺组织中的 HO-1在蛋白水平的表达呈明显剂量和时间依赖性;乌司他丁诱导 Nrf2的核转移,增强 Nrf2的结合活性并提高 HO-1基因水平表达。结论乌司他丁在 OVA 诱导的哮喘小鼠模型发挥抗氧化治疗作用,其作用机制可能是通过 Nrf2/ARE 途径诱导HO-1的表达实现。%Aim To explore the potential mechanism of ulinastatin’s antioxidant effect by examining the Nrf2 /HO-1 pathway.Methods OVA-induced asthma of mice was cured by intraperitoneal injection of ulinas-tatin (1 00 kU·kg -1 ·d -1 ).Control mice were given the same volume of PBS (pH 7.4).To investigate the

  3. CPG寡核苷酸对卵清蛋白致敏幼鼠血清中Th1/Th2细胞因子及肥大细胞趋化蛋白1的影响%Effect of CPG oligodeoxynucleotides on Th1/Th2 and mast cell chemotactic protein1 in serum with OVA induced food allergy in young mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王本贞; 郑成中

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a food allergy animal model in young mice with OVA and observe the intervention effect of CPG oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG-ODN) on food allergy in the animal model.Methods Forty female BALB/c mice (2-3 week) were used to establish the food allergy animal model. They were randomly divided intofive groups: Control group, OVA induced food allergy groups (20μg group; 50μg group; 100μg group) and CPG-ODN intervention group (50μg OVA+CPG-ODN) (n=8). The allergic symptoms were observed and scored. Blood samples were collected from each mouse. Serum Th1/Th2 cytokine, OVA-IgE and mMCP-1 levels were determined. Jejunal tissue was taken for histopathological examination.Results Some allergic symptoms appeared, the pathological characteristics of I type allergic reaction were shown in jejunal tissue, Th2 cells and levels of serum OVA-IgE and mMCP-1 were increased in all mice except the control group. Mice in 20μg or 50μg of OVA induced food allergy group also showed a decrease in Th1 cells. All these allergic reactions were most obvious in mice with food allergy induced by 50μg of OVA. However, these changes were significantly reduced in mice of intervention group, while the levels of Th1 increased. Conclusion The best sensitization effect is shown in food allergy animal model of young mice with 50μg of OVA injection. CPG-ODN can inhibit the allergic reactions in these mice through improving the levels of imbalanced Th1/Th2. The mMCP-1 plays an important role in immune pathogenesis and it may be a detecting indicator of allergic disease.%目的:利用卵清蛋白(ovalbumin,OVA)建立幼鼠食物过敏模型,观察非甲基化胞嘧啶鸟嘌呤寡核苷酸(CPG oligodeo-xynucleotide,CPG-ODN)对OVA致敏的干预作用。方法选用2~3周龄BALB/c雌性幼鼠40只建立幼鼠食物过敏模型,分为对照组、不同剂量OVA致敏组(20μg、50μg和100μg组)及CPG-ODN干预组(50μg OVA + CPG-ODN),每组8只。观察过敏症状并

  4. 重组E.coli. LLO/OVA明显增强小鼠CD11c细胞活性及抗肿瘤免疫%Effective activation of CD11c and anti-tumor immune in immunized mice with recombinant E.coli. LLO/OVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼; 米粲

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨重组E.coli. LLO/OVA 诱导C57BL/6小鼠机体免疫的途径,观察其免疫后小鼠机体抑制B16-OVA黑色素瘤的效果.方法 磁珠分离E.coli. LLO/OVA及E.coli. OVA免疫后小鼠脾脏CD11c、CD4+和CD8+T细胞并检测CD11c细胞诱导同源CD4+和CD8+T增殖水平和细胞因子分泌程度;流式细胞检测小鼠脾脏内肿瘤抗原OVA257-264 SIINFEKL特异的细胞毒T细胞含量.比较两种E.coli. 免疫后,恶性黑色素瘤B16-OVA在小鼠肺内形成瘤结节的数量.结果 与E.coli. OVA相比, E.coli. LLO/OVA免疫后小鼠脾脏CD11c细胞诱导同源CD4+ T细胞增殖作用增强、IL-2分泌增高;同时诱导CD8+ T细胞增殖和IFN-γ分泌的作用也明显增强;OVA257-264 SIINFEKL特异的CD8+T细胞含量也明显增高;小鼠肺内形成B16-OVA瘤结节平均数明显减少. 结论 E.coli. LLO/OVA有效地诱导小鼠CD11c细胞活化,增强其对CD4+T细胞增殖和IL-2分泌以及对CD8+T细胞增殖、IFN-γ分泌的作用,诱导了更多的OVA特异的CD8+T细胞,使机体产生了更强的抗肿瘤免疫.

  5. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  6. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...... upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-06-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0001 sp|Q01456|OAM_ASCSU Ovarian abundant message protein (Protein OAM...) pir||A48461 ovarian abundant message protein oam - common roundworm gb|AAA73355.1| [Ascaris lumbricoides mRNA sequence.], gene product Q01456 2e-11 52% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0005 sp|Q01456|OAM_ASCSU Ovarian abundant message protein (Protein OAM...) pir||A48461 ovarian abundant message protein oam - common roundworm gb|AAA73355.1| [Ascaris lumbricoides mRNA sequence.], gene product Q01456 2e-06 28% ...

  9. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.;

    2007-01-01

    and/or culture (PTB+), whereas the other 123 (18.8%) were only suspected cases, on the basis of other clinical criteria (PTB-). Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections were common in the patients, with prevalences of 18% and 34%, respectively. Malarial, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura...

  10. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner;

    2007-01-01

    into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...

  11. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  12. Effects of iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on geophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo;

    2004-01-01

    /l, geophageous children had significantly higher prevalence (53.7 vs. 30.6%, P = 0.024) of Ascaris lumbricoides infection than non-geophageous. The prevalence of geophagy (74.4 to 51.6%) and the intake of earth (25.3 to 15.0 g/day) declined (P = 0.001 and P

  13. Worms and war: A case report of trauma and tropical disease intersecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumbuko Claude

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of heavy intestinal infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides complicating the surgical management of a gunshot injury to the abdomen. Co-existent traumatic and infectious pathologies in this case highlight the complex burden of illness among children living in areas of violent conflict, with clinical relevance to trauma surgeons in the tropics.

  14. The efficiency of Lutz, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes (adapted techniques association to the diagnosis of intestinal helmints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Percy Willcox

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Bermann-Moraes (adapted techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation....... METHODS: Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Genotyping of 410 worms was also conducted using a panel...... of microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic, population genetic, and Bayesian assignment methods were used for analysis. RESULTS: There was marked genetic segregation between worms originating from human hosts and those originating from pig hosts. However, human Ascaris infections in Europe were of pig origin...

  16. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies reported herein have shown that a treatment of 550C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads γ radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron-beam (which, for all practical purposes, is equivalent to γ irradiation for a given absorbed dose) was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  17. Karpuzlu Ovası sulama sahasında rezervdeki su miktarı gözönünde bulundurularak CBS (coğrafi bilgi sistemi) yardımı ile uygun ürün deseninin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Aydınoğlu, Gürbüz Atilla

    2010-01-01

    Çalışma Karpuzlu Ovası Sulama sahasında S1 ve S2 ana sulama kanalları sınırlarının içerisinde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışma, S1 ve S2 ana sulama kanalları sınırlarının içerisinde bulunan tarım arazilerinin, sulama suyu rezervi miktarının az olduğu sulama dönemlerinde, rezervdeki suyun ekonomik ve akılcı kullanımının bilgisayar programı yardımıyla hızlı ve akılcı bir şekilde değerlendirilmesi amacıyla planlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, sulama yapılan arazilere ait bitki deseni, toprak özellikleri ve s...

  18. Prevalência de parasitismo por Toxocara canis em cães e presença de ovos de Toxocara sp. no solo de localidades públicas da zona urbana do município de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Prevalence of Toxocara canis in dogs, and the finding of ova of Toxocara species in the soil of public places in the urban areas of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Chieffi

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available De um total de 158 cães examinados, através de exame parasitológico de fezes ou necropsia, 70 (44,30% mostraram-se infectados por Toxocara canis, predominando a infecção nos animais com até 6 meses de idade. Através do exame de amostras de terra de localidades públicas utilizadas por crianças para diversão, demonstrou-se a presença de ovos de Toxocara sp. em 60% das amostras, evidenciando a possibilidade de ocorrer infecção humana, ingestão de ovos larvados do helminto.Out of 158 dogs submitted to coprological examination or necropsy, 70 (44.30% were found to be infected by Toxocara canis, the prevalence being higher among puppies with and up to 6 months of age. Out of 15 soil samples taken from public places atended by children, ova of Toxocara species were found in 60% indicating the possibility of transmission of toxocaral infection to humans through ova containing larvae.

