WorldWideScience

Sample records for asbestos-related diseases incidence

  1. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  2. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.)

  3. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  4. 1988至2014年青岛市某石棉厂石棉相关疾病发病情况%The incidence of asbestos-related diseases about on asbestos enterprises in Qingdao from 1988 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋平平; 王艳; 孙建岭; 高燕; 刘娟; 陈艳霞

    2016-01-01

    239 patients lose their lives,motality is 38.74%.Conclusion There is a high incidence of a disease about asbestos related disease in the asbestos products factory,it has close relationship with asbestos exposure time,the dust concentration of workplace and type of work et al.Asbestos related diseases are still the main problem in Qingdao.

  5. [Improving system of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related broncho-pulmonary diseases in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To improve a system of prevention and rehabilitation for broncho-pulmonary diseases among workers engaged into extraction and utilization of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified major criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to asbestos-containing dust, with definition of risk groups for broncho-pulmonary diseases. The authors formulated main concepts of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related pulmonary diseases in workers engaged into asbestos industry. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed to prevention and liquidation of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:21789804

  6. [WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F

    2008-01-01

    The article covers analysis of contemporary international documents on asbestosis problem. Suggestions are presented to Russia participation in realization of joint WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  7. Gallium scanning in differentiating malignant from benign asbestos-related pleural disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the utility of 67gallium citrate in delineating malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural disease, 49 patients with malignant mesothelioma and 16 with benign asbestos-related pleural disease were studied. Seven patients with malignant mesothelioma had no history of asbestos exposure, while the remaining 58 patients were exposed. Forty-three of the 49 patients (88%) with malignant mesothelioma had a positive 67gallium scan including 36 of the 42 (86%) patients with asbestos exposure and all 7 patients without a history of asbestos exposure. Three of 16 patients (19%) with benign asbestos-related pleural disease had a positive scan. 67Gallium radionuclide imaging is nonspecific but may be valuable in noninvasive monitoring of asbestos-exposed populations, which have a high risk for the late development of benign and/or malignant pleural disease

  8. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by tw

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in asbestos-related diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Jagirdar, J; T. C. Lee; Reibman, J; Gold, L. I.; Aston, C; Bégin, R; Rom, W N

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor, plays a key role in scarring and fibrotic processes because of its ability to induce extracellular matrix proteins and modulate the growth and immune function of many cell types. These effects are important in inflammatory disorders with fibrosis and cancer. The asbestos-related diseases are characterized by fibrosis in the lower respiratory tract and pleura and increased occurrence of lung cancer and me...

  10. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax; Asbestverursachte Veraenderungen am Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieckel, H.G. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [German] Asbestfasern koennen zu einer Lungenfibrose, zu Verdickungen der Pleura und zu Malignomen fuehren. Diese pathologischen Veraenderungen sind fakultativ und abhaengig von der Asbestart, der Dauer der Exposition und von individuellen Faktoren. Asbest fand bis 1993 in Deutschland breiten Einsatz. Weltweit besteht noch kein Verbot. Mehrheitlich sind asbestbedingte Erkrankungen Folgen beruflicher Expositionen. Bis zu ihrem Auftreten liegen lange Latenzzeiten bis ueber 40 Jahre, sodass das Maximum noch nicht erreicht ist. Asbestverursachte Berufserkrankungen am Thorax sind die Asbestose und asbestverursachte benigne Pleuraerkrankungen sowie das maligne Pleuramesotheliom. Bronchialkarzinome koennen asbestverursacht sein. Zur Beweisfuehrung wird von der

  11. Frequency, sensitivity and specificity of roentgenographic features of slight and moderate asbestos-related respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of early detection of asbestos-related respiratory diseases was examined on the basis of four x-ray abnormalities, namely, pulmonary fibrosis, pleural plaque, diffuse pleural thickening and diaphragmatic calcification, in a group of workers exposed to chrysotile asbestos. The frequency of these phenomena was compared to the unexposed control group of similar distribution of number, sex and age. Besides the pleural plaques, which had a high specificity, the combination of minor x-ray abnormalities proved to be most characteristic of exposure to asbestos. The more frequent one of the abnormalities, the less specificity it had to asbestos exposure. (orig.)

