Norton, R A; Hopkins, B A; Skeeles, J K; Beasley, J N; Kreeger, J M
Third- and fourth-stage Ascaridia dissimilis larvae were isolated from commercial white turkey intestinal scrapings from two farms that were experiencing high mortality. Lesions consisted of a necrotic-like enteritis that was most severe in the jejunum. Subsequent bacteriological isolation yielded heavy growth of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. The rate of mortality declined rapidly when the turkeys were administered 18 ppm fenbendazole for 7 days.
Yazwinsri, T A; Rosenstein, M; Schwartz, R D; Wilson, K; Johnson, Z
Birds on a commercial turkey Farm were treated with fenbendazole on two separate occasions. For each treatment, fenbendazole was administered in the feed for 3 days at 30 mg/kg. Mean Ascaridia dissimilis total counts in randomly selected birds were 14.4 and 33.0 prior to the first and second treatments, respectively, whilst post-treatment counts averaged only 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. Anthelmintic effectiveness as demonstrated by both treatments was >99.0%. No untoward effects were noted with either fenbendazole treatment. After fenbendazole withdrawal, routine treatments with piperazine dihydrochloride were commenced with no apparent anthelmintic effectiveness. Mean total nematode burdens rose to 153.9 with a high individual count of 451. The potential for severe ascaridiasis when effective anthelmintic intervention is precluded was demonstrated.
Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Deepak, V; Sidharthan, Chinta; Barley, Anthony J; Karanth, K Praveen
Skinks of the genus Eutropis represent one of the most widespread and speciose lizard groups in tropical Asia. Numerous recent studies have utilized a variety of genes and methods to reconstruct the phylogeny of these lizards, however these studies have not resolved the placement of one of the widely distributed Eutropis Fitzinger, E. dissimilis. We have sequenced a specimen of E. dissimilis from the type locality and our result suggests that it is part of the Indian radiation of Eutropis and not related to African Trachylepis Fitzinger or Southeast Asian Dasia Gray as previously suggested. Furthermore, we report that the sequence of E. dissimilis used in an earlier study of the once cosmopolitan genus 'Mabuya' may have been erroneously identified and appears to be a sequence of E. novemcarinata. We also demonstrate that the evolution of a clear lower eyelid, which was considered a synapomorphy for the sister genus Trachylepis, has arisen multiple times in Eutropis.
Cecilia L Coscarón Arias
Full Text Available Cytological studies were made on larvae of Gigantodax marginalis, G. chilensis, G. fulvescens and Cnesia dissimilis from four creeks in Lanin National Park, Neuquen province, Argentina. Chromosome maps and idiograms of these species are presented. The following inversions were observed: G. marginalis: IL-1 (X-linked inversion, IL-2 (Y-linked inversion, IIS-1.2, IIL-1, IIIL-4,5; G. chilensis: IL-4 (X-linked inversion, IIS-1.2, IIIL-4,5; G. fulvescens:IL-1 (X-linked inversion, IL-3 (Y-linked inversion, IIS-1.2, IIL-1, IIIL-4,5; C. dissimilis: IL-1, IL-5, IIIL-1. Karyological information was used to construct a cladogram and Cnesia sp. Was found to show close resemblance to the three Gigantodax spp.
Javare Gowda, Ananda K; Rani, B Kavitha; Nandeesha, C; Naravi, Yashaswi
The checkered keelback is also known as Asiatic water snake and is common species of non-venomous snake known to occur in India. The present study report the occurrence of Ascaridia galli infection in a checkered keelback snake, which was found dead near Veterinary College hostel premises. The post-mortem examination of the snake revealed catarrhal exudate without ingesta in the stomach and showed gastric ulcerations with edema. Large numbers of round worms were packed in the lumen of small intestine with petechial haemorrhages and necrotic enteritis. The nematode parasites were recovered and processed for identification. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as A. galli and the intestinal contents of the snake showed A. galli eggs.
Ferdushy, Tania; Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nejsum, Peter;
SUMMARY The population dynamics of Ascaridia galli was studied in 70 ISA Brown layer pullets, 42 of them were each experimentally infected with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs and 28 chickens were kept as uninfected controls. Six chickens from the infected group and 4 from the control group were ne...
Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.
Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors of etiological agents of leishmaniases in several areas of the world. In the Neotropical Region, the biodiversity of these insects is more than other regions, probably due the long evolutionary period of this group. Miocene amber from Dominican Republic, currently, has a record of 14 extinct species of Phlebotomine sandflies. Results This paper describes a new fossil species of phlebotomine sandfly from amber found in Dominican Republic. This new species is based on morphological characters of a male such as 5° palpomere longer than 3° + 4°, three well-developed spines in the gonostyle, lateral lobe longer than gonocoxite and permit inclusion of the new species in the genus Pintomyia, series serrana. The paramere, with a curvature in the ventral margin, of the middle of the structure, separates the new species from the others fossils or extant species. Conclusion The new species described in the present study named Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp. is well differenciated from all known species in this genus.
Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Ferdushy, Tania;
This histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate the cellular response in the jejunum to Ascaridia galli during the first 7 weeks of infection. Fourty-two ISA Brown chickens (7 weeks old) were infected orally with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs each while 28 chickens were left ...
Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian;
The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old w...
Sander, J E; Schwartz, R D
Three formulations of water-suspensible fenbendazole, at target doses of 30.3 or 60.6 ppm in the drinking water, were administered to broilers infected with Ascaridia galli. The medication was administered in the water through automatic medicators for 6 hours on 3 consecutive days. Three days after treatment, chickens were killed and their worms were counted. Efficacy of fenbendazole was 99.2-100% and 69.0-89.6% at administration doses of 60.6 ppm and 30.3 ppm, respectively. Worm burden and percentage of broilers infected were lower in treated broilers than in controls (P < or = 0.05). Formulation A was dispensed most consistently and in the highest concentration through automatic medicators into the drinking water.
Full Text Available Purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli L3 larvae stage ABSTRACT. The main immunoglobulin fraction of poultry is called IgY, in order to distinguish it from the mammalian IgG. This article focus on purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli larvae to obtained purity IgY. Active vaccinations with excretory/secretory antigen were applied intra muscularly of chickens with an initial dose of 80 μg. The vaccinations were repeated three times with dose of each 60 μg with an interval of one week. The first vaccinations were excretory/secretory antigen mixed with Fruend Adjuvant Complete and subsequently mixed with Freund Adjuvant Incomplete. Antibody response in yolk was detected at weekly intervals by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT. The chicken’s eggs were collected from 49 day after vaccinations. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by means of ammonium sulphate and purified using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC. The purity of anti-ekscretory/secretory IgY protein was determined by Bradford method (λ = 280 nm. The result showed that antibody in yolk was begun detect with AGPT at four weeks after vaccination. IgY concentration after purification was 0,875 ± 0.251 mg/ml. This study has shown that the product released in vitro by L3 stage A. galli is capable of stimulating humoral immunity by mean of producing antibody through yolk as biologic manufacturer could be a good choice.
Dalton Garcia de Mattos Júnior
Full Text Available Neste relato, um helminto adulto da espécie Ascaridia galli foi encontrado no albúmen de um ovo de galinha para fins de consumo, sendo submetido à identificação na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. O ciclo errático deste parasita tem sido notificado e provavelmente a migração de espécimes adultos seja mais comum do que os pesquisadores acreditam. O problema adquire maior importância pelo fato de a espécie A. galli ter associação com a disseminação de salmonelose, o que reforça a necessidade da aplicação de esquemas de prevenção e controle da ascaridíase em criações domésticas de aves objetivando a produção de ovos para consumo. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ascaridia galli, galinha, ovo. In this report, a adult Ascaridia galli was found in the albumen of a hen’s egg for consumption and was submitted for identification to the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF, in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The erratic cycle of the parasite have been reported and perhaps the migration by adults may be more common than formerly believed. The problem acquire more importance due to A. galli to be associated with the dissemination of salmonelosis. Considering the present finding, to be accentuated the necessity of to maintain control scheme and prevention of the ascaridiosis in poultry breedings for production of eggs for consumption. KEY WORDS: Ascaridia galli, egg, hen
Malatji, D P; Tsotetsi, A M; van Marle-Koster, E; Muchadeyi, F C
Ascaridia galli is one of the most common nematode affecting chickens. This study characterized A. galli parasites collected from South African village chickens of Limpopo (n=18) and KwaZulu-Natal (n=22) provinces using the 510bp sequences of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA. Fourteen and 12 polymorphic sites were observed for Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal sequences, respectively. Six haplotypes were observed in total. Haplotype diversity was high and ranged from 0.749 for Limpopo province to 0.758 for KwaZulu-Natal province isolates. There was no genetic differentiation between A. galli from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. The six South African haplotypes were unique compared to those published in the GeneBank sampled from Hy-line chickens raised under organic farming in Denmark. The utility of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene as a potential genetic marker for studying A. galli in village chicken populations is presented.