  19. The killing effect of Ascaris peptide yeast fermentation products on Leishmania donovani%蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物对杜氏利什曼原虫杀伤作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲维霞; 屈金辉; 王洪法; 赵桂华; 崔勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物对杜氏利什曼原虫的抑杀作用,探讨此抗菌肽可作为治疗黑热病的药物的可能性.方法 培养利什曼原虫至适当浓度,接种于96孔组织培养板中,设实验组和对照组,实验组分别加入10μl浓度为30、60、90、120、150、180μg∥ml的蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物浓缩上清液,每个浓度重复9孔,对照组加相应体积的对照表达产物,分别在连续培养24、48和72 h后,每孔加入20μl四甲基偶氮唑盐(5 mg∥ml),继续培养4 h,每孔加入100μlformanzan溶解液,孵育4 h左右,在570 am测定吸光度,根据吸光度数值计算杀伤率.结果 实验组按浓度由低到高(30~180μg//ml)对应的杀伤率在培养24 h后为20.12%、41.39%、64.89%、65.14%、66.49%和66.49%,培养48 h后为40.12%、67.34%、75.1l%、82.03%、82.75%和82.75%;培养72 h后为45.89%、65.57%、78.49%、82.58%、85.38%和85.38%.蛔虫抗菌肽发酵产物浓度为150μg/ml时,杀伤作用最大,杀伤率为85.38%,IC50为50μg/ml.结论 蛔虫抗菌肽对利什曼原虫有很强的杀伤作用.%Objective To study the killing effect of yeast fermentation product of Ascaris antibacterial peptide on Leishmania donovani and to investigate the possibility of antibacterial peptide as drug for kala-azar.Methods Leishmania was cultured to appropriate concentration,and was seeded in 96-well tissue culture plate.Experimental test and the negative control hole were designed.Then 10 μl supernatant of induced bacteria expression product was added into experimental hole with concentration of 30,60,90,120,150 and 180μg/ml.All levels were repeated nine holes.Then 20 μl methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT,5 mg/ml)was added into each hole and culturing for 4 h after culturing for 24,48 and 72 h,and another 100μl of Formanzan was pulsed,absorbance was read at 570 nm after another 4 h cultured.The killing effect is calculate from A570.Results At concentrations of the experimental

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P < 0.05). MSWWs are at high risk of acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized

  1. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized communities to prevent parasitic

  3. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de parasitas em efluentes semi-sólidos e líquidos, em diferentes localidades da Patagonia argentina, por ser fato uma das restrições para seu uso. MÉTODOS: As amostras selecionadas de 4 Centros de Tratamento de Efluentes Domiciliários foram analisadas de acordo com as normas da "Environmental Protection Agenty", Organização Mundial da Saúde e do "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater", além de algumas classificações. RESULTADOS: Somente 2 das 6 amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas continham ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides não viáveis. Das 10 amostras líquidas, somente 2 não continham ovos, enquanto as restantes continham patógenos das categorias I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta e Enterobius

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors forspecific and multiple helminth infections in a remote city of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have described the risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in the Amazon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a City of the State of Amazonas (Brazil to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and determine the risk factors for helminth infections. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. The main risk factors determined were: not having a latrine for A. lumbricoides infection; being male and having earth or wood floors for hookworm infection; and being male for multiple helminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and determined some poverty-related risk factors.

  5. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2010-01-01

    to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...... was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P

  6. Synthesized OVA323-339MAP octamers mitigate OVA-induced airway inflammation by regulating Foxp3 T regulatory cells

    OpenAIRE

    Su Wen; Zhong Wenwei; Zhang Yanjie; Xia Zhenwei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antigen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been widely practiced in treating allergic diseases such as asthma. However, this therapy may induce a series of allergic adverse events during treatment. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) was explored to overcome these disadvantages. We confirmed that multiple antigen peptides (MAPs) do not cause autoimmune responses, which led to the presumption that MAPs intervention could alleviate allergic airway inflammation without inducing adverse...

  7. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  8. Pathogen reduction effects of solar drying and soil application in sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    ÖĞLENİ, Nurtaç; ÖZDEMİR, Saim

    2010-01-01

    The responses of sludge faecal coliforms, Salmonella, and Ascaris lumbricoides to heat drying, solar dehydration, and inactivation in soil are examined in this study. The presence of Salmonella in raw sludge cake after treatment was low, and absent for most of the cases. Likewise, the viable Ascaris eggs were not determined because of absent or low prevalence. Faecal coliforms, on the other hand, drastically decreased from 4.2 × 107 MPN g-1 Dry Solid (DS) to absence by heat drying. Faecal col...

  9. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55/sup 0/C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities.

  10. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  11. Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais na cidade de Eirunepé, Amazonas Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the city of Eirunepé, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fernández Araujo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, amostras de fezes de 413 pacientes e encontrada positividade em 266 (64,4% dos seguintes parasitas: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,6%; Trichuris trichiura (18,6%; Ancilostomídeos(9,9%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%, e Entamoeba histolytica (13,3% e Giardia lamblia (1%.Samples of 413 patient were analyzed and positivity was found in 64.4% (266 of the exams. The intestinal parasites most prevalent were: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.6%; Trichuris trichiura (18.6%; Ancylostomides (9.9%; Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%; Entamoeba histolytica (13.3% and Giardia lamblia (1%. The presence of varied degrees of anemia were detected in 39.8% of the exams.

  12. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  13. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón; María J. Rosales; Renzo A. Valdez; Franklin Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia Cordova

    2008-01-01

    Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos crudos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la...

  14. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Fernandes; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves; Françoise Bouchet; Carlos Henrique Klein; Takumi Iguchi; Luciana Sianto; Adauto Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde), a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Althou...

  15. Familial hyperamylasemia Hiperamilasemia familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Kar Ling Koda; Eliana Vidolin

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family memb...

  16. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs.

  17. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli, así como en alimentos crudos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides recolectadas en varios distritos de la provincia de Trujillo, Perú.

  18. Comparison of Individual and Pooled Stool Samples for the Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Intensity and Drug Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke Mekonnen; Selima Meka; Mio Ayana; Johannes Bogers; Jozef Vercruysse; Bruno Levecke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples fro...

  19. Evaluation of Streck Tissue Fixative, a Nonformalin Fixative for Preservation of Stool Samples and Subsequent Parasitologic Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Nace, Eva K.; Frank J Steurer; Eberhard, Mark L.

    1999-01-01

    We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis...

  20. Familial hyperamylasemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koda Yu Kar Ling; Vidolin Eliana

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family memb...

  1. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs. PMID:8560608

  2. First paleoparasitological study of an embalming rejects jar found in Saqqara, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harter Stéphanie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a jar of embalming rejects was studied in search for helminth parasite eggs. This kind of jar was used to put discarded material by Egyptian embalmers during mummification process. Ascaris lumbricoides and Tænia saginata eggs were found in the linen and strip fragment contents of the jar, dated of 2,715-2,656 years ago.

  3. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Villani; Maria Santina de Castro Morini; Marco Antonio Franco; Odair Correa Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in...

  5. Evaluation of the formalin-Tween concentration technique for parasitic detection

    OpenAIRE

    Methanitikorn Rungkanta; Sukontason Kom; Sukontason Kabkaew L; Piangjai Somsak

    2003-01-01

    The formalin-Tween sedimentation method was compared with the formalin-ether sedimentation for parasitic detection. Of a total 297 fecal specimens examined, 72.1% were positive. The formalin-tween technique was effective for ascertaining helminths, particularly Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs; however it has less capability for protozoa detection. This method is simple, inexpensive, less time consuming and highly sensitive when detecting the parasitic infection, pa...

  6. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

  7. 笠岡市真鍋島における最近の寄生虫感染の実相

    OpenAIRE

    富田, 精一郎; 田中, 勇夫; 頓宮, 廉正; 村主, 節雄; 作本,台五郎; 安治,敏樹; 板野, 一男; 稲臣, 成一

    1981-01-01

    A fecal examination for each of 471 residents of Manabe island was performed to clarify the status of parasitic infection by direct smear in August, 1977. The results were as follows: 1. Helminths found included Ascaris lumbricoides (2 cases, 0.4%), Trichuris trichiura (18 cases, 3.8%), Ancylostoma duodenale (5 cases, 1.1%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (4 cases, 0.9%). 2. The average infection rate was 6.2% for the whole area.