  12. The Global Health Dimensions of Asbestos and Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. PMID:27325079

  13. Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: iconographic essay; Alteracoes pleurais e parenquimatosas relacionadas a exposicao ao asbesto: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Bagatin, Ericson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva e Social; Terra-Filho, Mario [Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the main imaging findings of asbestos-related diseases. Pleural and pulmonary asbestos-related diseases range from benign conditions, like pleural effusion and pleural plaques, to some neoplasias, such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Pleural effusion is the earliest finding after asbestos exposure, but the imaging findings are not specific. Diffuse pleural thickening involves the visceral pleura and pleural plaques are considered to be hallmarks of exposure. Asbestosis is the pulmonary fibrosis due to asbestos. Rounded atelectasis is a peripheral lung collapse in these individuals, generally related to pleural disease. Some neoplasias, like lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma, are more prevalent in asbestos-exposed subjects. (author)

  14. Preliminary study of positron emission tomography/computed tomography and plasma osteopontin levels in patients with asbestos-related pleural disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of semiquantitative analysis by 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with plasma osteopontin levels in the same asbestos-related pleural disease population. A total of 17 patients with asbestos-related pleural disease were prospectively recruited. They underwent PET/CT, and plasma osteopontin levels were measured. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined from the most active pleural lesion in each patient. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) was histologically proven in 6 patients, and 11 patients had proven benign asbestos-related pleural diseases (7 pleural plaques, 4 asbestos pleurisy). Significant differences in SUVmax were found between patients with MPM and those with asbestos pleurisy (P=0.031) and between patients with MPM and those with pleural plaques (P=0.012). A significant difference was found in the plasma osteopontin levels between patients with asbestos pleurisy and patients with pleural plaques (Bonferroni correction, P=0.024). The SUVmax in patients with benign asbestos-related diseases was statistically positively correlated with plasma osteopontin in the same group (Spearman's r=0.75, P<0.05). PET/CT might be more helpful than plasma osteopontin for distinguishing benign asbestos-related pleural diseases from MPM, and the SUVmax in benign asbestos-related pleural diseases may reflect changes in pleural inflammation. (author)

  15. Efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations after initial asbestos-related disease screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations as a result of initial asbestos-related disease screening. The subjects consisted of 132 participants who underwent asbestos-related disease screening in our hospital between July 2005 and March 2006. According to their history of screening, the participants were classified into the initial screening group and the second screening group. The former consisted of 76 participants without prior screening, while the latter consisted of 56 participants who were referred to our hospital for the detailed examinations as a result of initial screening undergone elsewhere. The participants were examined concerning their history of asbestos exposure, and then underwent chest X-ray followed by chest computed tomography (CT). Respiratory endoscopic examinations were mainly performed in participants with suspected chest malignancies. There were no significant differences in the distribution of age or gender between the two screening groups. In both screening groups, more than 70% of the participants had a history of occupational exposure to asbestos. Radiological abnormalities were observed in 110 (83%) of all participants. Asbestos-related diseases were detected in a total of 90 (68%) cases. The breakdown of the 90 cases by disease was as follows: 60 cases had pleural plaque, 13 pulmonary fibrosis, 5 lung cancer (LC), 4 benign asbestos pleurisy, 4 round atelectasis, 2 diffuse pleural thickening, and 2 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The disease detection rate of LC and MPM was 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Respiratory endoscopic examinations were performed in a total of 15 cases. The breakdown of the 15 cases by examination was as follows: bronchoscopy was performed in 6 cases, thoracoscopy including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in 8, and mediastinoscopy in 4. Two cases with early LC were diagnosed by videothoracoscopic lung biopsy. A diagnosis of MPM was

  16. Asbestos Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Bégin; André Dufresne; François Plante; Serge Massé

    1994-01-01

    An updated summary of current understanding of asbestos related disorders is presented, along with a review of the history of the disorders, and the mineralogy, biological tissue burden, pathogenesis, pathology and clinical aspects of the asbestos related disorders, with particular emphasis on important information for the clinician.

  17. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims. PMID:26513124

  18. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims.