Alrubaie, Abdulrazak Labi
Ascaridia galli, the common intestinal nematode, remains a major cause of economic loss in the poultry industry in developing countries. Treatments using chemicals are not only expensive but also affect host health. Plant extracts as better alternative is gaining significance. Here, we have studied the effects of alcoholic extract of turmeric, Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) roots, against A. galli infection in chicken. Different concentrations of C. longa root extract were tested in vitro on 5 groups of adults A. galli worms and in vivo on 6 groups of chicks. The results showed that the turmeric root extract @ 60 mg mL(-1) in vitro significantly (P turmeric @ 200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body wt., respectively. The mean number of worms extracted at the end of the trial in G2 (untreated) was 18.10 ± 2.42, while the G3 treated with piperazine had no worms. Groups 4 and 5 did not show any significant difference compared to G2. However, G6 that had 3.20 ± 1.33 worms was statistically significant. Higher concentrations of turmeric given to infected chickens significantly reduced the length and weight of worms. The study showed that the worm infestation damaged the intestinal villi, and.treatment with high concentration of C. longa had healing effects and restored the integrity of intestinal mucosa. The results have demonstrated the ameliorating effect of C. longa turmeric on A. galli infested chickens.
Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.;
Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases incr...... lumen. Increased expression of DEF beta 1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the intestinal lumen. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens...... we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal...
Full Text Available Intestinal defense mechanism against helminthes parasitic nematode to be associated with mucosal mast cells reaction. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of infection by Ascaridia galli parasite to trigger mucosal defense based on mucosal mast cells response in laying hens. Amount of ten head laying hens 12-wk old were divided into two groups containing five chickens of each. The first group, chickens were left as un-infected controls. The second group, chickens were infected orally with 1,000 embryonated eggs of A. galli. Mucosal mast cell responses were assayed by in situ jejunal mast cell counts in stained serial histological sections with Alcian blue (pH 0.3 and Safranin-O (pH 0.1 of the jejunum. Mucosal mast cells response were observed and counted on days 14 post infection. The result showed that A. galli infection was able to increase significantly (P<0.05 mast cells response. This research concluded that the A. galli infection can trigger the involment of mucosal mast cells response in jejunal defense of laying hens against parasitic diseases caused by A. galli.
Luis A. Gómez Puerta
Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Ascaridia hermaphrodita Froelich, 1789, parasitando el intestino delgado de un Loro de cabeza azul (Pionus menstruus Linnaeus, 1776. El espécimen fue enviado al Laboratorio de Patología Aviar de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Dieciocho nematodos (12 hembras y 6 machos fueron estudiados e identificados como A. hermaphrodita. El hallazgo de esta especie en P. menstruus constituye el primer registro en el Perú.
Höglund, Johan; Jansson, Désirée S
The infection dynamics of Ascaridia galli in laying hens was investigated in six commercial non-caged flocks. Three flocks were managed in accordance with the regulations for organic production and had outdoor access, whereas three flocks were housed indoors in aviaries or traditional floor systems. Faecal egg counts and total worm burdens were determined at specified intervals during the first 50 weeks of the production period. In two conventional flocks the efficacy of flubendazole on lumenal stages was investigated. All flocks became infected following the arrival of the birds (post placement) with residual infective eggs derived from the previous flock. In four flocks (two organic and two conventional) parasite eggs were first detected in faeces 6-7 weeks post placement, whereas parasite eggs were not detected until after 17-18 weeks in two flocks. This delay was observed in two of three flocks that were housed in barns that had been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected by chlorocresol. In three flocks (two conventional and one organic) flubendazole was administered to the birds in the drinking water for approximately one week. Both conventional flocks were dewormed twice approximately 20 weeks apart, whereas the organic flock was dewormed only once about 40 weeks post placement. Parasite eggs reappeared after deworming in all flocks, often within 2-4 weeks, followed by a rapid increase in parasite egg expulsion. Our results suggested impairment of host immunity post treatment, as the egg counts exceeded pre-treatment levels after 7-8 weeks on both conventional farms. Accordingly, the way by which anthelmintics and/or disinfectants are used in non-caged chicken flocks must be refined.
Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.
Potent vaccine efficiency is crucial for disease control in both human and livestock vaccination programmes. Free range chickens and chickens with access to outdoor areas have a high risk of infection with parasites including Ascaridia galli, a gastrointestinal nematode with a potential influence...
Schou, Torben Wilde; Labouriau, R.; Permin, A.
In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous...
Kilpinen, O.; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Permin, A.
1. The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. 2. Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially...... infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. 3. Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight...... gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. 4. A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables...
Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.
In chickens, the nematode Ascaridia galli is found with prevalences of up to 100% causing economic losses to farmers. No avian nematode vaccines have yet been developed and detailed knowledge about the chicken immune response towards A. galli is therefore of great importance. The objective...... of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A....... galli. Only chickens immunized via the intra-muscular route developed a specific A. galli antibody response. Frequencies of γδ T cells in spleen were higher 7 days after the first immunization in both groups but only significantly so in the intra-muscularly immunized group. In addition, systemic...
Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.
Ferdushy, Tania; Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nejsum, Peter;
This study investigated the changes in establishment rates during the time course of a 6week trickle infection of chickens with Ascaridia galli at two different dose levels, using a molecular marker. To differentiate early and late infection, two different egg cohorts (haplotype a and haplotype b...
Squires, S; Fisher, M; Gladstone, O; Rogerson, S; Martin, P; Martin, S; Lester, H; Sygall, R; Underwood, N
The efficacy of a commercially available flubendazole-based product and a commercially available herbal product were compared against three species of helminth parasites of chickens: Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Capillaria spp. A total of 48 naturally infected chickens were used in the study with 16 birds in each of three treatment groups (untreated control; flubendazole; and a herbal product). One bird from each treatment group was necropsied on Day 0 prior to first treatment to confirm the parasite species present in the birds. Treatments were administered as labelled and the 45 remaining birds were necropsied on Day 12 and worm counts performed. Average worm counts in the two treated groups were compared to the untreated controls to calculate efficacy. Flubendazole (Group A) achieved an overall efficacy of 99.4% for the three parasite species. The herbal product (Group B) achieved efficacies ranging from less than zero to 11.6% for the three parasites, with worm counts not significantly different to the untreated controls. At present, commercially available herbal products claiming anthelmintic properties do not require licencing as veterinary medicinal products (Directive 2004/28/EC: see Article 17 and 33-38) and thus are not required to meet specific efficacy thresholds. Products which do not appear to deliver acceptable anthelmintic efficacy, are obviously a concern from many aspects but specifically from an animal welfare perspective.
Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Schou, T. W.; Norup, L. R.
in the number of chicken flocks held in floor pens and free-range systems, which are associated with higher parasite burdens. In order to prevent infections with the nematode Ascaridia galli, development of a vaccine is desirable. In this study, three groups of 10 chickens were immunized with three different...... adjuvants together with a recombinant A. galli antigen. The adjuvants were CAF01, Emulsigen, and STV, and the antigen was Ag-NPA-1, a lipid-binding protein from the nematode polyprotein allergen/antigen family. Three immunizations were given i.m. with three-week intervals. A fourth group of 10 chickens...... was immunized with CAF01 and Ag-NPA-1, but only the first immunization was i.m., the next two immunizations were oral. A fifth group of 10 birds was injected i.m. with PBS as a control. The three groups that only received i.m. immunizations developed significantly higher Ag-NPA-1-specific serum IgG levels than...
Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos da Annona squamosa L. (fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Annona squamosa L. (sweetsop on the nematode Ascaridia galli
Full Text Available As plantas são fontes importantes de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos. Dentre as plantas usadas na medicina popular a Anonna squamosa conhecida como fruta-do-conde é citada como tendo várias ações medicinais, dentre elas a atividade inseticida e anti-helmíntica. Dentro desta perspectiva, objetivou-se determinar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquosos (EA e etanólicos (EE das folhas da fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide de aves Ascaridia galli, in vitro e in vivo. No primeiro, os nematóides foram colocados em placa de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos extratos e no segundo foram utilizadas seis galinhas poedeiras por grupo, as quais foram administrados10 mL Kg-1 dos extratos. No teste in vitro o EA da A. squamosa nas concentrações 2,4 e 9,6 mg mL-1 foi capaz de matar 63,33% e 53,33% dos nematóides, respectivamente. O EE não produziu efeito significativo. No teste in vivo, o percentual de eliminação do EA foi de 39% e do EE de 20%. Estes dados sugerem que neste caso a substância responsável pela mortalidade dos parasitos esteja em maior concentração na fração aquosa. Desta maneira, acredita-se que o EA de A. squamosa apresenta uma atividade anti-helmíntica potencial sobre o A. galli.Plants are important sources of biologically active natural products. Among the plants used in popular medicine, Annona squamosa, known as sweetsop, is reported to have several medicinal actions such as insecticidal and anthelmintic activity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic (EE extracts from sweetsop leaves on the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli, both in vitro and in vivo. In the former, nematodes were placed on a Petri plate containing different concentrations of the extracts; in the in vivo test, six egg-laying chickens per group received 10 mL Kg-1 of the extracts. In vitro results indicated that A. squamosa AE at the concentrations 2.4 and 9.6 mg mL-1
Norton, R A; Yazwinski, T A; Johnson, Z
Turkeys were raised under parasite-free conditions until 25 days of age at which time the birds were administered infective ova of Capillaria obsignata, Heterakis gallinarum, and Ascaridia dissimilis. At 28 days postinfection, four groups of birds were placed on rations medicated with fenbendazole at 15,30,45, or 60 ppm. These rations were given ad libitum for 6 consecutive days. At 31 days postinfection, five additional groups of birds were placed on rations medicated with fenbendazole at 15,30,45,60 or 120 ppm. These latter rations were given ad libitum for 3 consecutive days. One group of turkeys served as an unmedicated, infected control. Treatment group size ranged from 17 to 19 birds. All birds were necropsied 5 days after the medicated rations were withdrawn and nematode recovery was performed. Control birds harbored an average of 3.29 A. dissimilis, 12.06 H. gallinarum, and 65.94 C. obsignata. All but one of the fenbendazole-medicated groups showed 100% removal of A. dissimilis. The exception was that group that received fenbendazole at 15 ppm for 6 days, and that showed a 98.5% efficacy. The removal rate for H. gallinarum ranged from 78.6% (15 ppm for 3 days) to 100% (120 ppm for 3 days and 45 ppm for 6 days). The C. obsignata infections proved dose-limiting, with a removal rate ranging from 30.8% (15 ppm for 3 days) to 97.8% (45 ppm for 6 days).
Yazwinski, T A; Tucker, C; Stelzleni, A; Johnson, Z; Robins, J; Downum, K; Fincher, M; Matlock, J; Chapman, H D
Under simulated natural conditions of bird production and parasite challenge, the effects of ascaridiasis and the effectiveness of fenbendazole treatment (6-day regimes in the feed at 16 ppm) were documented. Birds were artificially challenged with ascarid larvae on a daily basis from day 35 to 112, with bird grow out ending on day 119. Experimental groups, on a per pen basis, were infected control, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69 and days 91-97, and uninfected control. In the same order as above, and on an experimental group mean bird basis, final weights were 13.34, 13.47, 13.59, and 13.78 kg, average daily gains from day 7 to day 119 were 117.8, 118.9, 120.1, and 121.8 g, and units gained per unit of feed consumed from day 7 to day 119 were 0.337, 0.341, 0.347, and 0.362. Infected control bird mean Ascaridia dissimilis burdens, with all stages combined, ranged from 351.1 on day 63 to 117.2 on day 91, levels seen commonly with naturally infected commercial turkeys. Trial data dearly indicated that moderate A. dissimilis burdens negatively impacted animal performance (average daily gains and feed efficiencies) and that these parasite burdens are effectively removed by fenbendazole treatment.
Castle, M D; Christensen, B M
Fifty-nine gastrointestinal tracts and 52 blood samples were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) during the spring turkey hunts of 1979-1980 from two areas in western Kentucky and Tennessee. Eight species of parasites were recovered, and included (combined prevalence): Haemoproteus meleagridis Levine, 1961 (25%), Hymenolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898) (44%), Metroliasthes lucida Ransom, 1900 (25%), Raillietina georgiensis (Reid and Nugara, 1961) (15%), R. williamsi Fuhrmann, 1932 (64%), Ascaridia dissimilis Perez Vigueras, 1931 (83%), Capillaria caudinflata (Molin, 1858) (2%), and Heterakis gallinarum (Schrank, 1788) (27%). A significant difference existed between the intensities of A. dissimilis from the two states. Twenty-two subinoculations of collected blood were made in 1979, but no Plasmodium infections were recovered. Helminths of wild turkeys from 11 southeastern states were compared using similarity and diversity indices. High similarities were observed in helminth populations of two groups of states: 1) Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Virginia, and Tennessee; and 2) Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. Simpson's diversity index indicated helminth populations of wild turkeys in Florida were the most diverse (0.10), while those in Louisiana turkeys were the least diverse (0.33).
Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.;
and decreased expression of IFN-gamma from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and TGF-beta 4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...
Andersen, Janne Pleidrup
. The infections may cause pathological as well as welfare problems to the hens and economic losses for the farmers. One of the major parasites in chickens is the roundworm A. galli that causes weight loss, reduced growth rates and impaired feed conversion in its host. The parasite is transmitted to the chickens......-modulatory potential of A. galli that may compromise vaccine responses or impact the development of immunity to other pathogens....... via ingestion of resistant eggs from the environment containing live infective larvae. Organic production systems have strong restrictions on drugs and cleaning products. Therefore, in these systems, demands for alternative disease control, e.g. vaccines, are high. However vaccine development does...
Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and species of internal and external parasites of native fowls from Golestan Province, north of Iran. "nMethods: During 2007, different organs of 26 and 24 adult female native fowls collected from humid parts (Gorgan, Kord Kooy, Ramian and Bandar Gaz and dry regions (Gonbad Kavoos, and Bandar Torkaman of Golestan Province, respectively were searched for parasite. Two blood smears taken from each bird were stained with Geimsa. External parasites and nematodes were preserved in 70 % alcohol containing 5% glycerin. Cestodes were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine acid for further studies. "nResults: Fifteen species of parasites were collected from alimentary canals, lungs, feathers and subcutaneous nodules as follows: Alimentary canal: Ascaridia galli (56%, Heterakis gallinarum (24%, Capillaria anatis (4%, Cheilospirura hamulosa (4%, Raillietina tetragona (58%, R. echinobothrida (6%, and Choanotaenia infundibulum (8%; Lungs: Syngamus trachea (16%; Feathers: Monopon gallinae (40%, Menacanthus stramineus (40%, Liperus caponis (32%, Goniodes dissimilis (38%, Cuclogaster heterographus (8%, Dermanissus gallinae (20% and subcutaneous nodules: Laminosioptes cysticola (6%. "nConclusion: The frequency distribution of most species was low. L. cysticola is the first host and distribution record for Iran
周小嵩; 段玉玺; 陈立杰
报道了短体科线虫1个新纪录:锐尾短体线虫Pratylechus acuticaudatus,样本采自人连地区玉米根部.其鉴别特征为:雌虫头部深度骨化.2条唇环,口针14.2～16.9um,受精囊不明显,尾呈圆锥形.该种在中国首次报道.%Pratylechus acuticaudatus was described in this paper,which was from the maize root from Dalian.China.It was characterized by its heavy cephalic sderofizafion,2 head annules,stylet 14.2-16.9um long.a funcfiongtess incompicuous spermatheca and a subacute tail with smooth round tail lip.Malgswerc not fotmd.This spedes was first reported in China.
