Yazwinski, T A; Tucker, C; Stelzleni, A; Johnson, Z; Robins, J; Downum, K; Fincher, M; Matlock, J; Chapman, H D
Under simulated natural conditions of bird production and parasite challenge, the effects of ascaridiasis and the effectiveness of fenbendazole treatment (6-day regimes in the feed at 16 ppm) were documented. Birds were artificially challenged with ascarid larvae on a daily basis from day 35 to 112, with bird grow out ending on day 119. Experimental groups, on a per pen basis, were infected control, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69 and days 91-97, and uninfected control. In the same order as above, and on an experimental group mean bird basis, final weights were 13.34, 13.47, 13.59, and 13.78 kg, average daily gains from day 7 to day 119 were 117.8, 118.9, 120.1, and 121.8 g, and units gained per unit of feed consumed from day 7 to day 119 were 0.337, 0.341, 0.347, and 0.362. Infected control bird mean Ascaridia dissimilis burdens, with all stages combined, ranged from 351.1 on day 63 to 117.2 on day 91, levels seen commonly with naturally infected commercial turkeys. Trial data dearly indicated that moderate A. dissimilis burdens negatively impacted animal performance (average daily gains and feed efficiencies) and that these parasite burdens are effectively removed by fenbendazole treatment.
Yazwinsri, T A; Rosenstein, M; Schwartz, R D; Wilson, K; Johnson, Z
Birds on a commercial turkey Farm were treated with fenbendazole on two separate occasions. For each treatment, fenbendazole was administered in the feed for 3 days at 30 mg/kg. Mean Ascaridia dissimilis total counts in randomly selected birds were 14.4 and 33.0 prior to the first and second treatments, respectively, whilst post-treatment counts averaged only 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. Anthelmintic effectiveness as demonstrated by both treatments was >99.0%. No untoward effects were noted with either fenbendazole treatment. After fenbendazole withdrawal, routine treatments with piperazine dihydrochloride were commenced with no apparent anthelmintic effectiveness. Mean total nematode burdens rose to 153.9 with a high individual count of 451. The potential for severe ascaridiasis when effective anthelmintic intervention is precluded was demonstrated.
Silva Aloísio S. Felipe da
Full Text Available Some kinds of interstitial pneumonia present a histopathological pattern dominated by sarcoid - necrotizing or non-necrotizing - granulomas, which can be divided into two main groups: infectious and non-infectious. The infectious causes include tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, fungi in general, paracoccidioidomycosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis and dirophilariosis. The non-infectious causes include histiocytosis-X, hipersensitivity pneumonia, vasculitis, lymphomas, sarcoidosis, and pneumoconioses such as silicosis and berylliosis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guideline to enable general pathologists to make the differential diagnosis of granulomatous pulmonary diseases. For this purpose, anatomical-clinical-radiological correlations will be presented and targeted to each diagnosis discussed. Whenever a granulomatous inflammatory process is in progress, the search for infective agents by direct observation, by culture, and by histochemical methods should be mandatory. The histological aspects of infectious granulomas to be analyzed should include their random histo-anatomical location, the type of inflammatory reaction, and necrosis. A panel of complementary reactions (immunohistochemistry and PCR should identify the infectious agent and, whenever their results and the culture are negative, the possibility of non-infectious granulomatous diseases has to be evaluated. In such cases, the histo-anatomical distribution (bronchocentric, lymphangitic, angiocentric, random, the qualitative characteristics of the lesions (type of necrosis and inflammatory reaction, and the correlation with the X-ray findings will help the diagnosis.
Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S
In the second part of their review the authors focus on palaeopathological studies, performed in mummified tissues, with reference to infectious diseases. The analysis of samples obtained from both natural and artificial mummies may provide, in some favourable events, a more complete knowledge of these findings in comparison to information obtained from only comprehensive examination of the skeleton. The acquired data enable us to understand not only the diseases which afflicted mankind, but also dietary and hygiene conditions of ancient populations. We report knowledge acquired regarding some palaeopathological conditions, including schistosomiasis, smallpox, cisticercosis, trichinosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis, filariasis, hepatitis E virus, condylomatosis, pulmonary tubercolosis, pediculosis, visceral leishmaniasis as well as Diphyllobotrium sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica infestations. In addition some interesting findings concerning the relationship between dietary and food intake colonized by streptomyces are described. This review reports the discovery of human remains from different geographic areas: while most of these studies describe findings in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Egypt), some refer to Britain and German-speaking countries (Austria and Germany) as well as the area in Africa known as Nubia, along the Nile. Both histological and biomolecular diagnosis are useful not only to identify a specific disease in a subject from the remote past, but also to achieve information concerning its frequency and evolution. Such knowledge may thus allow us to understand the intensity of cultural exchanges and links among different populations and the role of these relationships in transmitting and spreading infectious diseases in a certain geographic area.