  8. Biliary Ascariasis Coinciding Hepatitis a Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Metehan; Güngör, Serdal; Karakurt, Cemşit; Kutlu, Ramazan

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infestation in developing countries. Fifteen years-old male was admitted with the complaints of jaundice, abdominal pain and nausea. Laboratory investigations revealed positivity of anti-HAV-IgM and IgG. We performed abdominal ultrasonography because of long-lasting jaundice and increasing abdominal crampy pain. Examination revealed 7-8 cm long tubular image which is consistent with Ascaris lumbricoides. Single dose albendazole and an...

  9. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  10. Expression of hepatitis B virus genes in early embryonic cells originated from hamster ova and human spermatozoa transfected with the complete viral genome%乙肝病毒基因在地鼠卵母细胞与携带乙肝病毒基因组的人类精子受精后早期胚胎细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahy Ahmed Ali; Tian-Hua Huang; Halima-Hassan Salem; Qing-Dong Xie

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To detect the expression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes (HB S and C genes) in early embryonic cells after introducing motile human sperm carrying HBV DNA into zona-free hamster oocytes via the in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. Methods: Human sperm-mediated HBV genes were delivered into zona-free hamster oocytes by the IVF method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HB S and pre-Core/Core (pre-C/C) coding genes both in one- and two-cell embryos. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was used to study the expression of the two genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the full-length HBV DNA as the hybridization probe was performed to confirm the integration of viral DNA in the host embryonic genome. Results: Both HB S and pre-C/C coding genes are present and transcribed in one- and two-cell embryos originated from hamster ova IVF with human spermatozoa carrying HBV DNA sequences. Conclusion: Sperm-mediated HBV genes are able to replicate and express themselves in early embryonic cells. These results provide direct evidence that HBV DNA could transmit vertically to the next generation via the male germ line.%目的:使去透明带金黄地鼠的卵母细胞与携带乙肝病毒DNA(HBV DNA)的人类精子体外受精,检测乙肝病毒基因(S基因与C基因)在早期胚胎细胞中的复制与表达.方法:通过异种体外受精,由人类精子将乙肝病毒基因导入去透明带地鼠卵母细胞中;用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测单细胞和2-细胞胚胎细胞的基因组中是否有S基因和前C/C基因;用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)研究上述基因是否在胚胎细胞中表达.以全长HBV DNA制备探针,与胚胎细胞制片进行荧光原位杂交(FISH),观察胚胎细胞基因组中是否有HBV DNA整合.结果:PCR、RT-PCR和FISH分析均在待测样本中获得阳性结果.结论:以精子为载体、携带到卵内的HBV基因能够在早期胚胎细胞中复制和表达,该结果

  11. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  12. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...... elemental iron twice-weekly for 12 months had significantly lower reinfection rates of A. lumbricoides (16.7% vs 31.9%, P = 0.046), T. trichiura (6.9% vs 20.6%, P = 0.03) and S. mansoni (38.3% vs 61.8%, P = 0.008) compared to adults given placebo. In contrast, adults allocated to iron had a significantly...... reinfection rates or intensities in children. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for baseline infection status confirmed the effect in adults of iron on A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni reinfection rates. The effect is suggested to be due to reduced risk behaviour, to improved...

  13. Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njaanake, Kariuki H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Simonsen, Paul E.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals......, the urinary tract was ultrasound-examined for S. haematobium-related pathology, and the height and weight was measured and used to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Results: Prevalences of S. haematobium, hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides infection were 94, 81, 88 and 46 %, respectively....... There was no significant association between S. haematobium and STH infection but intensity of hookworm infection significantly increased with that of T. trichiura. Lower BMI scores were associated with high intensity of S. haematobium (difference =-0.48, p > 0.05) and A. lumbricoides (difference =-0.67, p

  14. Intestinal parasites among Karitiana Indians from Rondônia State, Brazil Parasitas intestinais entre índios Karitiana do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Ferrari

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravity sedimentation parasitological examinations were performed in stool samples from 111 Karitiana Indians from Rondônia State, Brazilian Amazon Basin. Intestinal parasites were found in 43 samples (38.7%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent helminth species (18.9%. Egg counts in samples positive for Ascaris suggested an overdispersed distribution of worm burdens in the host population. Age-distribution pattern of intestinal parasites among Karitiana Indians was found to be rather unusual: the highest prevalence (60.0% was detected in the 12-to 16-year-old age groupExames parasitológicos por meio da técnica de sedimentação por gravidade foram feitos em amostras fecais de 111 índios Karitiana, do Estado de Rondônia, na Amazônia brasileira. Encontraram-se parasitas intestinais em 43 amostras (38,7%. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o parasita mais prevalente (18,9%. As contagens de ovos em amostras positivas para Ascaris sugeriram uma distribuição superdispersa das cargas parasitárias na população hospedeira. Encontrou-se uma distribuição etária incomum de parasitas intestinais entre os índios Karitiana: a maior prevalência (60% foi detectada na faixa etária entre 12 e 16 anos

  15. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  16. 继代核移植能成倍提高来自奶山羊卵胞质体的异种间核移植重构胚的发育率%SECONDARY SCNT DOUBLES THE PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT RATE OF RECONSTRUCTED INTERSPECIES EMBRYOS BY USING CYTOPLASTS OF SANNEN DAIRY GOAT OVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民; 陈建泉; 沙红英; 陈娟; 徐旭俊; 吴友兵; 葛来香; 胡大为; 成国祥

    2007-01-01

    为了提高异种间核移植重构胚的发育率,本研究以体内排放的奶山羊成熟卵为供胞质的受体细胞,以人、兔、波尔山羊等的异种或亚种体细胞的原代核移植(Primary Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,PSCNT)重构早胚(8-16细胞期)的卵裂球作供核体,观察经亚种或异种卵胞质体短期"修饰"的核再移植产生的继代(Secondary SCNT,SSCNT)重构胚的着床前发育潜能.结果:人、兔、波尔山羊的继代桑椹/囊胚发育率均显著地高于其PSCNT胚胎(人,14.81%VS.7.79%;兔,23.53%VS.12.50%;波尔羊,55.35%VS.24.53%);这些早胚的各阶段发育时程仍遵循供核体动物正常受精卵的发育时程.结果启示:奶山羊成熟卵胞质对异种体细胞核亦具一定的去分化能力,能支持重构胚发育到囊胚;异种重构胚的发育特征是由供体核所决定的;继代核移植几乎能够成倍提高异种间重构胚的着床前发育率,提示核的去分化完全是在母型信息主导的调控之下完成的,而进一步发育的时序似乎是由核决定的;成倍延长在含母型信息主导调控环境中的时间能成倍提高SCNT重构胚的着床前发育率.%The aim of this study was to investigate whether ova of Sannen goat could support the pre-implantation development of interspecies embryos constructed through somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) embryos and whether secondary SCNT (SSCNT) could improve the pre-implantation development of those embryos. The primary SCNT (PSCNT) embryos were produced by using Sannen goat ovum cytoplasts as recipients and fibroblast cells, derived from human,rabbit and Boer goat skins,as nucleus donors. The blastomeres of 8 to 16 cells stage of PSCNT embryos were subsequently used as nucleus donor cells and Sannen goat ovum cytoplasts as recipients to evaluate the effect of SSCNT on the pre-implantation development rate of these reconstructed interspecies embryos. Our results indicate that the pre-implantation development

  17. Factors associated with high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients in Sana'a City, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naelah A Alyousefi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oocysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%, Hymenolepis nana (1.4% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%. Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168-2.617 and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192-2.779 were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  18. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  19. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN SUKOMENANTI PASAMAN REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit darah dan usus telah diselenggarakan di Kecamatan Sukomenanti, Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatra Barat. Bahan pemeriksaan berasal dari 168 penduduk lakidaki dan 196 wanita umur antara 2-87 tahun. Di Sumatra Barat cacing yang umumnya terdapat ialah pertama Ascaris lumbricoides, kedua cacing tambang dan ketiga Trichuris trichiura. Survey didaerah Boyolali dan Kresek, Jawa, menemukan lebih banyak T. trichiura daripada cacing tambang. Di daerah Yogyakarta T. trichiura menduduki tempat yang pertama. Angka infeksi yang rendah untuk desa Pasir Tampang (11 percent dan Tongar (3 percent adalah tidak umum untuk Indonesia, tetapi keadaan demikian juga dilaporkan di lembah Lindu dan Napu, Sulawesi Tengah. Enterobius vermicularis terdapat hanya pada 2 per cent diantara penduduk yang diperiksa, sesuai dengan keadaan di daerah2 lain di Indonesia. Species dari cacing tambang pada survey ini belum dapat ditentukan. Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides terdapat lebih banyak pada penduduk golongan muda, sesuai dengan hasil autopsi oleh Liedan Tan di Jakarta. Di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat infeksi A. lumbricoides tampak merata pada semua umur. Entamoeba coli selalu terdapat pada survey di desa2 di pulau Jawa. Tetapi, infeksi E. histolytica (24 percent adalah berlainan dengan keadaan di Kresek, Boyolali dan Yogyakarta yang menunjukkan ■ infeksi 12 per cent atau kurang. Infeksi malaria di Sukomenanti adalah sangat rendah sebagaimana terdapat di Kresek dan Yogya­karta. Keadaan demikian sangat berlainan dengan daerah Margolimbo di Sulawesi Selatan dimana angka dnfeksi malarianya tinggi.

