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Sample records for ascaris lumbricoides case

  1. Pancreatitis secondary to Ascaris Lumbricoides: A case series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ab hameed Raina, Ghulam Nabi Yattoo, Feroz Ahmad Wani, Reyaz Ahmad Para, Khaild Hamid Changal, Arshed Hussain Parry

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infestations are endemic in tropical countries. Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis secondary to ascaris is more common in females. We describe three cases who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis and all of them were females and were diagnosed on ultrasonography. In t...

  2. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.

  3. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report Absceso hepático por Ascaris lumbricoides: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth; LÓPEZ Myriam Consuelo; Orlando RICAURTE; CASTILLO Blanca; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.Se presenta el caso de una mujer que vivía en zona rural con una enfermedad...

  4. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  5. Massive Infestation of the biliary duct for Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a woman who arrived with acute cholangitis symptomatology, and was diagnosed preoperatively by ultrasound as biliary ascariasis. During surgery, we extracted 32 worms of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder and the common bile duct. Clinical outcome was successful, with out retention of worms

  6. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  7. [Sonographic imaging of Ascaris lumbricoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilai, M; Khamaysi, N

    1996-10-01

    The round worm, Ascaris lumbricoides, is one of the largest of the parasites that infest the human bowel. The worms usually develop in the jejunum and can reach several thousand in number, causing bowel obstruction, volvulus, intussusception, appendicitis and even bowel perforation with penetration into the peritoneal cavity. They tend to invade the bile and pancreatic ducts and may cause acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis. Ascaris lumbricoides can be detected by sonography. This imaging modality can be helpful in diagnosing the presence of the worms and in evaluating response to treatment. We present an 18-month-old girl in whom bowel worms were detected by sonography. PMID:8940520

  8. Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    the underdeveloped countries. It is related to conditions of poverty, malnutrition and poor hygiene. According to the complex life cycle of the parasite, several and different intestinal and extraintestinal complications can arise, including peritonitis. Appropriate treatment and preventive measures are very important factors to avoid deaths caused by this disease.

    We report the case of a 3 year-old girl, coming from a rural area of Colombia, who presented peritonitis by Ascaris lumbricoides, preceded by persistent diarrhea, pain and abdominal mass. She was incidentally diagnosed by means of laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, because an intestinal lymphoma was suspected.

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: Diagnosis during EUS for a Suspected Small Pancreatic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Mangiavillano; Silvia Carrara; Maria Chiara Petrone; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2009-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is the second most common intestinal parasite world-wide and, although the infection can be asymptomatic, in some cases it can present with complications, such as acute pancreatitis. Case report We describe the case of a 37- year-old man, with a history of travelling in Eastern countries who presented with Ascaris lumbricoides-induced acute pancreatitis mimicking a small pancreatic cancer, diagnosed during an upper EUS. The endoscopy revealeda roundworm floating i...

  2. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  3. Ultrasonographic appearance of Ascaris lumbricoides in the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, T; Mansoor, N; Quraishy, S; Ilyas, M; Hussain, S

    2001-03-01

    Roundworm infestation, one of the most common helminthic diseases worldwide, is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, one of the largest parasites that infests the human bowel. A lumbricoides is virtually universal at some stage of childhood in semitropical and tropical regions. This study describes our experience with the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal ascariasis in 84 patients, 2.5 to 42 years of age, examined over 2 years beginning October 1997. The patients' conditions ranged from acute intestinal obstruction to no clinical features pertaining to obstruction. Ultrasonographic examination was performed with an Echocee power Doppler real-time unit with a variable-frequency 3.7-MHz convex, 7.5-MHz linear probe. In longitudinal section the Ascaris worm presented as a linear intraluminal mass with 3 or 4 linear echogenic interfaces; in the cross section, it was round, sometimes appearing as a "target" sign. Some worms also showed serpentine movements. Sonographic examination of the patients in the left lateral decubitus position after ingestion of water improved detection and visualization of the worms in some cases. It is concluded that A lumbricoides in the small bowel has a sonographic appearance that can be recognized by the wary observer. PMID:11270532

  4. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world’s population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumb...

  5. Obstrução nasolacrimal em criança: Ascaris lumbricoides como uma causa incomum Nasolacrimal obstruction in a child: Ascaris lumbricoides as an unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Helder Palma Araújo; Sérgio Schneider Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo descreve um caso incomum de obstrução de vias lacrimais por Ascaris lumbricoides em uma criança de 1 ano de idade e faz um breve relato de outros casos semelhantes na literatura, enfatizando a necessidade de se pensar em helmintíase como provável causa de obstrução lacrimal em crianças desnutridas que moram em áreas de alta prevalência de parasitose intestinal.This article describes an unusual case of an obstruction of the tear ducts caused by Ascaris lumbricoides in an one-year-o...

  6. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection. PMID:27066982

  7. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eser Kilic; Süleyman Yazar; Recep Saraymen; Hatice Ozbilge

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, I.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls.RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P<0.05)and for males (P<0.05). In the patient and control groups,no correlation was found between age and malondialdehyde levels (P>0.05) both in females and in males. In addition,no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

  8. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China)

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient...

  9. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  10. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Background: The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results: We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the ...

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Isabel; Giusti, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    A. lumbricoides is the largest of the common nematode parasites of man and has been associated with intestinal pathology, respiratory symptoms and malnutrition in children from endemic areas. Current anthelmintic treatments have proven to be safe. However, a reduced efficacy of single dose drugs has been reported. In veterinary practice, anthelmintic drug resistance is an irreversible problem. Thus, research and development of sensitive tools for early detection of drug resistance as well as new anthelmintic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we summarized data providing information about current drug therapy against A. lumbricoides and other intestinal helminths, new drugs in experimental trials, future drugs perspectives and the identification of immunogenic parasite molecules that may be suitable vaccine targets. In addition to the WHO recommended drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate), new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. Also, some new drugs for veterinary use, monepantel and cyclooctadepsipeptides (e.g., PF1022A), will probably expand future drug spectrum for human treatments. The development of genomic technology has provided a great amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data that may lead to the identification of new drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. On the other hand, the identification of nematode antigens involved in different parasite vital functions as well as immunomodulatory molecules in animals and humans may contribute to future studies of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:20701574

  12. Management of biliary Ascaris lumbricoides in Kabul, Afghanistan: crossroads of advancing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Richard Gerard; Tani, Mohammad Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The case is presented of the successful removal of a dead Ascaris lumbricoides from the right hepatic duct of a middle aged woman from a rural province in Afghanistan. The case was started laparoscopically, but converted to an open procedure because of difficulty identifying the anatomic landmarks required to safely perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After worm removal, the common bile duct (CBD) was reconstructed with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The patient was discharged on postoper...

  13. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the refer...

  14. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. Results We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the reference geno...

  15. Inactivation of ascaris lumbricoides eggs by heat, radiation, and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is desirable to eliminate the public health hazards associated with land application of municipal sewage sludge as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. This report describes experimentation to determine the effects of heat, radiation, and thermoradiation on the suppression of embryonation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova, a parasite commonly found in sewage sludge. Heat effects were observed at a minimum temperature of 510C and radiation effects at doses in excess of 15 krads of radiation. Thermoradiation at 470C suppressed embryonation at less than half the total dose required by radiation alone. (U.S.)

  16. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented

  17. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  18. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  19. Elektroforetska analiza proteina iz spolnih organa i kutikule glista Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Julisar Elaine; Normandee Comia, Mary; Oyong, Glenn; Claveria, Florencia

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides i Ascaris suum bili su analizirani radi utvrđivanja sličnosti i razlike u elektroforetskoj pokretljivosti proteina iz njihove kutikule i spolnih organa. U obje vrste dokazana je znatna sličnost proteinskoga profila. Elektroforezom iscrpka kutikule ženki ustanovljeno je deset zajedničkih vrpci za obje vrste, dok je elektroforezom proteina kutikule mužjaka dobiveno 12 zajedničkih vrpci proteina od čega je najmanje pet proteina bilo zajedničko za oba spola. Usporedbom protei...

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  1. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  2. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid Javed; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Sultan, Nabeel; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Mehraj, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) is one of the most common helminthic infections of humans, affecting mainly children and malnourished individuals residing in developing countries. It is estimated the 25% of the world’s population is infected with this nematode. Infection occurs via ingestion of water and food contaminated by Ascaris eggs, causing asymptomatic infection to disease with abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and faecal passage of worms. The present report concerns an unusual case in ...

  3. Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively.

  4. The Half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides Prevalence in Japanese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Da-Hong; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takaki, Jiro; Ito, Takehiko; Kurosawa,Carmen Miwa; Takigawa,Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearsonʼs correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children...

  5. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Geostatistical modeling of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.The following study intends to model the spatial distribution of ascariasis, through the use of geoprocessing and geostatistic analysis. The database used in the study was taken from the PAISQUA project, including a coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey, conducted in 19 selected census tracts of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, randomly selecting a group of 1,550 children aged 1 to 9 years old plotting them in their respective domicile's centroids. Risk maps of Ascaris lumbricoides were generated by indicator kriging. The estimated and observed values from the cross-validation were compared using a ROC curve. An isotropic spherical semivariogram model with a range of 30m and nugget effect of 50% was employed in ordinary

  6. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

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    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008. Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquellas donde la gente acostumbra a defecar a ras del suelo, pues no tiene el recurso económico necesario para construir baños, ni dispone de agua potable. Esta parasitosis afecta a 25 a 35% de la población mundial (Biagi, 2004 (Becerril, 2008. Generalmente los pacientes infectados por este nematodo cursan asintómaticos, pero en caso contrario la sintomatología dependerá de la fase del ciclo vital en la que el parásito se encuentre pudiendo existir síntomas pulmonares o gastrointestinales, incluso en ciertas poblaciones como la pediátrica podría incluso ocasionar la muerte por múltiples mecanismos dentro de los cuales se incluyen la migración errática y/o la obstrucción intestinal (MS., 1996

  7. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Martha E Chico; Nutman, Thomas B.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Ascaris lumbricoides may have important effects on allergy and susceptibility to infectious diseases that start in early life. To investigate if sensitization to Ascaris occurs in utero, we measured IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in Ascaris antigen-stimulated cord blood of newborns of infected and non-infected mothers using flow cytometry. There was evidence of elevated frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers compared to those of n...

  8. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  9. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays. (author)

  10. IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Valmonte, Gardette R.; Cauyan, Gil A.; Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. Objective This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. Methods Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomi...

  11. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter

  12. The morphological changes of ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs were examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae, inside the eggs, were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter. (author)

  13. New Allergens of Relevance in Tropical Regions: The Impact of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    One of the many aspects of the relationships between parasite infections and allergic diseases is the possibility that allergens from parasites enhance the TH2 responses, especially IgE production, in allergic diseases such as asthma. In this review we discuss about the allergenic composition of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and their potential impact on allergy sensitization and asthma pathogenesis and prevalence in populations living in the tropics and naturally exposed to both, mite al...

  14. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Acevedo; Jens Mohr; Josefina Zakzuk; Martin Samonig; Peter Briza; Anja Erler; Anna Pomés; Huber, Christian G.; Fatima Ferreira; Luis Caraballo

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and compa...

  15. A Community Based Survey of the Burden of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu

    OpenAIRE

    Chijioke, IR; Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, GCA; Okafor, CI; Ekejindu, IM; Sridhar, MKC

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is common in our environment and antihelminthic drugs are specie specific. Thus, need to identify and characterize the species cannot be overemphasized. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Ascaris Lumbricoides in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 361 subjects in Enugu metropolis was carried out in this study. A single stool sample was collected for examination from the subjects, using appropriately labelled clean specimen contain...

  16. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  17. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby NM

    2016-01-01

    Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and asc...

  18. Individual Predisposition, Household Clustering and Risk Factors for Human Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: New Epidemiological Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, kn...

  19. The Half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides Prevalence in Japanese School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang,Da-Hong

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearsonʼs correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  20. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  1. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout ...

  2. A related moderately repetitive DNA family in the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and Panagrellus silusiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, T; Pasternak, J J

    1988-01-01

    Digestion of genomic DNA from the nematodes Panagrellus silusiae and Ascaris lumbricoides with restriction endonuclease BamH1 releases a 0.7 kilobase (kb) fragment. The 0.7 kb fragment from both nematodes was cloned onto E. coli plasmid pUC19. Using representative clones as DNA hybridization probes, it was found that (i) the BamH1 fragments cross-hybridize; (ii) a ladder-effect with multiples of 0.7 kb was evident in both species after hybridization to genomic DNA and (iii) the genomic copy n...

  3. DAMPAK PENGELOLAAN TINJA TERPADU TERHADAP INFEKSI ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DI DAERAH KOTA (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinardi Hadidjaja; Sri S. Margono; Adi Sasongko; Rumsah Rasad

    2012-01-01

    A study on the health impact of integrated environmental sanitary management was done in the village of Pisangan Baru, East Jakarta. As an indicator of health status, Ascaris lumbricoides infection in school children was used. The result of the study before the intervention showed that the prevalence of A. lumbircoides infec­tion in school children who lived in RW 06 Pisangan Baru was 46.3% and 45.7% who lived in RW 013. Ex­amination of sewage water in ditches showed 42% positive with A. lumb...

  4. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes; Luis Iván Ortiz Valencia; Simone do Vale Ribeiro; Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    2004-01-01

    O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validaçã...

  5. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  6. Type I-like intervening sequences are found in the rDNA of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, H; Müller, F.; Etter, A; Tobler, H

    1987-01-01

    The intervening sequences in the large ribosomal RNA gene of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum show many similarities to the type I insertions, previously found only in some insect species. They include structural features, but also a presumed transcriptional inactivity in vivo: No transcript of the rDNA intervening sequence in A. lumbricoides could be detected in Northern and dot blot hybridizations. However, the primary structure of the Pol I promoter region is well conserved in interrupted an...

  7. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  8. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  9. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaby NM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interleukin-5 (IL-5 in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01 between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, children, rural, Egypt, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α

  10. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  11. Aspectos imunológicos na infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Ana Catarina Rodrigues Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Ascaris lumbricoides é um parasita, geo-helminta, a sua prevalência é maior em zonas quentes e húmidas, em que as condições de saneamento e higiene são precárias. É o principal responsável por parasitoses intestinais, principalmente em crianças, manifestando-se por náuseas, vómitos e dor abdominal. Em casos mais graves pode causar défice no desenvolvimento físico e cognitivo. O sistema imun...

  12. Distribuição espacial da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Mônica Rodrigues; Valencia Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Braga Ricardo Cerqueira Campos; Medronho Roberto de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar áreas de risco para a ocorrência de carga parasitária produzida pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, por meio da utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 19 setores censitários para a realização do inquérito copro-parasitológico e domiciliar na localidade de Parque Fluminense, no município de Duque de Caxias, RJ. Foram amostradas e plotadas no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio 1.664 crianças com idade entre 1 e 9 anos. As téc...

  13. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (Plumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  14. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.A. de; Del Caro, S.R.; Bender Lamego, C.M.; Mercon de Vargas, P.R.; Vervloet, V.E.C.

    1985-02-01

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis.

  16. Serum cytokines profiles in Nigerian children withAscaris lumbricoides infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irior Dominic Osagie; Abu Maliki

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytokines profile in the serum of some Nigerian children with Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) infection and relations between the intensity of infection, age and the concentration of these cytokines.Methods: Feacal samples from consenting children were examined using formol ether concentration techniques and Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Sera of 96 children comprising 76A. lumbricoides infection and 20 controls were subjected to enzymes-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The mean sera concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were (16.7±7.6) pg/mL, (4.6±0.8)pg/mL, (391.6±52.0) pg/mL and (181.2±30.4) pg/mL, respectively. The control subjects had the following mean serum cytokines: TNF-α(2.9±1.8) pg/m, IL-4 (4.0±0.1) pg/mL, IL-5 (125.1±50.1) pg/mL, IL-10 (74.5±54.2) pg/mL, respectively. The difference between the sera cytokines concentration of theA. lumbricoides infected children and their controls were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL- 5 and IL-10(χ2= 9.99,P< 0.05;χ2 = 137.24,P < 0.05;χ2 = 44.30,P < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of infection correlated positively with TNF-α, and IL-5 (r = 0.93 and 0.98, respectively) while IL-4 and IL- 10 correlated negatively with the intensity of infection (r = -0.62 and 0.99, respectively). TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with age (r = 0.19, 0.33 and 0. 66, respectively). The mean cytokines between those with mild and moderate infections were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 (χ2 = 3.60, 4.52 and 5.30, respectively). The ratio of TNF-α: IL-10 was 0.092.Conclusions: Elevated IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α found in the sera of the volunteers with Ascariasis implicates these cytokines as key mediators in the host responses toA. lumbriocoides infection in our studied area.

  17. Possible Approach for Serodiagnosis of Ascariasis by Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G4 Response Using Ascaris lumbricoides Somatic Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Tanusree; Santra, Amal; Majumder, Debendra N. Guha; Chatterjee, Bishnu P.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides was purified to homogeneity (molecular mass, 34 kDa) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographic procedures, namely, gel permeation, ion exchange, and high-performance gel permeation liquid chromatographies. The antigen showed strong binding with immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Ascaris-infested patients and was cross-reactive with IgE and IgG in patients infested with other nematodes. It reacted specifically with IgG4 (P < 0.001) in 63 As...

  18. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  19. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (pallergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (presponse against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic areas and also that improved hygienic conditions in the urban environment is associated with increased responses to airborne allergens. PMID:17698018

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recombinant cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite A. lumbricoides has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  1. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.

  2. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Anderson Roy M; Hall Andrew; Walker Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from ...

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B Has Potent Anthelmintic Activity against Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Joseph F.; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Ying Y Yiu; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestiv...

  4. Successful treatment of lipoid pneumonia associated with bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Sias, Selma; Oliveira Caetano, Regina; Dutra Comarella, Júlia; de Oliveira, Elen; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-08-01

    Partial bowel obstruction is a serious complication of ascariasis infestation generally treated with mineral oil. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) as a therapeutic strategy for reducing lung inflammation of lipoid pneumonia associated with ascariasis. The study included five children (mean age 25 months) with partial small-bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides, who underwent diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage for assessment of refractory pneumonia. Routine biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis were carried out in the BAL. Protein, lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) cytokine levels were determined in the serum before and after treatment. At admission, children consistently had respiratory symptoms, altered hematological function, increased immunoglobulin E serum level and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Chest tomography showed consolidation with air bronchogram (4/4), ground-glass infiltration (3/4) and decreased attenuation in the consolidation areas (2/4). Presence of marked pleocytosis with Sudan positive foamy alveolar macrophages, high protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL indicated presence of mixed alveolitis. One child with extensive consolidation and air bronchogram in both lungs died before treatment. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages efficiently removed alveolar oil deposits, restored BAL cellularity, improved clinical symptoms, radiological parameters and further reduced inflammatory reaction evidenced by marked decrease of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. This study presents a therapeutic strategy for management of lung complications caused by mineral oil administration to treat intestinal bowel obstruction associated with ascariasis. PMID:20026557

  5. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides Effects of detergents and disinfectants on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Lara Massara; Rafaela Salgado Ferreira; Luiz Dias de Andrade; Henrique Leonardo Guerra; Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovo...

  6. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Morales; Luz Arelis Pino

    1988-01-01

    La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminació...

  7. Intensity of reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides and its implications for parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A; Anwar, K S; Tomkins, A M

    1992-05-23

    Intestinal helminths are among the most common and widespread of human infections. Because it is typical to find that most worms are aggregated in a few potential hosts it has been suggested that some individuals are predisposed to heavy infections and that morbidity could be controlled by the treatment of heavily infected individuals only. We have studied the prevalence and intensity of reinfection with the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides among people living in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 880 people were treated with pyrantel pamoate three times at six month intervals, and on each occasion they collected all their stools for 48 h after treatment. Worms expelled by each subject were counted and weighed. The prevalence of infection at round 1 of treatment was 89% and the mean burden was 18.5 worms. Reinfection was rapid and at rounds 2 and 3 the prevalence was 82% and 80%, respectively, with mean burdens of 14.0 and 11.5 worms. The intensity of reinfection was not random: more subjects than expected became heavily reinfected (greater than or equal to 15 worms) and more subjects than expected remained lightly infected (less than or equal to 14 worms) (p less than 0.001). Worms were highly aggregated at each round of treatment but although just over 10% of all subjects were heavily infected at each and every round of treatment, over 60% of all subjects were heavily infected at least once. The findings show that some individuals seem to be susceptible to heavy infection whereas others are not, that deworming has a greater effect on the intensity of infection than on the prevalence, and that mass chemotherapy is likely to be a more effective means to control morbidity than is selective treatment of heavily infected individuals only. PMID:1349668

  8. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Massara Cristiano Lara; Ferreira Rafaela Salgado; Andrade Luiz Dias de; Guerra Henrique Leonardo; Carvalho Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovo...

  9. Ascaris lumbricoides EGGS AND HUMAN-INTESTINAL PROTOZOAN CYSTS FOUND IN RIVER WATER OF ANGKE RIVER, JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Lisawati Sutanto; Rizal Subahar

    2008-01-01

    Fecal contamination is a serious environmental problem at Angke River Jakarta. A cross-sectional study was conducted during April-June 2007 and the aim of the study is to assess the water quality of Angke River by detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and the protozoan cysts. A total 24 L water of Angke River was collected from 8 sampling locations consisted of Kembangan/Duri Kosambi (upper reaches of river), Pesing Polgar (lower reaches of river), Teluk Gong (lower reaches of river), Pantai...

  10. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Andreas Schüle; Petra Clowes; Inge Kroidl; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Anthony Nsojo; Chacha Mangu; Helene Riess; Christof Geldmacher; Rüdiger Paul Laubender; Seif Mhina; Leonard Maboko; Thomas Löscher; Michael Hoelscher; Elmar Saathoff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sect...

  11. Follow-up of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in children living in a community treated with ivermectin at 3-monthly intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Ranque, S.; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Garcia, A.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Ivermectin treatment was administered every 3 months over a 1-year period (April 1993-April 1994) to the whole eligible population of a village in South Cameroon where both #Ascaris lumbricoides$ and #Trichuris trichiura$ were hyper-endemic. A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment. Thirty children, aged 5-15 years, were not only found egg-positive for #A. lumbricoides$ and/or #T. trichiura$ before the first treatment but were also each treated and examined in e...

  12. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  13. Severity of atopic dermatitis and Ascaris lumbricoides infection: an evaluation of CCR4+ and CXCR3+ helper T cell frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ascaris lumbricoides-infected patients present lower prevalence of severe atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Peripheral blood of infected children with atopic dermatitis was assessed by flow cytometry of the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cells through the expression of CXCR3 and CCR4 chemokine receptors, respectively. RESULTS: Helminth-free patients with atopic dermatitis presented a high frequency of CCR4+Th2 cells. Parasitized patients with atopic dermatitis showed a lower frequency of CXCR3+Th1 cells compared to infected individuals only. CONCLUSIONS: Ascariasis modifies the blood traffic of Th2 cells in atopic dermatitis patients, while the allergic disease down-regulates the traffic of Th1 cells in parasitized patients.

  14. Characterization and expression of a spliced leader RNA in the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, T W; Shambaugh, J; Denker, J.; Chubb, G; Faser, C; Putnam, L; Bennett, K

    1989-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris spp. contains a 22-nucleotide spliced-leader (SL) sequence identical to the trans-SL previously described in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The SL comprises the first 22 nucleotides of a approximately 110-base RNA and is transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The SL RNA contains a trimethylguanosine cap and a consensus Sm binding site. Furthermore, the Ascaris SL RNA has the potential to adopt a secondary structure which is nearly identical to potential ...

  15. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth. PMID:24818416

  16. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  17. Estudio de la captación de ácido hialurónico por Ascaris lumbricoides Study of hyaluronic acid capture by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce de León

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El ácido hialurónico (AH tiene importantes funciones en la inmunidad. En experiencias previas se demostró que extractos de adultos de A. lumbricoides y concentrados larvarios, tienen capacidad de unión a AH. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la captación de AH por este helminto. Se trabajó con tres extractos del parásito adulto ([EA]B,C,D y 3 concentrados de larvas ([CLAL1]: 1100 a 1200 larvas/ mL; [CLAL2]: 400 a 600 larvas/ mL y [CLAL3]: 100 a 200 larvas/ mL. Se empleó la técnica modificada de Inhibición de la Adhesión para detección del Receptor CD44 soluble de hialuronato en suero humano. Se definió CexpAdhE AH como el cociente entre los eritrocitos adheridos por el AH en presencia y ausencia del parásito y se definió IexpCP AH, como la cantidad de eritrocitos que se dejaron de adherir debido a la captación de AH por el parásito, referido al número total de eritrocitos. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en CexpAdhE AH y en IexpCP AH, por efecto de la concentración larvaria y del [EA]. Las medias aritméticas de CexpAdhE AH y de IexpCP AH para los concentrados larvarios fueron 0,636 y 0,21 ([CLAL1]; 0,819 y 0,068 ([CLAL2]; 0,97 y 0,013 ([CLAL3]. Las medianas de CexpAdhE AH y de IexpCP AH para los extractos fueron [EA]C 0,275 y 0,4; [EA]B: 0,20 y 0,43; [EA]D: 0,075 y 0,495. La experiencia permitiría suponer que el parásito puede captar AH para interferir en la respuesta inmune del hospedador.Hyaluronan Acid (HA has important functions in immunity. Previous experiences have shown that A. lumbricoides's extracts of adult specimens and larval concentrates have hyaluronan binding capacity. The aim of this study was to analyse the HA capture by this helminth. Three extracts of adult specimens ([AE]B,C,D and 3 larval concentrates ([ALLC1]: 1100 to 1200 larvae/ mL; [ALLC2]: 400 to 600 larvae/ mL and [ALLC3]: 100 to 200 larvae/ mL were studied. The modified test of serum soluble CD44 Detection by

  18. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides Effects of detergents and disinfectants on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28ºC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.Ascaris lumbricoides infection is acquired via ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, thus justifying the search for ovicidal compounds. We studied the effect of 16 household and laboratory detergents and disinfectants on the embryogenesis of this helminth. Children carrying this infection were treated with levamisole. Eliminated female worms were collected and dissected to obtain eggs from the uteri. The eggs were placed in contact with various products at different dilutions and for various periods of time. After washing, eggs were incubated at 28ºC for 20 days, for viability tests and to determine the embryonation rate. Only one product completely inhibited the embryonation of eggs at every dilution and for every time period tested. Five products inhibited more than 50% of embryonation, while six inhibited less than 50%. Three products showed no

  19. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Garn, JV; Mwandawiro, CS; Nikolay, B.; Drews-Botsch, CD; Kihara, JH; Brooker, SJ; Simiyu, EW; Okoyo, C; Freeman, MC

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children atte...