  19. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  20. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  1. Physical activity in people with asbestos related pleural disease and dust-related interstitial lung disease: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Munoz, Phillip A; Corte, Peter; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of physical activity (PA) in people with dust-related pleural and interstitial lung diseases and to compare these levels of PA to a healthy population. There is limited data on PA in this patient population and no previous studies have compared PA in people with dust-related respiratory diseases to a healthy control group. Participants with a diagnosis of a dust-related respiratory disease including asbestosis and asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) and a healthy age- and gender-matched population wore the SenseWear(®) Pro3 armband for 9 days. Six-minute walk distance, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also measured. Fifty participants were recruited and 46 completed the study; 22 with ARPD, 10 with dust-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) and 14 healthy age-matched participants. The mean (standard deviation) steps/day were 6097 (1939) steps/day for dust-related ILD, 9150 (3392) steps/day for ARPD and 10,630 (3465) steps/day for healthy participants. Compared with the healthy participants, dust-related ILD participants were significantly less active as measured by steps/day ((mean difference 4533 steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI): 1888-7178)) and energy expenditure, ((mean difference 512 calories (95% CI: 196-827)) and spent significantly less time engaging in moderate, vigorous or very vigorous activities (i.e. >3 metabolic equivalents; mean difference 1.2 hours/day (95% CI: 0.4-2.0)). There were no differences in levels of PA between healthy participants and those with ARPD. PA was reduced in people with dust-related ILD but not those with ARPD when compared with healthy age and gender-matched individuals.

  2. Asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura: uses, trends and management over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklake, M R; Bagatin, E; Neder, J A

    2007-04-01

    Asbestos is a descriptive term for a group of naturally occurring minerals known to mankind since ancient times. The main types of asbestos (chrysotile, and the amphiboles crocidolite and amosite) differ in chemical structure, biopersistence in human tissue and toxicity. Commercial exploitation, with little thought for environmental controls, increased over the twentieth century, particularly after World War II, to accommodate globalisation and the demands of the world's burgeoning cities. As its ill-health effects, both non-malignant (fibrosis of the lungs or asbestosis; pleural effusion, plaques and thickening) and malignant (mesothelioma, lung and other cancers), became evident, public pressure rose to control its use. The last decades of the last century saw decreases in exposure and rates of asbestosis in industrialised and in some less-industrialised countries, where pleural plaques and malignant mesothelioma are currently the most frequent manifestations of asbestos exposure. Longer follow-up of asbestos-exposed cohorts in mining and manufacturing has also strengthened the evidence of a fibre gradient in toxicity, with chrysotile exhibiting lower toxicity than the amphiboles, and amosite lower toxicity than crocidolite. The last decades of the twentieth century saw stabilisation and/or declines in mesothelioma rates in several industrialised countries. In less-industrialised countries, data on disease are sparse, exposure generally high and rates may peak in the future. Management of asbestos-related disease in the workplace requires collaboration between workers and unions (responsible for monitoring workplace dust levels, to which they must have access) and companies (responsible for engineering controls), reinforced by appropriate government regulations and by community support. PMID:17394680

  3. Relationship of lung function to radiographic reading (ILO) in patients with asbestos related lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, J E; King, B

    1988-10-01

    The 1980 International Labour Office (ILO) classification of posteroanterior chest radiographs was used to obtain the scores for profusion of small opacities and pleural abnormalities of 172 men with confirmed or suspected disease of the lungs due to asbestos. After allowance had been made for age, stature, and smoking habit the quantitative score for area of diffuse pleural thickening seen in profile on both lateral chest walls contributed to reductions in inspiratory capacity, expiratory reserve volume, and forced expiratory flow rates. Occlusion of one or both costophrenic angles in the presence of diffuse thickening was associated with further reduction in inspiratory capacity. Profusion of small opacities was associated with a reduction in transfer factor. Diffuse pleural thickening and occlusion of costophrenic angles were associated with relatively low values for the forced expiratory flow rates (MEF50FVC) and FEV1/FVC, whereas small opacities were associated with relatively high values. Thus overall increased, normal, or reduced values of MEF50FVC and FEV1/FVC might occur, depending on the distribution of the radiographic abnormalities. The findings contribute to the validation of the ILO pleural scores; those for diffuse pleural thickening and occlusion of costophrenic angles should be used jointly with the scores for profusion of parenchymal small opacities in interpreting the lung function of persons exposed to asbestos.