  20. PENGOBATAN INFEKSI CACING USUS YANG DITULARKAN DENGAN PERANTARAAN TANAH (SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS, DENGAN PYRANTEL PAMOATE, DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerhajati S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of pyrantel pamoate in controlling soil transmitted helminthic infection has been studied in a sample of population on low socio-economic level, consisting of workers of the Madukismo Suger Estate and their families. Pyrantel pamoate proved to be more effective to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm than to Trichuris trichiura infection. The cure rates found were 90.2%, 57.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura respectively, while in the hookworm infection the drug was more effective to Ancylostomiasis duodenale than to Necator americanus. The result of the study showed, that 6 months after treatment was still found a reduction of the prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection to 27.2% (from 74.4% to 47.2% and a reduction of the egg count from 6352 to 3348 per gram of stool. After one year the prevalence rate and the intensity of Ascaris infection reached almost the same level as that before treatment. As regards the hookworm infection, it seemed that the treatment was still effective after a period of one year. Prior to the treatment the prevalence rate was 36.3% and the egg count was J37 per gram of stool, while one year after treatment they were still reduced to 23.97c and 39 respectively.

  1. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreille Odile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.

  2. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma: Inflammatory and immunological responses to TDI, ovalbumin (OVA) and ovalbumin peptide OVA 323-339 in mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Li-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Among three major diisocyanates: TDI, methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), TDI has been regarded as the leading cause of diisocyanate-induced asthma. The principal feature of TDI-induced asthma is the airway inflammation with influx of neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. This in turn leads to the variable airway hyper-responsiveness. TDI-induced asthma can share many similar features with allergic asthma, such as increased total and s...

  3. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  4. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    of anthelmintics), (2) abattoir operator losses due to condemnation or downgrading of livers and lower product quality, and (3) potential interference with vaccinations and higher risk of co-infections. Apart from the cost of liver condemnations that can be extrapolated from available data, it is difficult...

  5. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIC INFECTION AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVEL (THE PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan tentang prevalensi dan intensitas dari "Soil transmitted helminthic infection" pada tiga golongan penduduk dengan perbedaan tingkat ekonomi-sosial telah dilakukan di Mundu, Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Dimulai dari penduduk dengan golongan ekonomi-sosial yang relatif terbaik sampai yang terburuk, maka prevalensi untuk Ascaris lumbricoides adalah: 31,5 persen, 59,0 persen dan 80,0 persen; Trichuris trichiura: 43,8 persen, 74,9 persen dan 98,5 persen; cacing tambang 21,7 persen, 44,1 persen dan 81,5 persen, sedang Stronglyloides stercoralis ditemukan hanya 0 persen, 0 persen dan 5.1 persen. Intensitas infeksi dari A. lumbricoides menunjukkan angka-angka: 8935, 18514 dan 20581; T. trichiura; 348,993 dan 2225 dan pada cacing tambang 407,677 dan 1461 telur per satu gram tinya. A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura menunjukkan prevalensi maupun intensitas yang lebih tinggi pada wanita, sedang cacing tambang baik prevalensi maupun intensitasnya adalah lebih tinggi pada pria. Berdasarkan pembagian menurut umur, maka prevalensi dan intensitas A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura didapatkan tertinggi pada umur-umur dibawah 14 tahun, sedang cacing tambang pada umur lebih tinggi dari 15 tahun.

  6. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  7. Gastro-intestinal ascariasis--an unusual autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Wasti, Harihar; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms' propensity to produce large number of eggs that are resistant to extremes of environmental conditions have made them one of the highly prevalent and geographically well distributed nematodes among poor socio-economic regions throughout the world. We present an unusual case of fatal gastro-intestinal ascariasis where general neglect, and firm and prolonged reliance on traditional healing methods led to aggregation of roundworms to such an extent that otherwise seems improbable in modern times and, hence, is worth reporting.

  8. Meningite eosinofílica e eosinofilia sanguínea de origem parasitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um menino de 12 meses de idade que apresentava febre, rigidez de nuca e hepatoesplenomgalia e que, em dois exames sucessivos, apresentou eosinofilia sangüínea de 72% e 75% e liquórica de 75% e 78%, respectivamente. A biópsia hepática mostrou um granuloma eosinofílico. Embora a criança apresentasse grande infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides, os autores admitem que o quadro clínico apresentado possa ter sido determinado por larvas de Toxocara canis, apesar do parasita não ter sido encontrado.

  9. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:22662605

  10. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  11. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  12. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P K; Pande, N K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    A single dose of 2% albendazole suspension (400 mg in 20 ml) was administered to 77 patients (42 males and 35 females), ages ranging between 2 to 12 years, with helminthic infections. Ascariasis was the most prevalent infection. Patients were followed-up for 3 weeks. The results showed that albendazole was highly effective against Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Enterobius vermicularis. Significant improvement was also observed in patients having infections due to Trichuris trichiura. Albendazole was well tolerated and did not produce any significant side-effects. Single dose albendazole appears to be appropriate for mass chemotherapy to control intestinal nematode infections in highly infected communities. PMID:4028809

  13. Asymptomatic Giardiasis in school children in Rey city

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiei M; Torkaman M; Sharbatdar Alaei MR

    2000-01-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken to know the rate of intestinal parasites infestations in our school children population. A sum of 1155 fecal samples were analyzed from an equal number of children whose age were between 6-11 years old. The percentage of infestations were: Giardia lamblia (14.11%), hymenolepis nana (1.21%), ascaris lumbricoides (0.08%) and enterobius vermicularis (0.08%). We found no differences with regard to sex, age, father and mother levels of educatio...

  14. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Rumah dengan Kejadian Askariasis dan Trikuriasis pada Siswa SD N 29 Purus Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildya Kusmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Prevalensi infeksi kecacingan masih tinggi terutama pada anak usia sekolah dasar. Cacing yang sering menginfeksi yaitu Ascaris lumbricoides dan Trichuris trichiura. Infeksi ini erat kaitannya dengan masalah lingkungan, perilaku manusia dan manipulasi terhadap lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan hubungan sanitasi lingkungan rumah yaitu kepemilikan jamban keluarga yang sehat, ketersediaan sumber air bersih, sarana pembuangan sampah dan jenis lantai rumah dengan kejadian askariasis dan trikuriasis. Ini adalah penelitian analitikdengan desain cross-sectional study. Jumlah populasi sebanyak 71 orang dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 55 orang.Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan tinja dan kuesioner. Metode analisis data menggunakan uji chisquare.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase infeksi kecacinganpada siswa SD Negeri 29 Purus Padang adalah 38%, terdiri dari; infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides (33%, Trichuris trichiura (9,1% dan infeksi kedua spesies (3,6%. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara kepemilikan jamban keluarga, ketersediaan sumber air bersih, kepemilikan sarana pembuangan sampah dan jenis lantai rumah dengan angka kejadian askariasis dan trikuriasis (p > 0,05. Masih tingginya infeksi kecacingan pada siswa sekolah dasar perluperhatian yang lebih baik misalnya diadakannya program pemberantasan kecacingan baik oleh sekolah maupun petugas kesehatan setempat.Kata kunci: infeksi kecacingan, sanitasi lingkungan, askariasis, trikuriasis Abstract Prevalence of worms infestation is still high, especially found among children at the elementary school age. Type of worms that often infect are Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. The infection is  related to envi ronment issues, human behavior and manipulation of the environment.  The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between environmental sanitation of home, consist of latrine ownership, availability of

  15. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  16. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter;

    parasite eggs from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement (1018-1030 A.D.) are DNA typed to the species level. The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the human roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) are identified indicating that these parasites were endemic in Denmark in the Viking...... of parasite an egg originates from. This is impossible solely using morphological examination. One example is the whipworm, Trichuris spp. that is known to have narrow host ranges, which makes it particularly suited to determine from which host an egg originates. A case study will be presented, in which...