  1. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    Weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakKecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Penyakit ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan gizi, pertumbuhan dan penurunan produktifitas kerja. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen sebagai akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar IFN-γ dan IL-10 antara orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dan tidak terinfeksi...

  2. Perbedaan Kadar Interferon Gamma dan Interleukin-10 pada Orang Dewasa Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides dengan Tidak Terinfeksi yang Diinduksi Vaksin Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    OpenAIRE

    weni Mulyani; Nuzulia Irawati; Netti Suharti

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Kecacingan merupakan penyakit yang masih banyak di negara berkembang. Infeksi cacing dapat menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen yang terjadi akibat modified Th2 response. Vaksin BCG merupakan antigen yang dikenal sebagai penginduksi respon sel Th1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar IFN-γdan IL-10 pada orang dewasa terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dengan tidak terinfeksi yang diinduksi vaksi BCG.Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Muara Fajar Kecamatan...

  3. Hubungan Infeksi Cacing Ascaris Lumbricoides Dengan Indeks Massa Tubuh Pada Siswa Perempuan SD Salsabila Kecamatan Medan Marelan Kota Medan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides) merupakan salah satu penyebab infeksi dengan prevalensi mencapai 60-90% di Indonesia. Cacing ini dapat mengambil sumber karbohidrat dan protein di usus sebelum diserap tubuh. Infeksi cacing banyak diderita anak sekolah dasar, yaitu sekitar 40-60%. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik dengan studi cross-sectional. Sampel diambil dengan metode consecutive sampling pada siswa perempuan kelas I sampai kelas VI SD Salsabil...

  4. Hubungan Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Terhadap Hasil Uji Tusuk Kulit (Skin Prick Test) dengan Alergen dari Cacing Ascaris pada Anak Sekolah Dasar Negeri 047/XI Koto Baru yang Memiliki Riwayat Atopi di Kecamatan Pesisir Bukit Kota Sungai Penuh Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, intestinal worms that are transmitted through the soil (Soil-transmitted helminthiasis) is a common infection that involves many people in the world. Estimates suggests Ascaris lumbricoides infects over one billion people. The number of most worm infections apply to sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, China and East Asia. Prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases in children has increased worldwide in recent years, but the reason behind the increase in prevalence is un...

  5. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  6. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28ºC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.

  7. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massara Cristiano Lara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28masculineC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.

  8. Observação in vitro da ação dos isolados fúngicos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides (Lineu, 1758) In vitro observation of the action of isolates of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamydosporium on the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio R. Braga; Jackson V. Araújo; Artur K. Campos; Rogério O. Carvalho; André R. Silva; Alexandre O. Tavela; Alessandro S. Maciel

    2007-01-01

    Observou-se a ação in vitro dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Verticillium chlamydosporium sobre ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides. Após sete, dez e quatorze dias de interação, o fungo promissor a ser utilizado no controle biológico de Asaris lumbricoides foi o Verticillium chlamydosporium (26-30%). Os outros fungos não foram satisfatórios.The in vitro action of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamyd...

  9. Antihelmínticos como factor de riesgo en la obstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides en niños Anthelmintics as a risk factor of the intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vásquez Tsuji

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective study the authors analyzed the clinical records of 199 children ages one month to 16 years hospitalized, with the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria of Mexico from 1984 to 1999. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of anthelmintics drugs as a risk factor of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides. Two groups were made for the study: Group A (n=66 of children who presented intestinal obstruction, Group B (n=133 children with no complications. A comparative analysis of clinical data of both groups was made by means of chi square with Yates correction and a stratified analysis by means of chi square. Possible confusing elements were overcrowding, age and the use of antiparasitic drugs. The calculus of risk factors for intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides was done by means of contingency tables of 2 x 2 and odds ratio with an IC of 95%. The significant risk factors were included in a model of logistics regression with an impact variable consting in the presence or absence of intestinal obstruction in order to establish a multivariate model of predictive risk a level of significance of p < 0.05. Twenty seven patients (40.90% in group A (n=66 were given anthelmintics medications prior to the intestinal obstruction: mebendazol, 14 (51-85%; two, albedazol (7.40%; eigth, a non-specifed anthelmintic (29-62%. In addition, an anthelmintic medication without a specified time of ingestion: two with mebendazol and one with piperazine (11.3%. In the case of mebendazol, the drug most frequently associated with intestinal obstruction, seven patients received it on the same day of the obstruction; five patients received it between one and seven days prior to the obstruction; two received it seven days prior to the complication. In the control group, only 7% had taken the anthelmintic one to seven days before the diagnosis of uncomplicated intestinal ascariasis diagnosis was made. With

  10. Prevalência e intensidade de infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides em amostra populacional urbana (São Paulo, SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira; Marcelo Urbano Ferreira; Marcos Roberto Nogueira

    1991-01-01

    Pesquisaram-se ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides em amostras fecais de 407 moradores (8,87% do total) de uma favela da cidade de São Paulo. Realizaram-se exames qualitativos (sedimentação por gravidade) e quantitativos (técnica de Kato & Miura adaptada a contagens). Discutem-se aspectos diferenciais da epidemiologia da ascaríase em áreas urbanas e rurais, com base em dados deste estudo e da literatura. Salienta-se a importância, em epidemiologia, da quantificação de exames de fezes.Prevalence and ...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite A. lumbricoides has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution.

  12. Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz; Alberto Bustamante Gallego; Blair Ortiz Giraldo; Elvia Góez Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

  1. Ascaris and ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  2. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12 th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  3. THE EFFECT OF VARIOS CHEMICALS AND TEMPERATURE IN CESTRUCTION OF THE EGGS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES: A PROGRESS REPORT

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    F.Arfaa

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of soil and night-soil with the eggs or larvae of soil-transmitted helminthes is very important factor in the transmission of these infections. The effect of various temperatures and different chemicals on the development of larva inside the eggs of Ascaris, which is the most resistant eggs or larvae of helminthes, or destruction of developed larvae inside the eggs has been evaluated by infecting white mice or by direct observations. In eggs with developed larva, temperature of 600C for one hour kills all larvae while in lower temperature, 40% or more larvae are still alive. In a temperature of 600C for 15 and 20 minutes no larvae is found in the liver of mice. Of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, sodium-nitrite and calcium superphophate, thiabendazole and mebendazole have higher effect in destruction of eggs. In eggs with undeveloped larva, it was shown that in a temperature of 600C for 15 minutes or more, development of larva does not take place, while in lower temperature development of larva in some eggs takes place. In a temperature of 700C for 10 minutes no development of larva has been observed. Evaluation of the effect of levamisole, thiabendazole, mebendazole, urea, iodine and potassium dichromate has shown that mebendazole with a concentration of 1/100,000 or more inhibit the development of larvae. Other chemicals have some effects on the development of larvae. Results of previous investigations have shown that although many chemicals are effective in the laboratory conditions, they are not very effective when used in the field. Therefore, more studies on this subject in the field are necessary, in order to find application of this control method.

  4. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim; Ary Pires de Souza; Edison Iglesias Vidal; José Geraldo Menezes; Patrícia Gomes Bittencourt Valentim

    2009-01-01

    Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  5. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli Use of visiting jejunostomy loopfor extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  6. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  7. Investigation on contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the different soil of three counties in Ganso Province%甘肃省三县土壤中人蛔虫卵污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 杨成明; 陈生邦; 杨俊克; 令晓兰; 华红玲

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解甘肃省农村居民生活环境中人蛔虫卵污染的现状. 方法 分别采集武山县、凉州区、岷县3个调查点10~20户居民4类环境中的土壤,应用饱和硝酸钠漂浮镜检法检查土样中人蛔虫卵,计算土壤样品的蛔虫卵阳性检出率,并对3地居民蛔虫感染率进行分析比较. 结果 土壤中人蛔虫卵总检出率为28%,菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房土壤的人蛔虫卵检出率依次为30%、36%、30%和16%. 结论 调查点环境蛔虫卵污染严重,应采取措施改善环境卫生,减少居民感染蛔虫.%Objective To investigate the different soil contamination of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs at liv-ing environments in rural areas. Methods Wushan County, Liangzhou District and Min County were select-ed as 3 pilots for investigation. Ten samples of soil including 4 different environments from Min County and 20 samples from the others were randomly collected. A. lumbricoides eggs in the different soil were floated with sat-urated nitrate and counted by microscopy. Positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was then calculated and A. lumbricoides infection rates of inhabitants at 3 pilots were compared and analysed. Results The over-all positive rate of A. lumbricoides eggs in the soils was 28%, and among them the rates at the vegetable gar-dens, lavatory surroundings, courtyards in the countryside and kitchens were 30% ,36% ,30% and 16%, re-spectively. Conclusion The pilots were badly contaminated by A. lumbricoides eggs. Measures should be taken to improve the living environments and decrease the infection rate of Ascaris in the residents.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  10. Preparation and Identification of a Human Single Chain Fv Antibody Against Ascaris lumbricoides%抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 高英; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 王乾宇; 黄高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct humanize phage antibody library against Ascaris lumbricoides and to screen specificity scFv to Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Total RNA was abstracted from peripheral blood lympho-cytes of 20 persons, and was used to amplify VH and VL gene by RT-PCR. The amplified VH and VL genes were spliced to form scFv gene which was cloned into pCANTAB-SE phagemid, and the constructed recombinant phage-mid was transformed to E. Coli TC1 to construct human natural single-chain antibody library from which positive clones were screened. Results A primary library of 1.5 × 106 and a second library of 1.2 × 106 were constructed. Conclusion This study was to provide us the basis for radionuclide imaging and therapy for ascariasis.%目的:构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,从中筛选建抗蛔虫人源特异性单链抗体.方法:分离10个患蛔虫病人的淋巴细胞,提取总RNA反转录为cDNA,PCR扩增人抗体重链(VH)和轻链(VL)可变区基因,采用SOE-PCR法将VH和VL片段随机拼接成scFv片段,并克隆入噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E中,构建噬菌体单链抗体库.结果:初级库库容量为1.8×106,在大肠杆菌TG1中重组后得到1.6×106的次级抗体库.结论:本研究成功构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,拟在为蛔虫病的预防、诊断、治疗奠定基础.

  11. The strength of the antibody response to the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides inversely correlates with levels of B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF)

    OpenAIRE

    Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is a cytokine regulating antibody production. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding BAFF were associated with the antibody response to Ascaris but not to mite allergens. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between BAFF and specific antibodies against Ascaris and mites in 448 controls and 448 asthmatics. Soluble BAFF was measured by ELISA and BAFF mRNA by qPCR. Surface expression of BAFF and its receptor (BAFF-R) was analyzed by flow cytom...

  12. 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞的细胞毒性作用%Cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on LLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小军; 彭卫东; 徐友妹; 袁铿

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞(LLC)的细胞毒作用. 方法 选用8种浓度的蛔虫提取物诱导小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞.分别在诱导后24、48、72 h采用四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)测A492值,计算细胞存活率和抑制率.结果 不同浓度的蛔虫提取物分别作用LLC细胞24、48和72 h,对LLC细胞的增殖均有明显的抑制作用,呈剂量依赖.且以48 h抑制作用最强,之后随着作用时间的延长,BEAL对肿瘤细胞的抑制作用降低. 结论 蛔虫提取物对小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞具有细胞毒性作用,能够诱导LLC细胞发生凋亡.%Objective To investigate the cytotoxic action of a whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides (BEAL) on a lewis lung carcinoma cell (LLC) line in vitro.Methods Eight concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides were chosen to induce cytotoxicity in LLC.Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction, the cell survival rate and inhibition rate were calculated according to the A492 results of a microculture tetrazolium test (MTT).Results Twenty-four, 48, and 72 h after induction with different concentrations of whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides, the inhibition rate behaved in a concentration-dependent manner.The inhibition rate peaked 48 h after induction but decreased afterwards.Conclusion A whole worm extract of A.lumbricoides had varying levels of cytotoxicity on LLC and induced cell apoptosis.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  14. Ascaris worm in the intercostal drainage bag: inadvertent intercostal tube insertion into jejunum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Harshad; Mistry Jitendra H; Mohite Prashant N; Patra BS

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inadvertent insertion of the intercostal tube into abdomen is not rare. It can present by different ways. In the present case an Ascaris worm crept into the intercostal drainage bag to reveal the false passage of the tube.

  15. Marcadores de riesgo para individuos con altas cargas de Ascaris lumbricoidesen una comunidad rural del Estado Cojedes, Venezuela Risk markers for the high worm burden condition for Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural community of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 337 individuals from a rural community of Venezuela (Mapurite, Estado Cojedes were studied. Stoll faecal examination was carried out and the total number of A. lumbricoides was recovered after the treatment of the individuals sampled with Pyrantel pamoate at a dose of 10 mg/Kg body weight in children and 15 mg/Kg in adults. A relationship between the high worm burden condition (individuals excreting more than10000 epg of A. lumbricoides and the age of the hosts was found. Resulting with the major values of relative risk index (Rr the 5-9 years old class (Rr= 3.2 t= 3.4. This relationship was not found between high worm burden condition (HWB and the sex of the hosts. The following individuals have the the highest possibilities to become HWB: with blood group A (Rr=3.05 t= 4.08, with haemoglobine type HbA HbS (Rr=1.86 t= 2.13, individuals with the combinations A HbA HbF (Rr= 3.46 t= 2.31 and A HbA HbS (Rr= 3.11 t= 2.78. It was estimated that the selective treatment of the total HWB detected (72 with an effective product, determined a reduction of 95.4% of the environmental contamination with de eggs and 72.3% of the worm burden

  16. Toxic effect of Ascaris lumbricoides body fluid on intestinal epithelial cells%人蛔虫体腔液对人肠上皮细胞的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 袁铿; 彭卫东; 周宪民

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫体腔液(Ascaris bodyfluid,ABF)对人肠上皮细胞株(HCT-8)的毒性作用及作用浓度和时间的关系.方法以体外细胞培养方法观察ABF对HCT-8细胞的毒性作用,比较不同浓度ABF作用下不同时间HCT-8细胞的死亡率和形态结构.结果HE染色显示,当ABF浓度为800μg/ml时,HCT-8细胞的毒性作用最大,除浓度为12.5μg/ml的实验组,各实验组(25~8μg/ml)的毒性均高于对照组.结论ABF对HCT-8细胞所产生毒性作用在一定程度上表现出浓度和作用时间的依赖关系,并诱导细胞凋亡的发生.

  17. Ascariasis as an Unexpected Cause of Acute Pancreatitis with Cholangitis: A Rare Case Report from Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pochamana Phisalprapa; Varayu Prachayakul

    2013-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human gastrointestinal tract. This parasiticinfestation might be asymptomatic and only few studies on extraintestinal ascariasis have been reported. Ascending cholangitis and acute pancreatitis as a result of the Ascaris lumbricoides migrating into the biliary system and pancreatic duct were very rare complications. Here, we presented a case report of biliary ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis with cholangitis...

  18. Ascaris worm in the intercostal drainage bag: inadvertent intercostal tube insertion into jejunum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Harshad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inadvertent insertion of the intercostal tube into abdomen is not rare. It can present by different ways. In the present case an Ascaris worm crept into the intercostal drainage bag to reveal the false passage of the tube.

  19. 负载人蛔虫和猪蛔虫抗原树突状细胞影响T细胞亚群活性研究%Comparative analysis of T cell subsets response induced by DC fused with Ag of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟; 黄川; 黄艳琴; 胡银英; 戴志芳; 袁芳; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    respectively by flow cytometry (FCM),ELISA and real time PCR.And the LCs were isolated from bone marrow cells cultured with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 in vitro.The FCM results showed that DCs isolated from bone marrow cells were with high expression of kinds of surface molecules (CD86,85.5 %; CD83 38.24%; CD80,94 %).CD80 and CD83 declined after heing cultured with ascaris extract for 2 days and that of the groups fused separately with Ag of A.lumbricoides and A.suum was respectively higher and lower than the control group.ELISA showed the level of expression of TNF-α in each period of each experimental group was lower than the control group (P<0.05); IL-10 in each group increased over time,and the groups with ascaris antigen were higher than groups with same concentration of A.suum antigen (P< 0.05) in each time except the time point of 24 hours.The qPCR results showed that the levels of the groups with A.lumbricoides Ag were declined over time but significantly higher than the control groups and the groups with A.suum Ag in different time points (P<0.05).The differences between the groups with A.suum Ag and the control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).In conclusion,DC fused with the Ag of A.lumbricoides promoted a stronger Th2 type response and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in vitro.

  20. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F.van

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides lar

  1. Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection%人群蛔虫感染调查粪检与驱虫结果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜唯声; 曾小军; 李华忠; 陈颖丹; 洪献林; 胡神助; 兰炜明; 陈奕杨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship hetween fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Methods A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Results Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumhricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41 % and 23,75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher ihe probability to got egg in the feees. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. Conclusion The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.%目的 探讨社区人群蛔虫感染调查中粪检与驱虫结果的关系.方法 选择江西省南昌县塘南乡张溪村为试点,采用Kato-Katz法粪检,双羟萘噻嘧啶化疗驱虫后收集虫体,对两者结果进行比较分析.结果 共检测1019名村民,人群实际蛔虫感染率为30.23%,其中粪检阳性率为20.41%,淘虫阳性率为23.75%.淘虫阳性感染者平均虫荷2.64条,虫荷数高的感染者所占比例较低.感染者虫荷数越多,检出虫卵的概率越高,当感染者寄生7条以上蛔虫,虫卵检出率为100%.粪检虫卵假阴性者中,感染雄虫者占61.00%,感染雌虫

  2. Ascariasis as an Unexpected Cause of Acute Pancreatitis with Cholangitis: A Rare Case Report from Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochamana Phisalprapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human gastrointestinal tract. This parasiticinfestation might be asymptomatic and only few studies on extraintestinal ascariasis have been reported. Ascending cholangitis and acute pancreatitis as a result of the Ascaris lumbricoides migrating into the biliary system and pancreatic duct were very rare complications. Here, we presented a case report of biliary ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis with cholangitis without imaging supported in a patient coming from urban area. Case report A 33-year-old woman lives in Bangkok, urban area of Thailand. She presented with severe epigastric pain for one day. Her diagnosis was Ascaris lumbricoides induced acute pancreatitis accompanied with ascending cholangitis. The investigation results showed no eosinophilia and no ascaris eggs in stool examination. The abdominal computed tomography showed slightly common bile duct dilatation. The parasite was found during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed. The cholangiography revealed a roundworm in common bile duct. The parasite was successfully removed by using an extraction balloon catheter and a snare. Microbiological examination of the parasite revealed a 22 cm long adult form of Ascaris lumbricoides. Conclusion Ascaris lumbricoides is the uncommon cause of biliary obstruction with complications. It is also a possible cause even in the patients who live in urban areas. Endoscopic removal is the treatment of choice in addition to antihelminthic medications.

  3. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    B B Barnabas; Mann, A.; T S Ogunrinola; P E Anyanwu

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serio...

  4. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis: a global perspective on the transmission dynamics of Ascaris in people and pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Betson, M.; Nejsum, P; Bendall, RP; Deb, RM; Stothard, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. Methods.  Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mito...

  5. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides larven op geschiktheid voor het opwekken van beschermende immuniteit in muizen. Tevens werd gekeken naar het gebruik van deze antigenen voor het verrichten van serodiagnostiek. Uit het onderzoek is naar v...

  6. Tube within Tube: Ascaris in Bowel and Biliary-Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Ankur; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sriram, Jaganathan

    2010-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common human helminthic diseases worldwide. On ultrasound, it is seen as linear non-shadowing echogenic structures with target appearance in cross section, and the live worm may show writhing movements in real time. On barium meal follow through, it appears as radiolucent tubular filling defects within the bowel lumen. Though not sensitive, direct real-time visualization of Ascaris on ultrasound is quick, non-invasive, and definitive.

  7. Worms and war: A case report of trauma and tropical disease intersecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumbuko Claude

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of heavy intestinal infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides complicating the surgical management of a gunshot injury to the abdomen. Co-existent traumatic and infectious pathologies in this case highlight the complex burden of illness among children living in areas of violent conflict, with clinical relevance to trauma surgeons in the tropics.

  8. A report of two cases of ascariasis pancreatitis managed conservatively

    OpenAIRE

    Darlong, Laleng M.; Rubul Das; Ranendra Hajong; Noor Topno

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common intestinal parasite in tropical and temperate regions. Although usually asymptomatic, infection can lead to biliary or intestinal obstruction and very rarely obstruction of the main pancreatic duct due to its smaller lumen. We report two cases of ascariasis in the main pancreatic duct, which is not a common site, presenting as acute pancreatitis and recovering uneventfully with conservative management.

  9. Application of zero-inflated negative binomial model to study the pattern of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection%零膨胀的负二项模型在蛔虫与钩虫再感染模式研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 梁松; 陈颖丹; 李华忠; 汤林华

    2014-01-01

    Objective Use zero-inflated negative binomial model for modeling the pattern of Ascoris lumbricoides and hookworm re-infection.Methods Field survey was carried out in three villages:Qiuchang in Yibin City of Sichuan Province,Tangnan in Jinxian County of Jiangxi Province,and Sanhe in Yueyang County of Hunan Province.The survey consisted of baseline stool examination and treatment,re-examination after one month and one year,and questionnaire survey.Zero-inflated negative binomial model was applied to fit the egg count data collected after one year,meanwhile,the risk factors for the re-infection occurrence and intensity were evaluated.Results Totally 374 subjects were recruited in the survey after one year.The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm at baseline 38.08%(139/365) and 39.17%(141/360).The re-infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm one year after treatment were 15.89% (58/365) and 8.89% (32/360),respectively.A.lumbricoides model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence(OR=1.94,95%CI:1.33~2.81),high level of household electrical appliances and not drinking un-boiled water were protective factors.The risk of re-infection in age group 15~44 years and 45~64 years was lower than that in group 5~14 years significantly.The higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of high re-infection intensity after treatment (OR=1.56,95%CI:1.10~2.23).Compared to age group 5~14 years,15~44 years and 65~70 years had low risk of getting high re-infection intensity.Not drinking unboiled water was also a protective factor for acquiring high intensity.Hookworm model showed:the higher infection intensity before treatment,the higher risk of re-infection occurrence (OR =3.97,95%CI:2.07~7.60),living in brick house opposed to adobe house was protective factor for re-infection.Compared to age group 5~14 years,the other 3 age groups had higher risk of getting

  10. 改水改厕和环境整治控制土壤蛔虫虫卵及鞭虫虫卵污染的纵向观察%Longitudinal observation of contamination with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and control efforts through improved drinking water, latrine improvements and environmental improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴坤教; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 洪献林; 葛军; 谢曙英; 兰炜明; 陈红根

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the level of contamination with eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes and the effects of efforts to control infection in the population through improved drinking water, latrine improvements, and environmental improvements. Methods In two villages of Jinxian County, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura eggs in soil were tested using saturated magnesium sulfate flotation, and the population was tested for infection with soil-transmitted nematodes using the Kato-Katz method. Results After drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were implemented . The rate at which eggs of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura were detected in soil tended to decrease in both villages. One year after drinking water was improved and latrine improvements were made, the rate at which Ascaris eggs were detected in yards, living rooms, latrines, and vegetable farms and the overall rate at which these eggs were detected decreased; respective rates decreased 76. 48% (P 0.05), and 59. 03%(P<0.01). Rates remained relatively low afterwards. The rate at which Trichuris eggs were detected in those locations and the overall rate of detection decreased 68. 74%, 62.50% (P<0.01), 64.71%, 64.71%, and 65. 15%. The rate of dead Ascaris eggs and Trichuris eggs increased from 2. 57% and 0. 61% in 2005 to 69. 81% and 78. 13% in 2006, respectively, and the rate if dead eggs remained at about 70% two years later. Conclusion Control measures to improve drinking water and implement latrine improvements and environmental improvements significantly affected contamination of A. Lumbricoides and T. Trichiura eggs in soil and also proved to be an effective strategy for control of geohelminth infection in the human population.%目的 了解农村地区实施改水改厕和环境整治等综合措施后土壤中土源性线虫虫卵污染情况、变化规律及对人群土源性线虫感染的控制效果.方法 在江西省进贤县2个村,用饱和硫酸镁离心浮聚法检查

  11. The IgE response to Ascaris molecular components is associated with clinical indicators of asthma severity

    OpenAIRE

    Buendía, Emiro; Zakzuk, Josefina; Mercado, Dilia; Alvarez, Alvaro; Caraballo, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and Ascaris lumbricoides infection (ascariasis) is frequent in tropical regions. However, the effect of ascariasis on asthma severity has not been sufficiently explored. We sought to evaluate the influence of the IgE immune response to Ascaris extract and purified house dust mites (HDM) and Ascaris allergens on indicators of asthma severity in patients living in the tropics. Methods Asthmatic patients from Cartagena, Colombia were recrui...