Full Text Available The anthelminthic activity of four plants - Allium sativum (garlic, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Tynnanthus labiatus (liana-carnation and Cocus nucifera (coconut with the activity of mebendazole - was compared. Seventy Hubbard chickens, naturally infected with Ascarídia galli, divided in 5 groups of 10 chichens plus a control group (not treated, n=20 were used in the experiment. The vegetable matter was used in the forms of aqueous extract, juice and triturated, administered by probe or incorporated to the diet, in the doses of 2, 3 and 10g/kg/day, for three days. A non parametric test was used to evaluate the anthelminthic effect of the plants. The eliminations of A. galli for the garlic, pomegranate, liana-carnation, coconut and mebendazole were: 9.7; 6.6, 16.7; 19.0 and 99.0%, respectively. The results showed that those plants do not have anthelminthic activity.
Jordanova, R; Radoslavov, G; Fischer, P; Torda, A; Lottspeich, F; Boteva, R; Walter, RD; Bankov, [No Value; Liebau, E
Lipid-binding proteins exhibit important functions in lipid transport, cellular signaling, gene transcription, and cytoprotection. Their functional analogues in nematodes are nematode polyprotein allergens/antigens and fatty acid and retinoid-binding proteins. This work describes a novel 55-kDa prot
Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders
. In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h...
Roberto Magalhães Pinto Pinto
Full Text Available In the present paper, some species of nematodes from Brazilian parrots are studied: Aproctapyrrhurae. Ascaridia hermaphrodita, A. sergiomeirai, Pelecitus circularis and P. helicinus. Single female specimens of Pelecitus sp. and Thelazia sp. are presented. The male of P. circularis is fully illustrated, for the first time, since 1884. Ascaridia sergiomeirai is also restudied 59 years after proposition. New host records are estabilished. Remarks on other species of nematodes occuring in psittacid birds are included.
A. T. Borghare
Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-
Дзармотова З.И.; А.М. Плиева
The helminth fauna of chickens being at floor and free run management was investigated. Cestodes were represented by four helminth species: Raillietina echinobothrida, R.tetragona, Skrjabinia cesticillus, Choanotaenia infundibulum. As while the following nematodes were found Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Cheilospirura hamulosa, Capillaria caudinflata. The infection rates in poultry were 85,5%.
Parasitic infections are likely to be more important in organic and other free-range hens than in birds kept indoors. Several workpackages of QLIF aim at improving prevention and therapy of helminth (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) and arthropod (Dermanyssus gallinae) parasites of laying hens. This paper is a summary of the work undertaken in the first 3 years of QLIF.
Full Text Available We studied squamate diversity in 5 different croplands (wheat, sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut of district Chakwal, North Punjab, Pakistan, in February and September, 2013, using area-constrained searches for squamates and line intercept method for vegetation. We recorded 11 squamate species (6 lizards; 5 snakes. Based on diversity index value (H the highest squamate diversity was recorded from maize (1.91, followed by wheat (1.54, groundnut (1.51, sorghum (1.34 and millet (1.21. We recorded Calotes versicolor versicolor, Ophisops jerdonii and Eutropis dissimilis as most frequently sighted species in all croplands. The multivariate generalized model revealed that sightings of species differed significantly (F(5,40 = 2.89, P < 0.05; Wilk’s Λ = 0.30, Partial η2 = 0.94 among cropland types and their boundary vegetation. The cluster analysis of boundary vegetation produced two main clusters: (1 groundnut and wheat, and (2 sorghum, millet and maize. We concluded that herbs (Parthenium hysterophorus Chenopodium album, shrubs (Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jujube, Gymnosporia royleana, and grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Setaria pumila along the cropland boundary provided abode for lacertids (O. jerdonii and skinks (E. dissimilis, while tress (Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus mauritiana for agamids (Calotes versicolor. We suggest the inclusion of maintaining cropland boundary vegetation particularly grasses and shrubs in agricultural practices to ensure the conservation of squamate and their habitat.
Full Text Available The following parasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons kept in Sebele: a haemoprotozoan, Haemoproteus columbae (80 %; endoparasite metazoan nematodes, Ascaridia columbae(30 % and Dispharynx spiralis(10 %; a cestode, Raillietina sp. (80 % and coccidian oocysts (40 %; 2 ectoparasites, namely the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (50 % and the louse, Columbicola columbae (30 %. The pigeons also had high antibody titres, (1:256 to the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (100 %. The latter infection in these domestic pigeons has public health implications.
Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor
Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.
Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo
We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution.
Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele
Three new Brazilian species of Holcobunus Roewer, 1910 are described, thus increasing the total number of species in the genus to five: Holcobunus bicornutus Mello-Leitão, 1940, H. nigripalpis Roewer, 1910, Holcobunus dissimilis sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Reserva Biologia Augusto Ruschi), Holcobunus ibitirama sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Ibitirama, Santa Marta, close to Parque Nacional Caparaó), and Holcobunus uaisoh sp. nov. (type locality: Minas Gerais, Fervedouro, Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro). A new record for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 from Minas Gerais is also provided and the morphological variation in both penis and somatic morphology in the genus are presented and discussed. These observations enhance our understanding of both the diversity and distribution of Holcobunus.
Índice de infestação e diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em hospedeiros exóticos e nativos no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA Index of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in exotic hosts native to the fruitculture area in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil
Ricardo Falcão de Sá
Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são os principais entraves às exportações de manga nos pólos de fruticultura da Região Sudoeste da Bahia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar índices de infestação e a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA, visando obter subsídios para o manejo integrado dessas pragas na mangueira, na região. Os estudos foram realizados em 2004 e 2005, nos municípios de Anagé, Belo Campo e Caraíbas, BA, procedendo-se à coleta de frutos de 21 espécies vegetais, nativas e exóticas, e identificação das espécies de moscas associadas. Estimaram-se os índices de infestação em pupários/kg de fruto e pupários/fruto. Os maiores índices de infestação, em pupários/kg de fruto, ocorreram em serigüela (Spondias purpurea L. com 61,3, juá (Ziziphus joazeiro L., 38,3 e umbu (Spondias tuberosa L., 33,1, considerados hospedeiros primários de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e A. obliqua (Macquart. As maiores infestações em pupários/fruto ocorreram em serigüela (0,9; umbu (0,7 e cajarana (Spondias sp. (0,2. Com base no monitoramento larval, registra-se, para as condições do pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, a ocorrência das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis, A. amita, A. distincta, A. sororcula, A. zenildae e Ceratitis capitata. Registram-se, pela primeira vez, as seguintes associações bitróficas: juá com A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis e A. distincta; e umbu com A. amita e A. sororcula.Fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are the main hindrance for mango exportation in the fruitculture areas of the Southwestern Region of Bahia. The purpose of the present work was to study the indexes of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in the fruitculture area of Anagé, BA, in order to obtain subsidies to the integrated management of these pests in mango, in this region. Studies were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the
Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.