  17. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  18. Eosinophilic cholecystitis as a rare manifestation of visceral larva migrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is an infrequent form of cholecystitis. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, and it is sometimes accompanied with several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rare. We would like to make an alternative interpretation of our recent report "Kaji K, Yoshiji H, Yoshikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ikenaka Y,Noguchi R, Sawai M, Ishikawa M, Mashitani T, Kitade M, Kawaratani H, Uemura M, Yamao J, Fujimoto M,Mitoro A,Toyohara M, Yoshida M, Fukui H. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2007;13: 3760-3762."

  19. Prevention and treatment of ascariasis in demonstration plots of integrated control from 2006 to 2009%我国寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫病3年防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸廷俊; 陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫感染现状,探索蛔虫病防治措施.方法 在示范区实施健康教育、药物驱虫和改水改厕等综合干预措施,观察措施实施前后居民蛔虫感染率的变化.结果 3年中示范区累计驱虫620余万人次,服药覆盖率达81.65%,居民蛔虫感染率由2006年的17.81%降至2009年的2.52%.居民卫生知识知晓率由45.11%提高到95.99%,改水受益率达84.09%,无害化厕所覆盖率为50.30%.结论 通过3年综合防治,示范区居民蛔虫感染率下降明显.%Objective To understand the situation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in the demonstration plots and evaluate the effect of integrated intervention measures. Methods The integrated intervention measures included health education, mass chemotherapy, safe water and sanitary toilets. The changes of infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in residents were observed before and after the intervention. Results With the 3-year' s intervention, the Ascaris lumbricoides infection rates decreased from 17.81% to 2.52%, the rate of mass chemotherapy was 81.65%, which covered more than 6.2 million person-time, the awareness rates of parasitic disease control knowledge among the residents raised from 45.11% to 95.99%, and 84.09% of local people were supplied with safe water and 50.30% of families had sanitary toilets. Conclusion The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate decreases dramatically through the 3-year s intervention.

  20. Tratamento de parasitoses intestinais pela associação piperazina-tiabendazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina S. Velho Soli

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com o emprego da associação antihelmintica piperazina-tiabendazol no tratamento de infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. Considerando a cura de 81 % dos casos de ascaridíase e de 80% dos casos de ancilostomíase, bem como a ótima tolerância ao medicamento, acreditam que esta associação medicamentosa possa ser empregada com sucesso para o tratamento das referidas parasitoses.

  1. PREDOMINANCE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS IN OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOSIS IN CENTEREASTERN REGION OF PARANÁ: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYZES OF THE PROBLEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina Cenci Queiroz, Angela Patricia Motin, Cristiane Aparecida Verbaneck, Franciely Damaris de Cristo, Marcia de Souza Oliveira, Marcia Maria Veronese e Shirley Rak Mantovani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high incidence of parasitic diseases in centereastern region of Paraná, an inquiry about its probable determinants was carried out. Particularly, the occurrence of Ascaris Lumbricoides was analyzed. Bibliographical research referring to this theme and data-collecting from centereastern region have been carried out, attempting to contextualize the epidemiological condition of this region. We can conclude that the high occurrence of ascariasis in analyzed region is linked to life conditions of general population, the deficiency in urban and sanitary planning, socioeconomic conditions and, essentially, the absence of investments in basic infrastructure. Thus, this study demonstrates the need of an urgent prophylactic action.

  2. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report; Pneumonia por aspiracao de oleo mineral: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Machado, Dianne Mello; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. de Radiologia; Morandi, Jose Laerte J.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. Materno-Infantil; Teixeira, Graca Helena M.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Detecção de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas na água e nas hortaliças consumidas em comunidades escolares de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil Detection enteroparasites transmissible forms in water and raw vegetables consumed in pre-schools from Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva Coelho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em água e em hortaliças consumidas cruas, no período de agosto de 1997 a julho de 1998. A água foi submetida à filtração em membranas de celulose. A água da lavagem destas membranas foi submetido ao método de Faust. As hortaliças in natura e lavada foram lavadas e a água submetida ao método de sedimentação. Uma escola não apresentou contaminação; duas tiveram todos os materiais contaminados; quatro, 2 materiais contaminados e três, 1 material contaminado. A água apresentou índice de 0,7% de contaminação (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis e ancilostomídeos; a hortaliça in natura, 3,9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, ancilostomídeos, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia e a lavada, 1,3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia. As hortaliças e a água são veiculadoras de enteroparasitas. A forma larval foi a mais presente. A hortaliça in naturaapresentou maior contaminação que a lavada. A lavagem não garantiu a ausência dessas formas em hortaliças.Water and raw vegetables consumed in ten nursery schools were evaluated for the presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites. The water was submitted to filtration through membranes. The washed membrane water was submitted to the Faust method. The in natura and washed vegetables were washed and the water analyzed by the sedimentation method. Contamination was not detected in one school; in two schools, all the materials were contaminated; in four schools, two items were contaminated and in three, one material presented contamination. The water presented a contamination index of 0.7% contamination (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostomatidae; the vegetables in natura, 3.9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostomatidae, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia and the washed samples 1.3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and

  4. Evolução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em escolares em Caxias do Sul, RS Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Callegari Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatos da prevalência das parasitoses intestinais no Brasil são pontuais e têm sido descritos em diferentes populações, tornando difícil um diagnóstico abrangente. Visando estudar a variação em 35 anos da prevalência de enteroparasitoses em escolares de Caxias do Sul, RS, foram avaliados 9.787 exames parasitológicos de fezes realizados por centrífugo-sedimentação. Resultaram positivas 5.655 (58% amostras sendo mais prevalente a infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% e os protozoários: Giardia lamblia (24% e Entamoeba coli (20%. A prevalência geral diminuiu de 89% para 37%, com um decréscimo médio de 1,4% ao ano. Houve redução na prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides de 61 para 26% e de Trichuris trichiura de 38 a 18%. Para Giardia lamblia não houve alteração significativa. A prevalência de Entamoeba coli cresceu de 29 a 46%. Os decréscimos obtidos na prevalência dos helmintos são provavelmente devidos às melhorias da infra-estrutura e às ações formativas desenvolvidas nas escolas.Reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Brazil have been local in nature, with descriptions of different populations, which makes comprehensive diagnosis difficult. With the aim of studying the variation in the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, over a 35-year period, 9,787 parasitological stool tests that had been performed using centrifugal sedimentation were evaluated. There were positive results from 5,655 samples (58%, and the most prevalent infestations were of Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% and the protozoa Giardia lamblia (24% and Entamoeba coli (20%. The overall prevalence diminished from 89% to 37%, indicating an average decrease of 1.4% per year. Reductions in prevalence were observed for Ascaris lumbricoides (61 to 26% and Trichuris trichiura (38

  5. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  6. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Laos: A Community-Wide Cross-Sectional Study of Humans and Dogs in a Mass Drug Administration Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8–44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3–49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4–10.4%), respectivel...

  7. Co-existent Ascariasis and Multiloculated Tuberculous Pleurisy Treated with Intrapleural Streptokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Talha; Naeem, Omer Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    This case describes a young male with pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis having one-week history of fever and hemoptysis along with a multiloculated right sided exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. His pulmonary diagnostic confusion was due to passage of adult Ascaris lumbricoides per orally but that was found to be of intestinal origin. Pleural tissue histopathology revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and right upper lobe bronchial washings were positive for acid fast bacilli. His multiloculated pleural effusion was successfully resolved with intrapleural streptokinase injections via a 10 French pleural catheter. Treatment with class-I anti-tuberculous drugs led to complete clearance of remaining pleuro-pulmonary shadowing. PMID:26522189

  8. Intestinal parasites in Iaualapiti indians from Xingu Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Brine flotation and gravity sedimentation coproscopical examinations were performed in stool samples from 69 of the 147 Iaualapiti Indians of the Xingu Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Intestinal [arasites were present in 89.9% of the population examined. High rates of prevalence were found for some parasite species. Ancylostomidae, 82.6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 26.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 20.3%; and Entamoeba coli, 68.1%. Infection by Trichuris trichuria, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana was not detected. Helminth's prevalence in children aged one year or less was comparatively low (33.3%. Quantitative coproscopy was done in positive samples for Ascaris and Ancylostomidae and the results expressed in eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Quantitative results revealed that worm burdens are very low and overdispersed in this Indian tribe, a previously unreported fact.