  12. One child case infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis%儿童同时感染蛔虫及肝吸虫1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 姜晓杰; 王学武

    2007-01-01

    患者,男性,11岁,莱州市某小学五年级学生。因长期消瘦,上腹部阵发性疼痛、恶心、夜磨牙而到当地医院就诊,进行了肝功、乙肝五项、粪便寄生虫感染等检查,结果均为“正常”。2006年9月上述症状加重,特别是腹痛频繁,疼痛后出现一身虚汗,再次就诊,被诊断为儿童生长性腹痛症。

  13. An unusual case of ascariasis of the appendix

    OpenAIRE

    Paganelli Arnaldo; Krstić Slobodan; Ivanov Dejan; Anđelkov Katarina; Zaccheddu Renato; Sforza Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Amongst various causes responsible for the obstruction of digestive tract, intestinal ascariasis is certainly one of the least frequent. Case Outline. We report an extremely rare case of a 5-year-old male patient operated on for appendicitis due to adult Ascaris Lumbricoides worms intraoperatively detected in the appendiceal lumen. Conclusion. On examination patient’s clinical features indicated acute appendicitis. Therefore, the treatment-of-choice could only be surgical....

  14. A report of two cases of ascariasis pancreatitis managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleng M Darlong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common intestinal parasite in tropical and temperate regions. Although usually asymptomatic, infection can lead to biliary or intestinal obstruction and very rarely obstruction of the main pancreatic duct due to its smaller lumen. We report two cases of ascariasis in the main pancreatic duct, which is not a common site, presenting as acute pancreatitis and recovering uneventfully with conservative management.

  15. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B B Barnabas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serious challenges to global health care delivery. Moreoever, in developing countries, the cost of orthodox medication is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. This is coupled with the adulterated drugs and emergences of drug resistant strains have led to an intensive search for natural products of higher plants, which are biologically active against parasitic infections. Many plants are used locally in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections. Nigeria offers a rich floral diversity that are used traditionally to treat worm infections. Nigerian medicinal plants (Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides used commonly used in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria for the treatment of worm infections were screened for anthelminthic activity. The extracts exhibited varying degree of anthelminthic activities against Ascaris lumbricoides. The extract of C. laxa display potent anthelminthic property. The extract of C. laxa with pronounced activity against A. lumbricoides may contain metabolites that have pharmacologically active principles with promising anthelminthic properties. This indicates the medical potential of C. laxa in the treatment of helminthiasis.

  16. Eliminated chromatin of Ascaris contains a gene that encodes a putative ribosomal protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, A; Aboutanos, M; Tobler, H; Müller, F.

    1991-01-01

    Chromatin diminution in the nematodes Parascaris equorum and Ascaris lumbricoides leads to the formation of somatic cells that contain less DNA than the germ-line cells. We present molecular evidence for the coding potential of germ-line-specific DNA. We report on a cDNA clone that codes for a putative ribosomal protein (ALEP-1, for A. lumbricoides eliminated protein 1). That the corresponding gene is located in the eliminated portion of the genome indicates a difference in germ-line and soma...

  17. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Cornelis H Hokke; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this st...

  18. Genes on chromosomes 1 and 13 have significant effects on Ascaris infection

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Vandeberg, John L; Subedi, Janardan; Aivaliotis, Mary Jo; Rai, Dev Raj; Upadhayay, Ram Prasad; Jha, Bharat; Blangero, John

    2002-01-01

    Nematode parasites show a characteristic aggregated distribution among hosts. This observation has important implications for pathogenesis, immunology, and control of these infections, but the relative roles of environment and genetics in determining these patterns have remained uncertain. This paper presents the results of the first genome scan for susceptibility to infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). Data on 375 genetic markers were generated for each of 44...

  19. Serologic evidence that Ascaris and Toxoplasma infections impact inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori in Colombians

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Courtney; Whary, Mark T.; Ihrig, Melanie; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Fox, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori-infected children from coastal Tumaco, Colombia, have more parasitism, and adults have lower gastric cancer risk compared with high-altitude Pasto/Tuquerres residents. Because helminth and Toxoplasma gondii infections alter helicobacter gastritis in rodent models, we determined whether seropositivity to Ascaris lumbricoides or T. gondii was associated with Th2-IgG1 or Th1-IgG2 responses to H. pylori. Methods: Sera (240) from the two populations were evaluate...

  20. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina;

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis....

  1. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.;

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...... pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human...

  2. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  3. Medical image of the week: ascaris lumbridoies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 25 year-old man was admitted to the ICU with acute renal failure and acute respiratory failure from fluid overload after attempting to cross the border. The patient was successfully extubated after five days of mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. Following extubation, the patient had a bowel movement and passed a 23cm adult Ascaris lumbricoides. He was treated with a single dose of albendazole 400 mg. Ascariasis is a very common helminthic infection, particularly in pediatric populations, and affects mostly the gastrointestinal tract. When infective eggs are swallowed by the host, larvae hatch in the GI tract. The larvae invade the GI mucosa and then are brought into the lungs via portal circulation. The larvae can then move up the tracheobronchial tree and then are swallowed into the GI tract where the mature worms form (1. While our patient had a simple gastrointestinal infection, several pulmonary complications of ascariasis ...

  4. COMPARISON OF EXCRETORY SECRETORY ANTIGENS OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOLDES AND TOXOCARA CATI 2ND. STAGE LARVAE WITH BIOCHEMICAL METHODES

    OpenAIRE

    F. Maleky; Massoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Purification of parasitic antigens is a major activity in immunoparasitology because of its application in immunodiagnosis, vaccination analysis of immunopathology, preparation of monocolomal antibody and finding out the cross reactive antigens versus specific antigens of a parasite. In this survey F2 ultrafiltration excretory secretory antigens of Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara cati were separated by gel chromatography on sephacryl S-200 into several antigenic and non antigenic fractions....

  5. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. Gastro-intestinal ascariasis--an unusual autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Wasti, Harihar; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms' propensity to produce large number of eggs that are resistant to extremes of environmental conditions have made them one of the highly prevalent and geographically well distributed nematodes among poor socio-economic regions throughout the world. We present an unusual case of fatal gastro-intestinal ascariasis where general neglect, and firm and prolonged reliance on traditional healing methods led to aggregation of roundworms to such an extent that otherwise seems improbable in modern times and, hence, is worth reporting. PMID:25748290

  7. Report of treating Ascaris lumbricoides linn in the bile passages by zhong xi medicine in 52 cases%中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫52例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何本道; 冯铁准

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫的临床疗效.方法:运用中药利胆安蛔汤配合西药治疗52例胆道蛔虫患者,并将其结果进行分析.结果:52例患者,除2例有继发感染,加抗菌素治疗五天后治愈,其余病例全部治愈.结论:中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫付作用少,效果好.

  8. Analysis on Cases of Ascaris Lumbricoides From Northwest Highland Area of Sichuan in a Parasitic Clinic%某寄生虫门诊四川省西北高原地区蛔虫病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙黎; 李彦; 陈闯

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨四川省西北(川西北)高原地区蛔虫发病的特点、原因分析、诊断、治疗及预防措施.方法 回顾性分析四川省疾病预防控制中心(疾控中心)寄生虫专科门诊从2003-2011年明确诊断为蛔虫病的川西北高原地区蛔虫病患者共102例.结果 川西北高原地区感染蛔虫病患者藏族农牧民比例高于其他民族人群,且在本组病例与平原城市相比,蛔虫病的临床表现复杂多样,重症比例达13.7%,并发症的比例高.结论 为了降低川西北高原地区尤其是农牧民人群蛔虫病感染率,应加强健康教育,普及卫生知识.

  9. Ascariasis Presenting as Acute Abdomen—A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Hirdaya H.; Ji, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Prevalence of ascariasis is related to poverty, poor hygiene and poor fecal sanitation. This helminth usually lives harmlessly in small intestine but can also cause intestinal obstruction or perforation peritonitis which is common in childhood. Ascaris can also migrate through ampulla of vater to produce cholangitis, pancreatitis,cholecystitis and rarely hepatic abscess. Ascaris induced hepatic abs...

  10. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report; Pneumonia por aspiracao de oleo mineral: relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Machado, Dianne Mello; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. de Radiologia; Morandi, Jose Laerte J.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Dept. Materno-Infantil; Teixeira, Graca Helena M.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-07-01

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY) TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    OpenAIRE

    Pinardi Hadidjaja; Siti Alisah N. Abidin; Sulistyoweni W

    2012-01-01

    An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes). The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well...

  12. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatographic diagnosis and extraction of massive biliary ascariasis presented with acute pancreatitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saowaros, V

    1999-05-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female Thai patient who presented with periodic severe abdominal pains which proved to be acute pancreatitis. Conventional investigations and treatments failed to prove and improve her condition. ERCP was done on the twelfth day after admission. 3 caudal ends of living round worms were noted protruding from the papillary orifice during endoscopy. Cholangiography revealed impacted multiple round worms in the common bile duct and both intrahepatic ducts. Endoscopic extraction of the worms was done by using dormia basket and removed with endoscope. Repeated procedure was done 21 times in two and a half hours, obtaining 26 live, mature Ascaris lumbricoides varying from 13 to 24 cm in length. Repeated cholangiogram confirmed complete removal of the worms. The patient was relieved from abdominal pain immediately after the procedure, and given oral albendazole 400 mg daily for 7 days. She was discharged asymptomatic 8 days after Ascaris removal. PMID:10443103

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  14. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric

  15. Churg-Strauss vasculitis and ascaris infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, A.; Scott, D G; Neuberger, J; Gaston, J. S.; Bacon, P A

    1990-01-01

    A patient with Churg-Strauss vasculitis presenting with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed obstructive jaundice, is described. On investigation the jaundice proved to be due to ascaris infestation. As the immune abnormalities associated with ascaris infection are also typical of those seen in the Churg-Strauss syndrome it is speculated that the vasculitis occurred because of a failure to regulate the anti-ascaris immune response.

  16. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. METHODOLOGY: 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single

  17. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  18. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The percentage of disapproved livers of growing and finishing pigs has been increased significantly during the last years. In organic pig farms, this percentage is often higher than in conventional pig farms. In most cases, disapproved livers are the result of an infection with Ascaris suum. Usually, an infection of Ascaris suum is treated or controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs belonging to the benzimidazoles, levamisole and macrocyclic lactones. Organic farmers, howev...

  19. [Three recent cases of ascariasis in northern Kyushu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, K; Tsukamoto, M; Unoki, H; Sujita, K; Mori, N; Miki, T; Yokoyama, M

    1988-03-01

    Ascariasis is considered to be one of the rare infectious diseases in Japan, but recently it has been slightly increasing. This paper reports three ascariasis cases who seemed to be infected recently in the Kitakyushu area, Japan. Case 1: A 59-year-old woman in Kitakyushu City passed a round worm after continuous abdominal pain. The patient was discharged from the hospital because of no further abnormal intestinal symptoms and findings. Case 2: An 85-year-old woman in Nakama City, who suffered from cerebral infarction, vomited a round worm before hospitalization. Many ascarid eggs were detected after admission, and after treatment with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) two round worms were passed and egg detection became negative. Case 3: A 77-year-old man in Saikawa Town vomited 3 round worms after gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer. Many unfertilized eggs were also detected from the stool together with hook worm eggs, but no eggs were found after administration of pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination was made by a scanning electron microscope on the denticles on the dentigerous lip ridges of the worms to differentiate from possible infection with a pig parasite, Ascaris suum. The three cases were diagnosed as ascariasis due to human Ascaris lumbricoides based on the following evidences that the expelled worms had 1) less pointed tips of the denticles and shallower or wider interdenticle notches, and 2) far more denticles of smaller size along the dentigerous ridges, compared with Ascaris suum. The necessity of differentiating pig- from human-ascarids, when considering human infection with Ascaris suum, is discussed. PMID:3368668

  20. 蛔虫重度流行区人群化疗策略的研究%Research on chemotherapy strategy for population in heavy epidemic areas with ascaris iumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢峰; 陈红根; 曾小军; 林丹丹; 姜唯声; Jong-YilChai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different chemotherapy strategies for Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Four chemotherapy strategies with Albendazole,which were mass chemotherapy once a year,mass chemotherapy once in two years,se-lective chemotherapy once a year and selective chemotherapy twice a year,were carried out in four control villages,respectively. The effects of strategies on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides were observed continuously for 4 years ,and compared with the dada of a control village. Results The average positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 44.37%(4850/10931) in 5 pilot villages in 2001. The infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased maximally,from 45.2%in 2001 to 6.3%in 2005 with the reduction of 86.1% in villages where the strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year was implemented. Conclusion The strategy of mass chemotherapy once a year has the best effect on infection control of Ascaris lumbricoides.%目的:评价不同化疗措施控制蛔虫的效果。方法在4个控制村用阿苯哒唑分别进行1年1次全民化疗、2年1次全民化疗、1年1次选择性化疗和1年2次选择性化疗措施后,连续4年观察其对控制居民蛔虫的效果,并和对照村进行比较。结果2001年5个试点村蛔虫平均阳性率为44.37%(4850/10931),采取每1次/年全民化疗人群蛔虫感染率下降最大,由2001年的45.2%下降到2004年的6.3%,降幅为86.1%。结论1次/年全民化疗策略对于控制蛔虫感染的效果佳。

  1. Ascariasis of the gall bladder. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, W; Salles, C G

    1976-01-01

    A radiological diagnosis of ascariasis of the gallbladder was made in two middle-aged women with high abdominal pain having biliary colic characteristics. In one case round worm was demonstrated by means of the intravenous cholangiography, but in the other the procedure was negative only the common bile duct being contrasted. Oral cholangiography made some days later permitted the visualization of the parasite in the gallbladder. The patients were treated by cholecistectomy and choledocostomy and the diagnosis was confirmed. The post-operative course was uneventful. There was Ascaris lumbricoides ova in the feces and the histological examination of the removed gallbladder showed large eosinophilic infiltration in both cases. The patients received levamisole some days after surgery. PMID:829874

  2. 人蛔虫和猪蛔虫差异的比较研究%Comparative Studies on the Difference Between Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁培兰; 彭卫东

    2006-01-01

    人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的分类地位一直存在争议.本文就人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的形态学、宿主感染特异性、免疫学、生化学和核型进行比较研究,对近年来分子遗传学方面的有关进展进行了综述.

  3. Destruction of Ascaris ova by accelerated electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, S.; Chevallier, A.; Schwartzbrod, J.

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of radiation treatment to destroy Ascaris ova viability and found that no ova were viable after exposure to 0.75 kGy (D 90 at 0.39 kGy). Although the outer coat of the Ascaris ovum had a protective effect at low doses (0.20 kGy) no difference in ova viability was observed at 0.30 kGy. As the doses commonly used for sanitary treatment of wastewater are much higher, Ascaris ova should be effectively eliminated from sludge by the 10 kGy dose required by EPA regulations ( U.S. EPA, 1993 Federal Register 58, 9248-9415).

  4. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Ifat Irshad; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12 th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen co...

  5. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of roundworms in gallbladder and common bile duct. Report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, N A; Leon, C J; Ortiz, O

    1993-01-01

    Four patients who complained of symptoms and signs compatible with biliary tract disease and in whom the diagnosis of gallbladder (three cases) and common bile duct ascariasis (one case) was made sonographically are reported. In two patients with gallbladder ascariasis, cholecystectomy corroborated the presence of the round-worms, and was curative. The third patient was a pregnant woman (32nd gestational week) who took piperazine citrate, and a second sonogram performed 29 days later was completely normal. The fourth patient with common bile duct ascariasis underwent choledochotomy with extraction of one ascaris lumbricoides from the common duct, and a T tube was left in place for 15 days. All patients received antiparasitics and had a favorable outcome. Ultrasonography is an important noninvasive diagnostic procedure in the work-up of these patients, who usually describe a clinical picture suggesting gallstone disease: this is especially true in the presence of pregnancy. PMID:8351609

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides in neonate: evidence of congenital transmission of intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides em neonato: evidências da transmissão congênita de nematóides intestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria da Costa-Macedo

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological study of a forty-days-old infant with a diarrheic condition and insufficient development led to the coprological diagnosis of ascariasis and possible congenital infection. Specific treatment with levamizole, resulted in clinical and parasitological cure, in addition to gain of weight up to normal levels. Maternal parasitism had been diagnosed two months before labor and proved beyond doubt during the ensuing epidemiological inquiry.O estudo clínico e epidemiológico do caso de uma criança, com quarenta dias de idade, que apresentava quadro diarréico e desenvolvimento insuficiente desde o nascimento, conduziu ao diagnóstico coprológico de ascaríase e à hipótese de tratar-se de uma infecção congênita. O tratamento específico, com levamizol, produziu cura clínica e parasitológica, e um ganho de peso pelo qual a criança logo alcançou os níveis normais para a idade. O parasitismo materno havia sido diagnosticado dois meses antes do parto e foi confirmado, plenamente, por ocasião do inquérito epidemiológico que realizamos. As razões para se admitir a hipótese de transmissão congênita são apresentadas no trabalho.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides L. in een dorpspraktijk; een onderzoek naar graad en wijze der besmetting en naar mogelijkheden ter bestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jan Jacob

    1963-01-01

    In het dorp Tange-Alteveer, liggend op de grens van de Groninger Veenkolonien en Westwerwolde, in het Noord-Oosten van Nederland, blijkt besmetting met ascariden veel voor te komen, vooral onder de jongere bevolkingsgroepen. Het uitblijven van resultaat op langere termijn met de gebruikelijke behand

  8. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  9. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs. PMID:8560608

  10. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar. PMID:26017334

  11. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness....... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...

  12. Mammalian metallopeptidase inhibition at the defense barrier of Ascaris parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglas, Laura; Aviles, Francesc X.; Huber, Robert; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Arolas, Joan L.

    2009-01-01

    Roundworms of the genus Ascaris are common parasites of the human gastrointestinal tract. A battery of selective inhibitors protects them from host enzymes and the immune system. Here, a metallocarboxypeptidase (MCP) inhibitor, ACI, was identified in protein extracts from Ascaris by intensity-fading MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The 67-residue amino acid sequence of ACI showed no significant homology with any known protein. Heterologous overexpression and purification of ACI rendered a functio...

  13. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and [3H]-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. [3H]-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up [3H]-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed

  14. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  15. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  16. Untersuchung zur Übertragung von Ascaris suum durch Ratten (Rattus norvegicus).

    OpenAIRE

    Gaberle, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Investigation on the transmission of Ascaris suum by rats (Rattus norvegicus). In this study the possibility of rats being paratenic hosts of Ascaris suum were examined. Therefore an infection of swine with Ascaris suum by infected rats should be provoked. A group of 48 rats were experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris suum. The rats were killed in different time intervals. They were examined for migrating larvae by digesting the organs and counting the developed larvae and by pr...

  17. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Seok Oh; Min Seo; Nam Jin Lim; Sang Jun Lee; Eun-Joo Lee; Soong Deok Lee; Dong Hoon Shin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA) report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  18. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this study...... was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...... of eggs for two different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt]) and de-ionized water used as control. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands...

  19. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  20. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Biswaranjan Nayak; Rashmi Rani Dash; Biranchi Narayan Mallik

    2014-01-01

    Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical ma...

  1. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical management.

  2. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  3. Transmission dynamics of Ascaris suum in organic pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum depends upon the type of swine production system. Organic farm with outdoor facilities provide favorable conditions for the development and survival of this soil transmitted helminth. The present study was carried out from late October 2013 to late February 2014 to study the infection dynamics of A. suum in pigs born and raised on two Danish organic.

  4. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  5. Hubungan Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides dengan Status Gizi pada Siswa-Siswi SD Negeri No.101837 Suka Makmur, Kecamatan Sibolangit, Kabupaten Deli Serdang Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Hazwan B Zainal Ariffin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infection in Indonesia is still high with the percentage of 60% - 90% among the primary school children. Worm infection incidences show that there was a relation between the infection and nutritional status in children. Methode: This descriptive analytical study used cross – sectional design with a total sample of 64 children of SD Negeri 101837 Suka Makmur, Kecamatan Sibolangit Kabupaten Deli Serdang that passes all the criteria ...

  6. 青海省人群蛔虫感染状况的调查分析%Investigation on status of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海青; 韩秀敏

    2000-01-01

    @@蛔虫病是一种严重危害人群健康的寄生虫病。为摸清青海省该病的分布状况,于1988~1991 年按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,对青海省4个片区,20个县(市)32个点进行了调查。

  7. Investigation on the ascaris lumbricoides infection of the high school students%高校学生蛔虫感染情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新力; 单颖; 张蕾

    2001-01-01

    蛔虫感染是人体寄生虫感染中较高的一种.本研究对355名在校大学生进行了调查,目的在于了解高校学生这个特定人群的蛔虫感染情况及城市化对其的影响.结果表明:高校学生蛔虫的感染率较低,与城市化有关.因为生活环境和个人卫生知识的提高,不良卫生习惯的纠正,以及定期保健性的化学驱虫治疗,对降低蛔虫感染有着重要作用.

  8. 148例小儿胆道蛔虫症临床分析%A Clinical Analysis of 148 Children With Biliary Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建宁; 祝俊峰

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨小儿胆道蛔虫并感染的防治.方法回顾性分析1984年1月~2003年12月收治的148例小儿胆道蛔虫症病例.结果148例患儿中146例采用非手术治疗,2例手术治疗,所有患儿均获治愈,108例获随访3个月~10年,有10例复发,8例合并胆石症.结论在农村胆道蛔虫仍属常见,大剂量注射维生素C是一种较简便有效的治疗方法并可减少并发症.

  9. 江西省蛔虫感染条件Logistic回归分析%Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis on Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢曙英; 陈红根; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 杭春琴

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨江西省蛔虫感染的危险因素.方法 采用1:1匹配的病例对照研究,选择改良加藤厚涂片法检查蛔虫卵阳性者为病例组,同一调查县粪检虫卵阴性者为对照组,按性别、年龄(±5)配对,共收集255对病例和对照.Epi Info 6.0建立数据库,SAS8.2软件进行单因素和多因素条件Logistic回归分析.结果 单因素及多因素条件Logistic回归分析表明,饭前、便后洗手是蛔虫病的保护因素,OR值分别为0.352和0.474;瓜果不洗即食、喝生水是蛔虫病的危险因素,OR值为1.753和1.722;使用卫生厕所是可能的保护因素,单因素Logistic回归OR值为0.375.结论 饭前、便后洗手,瓜果不洗即食和喝生水是江西省蛔虫感染的主要影响因素.

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of ALAg antigen gene from Ascaris lumbricoides%蛔虫抗原基因ALAg克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 韩洁; 王乾宇; 刘安胜; 安传伟; 查高武; 张鹏; 田维毅; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 曹峰; 黄高; 蔡琨

    2011-01-01

    为了确定蛔虫基因工程疫苗的候选基因,试验以蛔虫幼虫的RNA为模板,利用RT - PCR方法扩增出ALAg基因,扩增产物克隆到pMD18 -T载体,筛选阳性克隆测序并进行Blast分析.结果表明:该基因与GenBank公布的猪蛔虫As37抗原基因(AB078971)的同源性为95%,与西式贝蛔虫Ag3抗原基因(EU927450)的同源性为92%.说明ALAg基因是线虫特有的抗原基因.

  11. 人蛔虫幼虫分离制备的动态观察%Dynamic observation of Ascaris lumbricoides larval isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚; 罗佛全; 严涛; 刘玉琳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨L2期和L3/4人蛔虫幼虫分离制备的方法.方法运用肠液消化法、25%NaClO(次氯酸钠)处理法分离感染期(第二期:L2)人蛔虫幼虫,对其结果进行了动态观察;并运用网筛悬挂法分离第三/四期(L3/4)人蛔虫幼虫,对分离结果进行了观察.结果 4h为肠液消化法分离L2期人蛔虫幼虫的最佳分离时间,分离率为90.97±0.08%.3h是NaClO处理法的最佳分离时间,分离率为49.22±0.12%,肠液消化法的分离效率明显高于后者(P<0.01).5h是网筛悬挂法分离L3/4期蛔虫幼虫的合适时间.结论肠液消化法是分离L2期人蛔虫幼虫的一种较为理想的方法;网筛悬挂法是分离L3/4期人蛔虫幼虫的一种有效方法.