  4. Functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in people with asbestos related pleural disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Marita T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional exercise capacity in people with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD is unknown and there are no data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The primary aims were to determine whether functional exercise capacity and HRQoL were reduced in people with ARPD. The secondary aim was to determine whether functional exercise capacity was related to peak exercise capacity, HRQoL, physical activity or respiratory function. Methods In participants with ARPD, exercise capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test (6MWT and incremental cycle test (ICT; HRQoL by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and physical activity by an activity monitor worn for one week. Participants also underwent lung function testing. Results 25 males completed the study with a mean (SD age of 71 (6 years, FVC 82 (19% predicted, FEV1/FVC 66 (11%, TLC 80 (19% predicted and DLCO 59 (13% predicted. Participants had reduced exercise capacity demonstrated by six-minute walk distance (6MWD of 76 (11% predicted and peak work rate of 71 (21% predicted. HRQoL was also reduced. The 6MWD correlated with peak work rate (r=0.58, p=0.002, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total score (r=-0.57, p=0.003, metabolic equivalents from the activity monitor (r=0.45, p Conclusions People with ARPD have reduced exercise capacity and HRQoL. The 6MWT may be a useful surrogate measure of peak exercise capacity and physical activity levels in the absence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and activity monitors. Trial registration ANZCTR12608000147381

  5. Evaluation of laboratory examinations in asbestos-exposed patients with special reference to the relation between KL-6 and asbestos-related lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of various tests for the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung diseases, we analyzed laboratory findings of persons who underwent medical checkup for asbestos-exposure. We reviewed the medical records of persons who underwent the medical checkup for asbestos exposure at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chugoku Rosai General Hospital between September 2005 and December 2006. We reviewed data from blood and biochemical tests, chest X-ray, chest CT, and pulmonary function test of each subject. Subjects younger than 35 years without occupational asbestos-exposure were excluded. Among 106 subjects, 60 cases were diagnosed as having asbestos-related lung disease. Fifty-four had pleural plaque, 4 had diffuse pleural thickening, 5 had benign asbestos pleural effusion, 4 had rounded atelectasis, and 19 had asbestosis. Based on the results of chest CT scan, subjects were categorized into three groups: 46 subjects without abnormal findings due to asbestos, 41 subjects with pleural lesion, and 19 with pulmonary lesion. Laboratory examinations were compared between three groups. KL-6, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and % diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (%DLCO) were significantly different between the three groups (p<0.001 p=0.01 and p=0.03). CEA and %DLCO were significantly different between smokers and non-smokers but KL-6 did not show any significant difference. Receiver operator curve analysis showed that KL-6 had a higher diagnostic value for asbestos-related lung diseases and asbestosis than CEA and %DLCO. KL-6, which is not influenced by smoking, was thought to closely reflect fibrotic changes due to asbestos-exposure. (author)

  6. Asbestos fibres in indoor and outdoor air and the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases in Quebec : summary and recommendation of the reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGuire, L.; Lajoie, P.; Lemieux, C.; Poulin, M.

    2004-07-01

    in the incidence of mesothelioma of the pleura among Quebec men between 1982 and 1996. There is a higher rate of the disease in Quebec than in the rest of Canada and in several other countries, indicating a need to monitor the evolution of this cancer in the coming years. In the last decade, the number of workers with an asbestos-related disease of recognized occupational origin has also increased.

  7. Pitfalls in diagnostic imaging and assessment of benign asbestos-related thoracic diseases; Fallstricke in der radiologischen Diagnostik und Begutachtung der benignen asbestbedingten Erkrankungen des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehbock, B. [Praxis fuer Diagnostische Radiologie am St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus Berlin-Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Diagnostische Radiologie; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Erlangen (Germany). Radiologische Diagnostik; Kraus, T. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin

    2012-05-15

    The recognition of asbestos-related diseases of the lung and/or pleura as an occupational disease is of psychosocial, medical and legal importance to the insured person. Radiological imaging is an essential part of the assessment and requires an increasingly high level of competence in the field of radiological diagnosis of pneumoconiosis in interdisciplinary collaboration with occupational medicine and pneumonology. The chest radiogram remains an integral part of basic diagnostic procedures in asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and/or pleura. Its importance lies in the detection of extended pleural changes as well as substantial fibrosis. The inherent low sensitivity and specificity of projection radiography is taken into account by the increasing use of multi-slice high resolution (HR) CT (in low dose technique). Radiological pitfalls in pleural plaque assessment with respect to plain chest X-ray concern all structures that superimpose on the pleural circumference, particularly the anatomical layers of the chest wall (extra-pleural fatty tissue, muscles, thoracic skeleton) as well as other pulmonary findings that can only be reliably assigned using CT. Even if state-of the-art CT is applied, asymmetries and abnormal expression of anatomical structures and variants (e.g. muscles and blood vessels) can lead to false-positive findings. The interstitial fibrosis of asbestosis, manifested as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is non-pathognomonic for asbestosis. Therefore, parietal pleural thickening as a coincident finding to UIP is considered as being the main feature and a highly suggestive indicator of asbestosis in patients with a history of asbestos exposure. (orig.)

  8. Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. Results: In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tonnes of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055. The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. Conclusions: Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption. Med Pr 2015;66(1:1–9

  9. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  10. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of ...

  11. Asbestos-related x-ray changes in foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, K D; Reilly, M J

    1998-08-01

    Michigan has a statewide mandatory occupational disease reporting system. As part of that system, reports are received from hospital, physicians, death certificates, the worker's compensation bureau, and company medical departments. Based on this reporting, the State of Michigan has a special emphasis program for the surveillance of silicosis, a known disease outcome among foundry workers. From 1985-1996, 115 cases reported to the State Surveillance System as silicosis, pneumoconiosis not specified, or pulmonary fibrosis were reclassified as having asbestos related x-ray changes after a B-reader interpretation of each case's chest x-ray. During this same period there were an additional 697 reports confirmed as silicosis and 6,724 cases reported to the surveillance system as asbestosis. Among the 115 reports reclassified as having asbestos-related x-ray changes without evidence of silicosis-related x-ray changes, 54 had worked in foundries. Only 7 (14.8%) of these individuals had their primary work in maintenance in the foundry; 40 (85.1%) had their primary foundry work in a production job; and for 10 individuals the occupation was not known. Asbestos has been used in foundries on pipe laggings, boiler coverings, as insulation in fan housings, in gloves, aprons and curtains, as insulation in cupolas, and in ladles and insulation in sand molds. Clinicians caring for foundry workers need to be aware that asbestos-related x-ray changes are not uncommon in this population and asbestos exposure should be considered as one of the carcinogens contributing to the known increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers. PMID:9651631

  12. Early Onset of Atypical Proliferative Lesions in the Lungs of a Libby Amphibole (LA) Exposed Rat Model of Cardiovascular Disease-Associated Iron Overlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Miners and residents of Libby, Montana have increased incidences of asbestos-related diseases associated with exposure to amphibole contaminated vermiculite. Amphiboles have been shown to bind endogenous iron and modulate fiber induced inflammatory response. We hypoth...

  13. Asbestos-related chest X-ray changes among Greek merchant marine seamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonakis, E G; Tsorva, A; Tzonou, A; Trichopoulos, D

    1989-01-01

    One hundred forty-one retired Greek mariners were examined radiologically for asbestos-related lung disease. Thirty-eight (27%) had small opacities classified as ILO category 1/0 or more; 37 (26%) had radiologic evidence of pleural lesions; 17 (12%) had both parenchymal and pleural lesions; and a total of 58 (41%) had one or more radiologic findings of asbestos-related lung disease. In discriminant analysis, duration of maritime employment was predictive of pleural lesions, but the association was not statistically significant (one-tail, p = .16). The prevalence of pleural lesions was also higher among sailors than among officers, and this association was statistically significant (one-tail, p = .05). In this group, none of the occupational variables studied (age, duration of maritime employment, and rank) was related to lung fibrosis. After controlling by multiple regression for mutual confounding effects, suggestive negative associations for the presence of pleural lesions were found with FVC (one-tail, p = .13) as well as with FEF25% (one-tail, p = .09) and FEF50% (one-tail, p = .07). By contrast, no association was found between pulmonary fibrosis and any of the respiratory volumes. The results of this study suggest that mariners may present evidence of asbestos-related disease after many years from onset of exposure on ships. PMID:2741957

  14. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... and differences in incidence were assessed by Poisson regression and stratified by sex. Survival differences were assessed by Cox regression using all-cause and cause-specific mortality as outcome. Male refugees had significantly lower incidence of CVD (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.93) and stroke (IRR = 0.62; 95...... significantly lower incidence of CVD, AMI and stroke. All-cause and cause-specific survival after CVD, AMI and stroke was similar or significantly better for migrants compared to Danish-born, regardless of type of migrant (refugee vs. family-reunified) or country of origin. Refugees are disadvantaged in terms...