Diversidade de moscas frugívoras (Diptera, Tephritoidea em áreas de matas decídua e ciliar no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil Diversity of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in areas of decidual and riparian forests in South Pantanal, Brazil
Edima Ramos Minzão
Full Text Available O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies de moscas nos ecossistemas é importante para subsidiar na escolha de métodos ecologicamente corretos para o controle de tefritóideos (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de tefritóideos e seus padrões populacionais em áreas de matas decídua e ciliar. As moscas foram capturadas em armadilhas McPhail com atrativo alimentar em duas reservas florestais do município de Corumbá-MS, de agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2004. Treze espécies pertencentes a cinco gêneros e duas famílias foram registradas. No Sítio Pingo de Amor (mata decídua [MD], foram coletadas: Anastrepha dissimilis, A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. rheediae, A. sororcula, A. undosa e Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae e de Lonchaeidae foram capturadas: Dasiops sp.1, Dasiops sp.2, Lonchaea sp.1, Lonchaea sp.2, Neosilba sp.1 e Neosilba sp.2. No Canal do Tamengo (mata ciliar [MC], foram obtidas todas as espécies mencionadas acima, exceto: A. dissimilis, A. rheediae, A. undosa, Dasiops sp.2 and Neosilba sp.2. O índice de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver (H', foi: 2,01 na MD e 1,51 na MC. Anastrepha obliqua foi caracterizada como muito abundante em ambas as reservas florestais. Na mata decídua A. sororcula foi constante e predominante e, Neosilba sp.1, muito abundante. Em ambos os ambientes A. obliqua, Lonchaea sp.2 e Neosilba sp.1 foram muito freqüentes e, A. obliqua e Neosilba sp.1 foram dominantes.The knowledge of fly species diversity and population patterns in the ecosystems is important to subsidy the choice of ecologically correct methods for control of tephritoid pests. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diversity of tephritoids and their population patterns in a decidual and a riparian forest. Flies were caught in McPhail traps with food bait in two natural forest reserves at the Municipality of Corumbá-MS, from August 2003 to August 2004. Thirteen species belonging to five
Prates, Ivan; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Carnaval, Ana Carolina
The ecology and evolution of Caribbean anoles are well described, yet little is known about mainland anole species. Lack of phylogenetic information limits our knowledge about species boundaries, morphological evolution, and the biogeography of anoles in South America. To help fill this gap, we provide an updated molecular phylogeny of the Dactyloa (Dactyloidae), with emphasis on the punctata species group. By sampling understudied Amazonian taxa, we (i) assess the phylogenetic placement of the 'odd anole', D. dissimilis; (ii) infer the relationships of the proboscis-bearing D. phyllorhina, testing the hypothesis of independent nasal appendage evolution within the anole radiation; and (iii) examine genetic and dewlap color variation in D. punctata and D. philopunctata. Combining multiple nuclear loci with a review of the fossil record, we also (iv) estimate divergence times within the pleurodont iguanian clade of lizards, including Amazonian representatives of Dactyloa and Norops (Dactyloidae) and of Polychrus (Polychrotidae). We recover the five Dactyloa clades previously referred to as the aequatorialis, heteroderma, latifrons, punctata and roquet species groups, as well as a sixth clade composed of D. dissimilis and the non-Amazonian D. neblinina and D. calimae. We find D. phyllorhina to be nested within the punctata group, suggesting independent evolution of the anole proboscis. We consistently recover D. philopunctata nested within D. punctata, and report limited genetic divergence between distinct dewlap phenotypes. The most recent common ancestor of Dactyloa, Anolis and Norops dates back to the Eocene. Most Amazonian taxa within both Dactyloa and Norops diverged in the Miocene, but some diversification events were as old as the late Eocene and late Oligocene. Amazonian Polychrus diverged in the Pliocene. Our findings have broad implications for anole biogeography, disputing recent suggestions that modern dactyloid genera were present in the Caribbean region
Yazwinski, T A; Andrews, P; Holtzen, H; Presson, B; Wood, N; Johnson, Z
Broiler chickens were fed ad libitum diets containing fenbendazole at various concentrations and durations for the removal of adult Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and Capillaria obsignata. All regimens were 100% effective against A. galli. Fenbendazole at doses of 80 ppm for 3 days and 48 or 30 ppm for 5 days was 100% effective against H. gallinarum. C. obsignata was not removed completely by any regimen, but greater than or equal to 95% effectiveness was seen in birds given fenbendazole at doses of 80 ppm for 3 days and 48 ppm for 5 days. All medicated rations were readily consumed, and the treated birds exhibited no adverse reactions.
R. Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available During recent studies of the parasites of birds from the Amazonian Regio, the following nematodes were recovered: Hoazinstrongylus amazonensis n.gen.n.sp. from Opisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776; Ascaridia columbae (Gmel., 1790 Travassos, 1913, from Leptotila r. rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1712 representing a new host record; Inglisakis ibanezi Freitas, Vicente & Santos, 1969, Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914 and Thelazia digitata Travassos, 1918. A compelte description is restrained to the new genus and new species here proposed. The other known and well described species are listed and accounted.Durante recentes estudos dos parasitas de aves capturadas na Região Amazônica, foram identificadas as seguintes espécies de nematóides: Hoazinstrongylus amazonensis n.gen.n.sp, de Opisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776, Ascaridia columbae (Gmel., 1790 Travassos, 1912, de Leptotila r. rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1712 que se constitui em um novo hospedeiro para a espécie, Inglisakis ibanezi Freitas, Vicente & Santos, 1969, Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914 e Thelazia digitata Travassos, 1918.
Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.
Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Feliu, C
The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) in Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago) was studied from 2001 to 2002, as there were no records of helminths from this host in the Canary Islands. Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Lyruterina nigropunctata, A. galli and E. annulatus are recorded for first time in A. barbara. An analysis of available data on Alectoris spp. reveals the importance of intermediate hosts such as arthropods and earthworms in the diet of partridges. Terrestrial helminths are dominant species, with monoxenous and heteroxenous species being present in similar numbers in different Alectoris species along their geographical distribution. Helminth species found in Tenerife from A. barbara are poor indicators of the host colonization from North Africa because these helminths are species that are commonly found in fowl with a cosmopolitan distribution.
Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
of the 12 groups (n=120) were monitored twice a week for excretion of coccidia oocysts (OPG) and gastrointestinal nematode eggs (EPG). At the end of the trial, when broilers were 74 days of age, 5 broilers per plot (n=60) were necropsied and their intestines opened for coccidia speciation and to account...... for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. In general, broilers from both genotypes coped well with coccidia infections as no deaths were reported. Broilers supplemented with A. annua showed a reduced number of excreted oocysts (67% less; p... of oocysts than males (45% more; pgastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...
Cristiane Maria Fernandes de Melo
Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6% and cestodeRaillietina sp. (2.4%. A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots andRaillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus(Synhimantus rectus (100% and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%. In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita andRaillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.
Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P
We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species.
Kurt, M; Acici, M
A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%).
Mpoame, M; Agbede, G
Three hundred and fifty one chickens purchased from the Dschang animal market were examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Ten species were found with the following prevalences: Heterakis brevispiculum (59.3%), Ascaridia galli (51.6%), Hymenolepis carioca (48.4%), Dispharynx spiralis (20.8%), Tetrameres americana (17.1%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (15.1%), Raillietina tetragona (14.5%), Syngamus trachea (13.7%), Hymenolepis cantaniana (5.7%) and Capillaria contorta (2.0%). Infections were predominantly mixed (93.5%). The infection rates were not influenced by host sex except for A. galli which was more prevalent in cocks. Older chickens showed some resistance to A. cuneata and S. trachea. Parasite prevalence and/or worm burdens were generally higher during the rainy season (April to October).
Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.
Ayeni, J S; Dipeolu, O O; Okaeme, A N
The major helminth parasites found in wild, semi-wild and golden Sovereign stock guinea fowl were Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia galli, Capillaria caudinflata, Raillietina tetragona and R. echinobothrida, while Eimeria species was the most important gastro-intestinal protozoan parasite. The incidence of the latter was higher in the semi-wild stock than in the wild stock. Necropsy of dead guinea-fowl indicated that A. galli, H. gallinarum and Eimeria species were indeed responsible for their deaths, especially in the young birds. Parasites found in blood smears were Leucocytozoon sp., Plasmodium sp. and Aegyptianella pullorum. The only tick found, Argas persicus, was on a few semi-wild stock, while lice of genus Damalinia were found only on wild birds.
Full Text Available Comparative Effects of "Sodivermyl" Baird and the Bark of Combretum sp. in the Treatment of Chicken Nematods (in French. In order to determine the parasiticidal effects of the bark of a creeper of the genus Combretum as compared to tetramisole, 77 chickens of local breed naturally infected with various parasites and coming from peasant farms around Dschang, Cameroon, were divided into 3 groups : T0 (control, Tf (treated with tetramisole, and T2 (treated with Combretum sp. 's Bark. The efficacy rates of both treatments T1 and T2 were generally similar : Capillaria (94 % and 92 %, respectively, Heterakis (100 % and 90 %, Ascaridia (100 % and 70 %. These results are interesting enough to justify further studies under controlled conditions on the nematodicidal properties of Combretum sp. 's Bark.
Orunç, Ozlem; Biçek, Kamile
The aim of this study was to determine the parasite fauna of the chicken in Van Province in 2002 and 2003. The material of the present study included endoparasites and ectoparasites determined by rutine parasitological examinations. Direct, flotation and sedimentation techniques for endoparasites were used. The total of endoparasites and ectoparasites were determined as 85% and 76% respectively. The ratios of endoparasites obtained from the chicken were coccidial oocystis 65%, Echinostoma spp. 2%, Davania proglottina 8%, Raillietina spp. 10%, Trichostrongylus tenuis 4%, Dispharynx nasuta 1%, Ascaridia galli 13%, Heterakis gallinarum 15%, Capillaria spp. 30% whereas ratios of ectoparasites were Goniocotes hologaster 32%, Lipeurus heteragraphus 6%, Eomenacanthus stramineus 42%, Menacanthus cornutus 11%, Menopon gallinae 22%.