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum represent the same species based on sequence analysis of mitochondrial nad5 gene%人蛔虫和猪蛔虫线粒体nad5基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌义; 林瑞庆; 朱艳平; 刘国华

    2014-01-01

    以采自中国不同地方的人蛔虫与猪蛔虫为研究对象,PCR扩增其线粒体烟酰胺脱氢酶亚基V基因(nad5)的部分序列(pnad5)并进行序列测定,应用ClustalX 1.81程序对序列进行比对.结果显示:所获得的pnad5序列长度一致,均为556 bp;人蛔虫和猪蛔虫的pnad5序列差异仅为0.0%~2.6%,本研究结果支持人蛔虫与猪蛔虫是同一个种的结论.

  13. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    OpenAIRE

    Koushik Das; Punam Chowdhury; Sandipan Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along...

  14. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  15. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Khan MW; Ghauri SK

    2016-01-01

    Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who prese...

  16. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emer...

  17. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  18. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the αPDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the αPDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated αPDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles 32P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated αPDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated αPDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the 32P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined

  19. Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Ascaris Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from Joseon Tomb

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for co...

  20. Reduction of Ascaris transmission to pigs by cleaning the dunging area

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, H. M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Blanken, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris suum is the most prevalent helminth on organic pig farms (Carstensen et al., 2002) and is transmitted mainly via the faeces. The use of anthelmintics does not fit in the organic principles and preventive measures are promoted. This project focused on assessing the efficacy of a cleaning protocol for the dunging area of pens on Ascaris s. transmission to pigs. In 4 batches with 8 identical pens for 15 pigs each (n=480 pigs) 6 pigs per pen were orally infected with Ascaris s. The other ...

  1. Radioimmunoassay for Ascaris specific protein and its clinical approach to gastro-intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for Ascaris specific protein (ASP) and measured the serum levels in control subjects average; 5.94 +- 5.94 ng/ml) and in patients with Ascaris and a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In all Ascaris carriers, very high concentration of ASP (average; 151.4 ng/ml) was observed. 12 out of 38 patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly high serum levels of ASP. The high titer of ASP and the presence of antibody to ASP, previously described, may suggest the close relationship between ASP and ulcerative colitis. RIA for ASP, also provides simple method for screening the patients with Ascaris and hence may open the new field in parasitology. (author)

  2. Detection and quantification of viable Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns. PMID:23072414

  3. Survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs in a thermophilic biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plym-Forshell, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Skara (Denmark)

    1995-11-01

    In a continuous biogas plant, receiving manure from 200 dairy cows and 400 calves and young stock, survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs was studied. The bacteria and parasite eggs were kept in filter sacs in the manure that ha a temperature of 55 deg. C. No viable salmonella or Ascaris suum eggs could be found after 24 h in the digester. Survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs was also studied in the manure pit where the manure was stored after digestion. The temperature in the manure pit varied between 22-27 deg. C. Salmonella survived 35 but not 42 days. On day 56, when the experiments had to be stooped, 60% of the Ascaris eggs were viable. (au) 30 refs.

  4. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  5. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mayu Suzuki; Mutsuko Hara; Saori Ichikawa; Seiji Kamijo; Takuya Nakazawa; Hideki Hatanaka; Kazuo Akiyama; Hideoki Ogawa; Ko Okumura; Toshiro Takai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy or Ascariasis produce serum IgE specific to the antigens of HDM or nematode Ascaris, respectively. Although human IgE cross-reactivity has been reported between HDM and Ascaris antigens, it remains unclear whether it contributes to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. We herein investigated the induction of cross-reactive antibodies and T cells in mice and effects of airway exposure to HDM antigens after preimmunization with Ascaris an...

  6. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  7. Gamma radiation effects in Ascaris sp. eggs in the treated and untreated sewage; Efeitos da irradiacao gama em ovos de Ascaris sp. presentes em esgoto bruto e tratado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Gloria S.M.; Chernicharo, Carlos A.L.; Zerbini, Adriana M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: gsuzanbio@yahoo.com.br; Grossi, Pablo A.; Corres, Ricardo F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the efficiency of domestic sewage disinfection. The sewage was treated in UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket), and the influent and affluent disinfection was promoted by gamma irradiation. To test the efficiency of disinfection, Ascaris eggs viability was analyzed undo microscopic observation in samples before and after the irradiation. The Ascaris sp. eggs were recovered from human's faeces and inoculated into sewage samples. The viability of Ascaris sp. eggs was analyzed after exposure to 0.5 KGy, 1.0 KGy, 2.5 KGy, 5.0 KGy e 10 KGy. In addition, suspended solids were analyzed in order to verify the effect of solids content to the irradiation efficiency. Preliminary results indicated that for doses lower than 1.5 KGy, the efficiency of inactivation in the affluent was higher than the influent. It was also observed that doses above of 2.5 KGy had inactivated practically 100% of eggs of Ascaris sp. in the treated and untreated sewage samples. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can be used as an efficient technique to disinfect domestic sewage. (author)

  8. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis cases in the rural areas of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and intensity of geohelminth infections and schistosomiasis remain high in the rural areas of Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (ZMP, Brazil, where these parasites still represent a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to spatially assess the occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP. METHODS: The ZMP has a population of 1,132,544 inhabitants, formed by 43 municipalities. An ecological study was conducted, using secondary data relating to positive human cases and parasite loads of schistosomiasis and positive human cases of geohelminthiasis that were worked up in Excel 2007. We used the coordinates of the municipal headquarters to represent the cities which served as the unit of analysis of this study. The Kernel estimator was used to spatially analyze the data and identify distribution patterns and case densities, with analysis done in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Spatial analysis from the Kernel intensity estimator made it possible to construct density maps showing that the northern ZMP was the region with the greatest number of children infected with parasites and the populations most intensely infected by Schistosoma mansoni. In relation to geohelminths, there was higher spatial distribution of cases of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the southern ZMP, and greater occurrence of hookworms in the northern/central ZMP. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several surveys and studies showing occurrences of schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis in the ZMP, no preventive measures that are known to have been effective in decreasing these health hazards have yet been implemented in the endemic area.

  9. Electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2003-11-01

    The electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution are obtained by the first-principles, all-electron, ab initio calculation using the self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) method. The inhibitor, made up of 62 amino acid residues with 912 atoms, has two three-dimensional solution structures: 1ata and 1atb. The calculated ground-state energy of structure 1atb is lower than that of structure 1ata by 6.12 eV. The active sites are determined and explained: only structure 1atb has a N terminal at residue ARG+31. This shows that the structure 1atb is the stable and active form of the inhibitor, which is in agreement with the experimental results. The calculation reveals that some parts of the inhibitor can be easily changed while the inhibitor’s biological activity may be kept. This kind of information may be helpful in fighting viruses such as AIDS, SARS, and flu, since these viruses have higher variability. The calculation offers an independent theoretical estimate of the precision of structure determination.

  10. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  11. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  12. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis. PMID:26504510

  13. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  14. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  15. Specific IgE Anti-Ascaris in Brazilian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel S. Sarinho; Medeiros, Décio; Silva, Almerinda; Rizzo, José Ângelo

    2010-01-01

    From an article published by our group by Medeiros et al, we discuss and review the literature on the role of serum specific anti-ascaris IgE in patients with respiratory allergies living in countries where helminthic infestations are common. Medeiros et al conducted a study using 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years with respiratory allergy. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL. Serum specific anti-ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101) of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yield...

  16. DNA extraction from Ascaris suum muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mito, Carmela; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of DNA from Ascaris suum muscle has been developed. It combines a standard SDS-based extraction with a plant DNA extraction procedure. The use of SDS and proteinase K allows the elimination of proteins, while CTAB and polyclar AT eliminate glycogen and polyphenols. The DNA thus obtained can easily be digested by endonucleases and amplified by PCR.

  17. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Het doel van het onderzoek was na te gaan wat de preventieve werking is van drie enkelvoudige kruiden, elk met een verschillend vermeend werkingsmechanisme (proteolytische enzymen, alkaloïden, bitterstoffen), op een milde besmetting met spoelwormen (Ascaris suum) bij vleesvarkens. Het besmettingsniv

  18. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M;

    2016-01-01

    -O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic...

  19. Gamma radiation effects in Ascaris sp. eggs in the treated and untreated sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluated the efficiency of domestic sewage disinfection. The sewage was treated in UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket), and the influent and affluent disinfection was promoted by gamma irradiation. To test the efficiency of disinfection, Ascaris eggs viability was analyzed undo microscopic observation in samples before and after the irradiation. The Ascaris sp. eggs were recovered from human's faeces and inoculated into sewage samples. The viability of Ascaris sp. eggs was analyzed after exposure to 0.5 KGy, 1.0 KGy, 2.5 KGy, 5.0 KGy e 10 KGy. In addition, suspended solids were analyzed in order to verify the effect of solids content to the irradiation efficiency. Preliminary results indicated that for doses lower than 1.5 KGy, the efficiency of inactivation in the affluent was higher than the influent. It was also observed that doses above of 2.5 KGy had inactivated practically 100% of eggs of Ascaris sp. in the treated and untreated sewage samples. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can be used as an efficient technique to disinfect domestic sewage. (author)

  20. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  1. In vitro synthesis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components of Ascaris suum mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Ruff, V.; DuBrul, E.F.; Komuniecki, R.W.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a pivotal role in the anaerobic metabolism of Ascaris suum mitochondria. They have initiated a series of studies on the in vitro synthesis and mitochondrial import of PDC. PDC has been purified from adult Ascaris body wall muscle, fully phosphorylated in vitro, and separated into its component subunits on SDS/PAGE. The individual components were electroeluted from the gels and used to immunize rabbits. IgG's to the individual subunits were prepared from antisera and their specificities were verified by immuno-blotting. Each IgG identified a single specific band at the appropriate location in extracts of adult Ascaris body wall muscle mitochondria. Poly A/sup +/-RNA was prepared from body wall muscle and translated in a reticylocyte lysate system using /sup 35/S-methionine. Translation products were immunoprecipitated with specific IgG's, electrophoresed, and fluorographed. Each immunoprecipitation gave rise to a single radioactive polypeptide that was slightly larger than the specific PDC subunit isolated from the adult mitochondria. This system has demonstrated its feasibility for the study of mitochondrial import of a multienzyme complex that is critical for the anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism of Ascaris suum.

  2. Ascaris suum in Saskatchewan Pigs: An Abattoir Survey of Prevalence and Intensity of Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Polley, L. R.; Mostert, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of 2500 market weight pigs in a Saskatchewan abattoir, 37% were infected with adult Ascaris suum and in 46% there were milkspot hepatic lesions. A total of 60% of the pigs examined had some evidence of A. suum infection. Most infected pigs contained less than 50 adult ascarids.

  3. In vitro synthesis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components of Ascaris suum mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a pivotal role in the anaerobic metabolism of Ascaris suum mitochondria. They have initiated a series of studies on the in vitro synthesis and mitochondrial import of PDC. PDC has been purified from adult Ascaris body wall muscle, fully phosphorylated in vitro, and separated into its component subunits on SDS/PAGE. The individual components were electroeluted from the gels and used to immunize rabbits. IgG's to the individual subunits were prepared from antisera and their specificities were verified by immuno-blotting. Each IgG identified a single specific band at the appropriate location in extracts of adult Ascaris body wall muscle mitochondria. Poly A+-RNA was prepared from body wall muscle and translated in a reticylocyte lysate system using 35S-methionine. Translation products were immunoprecipitated with specific IgG's, electrophoresed, and fluorographed. Each immunoprecipitation gave rise to a single radioactive polypeptide that was slightly larger than the specific PDC subunit isolated from the adult mitochondria. This system has demonstrated its feasibility for the study of mitochondrial import of a multienzyme complex that is critical for the anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism of Ascaris suum

  4. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  5. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  6. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  7. Asymptomatic intraperitoneal ascariasis: Importance of diagnostic laparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Anand; Sharma, Aditya P; Sandeep Aggarwal; Devajit Nath; Sandeep Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris from intestine into peritoneal cavity is rare and usually presents as acute abdomen. We report a case of 41-year-old male who was admitted for laparoscopic mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse. During the initial laparoscopy, purulent fluid was seen in pelvis. A complete diagnostic laparoscopy was done. An omental nodule was found, which was excised and extracted in a bag. On histopathology, the omental nodule revealed gravid Ascaris lumbricoides.

  8. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Leles; Adauto Araújo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente; Alena Mayo Iñiguez

    2008-01-01

    Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp) target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscop...

  9. ON Cleanliness of Hands in Diminution of Ascaris lumbricoides Infection in Children%儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许隆祺; 肖东华; 周长海; 张雪强; 兰水根; 郑秀香; 张文玲; 付洁平; 叶波; 党辉; 诸宪祖; 黄时兰

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨儿童手部清洁卫生与蛔虫感染之间关系.方法基线调查中所有蛔虫感染者均予一次性驱虫治疗.实验组开展洗手活动,对照组不开展洗手活动.1年中每2个月用加藤(Kato)厚涂片法检查受试者粪便1次,比较实验组和对照组中,试验前蛔虫感染阴性者,每次复查的新感染率(即两组新感染率比较);试验前蛔虫感染阳性治毕半月复查转阴者,每次复查的再感染率(即两组再感染率比较). 结果每2个月复查1次,按每次复查累计计算的新感染率与再感染率,实验组均非常显著低于对照组(P《0.001).1年后复查,蛔虫感染率实验组为35.2%,比项目前的68.3%下降48.5%;对照组为73.7%,比项目前的41.4%上升了78.0%.结论每日用香皂洗手保持手部清洁卫生,可以显著降低蛔虫感染率.

  10. Reinfection after different chemotherapy measures carried out in heavy epidemic areas with Ascaris lumbricoides%蛔虫重度流行区实施不同化疗措施后人群再感染的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌英; 曾小军; 姜唯声; 陈红根; 洪献林; 胡神助; 杭春琴; 谢曙英

    2006-01-01

    目的 了解蛔虫重度流行区采取不同方案的全民化疗措施后,居民个体和群体的蛔虫再感染状况. 方法 选择鹿塘、大园和杨墅塘3个自然村,全体居民用噻嘧啶首次化疗后,分别间隔3、6和12个月进行重复化疗,并在每年的春、秋季用Kato-Katz法各粪检1次. 结果 化疗后鹿塘、大园、杨墅塘3个自然村居民蛔虫感染率分别下降53.43%、41.93%和22.62%,人群受精蛔虫卵的比率分别下降50.02%、35.73%和38.30%,化疗1年后的再感染率分别为35.62%、35.48%和50.00%,新感染率分别为16.39%、21.05%和31.94%.人群蛔虫再感染1次和2次的发生率杨墅塘村>大园村>鹿塘村. 结论 1)试点村人群蛔虫再感染率均比同期新感染率高,蛔虫感染人群比未感染人群表现出更容易发生再感染的倾向;2)间隔6个月的全民化疗方案对控制人群蛔虫的再感染和新感染较经济、有效.

  11. Comparison of four floatation methods for separating human Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from soil%4种漂浮法分离土壤中人蛔虫卵的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱颖骏; 诸廷俊; 王聚君; 周长海; 陈颖丹

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较4种不同漂浮法从土壤中分离人蛔虫卵的效果,从而摸索出一种行之有效的、适用于现场的从土壤中分离人蛔虫卵的方法. 方法 在不含人蛔虫卵的土壤中按一定比例加入人蛔虫卵(包括受精蛔虫卵和未受精蛔虫卵),分别用4种漂浮法检查,比较检出效果. 结果 硫酸锌溶液漂浮法、饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法、饱和柠檬酸三钠溶液漂浮法及饱和盐水漂浮法的受精蛔虫卵检出率依次为6.89%、26.85%、8.46%和0.21%(F=221.45,P<0.01);总蛔虫卵检出率依次为6.29%、25.49%、7.77%和0.19%(F=223.41,P<0.01). 结论 4种漂浮法均能分离出土壤中的人蛔虫卵,以饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法的效果最佳,且操作简便,适合大批量土壤样本的人蛔虫卵分离检查.

  12. Apoptosis of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Extraction of the Second Stage Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides%人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国华; 袁铿; 周宪民; 彭卫东

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导体外培养的人肺上皮细胞A549凋亡,以及提取物浓度和作用时间与细胞凋亡的相互关系.方法根据四氮唑盐酶还原法(MTT)结果,选用5种不同浓度的提取物诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡.分别在诱导后的5个时间段,采用苏木素-伊红(HE)染色盲法计数和二苯胺法检测DNA断裂率,观察肺上皮细胞凋亡情况.同时对某个时间和浓度组的样本,用DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳和流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果不同浓度人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物诱导A549细胞凋亡,在5 h之内细胞凋亡率随提取物浓度增加而增加,两者呈正相关关系,且细胞凋亡率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),5 h细胞凋亡率达高峰(65.2%).结论人蛔虫Ⅱ期幼虫提取物可诱导人肺上皮细胞凋亡,细胞凋亡与其提取物浓度呈明显的相关关系.在时间上表现为双向变化关系,其变化程度同时受提取物浓度的影响.

  13. Family clustering analysis of human infections of ascaris lumbricoides enterobius vermicularis and trichuris trichura in Qinghai province%青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何多龙

    2002-01-01

    目的 了解青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的家庭聚集性。方法 调查和粪检方法按全国人体寄生虫分布调查实施细则,统计分析应用二项分布配合X2检验。结果 对青海省2803个家庭的14189人肠道蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫感染情况的分析表明,蛔虫、蛲虫和鞭虫的家庭聚集率分别为67.44%、22.60%和10.26%;蛔虫和蛲虫的感染户比率与家庭人口数呈正相关关系,随家庭人口数增加而上升;而家庭内人群感染率则与家庭人口数无关;鞭虫的感染户比率和人群感染率均与家庭人口数无关。结论 青海省人体肠道蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的感染均有家庭聚集性。

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON INFECTION OF HUMAN ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES IN RURAL DISTRICT OF HEBEI PROVINCE%河北省农村人群蛔虫感染的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霞; 刘洪斌; 马洪生; 李月平; 甄素娟; 孙克勤

    2006-01-01

    目的:了解当前我省人体重要寄生虫中蛔虫的流行特征,为今后有计划、有重点的开展蛔虫病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:应用分层整群随机抽样方法,2002年选择了6个中签县15个调查点,对调查对象采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便中蛔虫虫卵.结果:调查了7316人,检出蛔虫感染者117例,感染率为1.60%.蛔虫感染呈全省广泛性.分布,不同地区间差异有统计学意义(χ2=90.69,P<0.005),丰宁县感染率最高为4.60%;以10岁以下儿童感染较为严重,感染率为2.24%;不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.42,P<0.05),学龄前儿童最高,感染率为2.07%;性别间差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.00,P>0.05);由于感染率最高的丰宁县满族人口占98.60%,致使调查的民族分布,以满族感染率最高.蛔虫感染具有明显的家庭聚集性.结论:该省卫生条件较差的地区人群中蛔虫感染率较高,应作为今后蛔虫病防治的重点地区.

  15. 平顶山市875名中小学生蛔虫感染率调查%Survey of Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate in 875 primary school pupils and middle school students in Pingdingshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红英; 王素琴; 李丽

    2005-01-01

    目的了解平顶山市中小学生寄生虫带虫情况. 方法采用改良加藤涂厚法. 结果小学生寄生虫感染率高于中学生,男性高于女性. 结论中小学生寄生虫感染情况不容忽视.

  16. THE IMPACT OF HANDS CLEANLINESS ON DIMINUTION OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES REINFECTION IN PUPILS%小学生手部清洁卫生对蛔虫再感染影响的进一步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨手部清洁卫生对小学生蛔虫再感染的影响. 方法将基线调查中查出的蛔虫感染者给予驱蛔治疗,半月复查阴性者作为观察对象.实验组开展洗手活动,对照组不开展洗手活动,每2个月用Kato法复查1次,连续观察1年.比较实验组与对照组蛔虫累计再感染率,计算相对危险度(RR)及措施保护率(PR). 结果小学生蛔虫累计再感染率从开展洗手活动后第4个月开始实验组低于对照组 (P <0.001),手部清洁卫生防止蛔虫感染的效果指数IE=2.25,保护率PR=55.55%. 结论保持手部清洁卫生可减少小学生蛔虫再感染.

  17. Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burden setting: a cross-sectional community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    van Soelen Nelda; Mandalakas Anna M; Kirchner H; Walzl Gerhard; Grewal Harleen M S; Jacobsen Marc; Hesseling Anneke C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background M.tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with enhanced T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses while helminth infection is associated with T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to investigate whether helminth infection could influence the ability to generate an appropriate Th1 immune response that is characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), in M.tb exposed children. Methods We completed a community-based, cross sectional household contact t...

  18. Effect of ultraviolet ray radiation on the development of ascaris lumbricoides seminal eggs%紫外线辐射对受精蛔虫卵发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞; 刘年猛; 冯芳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨紫外线辐射对受精蛔虫卵发育的影响.方法自然沉淀法收集受精蛔虫卵,用紫外线辐射不同时间后恒温培养.结果紫外线辐射时间越长对受精蛔虫卵发育影响越明显,400μW·min/cm2,5~10min即能杀死受精蛔虫卵.结论紫外线辐射明显影响蛔虫受精卵的发育,可用来净化蠕虫卵污染食物、预防食物源性蛔虫感染.

  19. 江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化及影响因素%Changes of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in rural residents of Jiangsu Province and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉钧; 孙凤华; 钱益新; 沈明学; 徐祥珍; 陈锦英

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染变化情况及其影响因素,为制定控制蛔虫感染对策提供依据.方法统计苏南、苏中和苏北1990~2002年间3次调查的农村人群蛔虫感染率、集体服药率、人均收入和自来水及卫生厕所使用率,探讨影响蛔虫感染率下降的主要因素.结果 13年来,3个片区人群蛔虫感染率均持续大幅度下降,2002年平均感染率2.14%,下降率为94.58%.苏中感染率最低,仅0.41%,下降率达98.92%;苏北感染率最高,为5.09%,下降率最低,为89.97%.累计集体服药率苏中为159.00%,显著高于苏南的103.00%和苏北的105.00%.居民人均收入、自来水和卫生厕所使用率由北向南逐渐升高,3个片区间差异有统计学意义.结论集体服药防治和经济卫生条件共同影响农村人群蛔虫感染率变化,尤其集体服药防治的作用更显著.

  20. Anti-tumor Effect of the Whole Worm Extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Mice%人蛔虫提取物对Lewis肺癌小鼠的抑瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小军; 杨军平; 黄艳琴; 梁华; 袁铿

    2013-01-01

    为探讨人蛔虫提取物对肿瘤的作用及其免疫学机制,将45只C57BL/6小鼠随机分为A、B、C、D和E等5组,每组9只,其中B、D组分别为A、C组的实验对照组,E组为阴性对照组,不做任何处理.A组每鼠隔天腹腔注射0.1 ml蛔虫提取物(BEAL),10d后每鼠右前肢腋下皮下接种0.1 ml Lewis肺癌细胞(LLC),进行肿瘤造模;B组小鼠注射等量生理盐水,10d后进行肿瘤造模.C组每鼠注射0.1 ml LLC细胞悬液进行肿瘤造模,2d后腹腔注射0.1 ml BEAL,隔天1次,共注射5次;D组小鼠肿瘤造模2d后,注射等量生理盐水,隔天1次.记录各组小鼠成瘤时间,称瘤重,计算抑瘤率.结果显示,A、B、C和D组小鼠的成瘤时间分别为(7.0±1.1)、(6.0±0.7)、(9.0±1.2)和(7.0±0.9)d.BEAL提前干预的A组小鼠肿瘤重量为(722.2±413.5) mg,显著重于其对照组B组[(338.9±282.2) mg](P<0.05).小鼠荷瘤后BEAL干预的C组抑瘤率最强,为33.3%,其肿瘤重量[(237.8±101.8)mg]明显轻于对照组D组[(356.7±176.9) mg] (P<0.05).提示BEAL可影响肿瘤的形成,在一定条件下具有明显的抑瘤作用.

  1. Analysis of the influencing factors of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs detection in soil%影响土壤中蛔虫卵检测因素的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳; 王敏; 郭晓英; 王慧明

    2014-01-01

    目的 对检测土壤中蛔虫卵的影响因素进行分析,从而摸索出一种可行的检测方法,进而获得科学的检测结果.方法 连续3年采集锦州市凌海60份农村土壤样品,在统一采样方法的前提下,采用饱和硝酸钠漂浮法进行实验室检测.结果 采样季节对蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率均有一定影响,8月份采集的土壤样品中蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率为60%和45%,11月份采集的样品为55%和22%;对5份平行样品采用2种不同振荡方式进行检测,手动振荡的检测出数量均高于XH-C漩涡混匀器;操作过程中操作手法不科学会影响检测结果.结论 随着土壤温度降低,蛔虫卵的检出率和存活率均有所下降;在有限实验条件下,振荡工具的选择对检测结果有影响;操作手法及镜检计数等因素对检测结果有影响.