  9. [Intestinal parasitosis in pre-school children from Tarapoto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Calderón, J

    1991-01-01

    We examined stool specimens from 110 children (Pre Scholar) from the suburb "9 de Abril" Tarapoto (Perú). The diagnostic techniques were: direct smear, Faust floaty concentration, Willis floating and Graham's tape. 98 percent had intestinal parasitosis, without sexual differences. The most common parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides 68%, Trichuris trichiura 44%, Enterobius vermicularis 28%, Hymenolepis nana 21% and Strongyloides stercoralis 16%. Monoparasitosis was present in 44% and biparasitosis 42%. The most frequent association was Ascaris-Trichuris. The clinical findings were hyporexia, borborygms, bruxismo, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 60% received irregular treatment and without laboratory stool tests. In this suburb there's not garbage dump, drainage and the drinkable water is very contaminated; the deficient hygiene worsen the soul contamination. We consider that the elimination of these situations and health education are better than the medicine use.

  10. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  11. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  12. Fundamental aspects of the freezing of cells, with emphasis on mammalian ova and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem in cryobiology is how to cool cells to -196/sup 0/C and return them to normal temperatures without killing them. One important factor is the presence of a protective additive like glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Mammalian cells rarely survive freezing to below -40/sup 0/C in its absence. In the presence of an additive, survival is critically dependent on the cooling rate. Supraoptimal rates and suboptimal rates are both damaging. Death at supraoptimal rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice and its recrystallization during warming. Death at suboptimal rates is a consequence of the major alterations in aqueous solutions produced by ice formation. The chief effects are a major reduction in the fraction of the solution remaining unfrozen at a given temperature and a major increase in the solute concentration of that fraction. The introduction of molar concentrations of additive greatly reduces both the fraction frozen and the concentration of electrolytes in the unfrozen channels and in the cell interior. Usually, freezing either kills cells outright or it results in survivors that retain full capacity to function. But there is the possibility that in some cases survivors may in fact be impaired genetically or physiologically. All evidence indicates that genetic damage does not occur. But there are clear examples in which freezing does induce nonlethal physiological damage. (ERB)

  13. Influence of tonifying kidney recipe on advanced glycation endproducts and lipid peroxidation in ova riectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen Wang; Chang'an Zhao; Li Guo; En Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced estrogen levels may accelerate the formation of advanced glycation endproducts(AGE)in brain tissue,raise the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in vivo,and speed up deterioration of learning and memory.A tonifying kidney recipe is hypothesized to improve the ability of learning and memory in ovariectomized rats by downregulating AGE and lipid peroxidation products.OBJECTIVE:To simulate a postmenopausal state,bilateral ovariectomy (OVX)was performed in rats,and the effects of tonifying kidney recipe(TKR)on AGE and lipid peroxidation in the rat cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and blood serum levels was measured.In addition,the effects on learning and memory were evaluated,and the effect of AGE-specific inhibitor aminoguanidine(AG)was compared with TKR.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,in vivo,control experiment was performed at the scientific research center(Provincial Key Laboratory)in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shjiiazhuang,Hebei Province,China)from May 2005 to January 2007.MATERIALS:Forty healthy,adult,female,Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study.TKR was composed of prepared rehmannia rhizome,epimedium herb,desert-living cistanche,and Szechwan lovage rhizome,which were provided by Shijiazhuang Medical Materials Company(China).A TKR extraction was prepared for further use.AG was provided by Sigma (USA).Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups:sham,OVX,AG and TKR,with 10 rats in each group.METHODS:The rat ovaries were resected in the OVX,AG and TKR groups,whereas the same volume of fat was resected in the sham group.At four weeks after OVX,the AG group received 1% AG water solution by lavage;the TKR group was administrated by lavage once per day at a dose of 6.3 g (crude drug)/kg;OVX and sham groups received equal volumes of tap water.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Learning and memory behavior of rats was tested in a Y-electric maze 16 weeks after the OVX procedure.The contents of advanced glycation endproducts in the rat cerebral cortex,hippocampus,serum,and urine were detected by competitive ELISA and spectrofluorophotometer.The contents of lipid peroxidation in rat serum,cerebral cortex,and hippocampus were assayed using a biochemical method.RESULTS:Compared with the sham group,serum content of advanced glycation endproducts in the OVX group was significantly increased,and lipid peroxidation content increased in cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and serum(t=3.04-4.22,P<0.05-0.01).Both AG and TKR decreased the amount of AGE in cerebral cortex and serum(t=2.53,3.64,P<0.05,0.01),increased AGE urine content(t=3.25-=4.87,P<0.0 1),and decreased lipid peroxidation content in cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and serum (t=2.80-3.70,P<0.05-0.01).In comparison to the OVX and sham groups,the correct escape rate in the Y-electric maze was significantly increased(t=3.46,3.28,P<0.01),and escape latency was significantly decreased(t=3.12,2.48,P<0.05)in the AG and TKR groups,which indicated that both AG and TKR improved learning and memorv.The OVX group had a significantly lower correct escape compared with the sham group(t=4.21,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:The tonifying kidney recipe decreased deposition of advanced glycation endproducts and lipid peroxidation in ovariectomized rats,and concomitantly improved learning and memory.The effect of TKR was equal to that of AG.

  14. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen;

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy for...

  15. Rift Valley fever virus-infected mosquito ova and associated pathology: possible implications for endemic maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romoser WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available William S Romoser1, Marco Neira Oviedo1, Kriangkrai Lerdthusnee2, Lisa A Patrican3, Michael J Turell4, David J Dohm4, Kenneth J Linthicum5, Charles L Bailey61Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Tropical Disease Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA; 2Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Infectious Disease Division, National Center for Medical Intelligence, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; 4Department of Vector Assessment, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; 5Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 6National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Disease, School of Systems Biology, College of Science, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USABackground: Endemic/enzootic maintenance mechanisms like vertical transmission (pathogen passage from infected adults to their offspring are central in the epidemiology of zoonotic pathogens. In Kenya, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV may be maintained by vertical transmission in ground-pool mosquitoes such as Aedes mcintoshi. RVFV can cause serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Past epidemics/epizootics have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa but, since the late 1970s, RVFV has also appeared in North Africa and the Middle East. Preliminary results revealed RVFV-infected eggs in Ae. mcintoshi after virus injection into the hemocoel after the first of two blood meals, justifying further study.Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from an artificially flooded water-catching depression along a stream in Kenya, shipped live to the USA, and studied using an immunocytochemical method for RVFV-antigen localization in mosquito sections.Results and conclusion: After virus injection into the hemocoel, RVFV-infected reproductive tissues were found, particularly follicular epithelia and oocyte/nurse cells. Ovarian infection from the hemocoel is a crucial step in establishing a vertically transmitting mosquito line. Ovarian follicles originate from germarial cells, primordia located distally in each ovariole, and infection of these cells is expected to be requisite for long-term vertical transmission. However, no germarial cell infection was found, so establishing a new line of vertically transmitting mosquitoes may require two generations. The findings support the hypothesis that Ae. mcintoshi is involved in the endemic maintenance of RVFV by vertical transmission. Detection of distinct pathology in infected eggs raises the possibility of virus-laden eggs being deposited among healthy eggs, thereby providing an exogenous source of infection via ingestion by mosquito larvae and other organisms. This has potentially significant epidemiological implications. Possible modes of entry of virus from the hemocoel into the ovaries and routes by which larvae might become infected by ingesting virus are discussed.Keywords: hemocoel, ovary, vertical transmission, Aedes mcintoshi, arbovirus, antigen positive

  16. Presentation and diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis : relevance of eosinophilia, microscopy for ova, and serology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, Wouter F W; Wetsteyn, José C F M; van Gool, Tom

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nonendemic countries a steady rise in cases of imported schistosomiasis has been observed. The objective of this study was to describe the presentation of patients diagnosed with schistosomiasis in the Outpatient Department (OPD) for Tropical Diseases in the Academic Medical Center, A

  17. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    - Abstract This present review describes some differences and similarities between bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro. The first part outlines the respective environments during maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development of the two types of embryos and compares their mor-...