Ben Slimane, Badreddine
Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Recovered nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %).
Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.
Coimbra, Marco A A; Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Krüger, Cristiane; Muller, Gertrud
Columbina picui (picui ground-dove) is a small, diurnal columbid bird that lives, in couples or flocks, in open areas in the countryside and urban centers. The species occurs in Brazil and other countries in South America. The aim of this study was to identify the helminths that parasitize C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Thirty-four specimens were necropsied; in each case, the organs were isolated and examined separately. The nematodes and their prevalences were: Ascaridia columbae (26.5%) and Ornithostrongylus iheringi (11.8%) in the small intestine; Dispharynx nasuta in the proventriculus (5.9%) and gizzard (2.9%); and a Dispharynx sp. (2.9%) in the proventriculus. This is the first report of D. nasuta parasitizing C. picui in Brazil and the first record of A. columbae and O. iheringi infecting C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Elton Lucio Araujo
Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.
Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B
We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.
陈非洲; 郭晓鸣; 刘正文
记录了目前分布在中国的中剑水蚤属共计 10 个种:刘氏中剑水蚤 Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus,1857)、温中剑水蚤 M.thermocyclopoides Harada,1931、特异中剑水蚤 M.dissimilis Defaye & Kawabata,1993、北碚中剑水蚤M.pehpeiensis Hu,1943、奥贡中剑水蚤M.ogunnus Onabamiro,1957、邬氏中剑水蚤M.woutersi Van de Velde,1987、糙角中剑水蚤 M.aspericornis(Daday,1906)、玛丽中剑水蚤M.mariae Guo,2000、深圳中剑水蚤M.shenzhenensis Guo,2000、蒙古中剑水蚤M.mongoliensis Kiefer,1981.对每一种的主要形态特征和地理分布分别做了详尽描述,给出了如何鉴定这10个种的检索表.同时还讨论和更正了过去一些学者对分布在中国的中剑水蚤属个别种诸如同物异名或同名异物的错误.
Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region.
Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão
Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle
Tønner-Klank, L; Møller, J; Forslund, A; Dalsgaard, A
Compost toilet systems were assessed for their ability to reduce microbial indicators and pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were not detected in any samples indicating a low survival rate in composting feces and/or an initial low occurrence. Indicator bacteria showed large variations with no clear trend of lower bacterial numbers after longer storage. In controlled composting experiments, thermophilic conditions were only reached when amendments were made (grass and a sugar solution). Even then it was impossible to ensure a homogenous temperature in the composting fecal material and therefore difficult to achieve a uniform reduction and killing of indicator organisms. Presumptive thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella typhimurium Phage 28 B and eggs of Ascaridia galli, proved useful as indicators. However, regrowth was detected for enterococci and total numbers of bacteria grown at 36 degrees C. These indicator parameters may therefore overestimate the level of other (pathogenic) bacteria present in the material and can not be recommended for use as reliable indicator organisms in composting toilet systems. The addition of indicator bacteria to fecal material contained in semi-permeable capsules proved to be a useful technique to ensure that microorganisms were contained in a small test volume.
M. N. Opara
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.
M. Ashraf, Faisal Noman Waraich, I.G. Ahmad and K. Pervez
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus at Lahore Zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole HCI and oxfendazole. Fifty-two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77% for single or mixed infection of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galliand Heterakis gallinae, and the individual percentages being 59.62, 38.46 and 13.46 respectively. Out of 42 infected birds 40 were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds (A= treated with albendazole, B=treated with levamisole, C = treated with oxfendazole and group D= untreated control. Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day '0' (pre-medication. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 5 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG was calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88% among the three anthelmintics, followed by levamisole (97.3% and albendazole (95.60%.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths from naturally infected Zenaida auriculatacaptured in Londrina, Paraná State. Two hundred and one Eared doves were trapped and the gastrointestinal and renal helminths were collected and identified according to morphological structures. One hundred and sixteen (57.71% doves were parasitized by helminths with specific prevalences forOrnithostrongylus quadriradiatus in 50 doves (24.88%,Ascaridia columbae in 47 (23.38%, Paratanaisia bragai and P. confusa in 34 (16.92%,Tetrameres fissispina in 17 (8.46%, Synhimantus nasuta in 14 (6.47%, Brachylaima mazzantii in 4 (1.99% and Raillietina allomyodes in 2 doves (1.00%. Seventy four/201 (37.00% birds were infected with only one species, and 96/201 (48.00% pigeons were infected with nematodes. The association between different classes of helminths occurred in 40/201 (20.00% animals. The results showed statistically differences between the presence of nematode (p = 0.00001 and trematode species (p ≤ 0.05 in the doves, and there was an association between the local of capture and the presence of trematodes and A. columbae (p ≤ 0.05. This study is the first to report the infection of Z. auriculata from Brazil with O. quadriradiatus, A. columbae, T. fissispina, S. nasuta, R. allomyodes, P. bragai and P. confusa.
Full Text Available A total of 177 free-ranging chickens from 19 Qwa-Qwa villages were bled from wing veins over a period of 6 months (June-November 2000. Serological tests indicated that 5 % of chickens tested had been exposed to Newcastle disease, 43 % to infectious bronchitis and 63 % to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. McMaster and Visser sieve techniques were used to determine helminth and coccidia from pooled fresh faecal samples. Helminths isolated in 37 % of the villages investigated were Heterakis, Ascaridia and Capillaria species. Eimeria species were also isolated in 32 % of the villages investigated. The red fowl mite (Dermanyssus gallinae was isolated from some of the birds and their nests. Data from a questionnaire survey indicated that all farmers interviewed had never received any technical support and that their chickens had never been vaccinated against any avian diseases. Only 10.5 % of the owners interviewed had scientific knowledge on poultry diseases. There is an urgent need for the government to support free-ranging poultry farmers by providing subsidised vaccinations and technical support in order to develop and stimulate economic development in impoverished rural areas of South Africa.
Uga, S; Hoa, N T V; Noda, S; Moji, K; Cong, L; Aoki, Y; Rai, S K; Fujimaki, Y
Helminth egg contamination of vegetables purchased at suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam was examined. A total of 317 vegetables were examined and 82 (26%) were revealed to be positive for parasite eggs. Of the 15 varieties, 13 were positive except for horseradish and cucumber. Contamination was highest in leafy vegetables (31%), followed by root vegetables (17%) and fruit vegetables (3%). Throughout the survey, five species of parasite eggs were found: Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Toxocara sp., Taenia sp. and Ascaridia galli. In the interview with the villagers, 121 (81%) of 149 adult villagers stated that they usually use not only animal feces but also human feces as a fertilizer. Throughout the survey, a total of 453 eggs were recovered. Number of eggs recovered from vegetables was higher in the dry season (355 eggs) than in the rainy season (98 eggs). The study revealed that vegetables purchased at a market in suburban Hanoi (Vietnam) were highly contaminated with parasite eggs excreted by humans and animals. Considering the eating habits of the Vietnamese and the 17% embryonation rate of detected parasites, vegetables seem to play an important role in soil-transmitted helminth infection in this country.
Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh
The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.
GS da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.
Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol
The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.
Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura
This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.
Full Text Available The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%, Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%, Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%, Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%, Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%, Raillietina tetragona (57.5%, Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%, Raillietina sp. (35.8%, Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2% and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%. The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.
Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L
This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.
Idika, I K; Obi, C F; Ezeh, I O; Iheagwam, C N; Njoku, I N; Nwosu, C O
The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of local chickens in Nsukka region of Southeastern Nigeria was studied using 125 free range local birds purchased from four communities in Nsukka zone namely, Obollo-afor, Orba, Nsukka urban and Owerre Eze-orba. The birds were sacrificed humanely and their oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and caecum examined for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. Worms when present were isolated and identified using standard parasitological procedures. The study identified four species of cestodes namely Raillietina echinobothridia, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus and Choanotaenia infundibulum and two species of nematodes namely, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Results obtained showed 96.8 % prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in the birds with cestodes being the more prevalent class (70.4 %). Raillietina spp was the most prevalent cestode encountered and A. galli the most prevalent nematode. Prevalence rates of infections recorded 14.4 % for nematode species, 26.4 % for cestodes and 56 % for mixed infections of nematodes and cestodes. It was concluded that local chickens are common in the area and could serve as a potential source of helminth infections to intensively managed birds in the study area.
Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N
We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken.
Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C
The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.
Full Text Available Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (=63 and zoo (=83 birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (=75, molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds, including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%, Ascaridia (6.8%, Strongyles (5.5%, G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%, Coccidia (4.1%, Cryptosporidium (4%, Porrocaecum (2.7%, Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%, and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%. The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR = 14.81 and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR = 4.72. Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds.
Full Text Available Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations.
Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.
Presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias en palomas ferales (Columba livia en áreas urbanas en Envigado, Colombia / Presence of parasites and enterobacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia in urban areas of Envigado, Colombia
Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: diagnosticar la presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias de importancia en Salud Pública en poblaciones ferales de Columba livia en zonas urbanas del municipio de Envigado, Colombia. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal prospectivo con cuarenta palomas en seis lugares diferentes. Se evaluó plumaje para determinar ectoparásitos, hisopado coanal y cloacal, y muestra de sangre de la vena axilar. Se realizó examen directo con solución salina y yodada; técnica de flotación y tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. El diagnóstico de hemoparásitos se efectuó mediante método de gota gruesa, coloración de Wright y tinción Hemacolor®. Se utilizó API 20e® para Enterobacterias. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y análisis de correlación entre hemoparásitos y ectoparásitos. Resultados: Escherichia coli (95%, Haemoproteus spp. (73%, Columbicola columbae (64%, ooquistes compatibles con Eimeria spp. (55%, Pseudolynchia canariensis (52%, Trichomona spp. (40%, Capillaria spp. (28%, Menopon gallinae (24%, Ascaridia spp. (8%, y un caso de Enterobacter cloacae. Se identificó la presencia de Ornithonyssus bursa en nidos de algunas de las aves muestreadas. Discusión: Aunque se han presentado reportes de casos eventuales de ellos en personas dentro de la revisión de literatura, los microorganismos aislados tienen un bajo riesgo de transmisión en humanos; sin embargo pueden convertirse en un problema de salud pública veterinaria al ser potenciales fuentes de infección a la fauna silvestre urbana con quienes comparten albergue, fuentes de agua y alimento. Conclusión: El mayor porcentaje fue ooquistes compatibles con Eimeria spp (55% y enterobacterias como E. coli (95%. Ornithonyssus bursa en las palomeras evidencia la presencia de un patógeno potencialmente zoonótico, causante de lesiones dérmicas en humanos./ Abstract Objective: to determine the presence of parasites and enterobacteria that are relevant to public health
Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C
The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
King; Shimumbo; Nalubamba; Eugene; Chisela; Bwalya; Ntombi; Basimbi; Mudenda; Hetron; Mweemba; Munangandu; Musso; Munyeme; David; Squarre
Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia.Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls(148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011.Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval(CI) 98.9-128.6] and 108(CI 76.6-139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9(CI 128.4-177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6(CI 66.8-94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2(CI 3.91-4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4(CI 2.92-3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species co-occurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls.Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L
Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.
Dikeledi P. Malatji
Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples
Permin, A; Esmann, J B; Hoj, C H; Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S
A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6; 14), Cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), Echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 74), Goniocotes gallinae (0; 22), Menacanthus stramenius (90; 88) and Menopon gallinea (24; 66). The prevalences of C. mutans, G. gallinae and M. gallinae were higher in adults compared to young chickens. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of helminth species per chicken was 6.7+/-2.0 for young chickens and 6.4+/-2.0 for adult chickens with a range of 1-10 for young chickens and a range of 1-11 for adult chickens. The most prevalent nematodes identified were (with prevalence in % for young/adult birds): Allodapa suctoria (76; 72), Ascaridia galli (48; 24), Gongylonema ingluvicola (28; 56), Heterakis gallinarum (64; 62) and Tetrameres americana (70; 62). For cestodes the prevalences were: Amoebotaenia cuneata (60; 68), Hymenolepis spp. (62; 80), Raillietina echinobothrida (66; 34), Raillietina tetragona (94; 100) and Skrjabinia cesticillus (50; 76). The young chickens had higher prevalences of A. galli and R. echinobothrida compared to adults, but lower prevalence of G. ingluvicola and S. cesticillus. Eimeria spp. oocysts were isolated in 36% of 47 investigated samples. The prevalence was 47% for young chickens and 18% for adult chickens. Prevalences (in %) of haemoparasites in young and adult chickens were: Aegyptinella pullorum (7; 6), Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (3; 1), Plasmodium gallinaceum (8; 6) and Trypanosoma avium (2; 3).
Full Text Available Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%, Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%, Raillietina tetragona (46.25%, Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%, and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%. Both single (19.15% as well as mixed (80.85% infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88% followed by winter (66.66% and least in summer season (41.81%. Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23% than males (56.67%. Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77% than adults (51.30% to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was observed.
Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne
A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised.
Mukaratirwa, S; Khumalo, M P
A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-867%), Tetrameres american (53.3-66.7%) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8%) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40%) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3%) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.
Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.
Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R; Khajuria, J K; Borkataki, S; Sodhi, S S
Necropsy of gastrointestinal tract of 125 free-range chickens from a subtropical and humid zone of northwestern India revealed four nematode spp. (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Cheilospirura hamulosa) and four cestode spp. (Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona and Amoebotaenia cuneata) The overall prevalence of the helminth parasites was 72.0%. Amongst various helminth species encountered in the region, A. galli emerged out as the most prevalent, followed by H. gallinarum, R. cesticillus and R. echinobothrida. The impact of helminthic infections on body weight gain in growing chickens was investigated. One hundred growing chickens, aged 40 days were randomly assigned to two groups (treated and untreated controls) of 50 birds each. The birds in treated group were given fenbendazole at 7.5 mg per kg body weight in drinking water, while the birds in other group served as untreated controls. At the end of the 90 days of the field trial, the mean body weight gain of untreated controls was 1232.2 ± 7.28 g (13.7 g/day) compared with 1617.6 ± 5.43 g (18.0 g/day) in the treated group. It was associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean worm burden (32.92 ± 6.12) in untreated controls than the treated group (2.46 ± 1.14). The prevalences of helminthic species and their impact on body weight gain in growing backyard chickens have been discussed.
Gilmar F. Vita
Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioidesLinnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 (codorna japonesa, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução de índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridiae Eimeria. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos de Ascaridiasp. (100,00% e significativa taxa de redução na destruição de oocistos de Eimeriasp. (47,06%. O ensaio in vivodemonstrou alta taxa de redução na contagem de ovos de Ascaridiasp. nas fezes (100,00% e expressiva taxa de redução na contagem de oocistos de Eimeriasp. nas fezes (60,33%. Chenopodium ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.
Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ferreira Júnior, Francisco Carlos; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva
Ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) of species Crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), Crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), Crypturellus tataupa (Tataupa tinamou), Crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), Rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and Tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the Brazilian Poultry Health Program (PNSA). Antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (SAT) in 4 birds for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in 27 birds for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). However, by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), sera were negative to MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Bacteriology was negative for SP and SG. No antibody was detected by HI to avian paramyxovirus type 1. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were detected in 9.4% (9/95) by ELISA. Fecal parasitology and necropsy revealed Capillaria spp. in 44.2% (42/95), Eimeria rhynchoti in 42.1% (40/95), Strongyloides spp. in 100% (20/20), Ascaridia spp., and unknown sporozoa in small-billed tinamou. Ectoparasites were detected in 42.1% (40/95) by inspection, and collected for identification. The louse Strongylocotes lipogonus (Insecta: Phthiraptera) was found on all Rhynchotus rufescens. An additional four lice species were found on 14 individuals. Traumatic lesions included four individual R. rufescens (4/40, 10%) with rhinotheca fracture, one with mandible fracture and three with posttraumatic ocular lesions (3/40, 7.5%). One C. parvirostris had phalangeal loss, another had tibiotarsal joint ankylosis and another had an open wound on the foot. Results suggest that major poultry infections/ diseases may not be relevant in tinamids, and that this group of birds, as maintained within distances for biosecurity purposes, may not represent a risk to commercial poultry. Ecto- and endoparasites were common, disseminated, and varied; regular monitoring of flocks is recommended
Wei Huang; Lizhi Zhou; and Niannian Zhao
Background:Parasites have adverse effects on the life and survival of many migratory waterbirds, especially birds on the endangered species list. Hooded Cranes are large migratory colonial waterbirds wintering in wetlands, which are prone to parasite infection, thus monitoring the diversity of parasites is important for sound wetland management and protection of this species. Methods:From November 2012 to April 2013, we collected 821 fresh faecal samples from the three lakes (Poyang, Caizi and Shengjin Lake) in the lower and middle Yangtze River floodplain, and detected with saturated brine floating and centrifugal sedimentation methods. Parasite eggs were quantified with a modified McMaster’s counting method. Results:In this study, 11 species of parasites were discovered, i.e., two coccidium (Eimeria gruis, E. reichenowi), five nematodes (Capil aria sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Ancylostomatidae), three trematodes (Echinostoma sp., Echinochasmus sp., Fasciolopsis sp.) and one cestode (Hymenolepis sp.). About 57.7%of the faecal samples showed parasitic infection. All species of parasites were found at the three sites except Hymenolepis which was not found at Poyang Lake. While most samples were affected by only one or two species of parasites, infection by Eimeria spp. was the most common (53.1%). From One-Way ANOVA analysis of the three lakes, parasite species richness index (p = 0.656), diversity index (p = 0.598) and evenness index (p = 0.612) showed no significant difference. According to the statistical analysis of our data, there were no significant difference in parasite species richness index (p = 0.678) and evenness index (p= 0.238) between wintering periods, but a strong difference in diversity index (p Conclusions:Our study suggests that in the wintering Hooded Crane populations, parasite diversity is more sensitive to changes in the overwintering periods than to locations. This also indicates that with the limitations of
Full Text Available In spite of the ecological and socio-economical importance of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa as a prey of threatened species and as a gamebird, and the reported influence that pathogens have in other populations of galliform birds, information about diseases of the red-legged partridge is still scarce. Very little is known about the importance of the diseases in the dynamics of free-living partridge populations. However, enzootic avian poxvirus may be causing the death of partridge chicks in some natural populations. In contrast, more evidences support that the intense management of partridges (trough release of farm-reared partridges, supplemental feeding, or predator control are promoting the release and transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases. Infectious and protozoan agents and monoxenous helminths typical from farmed galliforms (Ascaridia sp., Eucoleus contortus, or Heterakis gallinarum are extremely frequent in partridge rearing facilities. The presence of such helminths but also other disease outbreaks (e.g. salmonellosis in wild partridges may be related with the release of farm-reared partridges. Other cases of disease in the wild, such as avian tuberculosis, may be favoured by the aggregation of partridges and other birds around feeders and water points, and by the absence of predators that should remove sick partridges. Intense supplementary feeding may also promote patho-physiological troubles, such as an incorrect development and eventual massive deaths of juvenile wild partridges in summer months. These and other available reports of infectious and parasitic agents and other diseases of diverse aetiology are reviewed.
Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.
Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena
Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.
N. H. A. Curi
Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.
sardines (Harengula pensacolae) were the dominant animals collected in the higher salinities (10-25 g/l) near the mouth of the estuary. Amphipods (Corophium sp. and Grandidierella sp.), mysids (Mysidopsis almyra and Gastrosaccus dissimilis), crab larvae, and the young anchovies, sardines, and related fish were the dominant forms in the brackish water (1-10 g/l) of the mid-estuary. The presence of large numbers of juvenile and young animals and young animals indicated the importance of these brackish waters as nursery grounds. Aquatic insects, cyclopoid copepods (Macrocyclops sp.), cladocerans, mysids (Taphromysis bowmani), ostracods (Cypridopsis sp. ), fresh-water prawns (Palaemonetes paludosus), and various marshfish were dominant in the ?fresh? headwaters. The amount of plant detritus collected in the estuary averaged about ten times that of the zooplankton. The estimated mean wet-weight of the zooplankton was 65 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m?) and ranged from 1 to 173 mg/m?, with the smallest amounts occurring in the ?fresh? headwaters. Nekton, consisting of small fish and prawns, ranged from 3 to 214 mg/m? in weight and had a mean of 30 mg/m?. Largest catches were made in the headwaters at the end of the dry season, where the weight of the standing crop increased more than 15 times during the sampling period. The small fish and prawns, which were concentrated in the headwaters at the water level dropped, served as a rich source of food for predatory marine fish and birds.
Permin, A; Magwisha, H; Kassuku, A A; Nansen, P; Bisgaard, M; Frandsen, F; Gibbons, L
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of helminths in rural scavenging poultry on six hundred adult chickens selected randomly from six villages in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania during the wet and the dry seasons, was conducted. The trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird were examined for the presence of parasites. All chickens were infected with one or several species of helminths, the average being 4.8 +/- 1.7 helminths per chicken during the wet season and 5.1 +/- 1.8 during the dry season. A total of 29 different helminth species were shown in the trachea or the gastrointestinal tract. The following species were identified: Syngamus trachea (0.7% (wet season), 2% (dry season)); Gongylonema ingluvicola (6.3%, 17.7%); Tetrameres americana (54.3%, 60.3%); Dispharynx nasuta (0%, 2.7%); Acuaria hamulosa (8.3%, 19.3%); Ascaridia galli (28.3%, 32.3%); Heterakis gallinarum (74.0%, 78.7%); H. isolonche (18.7%, 5.0%); H. dispar (25.7%, 6.3%); Allodapa suctoria (40.0%, 52.0%); Subulura strongylina (3.3%, 1.0%); Strongyloides avium (0.3%, 3.0%); Capillaria annulata (2.0%, 0.0%); C. contorta (9.0%, 1.0%); C. caudinflata (2.0%, 4.3%); C. obsignata (8.7%, 25.0%); C. anatis (4.0%, 9.0%); C. bursata (1.0%, 2.7%); Raillietina echinobothrida (41.3%, 46.3%); R. tetragona (25.3%, 21. 3%); R. cesticillus (8.7%, 2.7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (0.0%, 3. 7%); Hymenolepis carioca (9.0%, 18.0%); H. cantaniana (48.0%, 43. 0%); Amoebotaenia cuneata (39.3%, 36.0%); Metroliasthes lucida (1.0%, 0.3%); Davainea proglottina (5.7%, 0.3%) and Polymorphus boschadis (0.3%, 0.0%). No trematodes were found. No correlation was found between season and prevalence, or season and mean worm burdens. Twelve helminths of the species recovered represent new local records.
Wei; Huang; Lizhi; Zhou; Niannian; Zhao
Background: Parasites have adverse effects on the life and survival of many migratory waterbirds, especially birds on the endangered species list. Hooded Cranes are large migratory colonial waterbirds wintering in wetlands,which are prone to parasite infection, thus monitoring the diversity of parasites is important for sound wetland management and protection of this species.Methods: From November 2012 to April 2013, we collected 821 fresh faecal samples from the three lakes(Poyang,Caizi and Shengjin Lake) in the lower and middle Yangtze River floodplain, and detected with saturated brine floating and centrifugal sedimentation methods. Parasite eggs were quantified with a modified Mc Master’s counting method.Results: In this study, 11 species of parasites were discovered, i.e., two coccidium(Eimeria gruis, E. reichenowi), five nematodes(Capillaria sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Ancylostomatidae), three trematodes(Echinostoma sp., Echinochasmus sp., Fasciolopsis sp.) and one cestode(Hymenolepis sp.). About 57.7% of the faecal samples showed parasitic infection. All species of parasites were found at the three sites except Hymenolepis which was not found at Poyang Lake. While most samples were affected by only one or two species of parasites, infection by Eimeria spp. was the most common(53.1%). From One-Way ANOVA analysis of the three lakes, parasite species richness index(p = 0.656), diversity index(p = 0.598) and evenness index(p = 0.612) showed no significant difference. According to the statistical analysis of our data, there were no significant difference in parasite species richness index(p = 0.678) and evenness index(p = 0.238) between wintering periods, but a strong difference in diversity index(p < 0.05).Conclusions: Our study suggests that in the wintering Hooded Crane populations, parasite diversity is more sensitive to changes in the overwintering periods than to locations. This also indicates that with the limitations of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0