  2. Mitochondrial ultrastructural and atpase changes during the life cycle of Ascaris Suum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrick, G E; S. D. Long; W. A. Sodeman Junior; Smith, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural morphology and ATPase specific activities of mitochondria isolated from 1-celled fertilized egg, 10-day embryo, 21-day infective larvae and adult body wall muscle of Ascaris suum and rat liver were determined and compared. Although cristae of both muscle and egg mitochondria contained numerous elementary particles with head pieces of conventional diameter (85 A), each muscle mitochondrion contained relatively few, short cristae with a diminished frequency of elementary particl...

  3. Effect of disinfectants on viability of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Susmita; Petkeviciute, Egle; Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Thapa, Sundar; Mejer, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli, the large round worm of pigs and poultry, respectively, persist even in intensive management systems, where a high level of hygiene is practiced. It is necessary to control these helminths to minimize production losses and improve animal welfare. Commercial disinfectants are commonly used to clean pens in conventional pig and poultry farms but their efficacy against the thick-shelled nematode eggs has not been sufficiently documented. However, it might be dif...

  4. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquidmanure at different ammonia concentrations andtemperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    tEggs of Ascaris suum from pigs are highly resistant and commonly used as a conservativeindicator of pathogen inactivation during slurry storage. Eggs of Ascaridia galli, the poultryascarid, are also known to be highly resistant but the suitability as an indicator of pathogeninactivation has never been tested. Pig slurry has to be stored for several months to inac-tivate pathogens but chemical treatment of slurry may reduce this time. The suitability ofA. galli as an indicator of slurry sanit...

  5. Ascaris suum: molecular cloning of an intermediate filament

    OpenAIRE

    Bisoffi, Marco; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that intermediate filament proteins are involved in force transduction from the muscle cells through the hypodermis to the cuticle of nematodes. An additional role of intermediate filaments as excretory/secretory components of parasitic nematodes is under discussion. We report on the molecular characterization of the cDNA clone AsIF of the intestinal nematode parasite Ascaris suum, encoding a member of the intermediate filament protein family by sequence comparison with i...

  6. SjAPI, the First Functionally Characterized Ascaris-Type Protease Inhibitor from Animal Venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zongyun; Wang, Bin; Hu, Jun; Yang, Weishan; Cao,Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Background Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Principal Findings Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin ...

  7. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    T.M. Oshiro; A. Rafael; C.S. Enobe; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized an...

  8. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  9. Biliary ascariasis: radiological clue to diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Bansal, Satish; KUMAR, NAVEEN; Sharma, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is the most common helminthic infection seen worldwide. Ascariasis is an endemic disease in our country. This is due to the prevailing poor sanitary conditions and low level of education. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We report a case of biliary ascariasis in a young labourer who presented with acute abdominal pain.

  10. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  11. Potentiation of IgE responses to third-party antigens mediated by Ascaris suum soluble products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T D; McGibbon, A

    1993-01-01

    A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897

  12. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  13. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  14. Early stages of Ascaris suum induce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enobe, C S; Araújo, C A; Perini, A; Martins, M A; Macedo, M S; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2006-09-01

    The inflammatory and functional changes that occur in murine lung after infection with 2500 infective Ascaris suum eggs were studied in this work. A sequential influx of neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils occurred into airways concomitantly with migration of larvae from liver to the lungs. Histological analysis of the lung showed a severe intra-alveolar haemorrhage at the peak of larval migration (day 8) and the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate on day 14. Ascaris L3 were found in alveolar spaces and inside bronchioles on day 8. The number of eosinophils was elevated in the blood on days 8 and 14. The peak of eosinophil influx into the lung was at day 14, as indicated by the high levels of eosinophil peroxidase activity, followed by their migration into the airways. The antibody response against egg and larval antigens consisted mainly of IgG1 and IgM, and also of IgE and anaphylactic IgG1, that cross-reacted with adult worm antigens. Total IgE levels were substantially elevated during the infection. Measurement of lung mechanical parameters showed airway hyperreactivity in infected mice. In conclusion, the murine model of A. suum infection mimics the Th2-induced parameters observed in pigs and humans and can be used to analyse the immunoregulatory properties of this helminth. PMID:16916369

  15. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus;

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens ...

  16. Profiling gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna;

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to profile the immune response mounted by pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes following an A. suum infection. We selec...

  17. ASCARIS SUUM: CDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF 4TH STAGE LARVAE (L4) DURING SELF-CURE FROM THE INTESTINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is spontaneous cure of a large portion of Ascaris suum 4th-stage larvae (L4) from the jejunum of infected pigs between 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Those L4 that remain in the jejunum continue to develop while those that have moved to the ileum are eventually expelled from the inte...

  18. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally and major losses to food production annually. Ascaris is among the commonest geohelminths of swine and people worldwide, and causes major disease and socioeconomic losses, particularly in developing count...

  19. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko; Beshah, Ethiopia; Dawson, Harry; Urban Jr., Joseph F.; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2009-01-01

    posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...

  20. The effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the input conductance and membrane potential of Ascaris muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 Twin intracellular recordings were made from the bag region of Ascaris muscle in order to make conductance measurements. The preparation was bathed in a cool (22°C) Ringer solution to abolish the large spontaneous depolarizing potentials and to improve stability for recording.

  1. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  2. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  3. An alien in the gallbladder. A rare case of biliary ascariasis in an Italian emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ferri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common infection in many developing countries. The prevalence of ascariasis is related to poverty, poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. The adult form of Ascaris lumbricoides usually resides in the human intestinal lumen (more frequently in the jejunum and middle ileum and does not cause symptoms. However, it can occasionally cause severe complications such as intestinal obstruction or perforation peritonitis. Its migration into the biliary tract is not uncommon but gallbladder involvement is very rare. Abdominal ultrasonography is essential to detect the presence of this parasite. In this article, we describe the radiologic findings, clinical manifestations and successful medical treatment of a patient with gallbladder ascariasis diagnosed in an emergency setting.

  4. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  5. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode. PMID:26708339

  6. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  7. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA

  8. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. (University of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  9. 笠岡市真鍋島における最近の寄生虫感染の実相

    OpenAIRE

    富田, 精一郎; 田中, 勇夫; 頓宮, 廉正; 村主, 節雄; 作本,台五郎; 安治,敏樹; 板野, 一男; 稲臣, 成一

    1981-01-01

    A fecal examination for each of 471 residents of Manabe island was performed to clarify the status of parasitic infection by direct smear in August, 1977. The results were as follows: 1. Helminths found included Ascaris lumbricoides (2 cases, 0.4%), Trichuris trichiura (18 cases, 3.8%), Ancylostoma duodenale (5 cases, 1.1%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (4 cases, 0.9%). 2. The average infection rate was 6.2% for the whole area.

  10. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera) Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Adi Suratma

    2015-01-01

    Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR) and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of ani...

  11. Ecology and viability of eggs of the pig round worm (Ascaris suum) – on-farm and laboratory studies

    OpenAIRE

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is a highly prevalent parasitic helminth in pig production systems worldwide. In most industrialized countries production systems are highly intensive and fully in-doors (low prevalence of parasites) but there is a growing market for pigs produced out-door or under organic pig farming conditions (high prevalence of parasites). In organic pig production there is a number of factors related to housing and management practices that predispose for A. suum infections. These practices ...

  12. N-glycans of the porcine nematode parasite Ascaris suum are modified with phosphorylcholine and core fucose residues

    OpenAIRE

    Pöltl, Gerald; Kerner, Denise; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the glycoconjugates of many parasitic nematodes have attracted interest due to their immunogenic and immunomodulatory nature. Previous studies with the porcine roundworm parasite Ascaris suum have focussed on its glycosphingolipids which were found, in part, to be modified by phosphorylcholine. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we have now analysed the PNGase A-released N-glycans of adults of this species. The presence of hybrid, bi- and triantennary N-glycans, so...

  13. Effect of Penicillium frequentans and Stachybotrys chartarum on respiratory metabolism of developing eggs of Ascaris suum (Nematoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kołodziejczyk; Wanda Kuźna-Grygiel; Krystyna Janowicz; Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2014-01-01

    Effect of saprotrophic soil fungi Penicillium frequentans and Stachybotrys chartarum on respiratory metabolism of Ascaris suum, during its embryogenesis was determined using histoenzymatic methods. Based on histochemical assessment of the enzyme actvity (glycolysis-lactate dehydrogenase-LDH; tricarboxylic acid cycle-succinate dehydrogenase-SDH) changes in the energy metabolism of developing eggs of A. suvm were detected. Of the fungi species tested - P. frequentans caused the most extensive d...

  14. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  15. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, 14CO2 evolution from 1,4-[14C]succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD+ ratios were elevated, but the formation of 14C propionate was unchanged

  16. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  17. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chuangeng; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-08-01

    Peptides with Ascaris-type fold are a new kind of toxins founded from venomous animals recently. Functionally, these unique toxin peptides had been identified as potent protease inhibitors, which was similar to other known Ascaris-type peptides from non-venomous animals. Whether Ascaris-type peptides from venom animals have neurotoxin activities remains unclear. Here, a scorpion toxin SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type fold was characterized to have a neurotoxin activity, which can selectively inhibit KCNQ1 potassium channel. SjAPI-2 had 62 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteine residues. Charged residue analyses showed that two acidic residues of SjAPI-2 were regionally distributed, and 10 basic residues were distributed widely throughout the whole peptide, which was similar to classical potassium channel toxins. Pharmacological studies confirmed that SjAPI-2 was a selective KCNQ1 potassium channel inhibitor with weak effects on other potassium channels, such as Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels. Concentration-dependent studies showed that SjAPI-2 inhibited the KCNQ1 potassium channel with an IC50 of 771.5±169.9 nM. To the best of our knowledge, SjAPI-2 is the first neurotoxin with a unique Ascaris-type fold, providing novel insights into the divergent evolution of neurotoxins from venomous animals. PMID:26014142

  18. Ascariasis of gall bladder associated with xanthogranulomatous inflammation and cholelithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Sanjay D; Pathak, Gayatri S; Ashturkar, Amrut V; Avinash R Joshi; Shelke, Rahul R

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of ascariasis of gall bladder. The unusual features in this case were the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the lumen. Some of the eggs had evoked a foreign body reaction indicating chronicity. The bladder wall was unevenly thickened with yellowish white nodules and showed maximum thickness around the neck region. Microscopy showed predominantly xanthogranulomatous inflammation in the thickened parts of the wall.

  19. Pathogen reduction effects of solar drying and soil application in sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    ÖĞLENİ, Nurtaç; ÖZDEMİR, Saim

    2010-01-01

    The responses of sludge faecal coliforms, Salmonella, and Ascaris lumbricoides to heat drying, solar dehydration, and inactivation in soil are examined in this study. The presence of Salmonella in raw sludge cake after treatment was low, and absent for most of the cases. Likewise, the viable Ascaris eggs were not determined because of absent or low prevalence. Faecal coliforms, on the other hand, drastically decreased from 4.2 × 107 MPN g-1 Dry Solid (DS) to absence by heat drying. Faecal col...

  20. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, T M; Rafael, A; Enobe, C S; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2004-02-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10) M-1, 7.1 x 10(9) M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7) M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3) were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others. PMID:14762577

  1. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Oshiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10 M-1, 7.1 x 10(9 M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7 M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3 were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others.

  2. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anette; Magnussen, P.; Ouma, J.H.;

    1998-01-01

    hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency......hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency...

  3. ZAPA, (Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]-2-propenoic acid hydrochloride, a potent agonist at GABA-receptors on the Ascaris muscle cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Holden-Dye, L.; Walker, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is the first report of a compound which is equal in efficacy to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the nematode Ascaris muscle GABA-receptor. The GABA-receptor at the Ascaris muscle cell which mediates a membrane hyperpolarization and muscle relaxation has eluded classification. The structure-activity profile of this receptor is not typical of GABAA or GABAB-receptors. Here we report that the isothiouronium compound ZAPA is as potent as GABA at this receptor. This finding has import...

  4. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Fernandes; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves; Françoise Bouchet; Carlos Henrique Klein; Takumi Iguchi; Luciana Sianto; Adauto Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde), a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Althou...

  5. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  6. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty Balakrishna; Shetty Prashanth; Sharma Pritam

    2008-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  7. Radio-pathological diagnosis of hepatobiliary ascariasis: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Indranil Chakrabarti; Amita Giri; De, Anuradha; Asit Chandra Roy

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the commonest helminthic infection in humans, caused by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. The adult worms usually reside in the small intestine. Rarely, they migrate into the bile duct and pancreatic ducts, but involvement of the gall bladder and/or liver parenchyma is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with fever, anorexia, right upper quadrant pain and mild hepatomegaly. Ultrasonography revealed a liver abscess and a concurrent movin...

  8. Biliary ascariasis: radiological clue to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Bansal, Satish; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Navneet

    2015-03-01

    Ascariasis is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is the most common helminthic infection seen worldwide. Ascariasis is an endemic disease in our country. This is due to the prevailing poor sanitary conditions and low level of education. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We report a case of biliary ascariasis in a young labourer who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:26634136

  9. Obstructive jaundice induced by biliary ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Aine; Quigley, James Aidan; Genterola, Al Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. Its presence can lead to a multitude of presentations, one of the rarer ones being obstructive jaundice due to migration of the worm in to the biliary tree. We describe a case of a man who presented as an emergency to the general surgeons complaining of abdominal pain, fever, jaundice and vomiting. Ultrasound was used and the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made. The patient underwe...

  10. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  11. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  12. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + d...

  13. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.; Hog, M.; Jungersen, Gregers

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae ...

  14. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  15. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie; Nansen, P.;

    2001-01-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver; lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during...

  16. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan; Lind, Peter; Meeusen, E.N.T.; Rasmussen, Tina; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...... inoculation or on the immune response before or after challenge inoculation could be detected. These results indicate that a significant protective memory immune response to A. suum challenge inoculation can be induced in pigs, and that this protective immunity is not significantly modulated by the presence...

  17. Expression of Ascaris suum malic enzyme in a mutant Escherichia coli allows production of succinic acid from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stols, L.; Donnelly, M.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulkarni, G.; Harris, B.G. [Univ. of North Texas, Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The malic enzyme gene of Ascaris suum was cloned into the vector pTRC99a in two forms encoding alternative amino-termini. The resulting plasmids, pMEA1 and pMEA2, were introduced into Escherichia coli NZN111, a strain that is unable to grow fermentatively because of inactivation of the genes encoding pyruvate dissimilation. Induction of pMEA1, which encodes the native animoterminus, gave better overexpression of malic enzyme, approx 12-fold compared to uninduced cells. Under the appropriate culture conditions, expression of malic enzyme allowed the fermentative dissimilation of glucose by NZN111. The major fermentation product formed in induced cultures was succinic acid.

  18. 81 Dose Response Relationship Between Ascaris Sensitisation and Atopy and Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness but not Allergic Diseases in Black South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael; Muloiwah, Rudzani; Le Souëf, Peter; Motalah, Cassim

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between sensitisation to helminths and atopy, bronchial-hyperresponsiveness and allergic diseases may differ depending on many factors, including the genes of the population studied. We sought to examine this relationship in an African cohort. Methods Urban Xhosa children were tested for ascaris IgE levels, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) by methacholine challenge, atopic sensitisation (skin tests to aeroallergens) and allergic disease (asthma, eczema and rhin...

  19. 淄川区农村中、小学生服药前后蛔虫感染状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis on infection of Ascaris lumbricoides before and after chemotherapy in the students of middle and primary school in rural area of Zichuan District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司玉荣; 谭瑞红; 杨忠文

    2004-01-01

    淄川区有中、小学生6万多人,农村中、小学生占80%左右。为了解农村中、小学生蛔虫感染情况及服药驱虫效果,作者等于2001年9月~11月在10所农村学校进行了调查。

  20. 恩施州农村人群蛔虫感染及土壤蛔虫卵污染现状调查%Investigation on prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infections and contamination of soil with eggs in rural areas of Enshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳霞; 胡启托; 向诗非

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解恩施州农村蛔虫病的流行现状及土壤污染状况,为科学制定蛔虫病防治对策提供依据.方法 在来自8县市的8个村157户农户的菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房4处采集土壤,采用饱和硝酸钠溶液漂浮法检查土壤中的蛔虫卵,人群蛔虫感染检查采用Kato-Katz法.结果 8个村共调查645人,蛔虫总感染率为25.58%.土壤样本共检查157户,蛔虫卵总检出率为55.41%,其中未受精蛔虫卵、受精蛔虫卵和活受精蛔虫卵检出率分别为15.29%、46.50%、29.94%.土壤中蛔虫卵检出率与人群蛔虫感染率显著相关(r=0.783,P<0.05).结论 恩施州土壤蛔虫卵污染严重,人群蛔虫感染率高,应加强蛔虫病的防治.

  1. 使君子、香榧子和川楝子对人蛔虫感染小鼠的驱治效果观察%Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus by the Rangoon creeper fruit,grand Torreya seed,and Szechwan chinaberry fruit in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马祥洲; 苏畅

    2010-01-01

    采用中药使君子、香榧子和川楝子饲喂人蛔虫感染小鼠,给药不同时间后将小鼠剖杀,检查胃肠道、肝脏和肺脏内寄生虫感染情况.结果 表明,使君子、香榧子和川楝子对蛔虫感染小鼠均有一定的驱治作用,使君子驱蛔虫效果最好.

  2. СПЕЦИФИЧНОСТЬ КОПРОСКОПИЧЕСКИХ МЕТОДОВ ВЫЯВЛЕНИЯ ЯИЦ OPISTORCHIS FELINEUS И ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Долбин, Д.; Лутфуллин, М.; Тюрин, Ю.

    2010-01-01

    Проведено сравнение ряда копроскопических методов диагностики. Для диагностики аскаридоза наиболее эффективен метод разработанный авторами. Яйца описторхисов наиболее эффективно выявляются методом Котельникова-Вареничева. Для диагностики кишечных паразитозов оптимальны различные копроскопические методы и среди них невозможно выбрать универсальный пригодный во всех случаях....

  3. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  4. Employment of anaerobic reactors in real scale and polishing ponds for removal of eggs Ascaris suum of swine effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Araujo Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The swine confinement farms and the improper disposal of their wastes carry result in contamination of water and soil. On many farms is common slurry application to soil as a means of fertilization, but without any control over the quality of the effluent being released. What is a parasite Ascaris suum from pigs can infect humans, but is not given due importance to the presence of this contaminant as soil and water. In this work the effluent of a pig was treated in a system composed of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a UASB followed by polishing ponds for removal of helminthes eggs. The experiment was conducted at the Hélio Barbosa Experimental Farm pig in the city of Igarapé / MG. Values found in the influent of helminthes eggs in the range from 2891 to 88,848 eggs L-1, while the effluent showed absence of eggs, showing the high efficiency of the treatment system. While the sludge ponds, it showed high concentration of viable eggs ranged from 10.1% to 59.8%, not being in conformity with the requirements for reuse in agriculture.

  5. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. (Univ. of North Texas, Fort Worth (United States))

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  6. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity. PMID:27094225

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  8. Crystallization of mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum with the specific inhibitor flutolanil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase is a key enzyme in the anaerobic respiratory chain of adult A. suum mitochondria. Its crystallization in the presence of a mixture of octaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether and n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis is reported. In adult Ascaris suum (roundworm) mitochondrial membrane-bound complex II acts as a rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase, which is the reverse reaction to that of mammalian complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The adult A. suum rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase was crystallized in the presence of octaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether and n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside in a 3:2 weight ratio. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.75, b = 129.08, c = 221.12 Å, and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (120 kDa × 2) gives a crystal volume per protein mass (VM) of 3.6 Å3 Da−1

  9. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-08-29

    Eggs of Ascaris suum from pigs are highly resistant and commonly used as a conservative indicator of pathogen inactivation during slurry storage. Eggs of Ascaridia galli, the poultry ascarid, are also known to be highly resistant but the suitability as an indicator of pathogen inactivation has never been tested. Pig slurry has to be stored for several months to inactivate pathogens but chemical treatment of slurry may reduce this time. The suitability of A. galli as an indicator of slurry sanitation was tested by comparing the survival of eggs of A. suum and A. galli in pig slurry. In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200 ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h at 40°C or 2h at 50°C. At all the temperatures in both slurry types, A. galli eggs were inactivated at a significantly faster rate (Pgalli eggs at 20°C where no significant difference was detected. In untreated slurry, the levels of pH (6.33-9.08) and ammonia (0.01-1.74 mM) were lower (Pgalli eggs are more sensitive to unfavourable conditions compared to A. suum eggs. The use of A. galli eggs as hygiene indicator may thus be suitable to assess inactivation of pathogens that are more sensitive than A. galli eggs. Addition of urea may markedly reduce the storage time of slurry needed to inactivate A. suum and A. galli eggs. PMID:24893691

  10. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse. PMID:26370295

  11. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  12. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  13. Useable diffraction data from a multiple microdomain-containing crystal of Ascaris suum As-p18 fatty-acid-binding protein using a microfocus beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As-p18, an unusual fatty-acid-binding protein from a parasitic nematode, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. The use of a microfocus beamline was essential for data collection. As-p18 is a fatty-acid-binding protein from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Although it exhibits sequence similarity to mammalian intracellular fatty-acid-binding proteins, it contains features that are unique to nematodes. Crystals were obtained, but initial diffraction data analysis revealed that they were composed of a number of ‘microdomains’. Interpretable data could only be collected using a microfocus beamline with a beam size of 12 × 8 µm

  14. Biliary Ascariasis on Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Mohammad A; Jevan K De

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm.

  15. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  16. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumocystis jirovecii A parasite, including the roundworms Ascariasis lumbricoides , or Necator americanus , or the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale ... contents ( gastric lavage ) may show signs of the Ascaris worm or another parasite. Treatment If you are ...

  17. PENGOBATAN DAN PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI ANAK SDN 1 LUWUS, BATURITI YANG MENDERITA CACINGAN (SOIL- TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. ASRI DAMAYANTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During public health services at Sekolah Dasar 1 (primary school Luwus, a number of 54 out of 140 schoolchildren were treated for helminthiases. Diagnoses of infections were based on their faecal samples examination by Kato-Katz smear technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infection was 38,57%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be more dominant than Trichuris trichiura. Albendazol 400mg as a single dose for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides and Albendazole 400 mg daily for two days for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Enterobius vermicularis. Treatment was done at school in the morning to prevent them from losing such treatment. No side effects were found during treatment.

  18. PENGOBATAN DAN PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI ANAK SDN 1 LUWUS, BATURITI YANG MENDERITA CACINGAN (SOIL- TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS)

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. ASRI DAMAYANTI

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During public health services at Sekolah Dasar 1 (primary school) Luwus, a number of 54 out of 140 schoolchildren were treated for helminthiases. Diagnoses of infections were based on their faecal samples examination by Kato-Katz smear technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infection was 38,57%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be more dominant than Trichuris trichiura. Albendazol 400mg as a single dose for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides and Alben...

  19. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in Nigerian children aged 0-25 months

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA; Jackson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0?25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation an...

  20. Ultrasonography findings of biliary ascariasis as a rare cause of acalculous cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Şalk, İsmail; Atalar, Mehmet H.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAscaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite to infect humans. The incidence of ascariasis is increasing in all part of the world because of world travel and population migration. Ascaris lumbricoides may cause various complications in the gastrointestinal system. Abdominal pain and tenderness with weight loss are the most common clinical presentations. The parasite can cause invagination at the intestinal segments and can enter the bile duct and cause cholangitis or bi...

  1. Dampak Tsunami terhadap Ketahanan Hidup Telur/Larva Soil Transmitted Helminthes di Banda Aceh dan Aceh Besar

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfida KA; Endang HG; Tumpal N

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura dan Strongyloides stercoralis adalah cacing-cacing yang sebagian dari siklus hidup dan penularannya ke manusia melalui tanah. Perkembangan dan daya tahan hidup telur atau larva cacing-cacing tersebut bergantung pada kondisis tanah. Misalnya, larva infektif hookworm dapat berkembang dengan baik di tanah berpasir. Sedangkan tanah liat merupakan media yang baik bagi perkembangan telur Ascaris lumbricoides dan telur Trichuris trichiura. Terjadin...

  2. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha;

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to...... reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  3. [Serological demonstration of experimental round worm infections-Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis--in swine by means of the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalder, R; Matthes, H F; Hiepe, T

    1981-11-01

    By means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody reaction (IFAR), using serum of experimentally infected pigs, various antigens were studied with regard to their usefulness for serological verification of prepatent Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis infections. Eggs, egg larvae, larvae received from livers, lungs and brains of experimentally infected white mice and sections of adult T. canis as well as eggs, egg larvae, liver larvae and sections of frozen adult A. suum proved to be not suitable for the reliable serum diagnosis of the infections. On the other hand, A. suum larvae, isolated from lungs of white mice or guinea pigs days after experimental infection, represent an antigen applicable to IFAR for the evidence of prepatent A. suum infections in pigs. The antigen, stored at -20 degree C, is durable without substantial impairment of its reactivity at least 7 months. PMID:7039425

  4. Biliary ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar K; Varkey Sam; George Mathan; Rajendran S; Hema R

    2007-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, or the common roundworms, has a worldwide distribution but is mainly seen in Asian and Latin American countries. In humans the usual habitat is in the small intestine, mainly in the jejunum. But if the worm load is high, which may go up to a thousand worms, the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site of habitat. This brief paper aims at highlighting the condition of biliary ascariasis through the authors′ experience in managing three such cases over a perio...