  18. Disinfection of sewage water and sludge using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried out to assess the efficiency of gamma radiation in disinfecting sewage water and sludge from harmful pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, total E-coli and total coliform), parasites (Ascaris ova) as well as its ability to degrade organic matter (BOD). Samples were exposed to gamma-radiation doses ranging from 0.5 to 8 KGy using Co''60 cell. Amongst pathogenic bacteria which are subjected to different doses of gamma-radiation Streptococcus faecalis revealed to be the most resistance bacterial indicator since complete elimination of these bacteria could be attained at 3.5 KGy. While total e-coli shown to be the most sensitive with lethal dose at 2 KGy. The radiation doses that required for reducing the bacterial population by 90% (D10) and 50% (D 50) were determined for each species. The D10 values found ranged from 0.75 KGy for Streptococcus and 2.75 KGy for total count bacteria. On the other hand, D50 fall within the range of 0.5 KGy for total count bacteria, total coliform and Streptococcus, and 1.0 KGy for total e-coli. With regard to the efficiency of radiation treatment to destroy Ascaris ova viability it was found that no larvae were viable after exposure to 1.0 KGy following incubation of exposed ova for four weeks period.(Author)

  19. Avaliação da contaminação experimental de areias de praias por enteroparasitas: pesquisa de ovos de Helmintos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar métodos e soluções tradicionalmente utilizados na evidenciação de ovos de helmintos parásitos, de fezes ou do solo, em amostras de areia de praia experimentalmente contaminadas com ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis e Ancylostoma sp. Das soluções classicamente utilizadas, a de Dicromato de Sódio (d= 1,350 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados (índice de recuperação = 50% para ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. As duas soluções propostas: Carbonato de Sódio (d= 1,040 e Detergente aniônico sintético - Sulfonato de Sódio (d= 1,040, apresentaram índices de recuperação surpreendentes, superiores a 80% para os ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. Conclui-se que o detergente de uso doméstico, pelo seu baixo custo e facilidade de aquisição, pode ser usado na avaliação de rotina da contaminação de areias de praias pelos ovos de enteroparasitos, importantes indicadores de contaminação fecal, necessários a um adequado monitoramento sanitário do meio.An attempt was made to assess methods and solutions traditionally used for evidencing the presence of helminth's eggs in faeces or soil from beach sand samples experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis and Ancylostomidae. Among classically used solutions. Sodium Dicromate (d= 1.350 was the one with better results (recovery rate =50% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. The two suggested solutions - Sodium Carbonate (d= 1.040 and synthetic anionic detergent - Sodium Sulphonate (d- 1.040 - showed surprising recovery rates, higher than 80% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. We concluded that, because of their low cost and great availability, domestic detergents can be used for the routine evaluations of beachs contamination with enteroparasites eggs, which are important indicators of faecal contamination and necessary for an adequate sanitary

  20. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  1. Enteroparasitas e Capillaria SP entre o grupo Surui, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia Enteroparasites and Capillaria SP found in indians of the Surui group, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Júnior

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados de enteroparasitas encontradas em índios da comunidade tribal de Suruí, em Rondônia, na Região Amazônica do Brasil. As seguintes espécies foram encontradas: Ascaris lumbricoides (53,3%, Ancilostomidae (43,3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33,3%, Taenia sp. (5,8%, Trichuris trichiura (5,0%, Hymenolepis nana (4,1%, Giardia lamblia (3,3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0,8% e Enterobius vermicularis (0,1%. O encontro de Capillaria sp. nas fezes de dois individuos é discutido.In this paper data on enteroparasites found in indians of the Surui tribal community in Rondônia, Amazon Region of Brazil, are presented. The following species were detected: Ascaris lumbricoides (53.3%, Ancylostomidae (43.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33.3%, Taenia sp. (5.8%, Trichuris trichiura (5.0%, Hymenolepis nana (4.1%, Giardia lambia (3.3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0.8% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.1%.

  2. Helminthic infestation in children of Kupwara district: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the investigation of the frequency of intestinal helminth parasites in children of Kupwara, Kashmir, India. Three hundred and twelve children in the age group of 4-15 years were examined for different intestinal helminths in three schools located in rural areas. Two hundred and twenty two of 312 (71.15% tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various helminth parasites included Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata . By far, the highest frequency of 69.23% (216/312 was noted for Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Trichuris trichiura 30.76% (96/312, Enterobius vermicularis 7.69% (24/312 and Taenia saginata 7.69% (24/312. Single infection was found in 33.65% (105/312 and mixed infection was seen in 37.5% (117/312 children. This study emphasizes the need for improved environmental conditions, i.e., clean water supplies, enhanced sanitation and chemotherapy of school-age children in rural areas.

  3. SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING IN A PATIENT WITH ASCA RIASIS & ANCYLOSTOMIASIS : BUGS AND WORMS TOGETHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This is an unusual case presentation of a patient with symptoms of food poisoning along with two parasitic infections, both mode of infection being entirely different, with ascariasis due to ingestion of food contaminated with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ancylostoma duo denale due to hookworm penetration through skin ( B are - foot walking. CASE REPORT: A 48 year old female patient came with complaints of fever and loose stools for three days. Patient was an agriculturist by occupation with poor personal hygiene with a histo ry of consumption of meat two days prior to the symptoms. Laboratory test showed leukocytosis ( T otal count - 13,000 cu.mm with both neutrophilic and eosinophilic predominance and anaemia. Microscopic examination of stool revealed the presence of plenty of p us cells and the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale. Also Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the stool culture and confirmed at National Reference Centre. CONCLUSION: Food poisoning is a serious health problem. I t can cause severe illness and even death. Soil transmitted helminths are common among agriculturist. Washing hands with warm water and soap before handling foods, eating and after using toilets is mandatory to prevent food borne illness and parasitic infe ctions.

  4. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  5. 2006-2009年勐海县国家级监测点人体土源性线虫感染监测%Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Menghai County, Yunnan Province from 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽波; 张老三; 张祖翔; 吴方伟; 杜尊伟; 姜进勇; 陈然; 马龙; 陈绍秋; 倪坎; 王学忠; 刀宏祥

    2011-01-01

    In the national monitoring point, Menghai County, Yunnan Province, the total prevalence rate of soil-transmitted nem-atode infections was 88.12%, of which the rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and cestode infections were 69.70%, 59.79%, 36.79%, and 1.30% respectively from 2006 to 2009. The infection intensities were slight. The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in soil of vegetable garden was 44.5%. In conclusion, the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes is high in the monitoring point.%2006-2009年监测发现,勐海县国家级监测点土源性线虫总感染率平均为88.12%,其中蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫和绦虫感染率分别为69.70%、59.79%、36.79%、1.30%;感染者均以轻度感染为主.以菜园土样的蛔虫卵阳性率为最高,达44.5%.当地人群土源性线虫感染水平较高.

  6. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.Este artigo discute os achados de ovos de parasitos em vestígios orgânicos de estruturas medievais do século XVI, escavados no solo, encontrados em Walraversijde, vilarejo atualmente denominado Raversijde, litoral norte da Bélgica. Nestas estruturas encontraram-se numerosos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura, ambos parasitos humanos. Neste trabalho, o diagnóstico dos parasitos serviu para identificar a origem humana do sedimento e as estruturas medievais como latrinas. Encontraram-se outros ovos de parasito identificado como Capillaria sp. e larvas de nematódeos. Embora não tenha sido possível calcular cargas parasitárias, a quantidade de ovos de helmintos intestinais, parasitos de humanos, sugere condições precárias de higiene e altos níveis de infecção.

  7. Re-evaluation of the formalin-ether sedimentation method for the improvement of parasite egg recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, C; Rai, S K; Uga, S

    2014-09-01

    The formalin-ether sedimentation (FES) method is considered as reliable method of fecal examination for the detection of parasites. In this study, we re-evaluated several aspects of FES such as (i) pretreatment of feces; (ii) filtration of fecal suspensions; (iii) test-tube material and (iv) substitution of ether by other organic solvents as to see an improvement in parasite egg recovery. The egg count was represented by the number of ova detected per 100 μg of sediment. Pre-treatment of feces with formalin (pH 7) increased egg detection rate remarkably compared with original FES method. Use of three layers of gauze dramatically reduced the sediment in the final product, and led to an increase in the number of ova detected. Use of polypropylene test tubes instead of glass test tubes also increased the number of egg detection. None of the organic solvents used to replace the ether produced better results. Based on these findings, we proposed a modified FES procedure. Further, we also compared the parasite positive rate and the number of ova recovered by using original FES and the modified FES procedures by examining 112 fecal samples collected from school children of parasite endemic area in Nepal. Feces collected from Nepal had many parasite ova, and these fecal samples barely displayed false-negative results even by method with low sensitivity. When the mean number of Hemenolepis nana, hookworm, T. trichiura, and A. lumbricoides ova recovered by original FES and the modified FES methods was compared, the values obtained by modified FES were superior (higher). This result suggested that the modified FES is effective and better for the recovery of parasite ova in areas of low-intensity parasitic infection.