Full Text Available To date the diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA depends on the histological identification of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (AC in surgical specimens. However, microscopic evaluation is time consuming and often fails in identifying the parasite. We tested whether PCR might help in the diagnosis of AA by identifying parasite DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. We used primers based on DNA from Angiostrongilus cantonensis. Four groups of FFPE intestinal tissue were tested: (1 confirmed cases (n = 20, in which AC structures were present in the target tissue; (2 presumptive cases (n = 20, containing changes secondary to AC infection in the absence of AC structures; (3 negative controls (n = 3, consisting of normal colonic tissue; and (4 tissue affected by other parasitoses (n = 7, including strongyloidiasis, ascaridiasis, schistosomiasis, and enterobiasis. Most lesions of confirmed cases were located in small and/or large bowel (90%, as compared with presumptive cases, in which 70% of lesions were in appendix (P = 0.0002. When confronted with cases of other parasitoses, PCR showed sensitivity of 55%, specificity of 100% and positive predictive value of 100%. In presumptive cases PCR was positive in 4 (20%. All specimens from negative controls and other parasitoses were negative. In conclusion, the PCR technique showed intermediate sensitivity and optimal specificity, being clinically relevant when positive for abdominal angiostrongyliasis. It allowed a 20% gain in diagnosis of presumptive cases. PCR might help in the diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, particularly when the pathologists are not experienced with such disease.
Rodriguez, Rubens; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburú; Müller, Carla Aristonara; Alves, Silvana Lunardini; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fornari, Fernando
To date the diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) depends on the histological identification of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (AC) in surgical specimens. However, microscopic evaluation is time consuming and often fails in identifying the parasite. We tested whether PCR might help in the diagnosis of AA by identifying parasite DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. We used primers based on DNA from Angiostrongilus cantonensis. Four groups of FFPE intestinal tissue were tested: (1) confirmed cases (n = 20), in which AC structures were present in the target tissue; (2) presumptive cases (n = 20), containing changes secondary to AC infection in the absence of AC structures; (3) negative controls (n = 3), consisting of normal colonic tissue; and (4) tissue affected by other parasitoses (n = 7), including strongyloidiasis, ascaridiasis, schistosomiasis, and enterobiasis. Most lesions of confirmed cases were located in small and/or large bowel (90%), as compared with presumptive cases, in which 70% of lesions were in appendix (P = 0.0002). When confronted with cases of other parasitoses, PCR showed sensitivity of 55%, specificity of 100% and positive predictive value of 100%. In presumptive cases PCR was positive in 4 (20%). All specimens from negative controls and other parasitoses were negative. In conclusion, the PCR technique showed intermediate sensitivity and optimal specificity, being clinically relevant when positive for abdominal angiostrongyliasis. It allowed a 20% gain in diagnosis of presumptive cases. PCR might help in the diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, particularly when the pathologists are not experienced with such disease. PMID:24705328
Fausto E. Lima Pereira
Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes
Evolução da pneumonia lipoide exógena em crianças: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o papel da lavagem broncoalveolar Evolution of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and the role of bronchoalveolar lavage
Selma Maria de Azevedo Sias
clinical, radiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings, emphasizing the importance of bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: We included 28 children, with a mean age of 20 months (range, 1-108 months, diagnosed with chronic pneumonia refractory to antimicrobial therapy, with TB or with a combination of the two. Most of the children had at least one risk factor for aspiration, and all of them had a history of mineral oil ingestion for intestinal constipation (23/28 or complicated ascaridiasis (5/28. Clinical evaluations, tomographic evaluations and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were carried out at the beginning of treatment and throughout a follow-up period of 24 months. RESULTS: Tachypnea and cough were the most common symptoms. The most common radiological alterations were areas of consolidation (23/28, perihilar infiltrates (13/28 and hyperinflation (11/28. Chest CT scans showed areas of consolidation with air bronchogram (24/28, decreased attenuation in the areas of consolidation (16/28, ground-glass opacities (3/28 and crazy-paving pattern (1/28. In the analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Sudan staining revealed foamy macrophages, confirming the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. After treatment with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (mean = 9.6, 20 children became asymptomatic, 18 of those presenting normal tomographic images. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia should be considered in patients with chronic refractory pneumonia or TB, especially if there is a history of mineral oil ingestion. Bronchoscopy with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages was an efficient treatment for the clearance of mineral oil from the lung parenchyma and the prevention of fibrosis. This strategy contributed to reducing the morbidity of lipoid pneumonia, which remains a rare diagnosis.