  5. Co-existent Ascariasis and Multiloculated Tuberculous Pleurisy Treated with Intrapleural Streptokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Talha; Naeem, Omer Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    This case describes a young male with pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis having one-week history of fever and hemoptysis along with a multiloculated right sided exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. His pulmonary diagnostic confusion was due to passage of adult Ascaris lumbricoides per orally but that was found to be of intestinal origin. Pleural tissue histopathology revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and right upper lobe bronchial washings were positive for acid fast bacilli. His multiloculated pleural effusion was successfully resolved with intrapleural streptokinase injections via a 10 French pleural catheter. Treatment with class-I anti-tuberculous drugs led to complete clearance of remaining pleuro-pulmonary shadowing. PMID:26522189

  6. Eosinophilic cholecystitis as a rare manifestation of visceral larva migrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is an infrequent form of cholecystitis. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, and it is sometimes accompanied with several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rare. We would like to make an alternative interpretation of our recent report "Kaji K, Yoshiji H, Yoshikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ikenaka Y,Noguchi R, Sawai M, Ishikawa M, Mashitani T, Kitade M, Kawaratani H, Uemura M, Yamao J, Fujimoto M,Mitoro A,Toyohara M, Yoshida M, Fukui H. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2007;13: 3760-3762."

  7. The Efficiency Comparison of Conventional Activated Sludge and Stabilization Pond Systems in Removal of Cysts and Parasitic Eggs (A Case Study: Kermanshah and Gilangharb WasteWater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargahi A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Microbial quality, particularly parasitic characteristics in terms of effluent reuse in agriculture is one of the most important indices. The aim of this study is determination of removal efficiency of Kermanshah wastewater treatment(conventional activated sludge and Gilangharb wastewater treatment plants (stabilization ponds for cyst and parasitic eggs.Material and Methods: In this study research samples were taken once in five days from both inlet and outlet of wastewater Plants within a period of five months. The identification and counting of cyst and parasitic eggs were carried out by Mac master slide according to Bailenger method.Results: The findings shows that mean of parasitic eggs and protozoan cysts in effluent of Kermanshah wastewater treatment plant were 0.99±0.42 and 0.90±0.25 per liter respectively, indeed removal efficiency for parasitic eggs and cysts are %98.42±3 and %97.5±4.5 respectively, but, any parasitic eggs and protozoan cysts in Gilangharb wastewater treatment plant was not observed and removal efficiency of these tow parameters was %100. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs had most number in influent and effluent of both plants.Conclusion: As results show, removal efficiency for cysts and parasitic eggs in both above mentioned are desirable, and the quality of effluent treatment plant of both the rate of nematode eggs Anglbrg index (number of nematode eggs: 1 " number per liter is consistent.

  8. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis. PMID:25320546

  9. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  10. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    Eggs of Ascaris suum from pigs are highly resistant and commonly used as a conservative indicator of pathogen inactivation during slurry storage. Eggs of Ascaridia galli, the poultry ascarid, are also known to be highly resistant but the suitability as an indicator of pathogen inactivation has...... never been tested. Pig slurry has to be stored for several months to inactivate pathogens but chemical treatment of slurry may reduce this time. The suitability of A. galli as an indicator of slurry sanitation was tested by comparing the survival of eggs of A. suum and A. galli in pig slurry. In...... at 40°C or 2h at 50°C. At all the temperatures in both slurry types, A. galli eggs were inactivated at a significantly faster rate (P<0.05) compared to A. suum eggs. For each 10°C raise in temperature from 20°C, T50 (time needed to inactivate 50% of eggs) for both types of eggs was reduced markedly...

  11. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of [3H] 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe+2-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 x 10-4M Fe+2 and 10-7M [3H] 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe+2 concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe+2 than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe+3, Ca+2 and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 x 10-5M Fe+2 may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems

  12. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  13. Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høg M

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly.

  14. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungersen, G; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P; Lind, P; Rasmussen, T; Meeusen, E N

    2001-04-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver, lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile and draining lymph node ASC culture supernatant (ASC-probes) was examined by immunoblotting. This revealed distinct organ-specific recognition patterns of larval-specific antigens by the draining lymph nodes at different times after challenge. In particular, an early larval 42 kDa antigen was recognized specifically by ASC-probes of the liver lymph nodes at 7 but not 14 days postchallenge (pc) which was not detected in other lymph nodes, serum or bile of the same pig. Similarly, a late larval antigen of 34 kDa was uniquely detected by lung and jejunal ASC-probes at 14 days pc. These observations demonstrate how development of distinct regional immune responses in tissues with different antigen stimulation can be monitored with ASC-probes and flow cytometry. PMID:11298295

  15. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  16. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  17. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  18. The PCome of Ascaris suum as a model system for intestinal nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins and first characterization of the PC-epitope structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Thomas; Grabitzki, Julia; Severcan, Cinar; Muratoglu, Suzan; Ewald, Lisa; Yilmaz, Yavuz; Lochnit, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    In multicellular parasites (e.g., nematodes and protozoa), proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC). PC can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host's immune system. This immunomodulation allows long-term persistence but also prevents severe pathology due to downregulation of cellular immune responses. PC-containing antigens have been found to interfere with key proliferative signaling pathways in B and T cells, development of dendritic cells and macrophages, and mast cell degranulation. These effects contribute to the observed modulated cytokine levels and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast to glycosphingolipids, little is known about the PC-epitopes of proteins. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins from nematodes have been identified. In this project, PC-substituted proteins and glycolipids in Ascaris suum have been localized by immunohistochemistry in specific tissues of the body wall, intestine, and reproductive tract. Subsequently, we investigated the PCome of A. suum by 2D gel-based proteomics and detection by Western blotting using the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15. By peptide-mass-fingerprint matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we could identify 59 PC-substituted proteins, which are in involved multiple cellular processes. In addition to membrane proteins like vitellogenin-6, we found proteins with structural (e.g., tubulins) and metabolic (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) functions or which can act in the defense against the host's immune response (e.g., serpins). Initial characterization of the PC-epitopes revealed a predominant linkage of PC to the proteins via N-glycans. Our data form the basis for more detailed investigations of the PC-epitope structures as a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation. PMID:26728072

  19. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Joseph F. Urban

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observatio...

  20. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.Este artigo discute os achados de ovos de parasitos em vestígios orgânicos de estruturas medievais do século XVI, escavados no solo, encontrados em Walraversijde, vilarejo atualmente denominado Raversijde, litoral norte da Bélgica. Nestas estruturas encontraram-se numerosos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura, ambos parasitos humanos. Neste trabalho, o diagnóstico dos parasitos serviu para identificar a origem humana do sedimento e as estruturas medievais como latrinas. Encontraram-se outros ovos de parasito identificado como Capillaria sp. e larvas de nematódeos. Embora não tenha sido possível calcular cargas parasitárias, a quantidade de ovos de helmintos intestinais, parasitos de humanos, sugere condições precárias de higiene e altos níveis de infecção.

  1. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana. PMID:11818981

  2. High pressure processing treatment prevents embryonation of eggs of Trichuris vulpis and Ascaris suum and induces delay in development of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Zajac, Anne M; Flick, George J; Bowman, Dwight D; Lindsay, David S

    2011-09-27

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment used to inactivate pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms and protozoan's but has had limited study on metazoans. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and preventing embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs. We conducted experiments using eggs of the canine whipworm Trichuris vulpis collected from naturally infected dogs and A. suum eggs from naturally infected pigs. We observed a delay in development of eggs of T. vulpis in a preliminary experiment and conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that appropriate HPP levels can induce a delay in embryonation of nematode eggs. In experiment 1, nonembryonated T. vulpis eggs in tap water were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 138-600 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. In a second experiment, nonembryonated eggs of A. suum were exposed to 138-600 MPa and treated for 60s in the same commercial HPP unit. Embyronation of T. vulpis eggs was delayed by 4 and 5 days for eggs treated with 207 and 241 MPa but eventually eggs developed and the numbers of embryonated eggs was similar to controls on day 55. Embryonation of T. vulpis eggs treated with 345 or 350 MPa was delayed by 9 days and never reached more than 5% of eggs embryonated. On day 55 post treatment, 95% of control nontreated T. vulpis eggs were embryonated, 100-65% of eggs treated with 138-276 MPa were embryonated, a maximum of 5% of eggs treated with 345-350 MPa were embryonated, and 0% of eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa were embryonated. T. vulpis eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa did not undergo cell division. Embryrnation of A. suum eggs was delayed by 4, 10, and 16 days for eggs treated with 207, 241, and 250MPa, respectively, compared to nontreated control eggs. A. suum eggs treated with 207 MPa eventually embryonated

  3. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-14

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction.

  4. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction

  5. Appendiceal ascariasis in children

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The propensity of Ascaris lumbricoides to wander leads to varied surgical complications in the abdomen. Wandering A lumbricoides may sometimes reach the vermiform appendix and its presence there may remain silent or incite pathology. Our aim was to study ascariadial appendicitis. METHODS: Over a period of 3 years, we identified children who were found to have appendiceal ascariasis during surgery for different intestinal complications due to ascariasis. We studied the relationship...

  6. A diagnostic skin test for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, J L; Ndumbe, P M; Titanji, V; Leke, R

    1981-09-01

    Onchocerca supernatant (OS) was prepared by a technique permitting live microfilariae to migrate from nodule tissue through agar gel into sterile Hanks balanced salt/Penicillin-Streptomycin solution where they metabolized. The OS, after dialysis, was passed through Seitz viral filter and either concentrated or lyophilized. Using rabbit antiserum in immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis tests, microfilariae proteins and also human protein were detected in out OS. No common antigens were found between this and somatic extracts of Loa loa, O. gutturosa, O. volvulus, L. carinii, D. immittis and A. lumbricoides. 125I labelled OS was purified by passage through protein A column and then through immunosorbent column of horse anti-human serum linked to CNB-activated sepharose 4B. Autoradiography, after sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide slab gel eletrophoresis of purified OS, showed 10 protein bands in the molecular range 10,000 to 125,000. Skin prick tests with OS, shown not to be contaminated with Hepatitis B antigens, elicited immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Using our criteria, positive reactions were seen in 81% of proven onchocerca cases and only occasionally in Loasis 4.5%, ascaridiasis 13.5% or healthy controls 2.4%. The poor skin reactivity to OS in loasis was not due to immunosuppression as these patients, when also infested with ascaris, reacted just as well as onchocerca patients with ascaris to skin prick test using somatic extracts of ascaris. PMID:6808726

  7. HEPATOBILIARY ASCARIASIS COMPLICATED BY PANCREATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muhammad; Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Khan, Asim; Mustafa, Saqib; Shah, Imran Ali; Hameed, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the commonest organism causing soil-transmitted helminth infection. It is particularly common in poor sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, involvement of the gallbladder by Ascaris is a rare entity. A lady presented to us with long-standing history of vague abdominal symptoms suggesting dyspepsia. Ultrasound showed a tube like structure invading the biliary channels. Serum amylase was elevated and the patient was managed conservatively, as for acute pancreatitis. She improved clinically, but subsequent imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed worm in the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and Ascaris lumbricoides was removed. Ascaris infestation is an important differential diagnosis of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and screening with stool examination and ultrasound is warranted in high-risk population. PMID:26411145

  8. Effect of the injection of an extract of Ascaris suum on macrophage activation during the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in C57Bl/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of an Ascaris suum extract (Asc affects both the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens when it is co-administered with these antigens. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Asc on macrophage activation in the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur strain TMCC 1173 infection in C57Bl/6 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip with 0.1 mg BCG (BCG group or BCG plus 1 mg Asc (BCG + Asc group. The peritoneal exudates were obtained at 2, 7 and 14 days after infection. The numbers of IFN-g-secreting cells were assessed by the ELISPOT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured by the Griess method and by the evaluation of NADPH diaphorase activity in the peritoneal exudates. The administration of Asc extract increased NADPH diaphorase activity (2 days: control = 0, BCG = 7%, BCG + Asc = 13%, and Asc = 4%; 7 days: control = 4, BCG = 13%, BCG + Asc = 21%, and Asc = 4.5% and TNF-a levels (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 169 ± 13, BCG + Asc = 202 ± 37, and Asc = 0; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 545 ± 15.5, BCG + Asc = 2206 ± 160.6, and Asc = 126 ± 26; 14 days: control = 10 ± 1.45, BCG = 9 ± 1.15, BCG + Asc = 126 ± 18, and Asc = 880 ± 47.67 pg/ml in the early phase of BCG infection. Low levels of NO production were detected at 2 and 7 days after BCG infection, increasing at 14 days (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 3.7 ± 1.59, BCG + Asc = 0.82 ± 0.005, Asc = 0.48 ± 0.33; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 2.78 ± 1.54, BCG + Asc = 3.07 ± 1.05, Asc = 0; 14 days: control = 0, BCG = 9.05 ± 0.53, BCG + Asc = 9.61 ± 0.81, Asc = 10.5 ± 0.2 (2 x 106 cells/ml. Furthermore, we also observed that Asc co-injection induced a decrease of BCG-colony-forming units (CFU in the spleens of BCG-infected mice during the first week of infection (mean ± SD; 2 days: BCG = 1.13 ± 0.07 and BCG + Asc = 0.798 ± 0.305; 7 days: BCG = 1.375 ± 0.194 and BCG + Asc = 0.548 ± 0.0226; 14 days: BCG

  9. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Loreille Odile; Bouchet Françoise

    2003-01-01

    The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively sepa...

  10. "Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Gharavi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of endemic parasitological infectious diseases in Iran and contaminated vegetables, as one of the most important ways of contamination, carried out a parasitical study on 263 vegetable samples from 44 farms in the suburbs of Tehran city, and also 166 vegetables samples from 20 green grocery markets in the same city. From 263 samples of farms 147 cases (65% of contamination were recorded, of which 43 cases (16/5% of human pathogenic parasites were isolated. In this study various techniques were used such as: Baermann funnel, centrifuging of plants and soil, temporal precipitation procedure and so on. Ova and parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp. Toxocara sp. Larvae of Nematodes, protozoa cysts like Amoeba sp. Giardia lamblia and some flagellatae were seen. The highest percent of contamination was detected in leek and parsley and the lowest one was detected in tarragon. The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.

  11. Biliary ascariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides, or the common roundworms, has a worldwide distribution but is mainly seen in Asian and Latin American countries. In humans the usual habitat is in the small intestine, mainly in the jejunum. But if the worm load is high, which may go up to a thousand worms, the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site of habitat. This brief paper aims at highlighting the condition of biliary ascariasis through the authors′ experience in managing three such cases over a period of 1 year. The clinical features which arouse suspicion of biliary ascariasis, as well as diagnostic modalities and management, are described. Initially the cases were managed conservatively, but we conclude that if worms are retained in biliary tree for more than 10 days, surgery should be performed; since retention of degraded and calcified dead worm can occur, and this can lead to complications which are difficult to manage.

  12. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...... upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards a...

  13. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  14. Mobile phone microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Utzinger, Jürg; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively. PMID:23478580

  15. Mobile Phone Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Utzinger, Jürg; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively. PMID:23478580

  16. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter;

    which parasite eggs from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement (1018-1030 A.D.) are DNA typed to the species level. The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the human roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) are identified indicating that these parasites were endemic in Denmark in the...

  17. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...

  18. The efficiency of Lutz, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes (adapted techniques association to the diagnosis of intestinal helmints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Percy Willcox

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Bermann-Moraes (adapted techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  19. Biliary ascariasis on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Hashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm.

  20. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation. PMID:26571414

  1. Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in KNAD and Kimetal and decreases in Vmax as the metal size increases from Mg2+ to Mn2+ to Cd2+, indicative of crowding in the site. The Kmalate value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/Kmalate increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the 13C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The 13C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary 13C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd2+. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd2+ as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd2+ ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd2+

  2. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation....... METHODS: Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Genotyping of 410 worms was also conducted using a panel of...... microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic, population genetic, and Bayesian assignment methods were used for analysis. RESULTS: There was marked genetic segregation between worms originating from human hosts and those originating from pig hosts. However, human Ascaris infections in Europe were of pig origin, and...

  3. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  4. Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais entre os usuários do centro de saúde do Distrito de Sousas, Campinas, SP (1986-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Gioia

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência das parasitoses intestinais foi levantada nos usuários do Centro de Saúde do Distrito de Sousas, Campinas, SP entre 1986 e 1990. Dentre 770 prontuários observados constatou-se 114 casos positivos (14,8% para protozoários, helmintos ou comensais. Ascaris lumbricoides (48,2% seguido de Giardia lamblia (30,7%, Trichuris trichiura (18,4% e Enterobius vermicularis (9,6% foram mais prevalentes na faixa etária dos pré-escolares. Os adultos, em maior número na amostra, apresentam-se pouco parasitados. Os demais parasitos e comensais, concorrem com prevalência proporcional aos inquéritos tradicionais realizados na população brasileira, à exceção da ausência de tenídeos e baixa prevalência de Aneylostomatidae. Sugere-se a realização de exame protoparasitológico de rotina entre os pré-escolares e a utilização de dados dos postos de atendimento primário nos inquéritos parasitológicos.The prevalence of intestinal parasites was carried onusersoftheHealth Center of Sousas District, Campinas, SP (1986-1990. From 770observedmedicalrecords we verify 114 positive cases (14.8%for protozoa, helminths and comensals. Ascaris lumbricoides (48.2%, Giardia lamblia (30.7%, Trichuris trichiura (18,4% and Enterobius vermicularis (9.6% were more prevalent in pre-school children. The adults, what are the most numerous class, appeared few parasitised. The other parasites and comensais appeared with a prevalence like the traditional braiilian population surveys, except for the absence of tenids and low prevalence of Ancylostomatidae. We propose the realization of routine stool parasitological examinations among the pre-school children and the use of the primary health care data in parasitological survey.

  5. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  6. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  7. Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavva, S.R.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States)); Weiss, P.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-06-11

    A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in K{sub NAD} and K{sub i metal} and decreases in V{sub max} as the metal size increases from Mg{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} to Cd{sup 2+}, indicative of crowding in the site. The K{sub malate} value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K{sub malate} increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the {sup 13}C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The {sup 13}C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary {sup 13}C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd{sup 2+}. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd{sup 2+} as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd{sup 2+} ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd{sup 2+}.

  8. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  9. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

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    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de parasitas em efluentes semi-sólidos e líquidos, em diferentes localidades da Patagonia argentina, por ser fato uma das restrições para seu uso. MÉTODOS: As amostras selecionadas de 4 Centros de Tratamento de Efluentes Domiciliários foram analisadas de acordo com as normas da "Environmental Protection Agenty", Organização Mundial da Saúde e do "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater", além de algumas classificações. RESULTADOS: Somente 2 das 6 amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas continham ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides não viáveis. Das 10 amostras líquidas, somente 2 não continham ovos, enquanto as restantes continham patógenos das categorias I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta e Enterobius

  10. Intestinal obstruction in children due to Ascariasis: A tertiary health centre experience

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    Mishra P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis is the infestation by the largest intestinal nematode of man, a common problem in the tropics attributed to poor hygienic and low socioeconomic conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse the presentation, diagnosis and management of bowel obstruction caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, with special emphasis on the role of conservative management. Materials and Methods: This is a single centre, two consultant based 5 year retrospective study of childhood intestinal obstruction due to worms. Diagnosis in the suspected patients was based on history of passage of worms per mouth or rectum and on x-ray and ultrasonography findings. Only the patients of intestinal obstruction with documented evidence of roundworm infestation were included in the study and were followed for one year. Results: One hundred and three children with intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides were treated in the past five years at our centre. Abdominal pain was the most common presentation seen in 96 children followed by vomiting in 77 children. 20 children had history of vomiting worms and another 43 had history of passing worms in stool. Abdominal tenderness was present in 50 children, 48 had abdominal distension of varying degree, 50 had abdominal mass due to worm bolus, and 16 had or developed abdominal guarding or rigidity. All the children were managed as for acute intestinal obstruction along with hypertonic saline enema. The aim of management was "to starve the worm and hydrate the patient". 87 patients (84.47% responded favourably and were relieved of the obstruction by the conservative management, 16 children (15.53% had abdominal guarding or rigidity and underwent emergency exploration. Conclusion: Roundworm obstruction should be considered in the differential diagnoses of all cases of intestinal obstruction in children. Clinical history and examination along with X-ray and ultrasonography are very helpful for diagnosis of this

  11. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  12. The killing effect of Ascaris peptide yeast fermentation products on Leishmania donovani%蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物对杜氏利什曼原虫杀伤作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲维霞; 屈金辉; 王洪法; 赵桂华; 崔勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物对杜氏利什曼原虫的抑杀作用,探讨此抗菌肽可作为治疗黑热病的药物的可能性.方法 培养利什曼原虫至适当浓度,接种于96孔组织培养板中,设实验组和对照组,实验组分别加入10μl浓度为30、60、90、120、150、180μg∥ml的蛔虫抗菌肽酵母发酵产物浓缩上清液,每个浓度重复9孔,对照组加相应体积的对照表达产物,分别在连续培养24、48和72 h后,每孔加入20μl四甲基偶氮唑盐(5 mg∥ml),继续培养4 h,每孔加入100μlformanzan溶解液,孵育4 h左右,在570 am测定吸光度,根据吸光度数值计算杀伤率.结果 实验组按浓度由低到高(30~180μg//ml)对应的杀伤率在培养24 h后为20.12%、41.39%、64.89%、65.14%、66.49%和66.49%,培养48 h后为40.12%、67.34%、75.1l%、82.03%、82.75%和82.75%;培养72 h后为45.89%、65.57%、78.49%、82.58%、85.38%和85.38%.蛔虫抗菌肽发酵产物浓度为150μg/ml时,杀伤作用最大,杀伤率为85.38%,IC50为50μg/ml.结论 蛔虫抗菌肽对利什曼原虫有很强的杀伤作用.%Objective To study the killing effect of yeast fermentation product of Ascaris antibacterial peptide on Leishmania donovani and to investigate the possibility of antibacterial peptide as drug for kala-azar.Methods Leishmania was cultured to appropriate concentration,and was seeded in 96-well tissue culture plate.Experimental test and the negative control hole were designed.Then 10 μl supernatant of induced bacteria expression product was added into experimental hole with concentration of 30,60,90,120,150 and 180μg/ml.All levels were repeated nine holes.Then 20 μl methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT,5 mg/ml)was added into each hole and culturing for 4 h after culturing for 24,48 and 72 h,and another 100μl of Formanzan was pulsed,absorbance was read at 570 nm after another 4 h cultured.The killing effect is calculate from A570.Results At concentrations of the experimental

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors forspecific and multiple helminth infections in a remote city of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have described the risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in the Amazon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a City of the State of Amazonas (Brazil to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and determine the risk factors for helminth infections. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. The main risk factors determined were: not having a latrine for A. lumbricoides infection; being male and having earth or wood floors for hookworm infection; and being male for multiple helminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and determined some poverty-related risk factors.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13956-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig-U13956-1 no gap 865 3 4313689 4312825 MINUS 3 3 U13956 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Show C ... ( CB014250 ) As_tgz_76F05_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male ... testis ... 44 2e-04 2 ( BQ833965 ) Al_am_01C08_T3 ... Ascaris lumbricoides adult male ... wh... 50 3e-04 2 ( BM278178 ) As_tgz_54C02_SKPL As ...

  15. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  16. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  17. Ascaridíase hepatobiliar complicada por pneumonia lipoídica Hepatobiliary ascariasis complicated by lipoid pneumonia

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    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de ascaridíase hepatobiliar complicado por pneumonia lipoídica e discutir as implicações anestésicas envolvidas. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Menina de dois anos de idade com ascaridíase hepatobiliar complicada por pneumonia lipoídica por aspiração e desnutrição grave, advinda de família em condições sociais precárias em zona rural, com quatro irmãos. Foi tratada com sucesso por uma combinação de lavados broncopulmonares sucessivos e cirurgia. COMENTÁRIOS: Ascaridíase biliar corresponde a cerca de 10% dos casos de complicações de ascaridíase. Apenas uma minoria precisa de tratamento cirúrgico. O uso de óleo mineral por via oral é um tratamento tradicional para a suboclusão intestinal pelo Ascaris lumbricoides, mas a broncoaspiração do óleo e a conseqüente pneumonia lipoídica representam um risco alto para o seu uso. Anestesia geral para laparotomia exploradora em pré-escolar desnutrido com pneumonia lipóide e ascaridíase biliar é uma situação pouco contemplada na literatura médica, o que exigiu um planejamento terapêutico específico.OBJECTIVE: To present a case of hepatobiliary ascariasis complicated by exogenous lipoid aspirative pneumonia and the anesthetic implications involved. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of hepatobiliary ascariasis complicated by exogenous lipoid aspirative pneumonia and severe undernourishment in a two-year-old female from a five-children poor family from the Brazilian rural area. She was successfully treated by the association of repeated bronchopulmonary lavage and surgery. COMMENTS: Biliary ascariasis corresponds roughly to 10% of complicated ascariasis cases. Only a minority requires surgery. Mineral oil is a traditional treatment for intestinal Ascaris lumbricoides subocclusion, but oil aspiration and lipoid pneumonia remain a highly morbid risk of this practice. General anesthesia and laparotomy in an undernourished small child with lipoid

  18. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón; María J. Rosales; Renzo A. Valdez; Franklin Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia Cordova

    2008-01-01

    Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos crudos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la...