  8. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  9. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care.

  10. Prevalence and Distribution of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH among Asymptomatic School Going Children in South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anbumani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infections represent a major health problem in poor and developing countries. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of STH among school going children of Kancheepuram district. Three hundred and fifty eight children in the age group of 5-10 years were examined for STH. One hundred and fourteen of the 358 (40% were tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various intestinal helminths are Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Taenia species. At least one intestinal helminth was detected in 25.13% (90/358 children and multiple helminth infestation was recorded in 15.08% (54/358. The most common parasitic helminth was A. lumbricoides 60% (84/144 followed by T. trichiura 4.17% (6/144. A. lumbricoides was found as single type infection as well as in association with other helminths in mixed type infection. This study emphasizes the need for improved sanitation and better living conditions for the school-age children in rural areas.

  11. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  12. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  13. Prevalencias de las geohelmintiasis intestinales en 100 municipios de Venezuela (1989-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales C. Gustavo A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El examen coproparasitológico (técnica de Kato-Katz de un total de 113.254 personas, pertenecientes a 100 municipios de Venezuela, permitió establecer las siguientes prevalencias a nivel nacional: Ascaris lumbricoides: 26,9%, Trichuris trichiura: 32,6% y Anquilostomideos: 5,6%. Además se determinaron los valores de la prevalencia para los mencionados geohelmintos en los 100 municipios considerados observándose una gran variabilidad. Para T. trichiura los valores máximos se obtuvieron en los municipios Arévalo González (54,6%, en el Estado Miranda, Urama (76,9% en el Estado Carabobo y Punta de Piedra (78,4% en el Estado Sucre. Para A. lumbricoides, en los municipios Punta de Piedra (63% y Tunapuy (61,9%, en el Estado Sucre y Arévalo González (62,7% en el Estado Miranda. Mientras que para los Anquilostomideos las prevalencias máximas se detectaron en los municipios El Amparo (39,5% y San Camilo (35,9% en el Estado Apure. En cuanto a la edad las prevalencias más altas se determinaron en niños de edad pre-escolar y escolar, para A. lumbricoides y T. trichiura y en adolescentes y adultos para anquilostomideos.

  14. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care. PMID:18941875

  15. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana. PMID:11818981

  16. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and th......Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re......-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...... closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 mu g/mL, respectively. Our...

  17. Association between response to albendazole treatment and β-tubulin genotype frequencies in soil-transmitted helminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssatou Diawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole (ABZ, a benzimidazole (BZ anthelmintic (AH, is commonly used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs. Its regular use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop, which, in veterinary nematodes is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the β-tubulin gene at positions 200, 167 or 198. The relative importance of these SNPs varies among the different parasitic nematodes of animals studied to date, and it is currently unknown whether any of these are influencing BZ efficacy against STHs in humans. We assessed ABZ efficacy and SNP frequencies before and after treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections. METHODS: Studies were performed in Haiti, Kenya, and Panama. Stool samples were examined prior to ABZ treatment and two weeks (Haiti, one week (Kenya and three weeks (Panama after treatment to determine egg reduction rate (ERR. Eggs were genotyped and frequencies of each SNP assessed. FINDINGS: In T. trichiura, polymorphism was detected at codon 200. Following treatment, there was a significant increase, from 3.1% to 55.3%, of homozygous resistance-type in Haiti, and from 51.3% to 67.8% in Kenya (ERRs were 49.7% and 10.1%, respectively. In A. lumbricoides, a SNP at position 167 was identified at high frequency, both before and after treatment, but ABZ efficacy remained high. In hookworms from Kenya we identified the resistance-associated SNP at position 200 at low frequency before and after treatment while ERR values indicated good drug efficacy. CONCLUSION: Albendazole was effective for A. lumbricoides and hookworms. However, ABZ exerts a selection pressure on the β-tubulin gene at position 200 in T. trichiura, possibly explaining only moderate ABZ efficacy against this parasite. In A. lumbricoides, the codon 167 polymorphism seemed not to affect drug efficacy whilst the polymorphism at codon 200 in hookworms was at such low frequency that conclusions

  18. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvalsvig Jane D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN established in 1998 a programme for helminth control that aimed at regularly treating primary school children for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths. This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Maputaland in northern KZN were examined for infections with hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, treated twice with 400 mg albendazole and re-examined several times over one year after the first treatment in order to assess the impact of treatment and patterns of infection and re-infection. Results The hookworm prevalence in the study population (83.2% was considerably higher than in other parts of the province whereas T. trichiura and especially A. lumbricoides prevalences (57.2 and 19.4%, respectively were much lower than elsewhere on the KZN coastal plain. Single dose treatment with albendazole was very effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides with cure rates (CR of 78.8 and 96.4% and egg reduction rates (ERR of 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. It was exceptionally ineffective against T. trichiura (CR = 12.7%, ERR = 24.8%. Re-infection with hookworm and A. lumbricoides over 29 weeks after treatment was considerable but still well below pre-treatment levels. Conclusion High geohelminth prevalences and re-infection rates in the study population confirm the need for regular treatment of primary school children in the area. The low effectiveness of single course albendazole treatment against T. trichiura infection however demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches.

  19. Early exposure of infants to GI nematodes induces Th2 dominant immune responses which are unaffected by periodic anthelminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Wright

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a reduction in anaemia and wasting malnutrition in infants <3 years old in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, following repeated anthelminthic treatment for the endemic gastrointestinal (GI nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. In view of the low intensity of worm infections in this age group, this was unexpected, and it was proposed that immune responses to the worms rather than their direct effects may play a significant role in morbidity in infants and that anthelminthic treatment may alleviate such effects. Therefore, the primary aims of this study were to characterise the immune response to initial/early GI nematode infections in infants and the effects of anthelminthic treatment on such immune responses. The frequency and levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma and IL-10 induced by the worms were evaluated in 666 infants aged 6-24 months using the Whole Blood Assay. Ascaris and hookworm antigens induced predominantly Th2 cytokine responses, and levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were significantly correlated. The frequencies and levels of responses were higher for both Ascaris positive and hookworm positive infants compared with worm negative individuals, but very few infants made Trichuris-specific cytokine responses. Infants treated every 3 months with mebendazole showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection compared with placebo-treated controls at one year following baseline. At follow-up, cytokine responses to Ascaris and hookworm antigens, which remained Th2 biased, were increased compared with baseline but were not significantly affected by treatment. However, blood eosinophil levels, which were elevated in worm-infected children, were significantly lower in treated children. Thus the effect of deworming in this age group on anaemia and wasting malnutrition, which were replicated in this study, could not be explained by modification of cytokine responses but may be related to

  20. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfang Liu

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in remote and poor rural areas is still high among children, the most vulnerable to infection. There is concern that STH infections may detrimentally affect children's healthy development, including their cognitive ability, nutritional status, and school performance. Medical studies have not yet identified the exact nature of the impact STH infections have on children. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between STH infections and developmental outcomes among a primary school-aged population in rural China.We conducted a large-scale survey in Guizhou province in southwest China in May 2013. A total of 2,179 children aged 9-11 years living in seven nationally-designated poverty counties in rural China served as our study sample. Overall, 42 percent of the sample's elementary school-aged children were infected with one or more of the three types of STH--Ascaris lumbricoides (ascaris, Trichuris trichuria (whipworm and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that infection with one or more STHs is associated with worse cognitive ability, worse nutritional status, and worse school performance than no infection. This study also presents evidence that children with Trichuris infection, either infection with Trichuris only or co-infected with Trichuris and Ascaris, experience worse cognitive, nutritional and schooling outcomes than their uninfected peers or children infected with only Ascaris.We find that STH infection still poses a significant health challenge among children living in poor, rural, ethnic areas of southwest China. Given the important linkages we find between STH infection and a number of important child health and educational outcomes, we believe that our results will contribute positively to the debate surrounding the recent Cochrane report.