  19. Familial hyperamylasemia Hiperamilasemia familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Kar Ling Koda; Eliana Vidolin

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family memb...

  20. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Villani; Maria Santina de Castro Morini; Marco Antonio Franco; Odair Correa Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in...

  1. Familial hyperamylasemia

    OpenAIRE

    Koda Yu Kar Ling; Vidolin Eliana

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family memb...

  2. Short Report: Quantitative Evaluation of a Handheld Light Microscope for Field Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456...

  3. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  4. Comparison of Individual and Pooled Stool Samples for the Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Intensity and Drug Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke Mekonnen; Selima Meka; Mio Ayana; Johannes Bogers; Jozef Vercruysse; Bruno Levecke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples fro...

  5. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN SUKOMENANTI PASAMAN REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    W. Patrick Carney; Soeroto Atmosoedjono; Hadi Sajidiman; Arbain Joesoef

    2012-01-01

    Survey parasit darah dan usus telah diselenggarakan di Kecamatan Sukomenanti, Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatra Barat. Bahan pemeriksaan berasal dari 168 penduduk lakidaki dan 196 wanita umur antara 2-87 tahun. Di Sumatra Barat cacing yang umumnya terdapat ialah pertama Ascaris lumbricoides, kedua cacing tambang dan ketiga Trichuris trichiura. Survey didaerah Boyolali dan Kresek, Jawa, menemukan lebih banyak T. trichiura daripada cacing tambang. Di daerah Yogyakarta T. trichiura menduduki tempat yan...

  6. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Chaves da Rocha; Stephanie Harter- Lailheugue; Matthieu Le Bailly; Adauto Araújo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Nicolau Maués da Serra-Freire; Françoise Bouchet

    2006-01-01

    Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia ...

  7. Evaluation of Streck Tissue Fixative, a Nonformalin Fixative for Preservation of Stool Samples and Subsequent Parasitologic Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Nace, Eva K.; Frank J Steurer; Eberhard, Mark L.

    1999-01-01

    We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis...

  8. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Hu; Rui Li; Ward, Michael P.; Yue Chen; Henry Lynn; Decheng Wang; Gengxin Chen; Zonggui He; Liqian Sun; Chenglong Xiong; Zhijie Zhang; Qingwu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiur...

  9. Ascariasis in the subdistrict of Cavacos, municipality of Alterosa (MG), Brazil: effect of mass treatment with albendazole on the intensity of infection Ascaridiose no subdistrito de Cavacos, município de Alterosa (MG), Brasil: efeito do tratamento em massa com albendazol sobre a intensidade de infecção

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos T Machado; Telma M. S. Machado; Roberto M Yoshikae; Ana Lúcia A Schmidt; Rita de Cássia A Faria; Maria A Paschoalotti; Rita de Cássia B Barata; Pedro P. Chieffi

    1996-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiologic aspects of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides were studied in a random stratified sample of the population of the subdistrict of Cavacos, municipality of Alterosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The effect of mass treatment with a single dose of albendazole on the prevalence and intensity of infection was also studied six months later in the same population. During the first phase of the study, a questionnaire was applied to 248 individuals to obtain information about ...

  10. A Novel, Multi-Parallel, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for Eight Gastrointestinal Parasites Provides Improved Diagnostic Capabilities to Resource-Limited At-Risk Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J.; Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Tri...

  11. Gall bladder ascariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or ...

  12. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Abid; Wani Muddasir; Wani Shadab; Naikoo Ghulam; Šnábel Viliam; Wani Imtiaz; Sheikh Tariq; Parray Fazal Q; Wani Rauf A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be ...

  13. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fallah; M.H. Azimian; M. Nabiee; M Hojati

    2004-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy...

  14. Prevention of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale); on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the env...

  15. Effects of iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on geophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo;

    2004-01-01

    /l, geophageous children had significantly higher prevalence (53.7 vs. 30.6%, P = 0.024) of Ascaris lumbricoides infection than non-geophageous. The prevalence of geophagy (74.4 to 51.6%) and the intake of earth (25.3 to 15.0 g/day) declined (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) among the 220 (54.2%) children...

  16. Biliary Ascariasis Coinciding Hepatitis a Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Metehan; Güngör, Serdal; Karakurt, Cemşit; Kutlu, Ramazan

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infestation in developing countries. Fifteen years-old male was admitted with the complaints of jaundice, abdominal pain and nausea. Laboratory investigations revealed positivity of anti-HAV-IgM and IgG. We performed abdominal ultrasonography because of long-lasting jaundice and increasing abdominal crampy pain. Examination revealed 7-8 cm long tubular image which is consistent with Ascaris lumbricoides. Single dose albendazole and an...

  17. Smartphone Microscopy of Parasite Eggs Accumulated into a Single Field of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, Stephen J; Crump, John A; Johnstone, Maree C; Krause, Kurt L; Hill, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    A Nokia Lumia 1020 cellular phone (Microsoft Corp., Auckland, New Zealand) was configured to image the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides converged into a single field of view but on different focal planes. The phone was programmed to acquire images at different distances and, using public domain computer software, composite images were created that brought all the eggs into sharp focus. This proof of concept informs a framework for field-deployable, point of care monitoring of soil-transmitted helminths. PMID:26572870

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its impact on nutritional status among preschool children living in Damanhur City, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Adham Mohammad; Younis, Neveen Tawakol; Aminou, Heba Abdelkader; Badr, Ayman Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    This cross sectional study was done in Damanhur City, the Capital of El-Behera Governorate to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among preschool aged children and to find out its effect on their nutritional status. Five-hundreds children aged between 2-6 years were enrolled; a detailed questionnaire, complete clinical and anthropometric assessment as well as complete stool analysis and blood picture were done. The study revealed that 51.8% preschool children were infected; Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were found in 16.8%, and 14.8% respectively. In 1.8% of cases, both cysts were found together. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma duodenale and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 14%, 3.4%, 5% & 0.2% of cases, respectively. In 0.4% of cases, ova of A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis were found together. Mixed infections were found in 3.6% of children. Significantly lower weight for age z-score (WAZ) and weight for height z-score (WHZ) were found among infested children compared to non-infested ones (P < 0.05). Moreover, stunting was found in 44.1%, underweight in 39.1% and wasting in 11.5% of infested children. Prevalence of anemia among all studied population was 39%; 48.6% in infested group compared to 28.8% in non-infested children (x = 20, P < 0.001). Improper hand washing, and playing in the street bare footed, together with playing with animals and family history of parasitic infestation were considered the independent predictors of parasitic infestation by using binary logistic regression. PMID:25597166

  19. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  20. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  1. Intestinal parasites among Karitiana Indians from Rondônia State, Brazil Parasitas intestinais entre índios Karitiana do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Ferrari

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravity sedimentation parasitological examinations were performed in stool samples from 111 Karitiana Indians from Rondônia State, Brazilian Amazon Basin. Intestinal parasites were found in 43 samples (38.7%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent helminth species (18.9%. Egg counts in samples positive for Ascaris suggested an overdispersed distribution of worm burdens in the host population. Age-distribution pattern of intestinal parasites among Karitiana Indians was found to be rather unusual: the highest prevalence (60.0% was detected in the 12-to 16-year-old age groupExames parasitológicos por meio da técnica de sedimentação por gravidade foram feitos em amostras fecais de 111 índios Karitiana, do Estado de Rondônia, na Amazônia brasileira. Encontraram-se parasitas intestinais em 43 amostras (38,7%. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o parasita mais prevalente (18,9%. As contagens de ovos em amostras positivas para Ascaris sugeriram uma distribuição superdispersa das cargas parasitárias na população hospedeira. Encontrou-se uma distribuição etária incomum de parasitas intestinais entre os índios Karitiana: a maior prevalência (60% foi detectada na faixa etária entre 12 e 16 anos

  2. Health Status of Immigrant Children and Environmental Survey of Child Daycare Centers in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnuankiat, Surapol; Wanichsuwan, Molee; Bhunnachet, Ekaporn; Jungarat, Nahathai; Panraksa, Kanitha; Komalamisra, Chalit; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pubampen, Somchit; Adisakwattana, Poom; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-02-01

    Samut Sakhon is a Thai province popular among immigrants attracted to work in factories and the Thai food industry, especially people from Myanmar. Poor personal-hygiene behaviors, crowded accommodation and limited sanitation, result in health problems among immigrant workers. Various infectious diseases among this group are seen and managed by Samut Sakhon General Hospital. The impact of intestinal parasitic infections on public health is well known; they can spread from infected immigrant areas to uninfected areas via close contact and fecal-oral transmission from contaminated food and water. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among 372 immigrant children at 8 child-daycare centers during their parents' work time, by physical examination, fecal examination, and examination of the environment around the centers. Physical examinations were generally unremarkable, except that head-lice and fingernail examinations were positive in two cases (0.8 %). The results showed intestinal parasitic infections to be highly prevalent, at 71.0 %. These infections comprised both helminths and protozoa: Trichuris trichiura (50.8 %), Enterobius vermicularis (25.2 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.3 %), hookworm (11.6 %), Giardia lamblia (10.2 %), Endolimax nana (3.5 %), Entamoeba coli (2.7 %), and Blastocystis hominis (0.5 %). The environmental survey found a small number of houseflies near the accommodation to be positive for helminthic eggs (0.2 %), including A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, hookworms, Taenia spp., and minute intestinal flukes. Regarding the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children, it has been conjectured whether they were infected, along with their parents, during their daily lives before or after settling in Thailand. Intestinal parasites among immigrant children may involve a significant epidemiological impact, since immigrant children can serve as carriers and transmitters of disease

  3. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  4. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients afferent to the Hospital of Desio (Monza e Brianza, Italy

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    Claudia Ballabio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From may 2008 to June 2010 we have analyzed faecal samples of 2306 subjects: in the subjects was performed the coproparassitological standard examination and in 523 of them was performed scotch test. Of the 2306 subjects examined, 101 resulted positive, 59 to the coproparasitological exam, 43 to scotch test, and 1 to both of them (Taenia spp.. In three cases we have found positivity for two different parassitological species. Pathogenic parasites were found in 77 cases, 61 autoctones and 16 immigrates. The helminths found were Enterobius vermicularis, the prevalent, and Taenia spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Diphillobothrium latum, Trichuris Trichiura, while the Protozoa were Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Non pathogenic species were found in 27 cases, 15 among autoctones and 12 among immigrates: in detail Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis. The total prevalence of parassitosis is low (4,2%, 20,0% in immigrate subjects and 3,4% in native subjects. Our results show that the 0-10 age group have an higher prevalence for Enterobius vermicularis. Some considerations are related for improving the complete or more exhaustive diagnosis concerning the intestinal parasitosis.

  6. The impact of improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities on diarrhea and intestinal parasites: a Brazilian experience with children in two low-income urban communities O impacto das medidas de melhoria do abastecimento de água e esgoto sobre a diarréia e parasitose intestinal: experiência brasileira com crianças de comunidades de baixa renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Gross

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of 1986 the impact of the improvement of water supply and excreta disposal facilities on diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasitosis was studied in 254 children up to six years of age from two favelas (shanty towns of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The estimated incidence of diarrhea was 6.2 episodes/child year and the estimated period prevalence reached 31.0 episode days/ child/ year. The point prevalence of parasitosis was 70.7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55.4%, Trichuris trichiura: 19.6%, Giardia lamblia: 17.9%. The estimated prevalence of diarrhea decreased with improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities to 45% and 44% respectively, but no statistically significant impact was observed in the case of parasitosis. School education and weaning practice were found to be other important determinants of diarrhea.Em 1986 pesquisou-se, junto a 254 crianças de até 6 anos de idade, residentes em duas favelas de Belo Horizonte (Brasil, o impacto das medidas de melhoramento do abastecimento de água e esgoto na incidência de diarréia e parasitose intestinal. Até então, a incidência de diarréia era estimada em 6,2 casos por criança e ano, com uma duração predominante de 31,0 dias por caso/criança/ano. A taxa de difusão de parasitose alcançava 70,7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55,4%, Trichuris trichiura: 19,6%; Giardia lamblia: 17,9%. Após os melhoramentos no abastecimento de água e esgoto, a incidência de diarréia caiu para 45% e 44%, respectivamente. Quanto à parasitose, entretanto, não se constatou nenhum impacto estatisticamente significante. Também verificou-se que o grau de educação escolar e práticas de desmame são determinantes de grande importância na incidência de diarréia.

  7. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. III. Pemba Island (Zanzibar-Tanzania)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Stefanini, A

    1987-04-01

    The authors carried out a coprological survey in Pemba Island, analysing, by modified Ritchie technique, 413 stools samples. The specimens were collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random in a number equal to 2% of the whole population. The examined subjects were divided in 3 age groups, 211 were males, 202 females. The following results were obtained (in order of prevalence): a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli 35.6%, Giardia intestinalis 5.6%, Endolimax nana 4.3%, E. histolytica 3.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 2.9%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 4.3%, E. hartmanni 0.7%; b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura 87.9%, Ancylostomatidae 67.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 39.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 18.9%, Schistosoma haematobium 1.9%, S. mansoni 0.2%, S. fuelleborni 0.2%, Enterobius vermicularis 0.2%. The high moisture of soil and the rain distribution during the year could be favouring the high prevalence of T. trichiura and Ancylostomatidae. The case of schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni reported, seems to be imported from the Mainland, while the case of S. fuelleborni could be autochtonous. Totally, 392 subjects (94.4%) were found positive for pathogenic species (Helminths and Protozoa). PMID:3508507

  8. [Intestinal parasites in inhabitants of Wrocław and Wałbrzych].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonc, E; Okulewicz, A; Kopczyńska-Maślej, J; Zaródzka, Z

    1999-01-01

    In the period 1990-1997 several thousand patients from Wrocław and Wałbrzych hospitals as well as inhabitants of Wrocław city were examined for intestinal parasites. The presence of parasites was noted in 12.3% of 2173 patients from the District Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław, 3.2% of 599 from Wałbrzych Hospital and 39.3% (mostly Enterobius vermicularis) of 746 ambulatory examined persons in the Private Analytical Laboratory in Wrocław. Among the intestinal protozoa the most frequent was Giardia intestinalis (from 5.7 to 18.1%) and Entamoeba coli (0.5-0.6%); the remaining amoebas (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, E. polecki and Endolimax nana) as well as Chilomonas mesnili was present only in single cases. Enterobiosis was observed in nearly half of the total number of examined children (1808); the most rarely found helminths were Opisorchis felineus (! Adult patient), Strongyloides stercoralis (2) and Trichuris trichiura (8); Taenia saginata was found in 56 patients, which constituted 1.6% of the total number of examined cases and Ascaris lumbricoides in 40 (1.2%). PMID:16883717

  9. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  10. Anemia, parasitic infections and some risk factors among physical education female students in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sahn, Fikrat F; El-Masry, Abdel-Ghanny M; El-Sahn, Amel A

    2003-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional one, carried out to estimate the percentages of anemia and parasites among students of Faculty of Physical Education for girls and some of their related factors. A predesigned questionnaire was completed by the researchers through face-to-face meetings to collect data concerning age, menstruation history and some dietary habits. Blood samples were taken by finger pricks to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) concentration level (gm/dl). Stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of intestinal parasites using formol ether concentration technique. Mild anemia was found among 12.4% of the studied female students. Mean Hb level was 13.3 g/dl (SD +/- 1.03). Anemia increased in those drinking tea immediately after meals and in those not drinking tea indicating poor iron reserves. Also taking iron supplements, having a history of anemia, increased amount and duration of menstruation were associated with anemia. Percentage of girls infected with parasites was 27.2%. A higher percentage of, anemia was found among students with no parasites (13.1% vs. 9.7%). The difference was statistically insignificant. Parasitic infections were insignificantly associated with anemia which was found in only 12.5% of girls infected with Giardia lamblia, in 10% of those with Ascaris lumbricoides, and in 7.4% of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cases. PMID:17265613

  11. Familial hyperamylasemia

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    Koda Yu Kar Ling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family members were normal in his father and maternal grandmother but elevated in his mother, sister, maternal aunt, and uncle, all of whom asymptomatic. Macroamylasemia was excluded in the child and in the mother. The finding of persistently elevated amylasemia in the child and in the other family members spanning 3 generations, and the exclusion of diseases that lead to hyperamilasemia are consistent with the diagnosis of familial hyperamylasemia. Until now, only 1 similar case has been reported. Familial hyperamylasemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemias in childhood.

  12. Familial hyperamylasemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yu Kar Ling; Vidolin, Eliana

    2002-01-01

    A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family members were normal in his father and maternal grandmother but elevated in his mother, sister, maternal aunt, and uncle, all of whom asymptomatic. Macroamylasemia was excluded in the child and in the mother. The finding of persistently elevated amylasemia in the child and in the other family members spanning 3 generations, and the exclusion of diseases that lead to hyperamilasemia are consistent with the diagnosis of familial hyperamylasemia. Until now, only 1 similar case has been reported. Familial hyperamylasemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemias in childhood. PMID:11981589

  13. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  14. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

  15. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces. PMID:17628910

  16. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

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    Amin Abid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be removed as complications may occur at any time. The aim of this study was to describe the findings of concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum who had surgical intervention in symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods A retrospective case review study of 14 children who had surgical intervention for symptomatic intestinal ascariasis having the presence of concomitant Meckel's diverticulum was done. The study was done at SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. Results A total of the 14 children who had ascaridial intestinal obstruction with concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum were studied. Age of children ranged from 4-12 years, male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Nine patients had asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, whereas 5 patients with symptomatic signs were found in the course of emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Meckel's diverticulum in intestinal ascariasis may pursue silent course or may be accompanied with complications of the diverticulitis, perforation or the gangrene. Incidental finding of the Meckel's diverticulum in the intestinal ascariasis should have removal.

  17. Factors of risk associated to intestinal parasite infections among public shoolchilden in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  18. Ascariasis as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Gerly Edson; Teves, Pedro Montes; Monge, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in developing countries. It may cause chronic abdominal pain, tenderness and bloating. Our aim is to report a case of acute episodic abdominal pain and pancreatitis associated with ascariasis. We report a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute abdominal pain, having had several previous similar events before one of them was diagnosed as acute idiopathic pancreatitis. On admission, her physical exam was normal. Laboratory results showed hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white blood cell count 11 900 cells/mm(3), eosinophils 420 cells/mm(3), serum amylase 84 IU/mL, lipase 22 IU/mL and normal liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound and a plain abdominal X-ray were also normal. An upper endoscopy showed round white worms in the duodenum and the stomach, some of them with bile in their intestines. The intestinal parasites were diagnosed as Ascaris lumbricoides, and the patient was started on albendazole, with full recovery within a week. We believe that ascariasis should be considered in patients with recurrent abdominal pain and idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:20447214

  19. Pulmonary ascariasis in tropical communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, R K

    1975-09-01

    To determine the incidence of Loeffler's syndrome in a tropical region, a survey was conducted over a 1-year period in two locations in Colombia, South America, one inland and urban (Cali), the other rural and coastal (Guapi). Among 700 hospitalized patients, 12,000 patients coming to health centers, and 44 families with 328 members, 4 cases of Loeffler's syndrome were found--3 during the survey and 1 before it began. Only one was typical and of some severity. None of the family members developed a perceptible reaction to larvae, though surveillance was close and 83 new intestinal infections were documented. Infection rates for intestinal ascariasis were 25% to 30% in Cali, and 80% to 90% in Guapi. When infections in 30 families were eliminated, previous levels of infection were reached within 10 months. When undisturbed by treatment, the levels of intestinal infection remained stable or showed fluctuations which were not linked to climatic changes. In view of the high prevalence of infection and year-round transmission, which was assumed to occur frequently in the population, it is noteworthy that symptomatic pulmonary ascariasis appeared to be rare and complications from adult worms in heavy infections were uncommon. The findings suggest that frequent and uninterrupted contact between Ascaris lumbricoides and its host results in a high degree of natural tolerance and control. PMID:1238026

  20. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN SUKOMENANTI PASAMAN REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit darah dan usus telah diselenggarakan di Kecamatan Sukomenanti, Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatra Barat. Bahan pemeriksaan berasal dari 168 penduduk lakidaki dan 196 wanita umur antara 2-87 tahun. Di Sumatra Barat cacing yang umumnya terdapat ialah pertama Ascaris lumbricoides, kedua cacing tambang dan ketiga Trichuris trichiura. Survey didaerah Boyolali dan Kresek, Jawa, menemukan lebih banyak T. trichiura daripada cacing tambang. Di daerah Yogyakarta T. trichiura menduduki tempat yang pertama. Angka infeksi yang rendah untuk desa Pasir Tampang (11 percent dan Tongar (3 percent adalah tidak umum untuk Indonesia, tetapi keadaan demikian juga dilaporkan di lembah Lindu dan Napu, Sulawesi Tengah. Enterobius vermicularis terdapat hanya pada 2 per cent diantara penduduk yang diperiksa, sesuai dengan keadaan di daerah2 lain di Indonesia. Species dari cacing tambang pada survey ini belum dapat ditentukan. Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides terdapat lebih banyak pada penduduk golongan muda, sesuai dengan hasil autopsi oleh Liedan Tan di Jakarta. Di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat infeksi A. lumbricoides tampak merata pada semua umur. Entamoeba coli selalu terdapat pada survey di desa2 di pulau Jawa. Tetapi, infeksi E. histolytica (24 percent adalah berlainan dengan keadaan di Kresek, Boyolali dan Yogyakarta yang menunjukkan ■ infeksi 12 per cent atau kurang. Infeksi malaria di Sukomenanti adalah sangat rendah sebagaimana terdapat di Kresek dan Yogya­karta. Keadaan demikian sangat berlainan dengan daerah Margolimbo di Sulawesi Selatan dimana angka dnfeksi malarianya tinggi.

  1. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  2. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Harter-Lailheugue, Stephanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; da Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Bouchet, Françoise

    2006-12-01

    Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements. PMID:17308808

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  4. Clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about clinical cases and the contribution of the PET - CT Fag application in the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer. The cases presented were: neck diseases, epidermoid carcinoma, liver damage and metastasize, lymphoma, thrombosis, colonic cancer and lung disease

  5. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  6. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  7. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIC INFECTION AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVEL (THE PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan tentang prevalensi dan intensitas dari "Soil transmitted helminthic infection" pada tiga golongan penduduk dengan perbedaan tingkat ekonomi-sosial telah dilakukan di Mundu, Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Dimulai dari penduduk dengan golongan ekonomi-sosial yang relatif terbaik sampai yang terburuk, maka prevalensi untuk Ascaris lumbricoides adalah: 31,5 persen, 59,0 persen dan 80,0 persen; Trichuris trichiura: 43,8 persen, 74,9 persen dan 98,5 persen; cacing tambang 21,7 persen, 44,1 persen dan 81,5 persen, sedang Stronglyloides stercoralis ditemukan hanya 0 persen, 0 persen dan 5.1 persen. Intensitas infeksi dari A. lumbricoides menunjukkan angka-angka: 8935, 18514 dan 20581; T. trichiura; 348,993 dan 2225 dan pada cacing tambang 407,677 dan 1461 telur per satu gram tinya. A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura menunjukkan prevalensi maupun intensitas yang lebih tinggi pada wanita, sedang cacing tambang baik prevalensi maupun intensitasnya adalah lebih tinggi pada pria. Berdasarkan pembagian menurut umur, maka prevalensi dan intensitas A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura didapatkan tertinggi pada umur-umur dibawah 14 tahun, sedang cacing tambang pada umur lebih tinggi dari 15 tahun.

  8. Ultrasonographic features of pseudotumorous form of ascariasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the ultrasonographic findings of a 60 year old woman with pseudotumorous form of ascariasis. Real-time ultrasonographic examination using a curved array transducer revealed grossly thickened small bowel loops, multiple small circular deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity, and a moderate amount of ascites. The English literature on the different forms of abdominal ascariasis is reviewed. Specific signs, which include the 'strip' sign, the 'four-lines', 'inner tube', or 'double tube' sign, the 'bull's eye' or 'target' sign, a 'worm mass' or 'spaghetti-like' appearance, and the 'zig-zag' sign can be present in any form of abdominal ascariasis, as they represent the image of the Ascaris worms visualized under ultrasonographic examination. However, the non-specific signs are not peculiar to A. lumbricoides infections, but are results of secondary changes due to A. lumbricoides infections in the corresponding organs

  9. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  10. Radiological findings of intraparenchymal liver Ascaris (hepatobiliary ascariasis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, D.; Oezmen, M.N.; Kaya, A.; Akhan, O. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1999-02-01

    Ascariasis is a well-known cause of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis; however, very rarely do worms penetrate and colonize the liver parenchyma. Here we present the unique radiological demonstration (US, CT and ERCP) of hepatobiliary ascariasis in which worm was first alive in the parenchyma of the liver and subsequently died and formed liver abscess. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  11. Radiological findings of intraparenchymal liver Ascaris (hepatobiliary ascariasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascariasis is a well-known cause of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis; however, very rarely do worms penetrate and colonize the liver parenchyma. Here we present the unique radiological demonstration (US, CT and ERCP) of hepatobiliary ascariasis in which worm was first alive in the parenchyma of the liver and subsequently died and formed liver abscess. (orig.) (orig.)

  12. Biliary ascariasis: Report of a complicated case and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanai F; Al-Karawi M

    2007-01-01

    Invasion of the Ascaris worm into the biliary system leads to a wide variety of clinical syndromes. Most of the descriptions of the disease have originated from the developing world, where due to the environmental factors there is a high level of parasitism. An increased incidence of biliary ascariasis borne out of population migration and increased facilities for diagnosis has led to a renewal of interest in this disease in the developed world. Significant morbidity and mortality is associat...

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  14. Case work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the question just what is the ?case? partly defined the fields of sociology and social work in early 20th century Chicago. Drawing on the archives of the University of Chicago, I describe and appraise the way the ?case? figured in social work at Chicago and elsewhere. I ask the...... corresponding question of sociology. Finally, I briefly consider why not much came of social work and sociology ploughing similar territory in ways that served for a time to hallmark their identities. This analysis opens up ways of rethinking how social work and sociological research are distinctive to their...

  15. Detecção de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas na água e nas hortaliças consumidas em comunidades escolares de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil Detection enteroparasites transmissible forms in water and raw vegetables consumed in pre-schools from Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva Coelho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em água e em hortaliças consumidas cruas, no período de agosto de 1997 a julho de 1998. A água foi submetida à filtração em membranas de celulose. A água da lavagem destas membranas foi submetido ao método de Faust. As hortaliças in natura e lavada foram lavadas e a água submetida ao método de sedimentação. Uma escola não apresentou contaminação; duas tiveram todos os materiais contaminados; quatro, 2 materiais contaminados e três, 1 material contaminado. A água apresentou índice de 0,7% de contaminação (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis e ancilostomídeos; a hortaliça in natura, 3,9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, ancilostomídeos, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia e a lavada, 1,3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia. As hortaliças e a água são veiculadoras de enteroparasitas. A forma larval foi a mais presente. A hortaliça in naturaapresentou maior contaminação que a lavada. A lavagem não garantiu a ausência dessas formas em hortaliças.Water and raw vegetables consumed in ten nursery schools were evaluated for the presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites. The water was submitted to filtration through membranes. The washed membrane water was submitted to the Faust method. The in natura and washed vegetables were washed and the water analyzed by the sedimentation method. Contamination was not detected in one school; in two schools, all the materials were contaminated; in four schools, two items were contaminated and in three, one material presented contamination. The water presented a contamination index of 0.7% contamination (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostomatidae; the vegetables in natura, 3.9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostomatidae, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia and the washed samples 1.3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and

  16. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode ...

  17. Asymptomatic Giardiasis in school children in Rey city

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiei M; Torkaman M; Sharbatdar Alaei MR

    2000-01-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken to know the rate of intestinal parasites infestations in our school children population. A sum of 1155 fecal samples were analyzed from an equal number of children whose age were between 6-11 years old. The percentage of infestations were: Giardia lamblia (14.11%), hymenolepis nana (1.21%), ascaris lumbricoides (0.08%) and enterobius vermicularis (0.08%). We found no differences with regard to sex, age, father and mother levels of educatio...

  18. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  19. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P K; Pande, N K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    A single dose of 2% albendazole suspension (400 mg in 20 ml) was administered to 77 patients (42 males and 35 females), ages ranging between 2 to 12 years, with helminthic infections. Ascariasis was the most prevalent infection. Patients were followed-up for 3 weeks. The results showed that albendazole was highly effective against Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Enterobius vermicularis. Significant improvement was also observed in patients having infections due to Trichuris trichiura. Albendazole was well tolerated and did not produce any significant side-effects. Single dose albendazole appears to be appropriate for mass chemotherapy to control intestinal nematode infections in highly infected communities. PMID:4028809

  20. Evolução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em escolares em Caxias do Sul, RS Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Callegari Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatos da prevalência das parasitoses intestinais no Brasil são pontuais e têm sido descritos em diferentes populações, tornando difícil um diagnóstico abrangente. Visando estudar a variação em 35 anos da prevalência de enteroparasitoses em escolares de Caxias do Sul, RS, foram avaliados 9.787 exames parasitológicos de fezes realizados por centrífugo-sedimentação. Resultaram positivas 5.655 (58% amostras sendo mais prevalente a infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% e os protozoários: Giardia lamblia (24% e Entamoeba coli (20%. A prevalência geral diminuiu de 89% para 37%, com um decréscimo médio de 1,4% ao ano. Houve redução na prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides de 61 para 26% e de Trichuris trichiura de 38 a 18%. Para Giardia lamblia não houve alteração significativa. A prevalência de Entamoeba coli cresceu de 29 a 46%. Os decréscimos obtidos na prevalência dos helmintos são provavelmente devidos às melhorias da infra-estrutura e às ações formativas desenvolvidas nas escolas.Reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Brazil have been local in nature, with descriptions of different populations, which makes comprehensive diagnosis difficult. With the aim of studying the variation in the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, over a 35-year period, 9,787 parasitological stool tests that had been performed using centrifugal sedimentation were evaluated. There were positive results from 5,655 samples (58%, and the most prevalent infestations were of Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% and the protozoa Giardia lamblia (24% and Entamoeba coli (20%. The overall prevalence diminished from 89% to 37%, indicating an average decrease of 1.4% per year. Reductions in prevalence were observed for Ascaris lumbricoides (61 to 26% and Trichuris trichiura (38

  1. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Elblag area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, W

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in Elbl4g was studied. Out of 72 soil samples collected in public places of the city 13.9% were positive and the mean egg density was 3.75/100g soil. The city backyards were much more contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs (18.0%) than the playgrounds (4.5%). In sandpits examined the eggs were not found. Almost 80% of Toxocara spp. eggs recovered were infective. T. cati eggs were more frequent than T. canis eggs. Additionally in examined samples two eggs of Ancylostoma caninum and one egg of Ascaris lumbricoides were recognized. PMID:16888965

  2. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  3. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Laos: A Community-Wide Cross-Sectional Study of Humans and Dogs in a Mass Drug Administration Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8–44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3–49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4–10.4%), respectivel...

  4. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Rumah dengan Kejadian Askariasis dan Trikuriasis pada Siswa SD N 29 Purus Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildya Kusmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Prevalensi infeksi kecacingan masih tinggi terutama pada anak usia sekolah dasar. Cacing yang sering menginfeksi yaitu Ascaris lumbricoides dan Trichuris trichiura. Infeksi ini erat kaitannya dengan masalah lingkungan, perilaku manusia dan manipulasi terhadap lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan hubungan sanitasi lingkungan rumah yaitu kepemilikan jamban keluarga yang sehat, ketersediaan sumber air bersih, sarana pembuangan sampah dan jenis lantai rumah dengan kejadian askariasis dan trikuriasis. Ini adalah penelitian analitikdengan desain cross-sectional study. Jumlah populasi sebanyak 71 orang dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 55 orang.Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan tinja dan kuesioner. Metode analisis data menggunakan uji chisquare.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase infeksi kecacinganpada siswa SD Negeri 29 Purus Padang adalah 38%, terdiri dari; infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides (33%, Trichuris trichiura (9,1% dan infeksi kedua spesies (3,6%. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara kepemilikan jamban keluarga, ketersediaan sumber air bersih, kepemilikan sarana pembuangan sampah dan jenis lantai rumah dengan angka kejadian askariasis dan trikuriasis (p > 0,05. Masih tingginya infeksi kecacingan pada siswa sekolah dasar perluperhatian yang lebih baik misalnya diadakannya program pemberantasan kecacingan baik oleh sekolah maupun petugas kesehatan setempat.Kata kunci: infeksi kecacingan, sanitasi lingkungan, askariasis, trikuriasis Abstract Prevalence of worms infestation is still high, especially found among children at the elementary school age. Type of worms that often infect are Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. The infection is  related to envi ronment issues, human behavior and manipulation of the environment.  The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between environmental sanitation of home, consist of latrine ownership, availability of

  5. Sewage Water Treatment by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study indicates that Gamma irradiation could be the solution for raising the standards of disinfection in waste water of Damascus city up to the international standards, when samples of the inlet of the planet was irradiated with Gamma radiation at dose rate of 3.4 KGy./hr The radiation sensitivity of total micro-organisms, fungi, and pathogenic bacteria was 0.316, 0.318 , 0.306 KGy respectively Also the results showed the absence of Ascaris Lumbricoides ova which permit reusing the recycled waste water in irrigation safely. (authors)

  6. The impact of improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities on diarrhea and intestinal parasites: a Brazilian experience with children in two low-income urban communities O impacto das medidas de melhoria do abastecimento de água e esgoto sobre a diarréia e parasitose intestinal: experiência brasileira com crianças de comunidades de baixa renda

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Gross; Bernd Schell; Maria Carmen Bisi Molina; Maria Antonia Cuelho Leão; Ulrike Strack

    1989-01-01

    During the second half of 1986 the impact of the improvement of water supply and excreta disposal facilities on diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasitosis was studied in 254 children up to six years of age from two favelas (shanty towns) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The estimated incidence of diarrhea was 6.2 episodes/child year and the estimated period prevalence reached 31.0 episode days/ child/ year. The point prevalence of parasitosis was 70.7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55.4%, Trichuris tri...

  7. PREDOMINANCE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS IN OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOSIS IN CENTEREASTERN REGION OF PARANÁ: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYZES OF THE PROBLEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina Cenci Queiroz, Angela Patricia Motin, Cristiane Aparecida Verbaneck, Franciely Damaris de Cristo, Marcia de Souza Oliveira, Marcia Maria Veronese e Shirley Rak Mantovani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high incidence of parasitic diseases in centereastern region of Paraná, an inquiry about its probable determinants was carried out. Particularly, the occurrence of Ascaris Lumbricoides was analyzed. Bibliographical research referring to this theme and data-collecting from centereastern region have been carried out, attempting to contextualize the epidemiological condition of this region. We can conclude that the high occurrence of ascariasis in analyzed region is linked to life conditions of general population, the deficiency in urban and sanitary planning, socioeconomic conditions and, essentially, the absence of investments in basic infrastructure. Thus, this study demonstrates the need of an urgent prophylactic action.

  8. Prevention and treatment of ascariasis in demonstration plots of integrated control from 2006 to 2009%我国寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫病3年防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸廷俊; 陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫感染现状,探索蛔虫病防治措施.方法 在示范区实施健康教育、药物驱虫和改水改厕等综合干预措施,观察措施实施前后居民蛔虫感染率的变化.结果 3年中示范区累计驱虫620余万人次,服药覆盖率达81.65%,居民蛔虫感染率由2006年的17.81%降至2009年的2.52%.居民卫生知识知晓率由45.11%提高到95.99%,改水受益率达84.09%,无害化厕所覆盖率为50.30%.结论 通过3年综合防治,示范区居民蛔虫感染率下降明显.%Objective To understand the situation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in the demonstration plots and evaluate the effect of integrated intervention measures. Methods The integrated intervention measures included health education, mass chemotherapy, safe water and sanitary toilets. The changes of infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in residents were observed before and after the intervention. Results With the 3-year' s intervention, the Ascaris lumbricoides infection rates decreased from 17.81% to 2.52%, the rate of mass chemotherapy was 81.65%, which covered more than 6.2 million person-time, the awareness rates of parasitic disease control knowledge among the residents raised from 45.11% to 95.99%, and 84.09% of local people were supplied with safe water and 50.30% of families had sanitary toilets. Conclusion The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate decreases dramatically through the 3-year s intervention.

  9. Tratamento de parasitoses intestinais pela associação piperazina-tiabendazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina S. Velho Soli

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com o emprego da associação antihelmintica piperazina-tiabendazol no tratamento de infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. Considerando a cura de 81 % dos casos de ascaridíase e de 80% dos casos de ancilostomíase, bem como a ótima tolerância ao medicamento, acreditam que esta associação medicamentosa possa ser empregada com sucesso para o tratamento das referidas parasitoses.

  10. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  11. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  12. Intestinal complications of round worms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, N; Paulose, M O

    1988-10-01

    One hundred forty-two patients with surgical complications of Ascaris lumbricoides were treated in our hospital over a period of 5 years. Included were 120 patients with subacute intestinal obstruction that were treated conservatively, and 22 patients with acute intestinal obstruction that required surgical intervention. Four of the 22 patients that were operated on died following various postoperative complications. However, there were no deaths among those presenting with subacute obstruction. In our experience, early recognition of the condition avoided serious complications and morbidity. PMID:3236163

  13. Cases Description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Savini, Federico; Wallin, Sirkku;

    2013-01-01

    The JPI Urban Europe research project ‘APRILab’ focuses on planning dilemmas for the transformation of city areas in the urban fringe. In this Working Document we describe the case studies selected by the involved partners: - Aalto University, Finland: T3 in Espoo City - Aalborg University, Denmark...

  14. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  15. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ledaal, Pål;

    2015-01-01

    ey Clinical Message Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 VDDR-1 is a recessive inherited disorder with impaired activation of vitamin D, caused by mutations in CYP27B1. We present long-time follow-up of a case with a novel mutation including high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography...

  16. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  17. Intestinal parasites in Iaualapiti indians from Xingu Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Santos Ferreira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Brine flotation and gravity sedimentation coproscopical examinations were performed in stool samples from 69 of the 147 Iaualapiti Indians of the Xingu Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Intestinal [arasites were present in 89.9% of the population examined. High rates of prevalence were found for some parasite species. Ancylostomidae, 82.6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 26.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 20.3%; and Entamoeba coli, 68.1%. Infection by Trichuris trichuria, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana was not detected. Helminth's prevalence in children aged one year or less was comparatively low (33.3%. Quantitative coproscopy was done in positive samples for Ascaris and Ancylostomidae and the results expressed in eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Quantitative results revealed that worm burdens are very low and overdispersed in this Indian tribe, a previously unreported fact.

  18. Imaging of ascariasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. During the intestinal phase of the disease, the adult worms usually remain clinically silent, sometimes causing a variety of non-specific abdominal symptoms. When present in large numbers, the worms may get intertwined into a bolus, causing intestinal obstruction, volvulus or even perforation. Occasionally, the adult Ascaris worm may migrate into the Vater's ampulla and enter the bile duct, gall bladder or pancreatic duct, leading to a variety of complications such as biliary colic, gallstone formation, cholecystitis, pyogenic cholangitis, liver abscess and pancreatitis. Imaging plays a significant role in showing the presence of worms and possible complications in intestinal as well as hepatobiliary ascariasis. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate various imaging features of ascariasis and its associated complications

  19. The Case for Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Saade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available If you are reading a hard copy of this editorial, then you are holding in hand the first issue of the American Journal of Perinatology Reports, or AJP Reports as we like to refer to it. Welcome to AJP Reports and thank you for taking the time to peruse it. I hope you find many of the reports interesting and helpful. The editorial team and publisher are very pleased to be able to bring this journal to our readers. Judging by the journal title, the editorial team, and the layout you may have already guessed that this is a companion to the American Journal of Perinatology. We will continue to publish original articles and topical reviews in the American Journal of Perinatology, but all case reports or case series will be referred to AJP Reports. Some may question the need for more case reports. Our decision to start AJP Reports obviously indicates that we think that case reports can be useful. I can refer to several diseases, treatment complications, and procedures that were first brought to the attention of healthcare providers through case reports. The best example of the usefulness of case reports is probably in infectious diseases. In the early phases of an emerging infectious disease, the case report or case series are usually the first clues of a problem. HIV was first brought to the attention of the medical community by case reports.[1] [2] [3] In our own field, the first attempts at treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS using laser coagulation were reported in a case series.[4] After additional reports about the use of laser in TTTS, a randomized trial was performed that cemented laser photocoagulation as a therapeutic modality for TTTS.[5] While case reports or series are not considered the highest form of evidence, they are frequently the first form of evidence and the nudge that starts the cascade of investigation that ultimately leads to high-level evidence. Therefore, their impact on clinical practice may be easily

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  1. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an intraneural ganglion cyst of the hypoglossal canal. The patient presented with unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small lesion in the hypoglossal canal with no contrast enhancement and high signal on T2-weighted imaging. The lesion was...... assumed to be a cystic schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. Stereotactic irradiation was considered, but in accordance with the patient's wishes, surgical exploration was performed. This revealed that, rather than a schwannoma, the patient had an intraneural ganglion cyst, retrospectively contraindicating...... irradiation as an option. This case illustrates a very rare location of an intraneural ganglion cyst in the hypoglossal nerve. To our knowledge there are no previous reports of an intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the hypoglossal canal....

  2. Corruption case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    A Federal jury in Puerto Rico found three defendants guilty of participating in the theft of $2.2 million in Federal funds from the San Juan AIDS Institute. The key figure in the case is [name removed], a consultant to the institute. He was convicted of 12 counts of money laundering and faces up to 25 years in prison. Two other administrative officials were also convicted in the case. Four others have pleaded guilty, and three more await trial. Rep. Jose Granados Navado was among those implicated; he received $100,000 for his campaign for mayor of San Juan in 1988 from the institute=s medical director. U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) has called for an audit of all Ryan White CARE Act funds since this scandal was uncovered. PMID:11366596

  3. Case04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Flemming; Karlshøj, Jan; Hauch, Peter; Lambrecht, Jan; Mouritsen, Jan

    Casestudiets formål er at beskrive og måle en større entreprenørvirksomheds omkostninger og gevin-ster ved at anvende metoder og værktøjer, der er modelbaserede. Case 04 tager udgangspunkt i et konkret byggeprojekt, hvor BIM teknologien er anvendt på et for den danske entreprenørbranche rela...

  4. Case Corabelle

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Casper; Henriksen, Jesper; Loznica, Javor; Ragnarsson, Stefan; Hensing, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This project explores the relation between organizational identity and online brands as formed through interaction and communication on online, social media through a case study of the cancelled music festival event Corabelle that was supposed to have been held in August of 2014. The investigation draws on the theories of Carlos Scolari and David A. Whetten to establish the relation between organizational identity and online brands, and the theories of Henry Jenkins and Jan H. Kietzmann in an...

  5. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene. PMID:25626125

  6. Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs on Small-Scale Farms, Maine, USA, 2010–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E.; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; DaSilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010–2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene.

  7. Bertoko case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAIA LAFUENTE RUIZ DE SABANDO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Bertoko Gar, S.A. is a minibrewer firm established in 1999. It produces and sells a beer characterized by its local and home-produced character. Despite the fact that no other bottled beer brewers with the same characteristics exist in its home market, Bertoko competes in a market dominated by multinationals. Once it has set its aims, Bertoko is currently designing its marketing strategy and setting which are the actions to be taken for its near future (some of which are detailed in this case.

  8. Case law

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2012-01-01

    France Administrative Court of Appeal of Lyon, 19 June 2012, Judgements Nos. 12LY00233 and 12LY00290 regarding EDF’s permit to construct a waste conditioning and storage facility (ICEDA) in the town of Saint-Vulbas Germany Request for arbitration against Germany at the World Bank’s International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) because of Germany’s legislation leading to the phase-out of nuclear energy India Cases related to the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP)...

  9. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  10. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  11. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the France, the judgement of the European Court of Human Rights on the Right to a fair Trial, in the litigation Collectif Stop Melox and Mox versus France (2007) and the decision of the Council of State Quashing a decree concerning a nuclear installation in Brennilis, for the want of public information and consultation (2007) are reported. For South Africa, the judgment of the Cape High Court in the case of Mc donald and others versus Minister of Minerals and Energy and others (2007) is reported. United Kingdom states the decision of the Wick Sheriff Court Fining UKAEA for plutonium exposure (2007). Concerning Usa the judgment of the US Court of Appeals on environment Analysis of the effects of terrorism (2006) and the vacatur of US Court of Federal Claims Decision regarding Price-Anderson Compensation of Costs in a private Tort Claim (2007) are reported. (N.C.)

  13. Case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, A H; Propotnik, T

    1997-03-01

    Providing cost-effective high quality healthcare services ranks as the number one concern for anyone involved with the healthcare delivery system. While quality of care should always be the number one priority, controlling healthcare costs receives most of the attention. With limited healthcare dollars and providers assuming more of the financial risk for services rendered, a whole assortment of cost-containment strategies are being introduced in an effort to maintain some semblance of financial viability. Healthcare providers can approach cost control from two different angles. On the fixed-cost operational overhead side, traditional cost-containment techniques have focused on downsizing, maximizing productivity, staffing redesign, improved purchasing contracts, standardization, inventory control, and other more individualized restructured service models. On the variable-cost clinical side, cost control has been approached by introducing a variety of cost-containment strategies designed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of provider performance. While many of these strategies, previously discussed in the Journal of Healthcare Resource Management have stressed the importance of education, guidelines, pathways, and other clinical "tools for improvement," the success of many of these tools resides in the ability to provide real-time intervention. Real-time intervention rather than the more passive retrospective variance analysis has the greatest potential for producing cost savings by actually making a recommendation that prevents the unwanted event from occurring. In many institutions, the case manager bears the responsibility for monitoring and managing these programs. This article describes various case management models currently used by different institutions. PMID:10166062

  14. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  15. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  16. Avaliação da contaminação experimental de areias de praias por enteroparasitas: pesquisa de ovos de Helmintos

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    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar métodos e soluções tradicionalmente utilizados na evidenciação de ovos de helmintos parásitos, de fezes ou do solo, em amostras de areia de praia experimentalmente contaminadas com ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis e Ancylostoma sp. Das soluções classicamente utilizadas, a de Dicromato de Sódio (d= 1,350 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados (índice de recuperação = 50% para ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. As duas soluções propostas: Carbonato de Sódio (d= 1,040 e Detergente aniônico sintético - Sulfonato de Sódio (d= 1,040, apresentaram índices de recuperação surpreendentes, superiores a 80% para os ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. Conclui-se que o detergente de uso doméstico, pelo seu baixo custo e facilidade de aquisição, pode ser usado na avaliação de rotina da contaminação de areias de praias pelos ovos de enteroparasitos, importantes indicadores de contaminação fecal, necessários a um adequado monitoramento sanitário do meio.An attempt was made to assess methods and solutions traditionally used for evidencing the presence of helminth's eggs in faeces or soil from beach sand samples experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis and Ancylostomidae. Among classically used solutions. Sodium Dicromate (d= 1.350 was the one with better results (recovery rate =50% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. The two suggested solutions - Sodium Carbonate (d= 1.040 and synthetic anionic detergent - Sodium Sulphonate (d- 1.040 - showed surprising recovery rates, higher than 80% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. We concluded that, because of their low cost and great availability, domestic detergents can be used for the routine evaluations of beachs contamination with enteroparasites eggs, which are important indicators of faecal contamination and necessary for an adequate sanitary

  17. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa

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    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and eosinophils were also analysed. Lymphocyte activation markers (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38 and CD71 were determined. Non parametric statistics were used to describe differences in the variables between the subgroups. Results Helminth prevalence ranged between 40%-60%. Four distinct subgroups of were identified, and this included egg positive/high Ascaris-specific IgE (egg+IgEhi, egg positive/low IgE (egg+IgElo, egg negative/high IgE (egg-IgEhi and egg negative/low IgE (egg-IgElo individuals. The egg+IgEhi subgroup displayed lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, (low CD4+ counts in HIV- group, high viral load (in HIV+ group, and an activated lymphocyte profile. High Ascaris IgE subgroups (egg+IgEhi and egg-IgEhi had eosinophilia, highest viral loads, and lower CD4+ counts in the HIV- group. Egg excretion and low IgE (egg+IgElo status demonstrated a modified Th2 immune profile with a relatively competent response to HIV. Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five articles are tackled: in France, the judgement of the Court of Appeal of Limoges concerning the dumping of radioactive waste by Areva N.C.(2006). The Court of Appeal of Limoges ruled that Areva N.C. was not guilty of dumping radioactive waste, and neither had it infringed radiation protection regulations or general mining industry regulations. there was no proof of damage to fish fauna. In Sweden, judgement on Plans for the dismantling of Barsebaeck (2006). This court case resulted from a dispute between the operator and the Swedish government Swedish radiation Protection Institute. The Swedish Government wanted decommissioning to commence immediately whereas plant management at Barsebaeck had indicated its intention to wait until 2020, when the radiation dose to workers during decommissioning work would be lower. The court approved the plans to commence dismantling in 2020, when a repository for large reactor components will be ready at the national final repository for radioactive waste at the Forsmark plant. In United Kingdom, on October 2006, British Nuclear group Sellafield Ltd. (B.N.G.S.L.) was fined 500 000 pounds (G.B.P.) plus G.B.P. 68000 in costs in a case brought by the UK health and Safety Executive (H.S.E.) for failing to identify and stop an eight-month long leak of 83 400 litres of radioactive liquid at the Thermal Oxide reprocessing Plant (T.H.O.R.P.) at Sellafield in Cumbria. The fine was levied at Carlisle Crown Court after B.N.G.S.L. pleaded guilty, at an earlier hearing, to the three counts of breaching conditions attached to the Sellafield site licence, granted under the 1965 Nuclear Installations Act as amended. These conditions require the licensee to make and comply with written instructions; to ensure safety systems are in good working order; and to ensure radioactive material is contained and, if leaks occur, they are detected and reported. In Usa, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (N.W.P.A.) the US

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  20. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.