  15. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned.

  16. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  17. Worldwide Incidence of Autoimmune Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter; Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variation that occurs in the incidence patterns of autoimmune liver diseases may provide insight into the risk factors causing the diseases. We systematically reviewed studies on the incidence of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing...... England. Most studies of PSC found incidence rates around 1 per 100,000 population per year, but there were no incident cases among 100,000 Alaska natives during the period 1984-2000. The incidence of IAC remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of the autoimmune liver diseases is around 1-2 per 100......,000 population per year for each disease. The variation in incidence over time and place suggests that there are differences in the prevalence of risk factors for the diseases, but the studies used different methods and so it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. We recommend that groups of investigators...

  18. SURVEY OF ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES IN TRADES AND MINING OCCUPATIONS AND IN FACTORY AND MINING COMMUNITIES AS A MEANS OF PREDICTING HEALTH RISKS OF NONOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO FIBROUS MINERALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; ,

    1984-01-01

    A review based on 36 published epidemiological studies is given of disease patterns that have developed among industrial workers, miners, and millers who had been exposed to dusts of one or more of the commercial asbestos minerals or to dusts from minerals perceived to be asbestos-like. Health data are also reviewed for individuals exposed to asbestos dusts in nonoccupational settings. From the published reports it is clear that there are very significant differences in the health effects of the several asbestos or asbestos-like minerals.

  19. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they include general information about how to quit smoking. If you have trouble breathing or shortness of breath and a very low blood oxygen level, your doctor may recommend oxygen therapy . For this treatment, you're given oxygen through ...

  20. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  1. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  2. Air pollutants and incidence of respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, F.C.

    1961-01-01

    The correlation of prolonged (> 7 days) respiratory disease incidence in women working in electronics plants was studied with various pollutant indices. A three-year study of plants in 7 cities was conducted. Mean incidence was significantly correlated with suspended particulate sulfate (r = 0.964, 5 cities). No similar trend was found for benzene-soluble organic matter (OM), acetone-soluble OM, nitrates, Cu, Ti, Bi, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sn, Cl, or Zn. Similar trends for Ni and V, however, were noted. Various factors (e.g., age, socio-economic class, children, weather) were not thought to affect this conclusion. Pollution may prolong illness due to viral disease.

  3. Network Modeling of Crohn's Disease Incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Victor

    Full Text Available Numerous genetic and environmental risk factors play a role in human complex genetic disorders (CGD. However, their complex interplay remains to be modelled and explained in terms of disease mechanisms.Crohn's Disease (CD was modeled as a modular network of patho-physiological functions, each summarizing multiple gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The disease resulted from one or few specific combinations of module functional states. Network aging dynamics was able to reproduce age-specific CD incidence curves as well as their variations over the past century in Western countries. Within the model, we translated the odds ratios (OR associated to at-risk alleles in terms of disease propensities of the functional modules. Finally, the model was successfully applied to other CGD including ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia.Modeling disease incidence may help to understand disease causative chains, to delineate the potential of personalized medicine, and to monitor epidemiological changes in CGD.

  4. Tumors that Mimic Asbestos-Related Mesothelioma: Time to Consider a Genetics-Based Tumor Registry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Daniel Kerger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of mesothelioma is not always straightforward, despite known immunohistochemical markers and other diagnostic techniques. One reason for the difficulty is that extrapleural tumors resembling mesothelioma may have several possible etiologies, especially in cases with no meaningful history of amphibole asbestos exposure. When the diagnosis of mesothelioma is based on histologic features alone, primary mesotheliomas may resemble various primary or metastatic cancers that have directly invaded the serosal membranes. Some of these metastatic malignancies, particularly carcinomas and sarcomas of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, may undergo desmoplastic reaction in the pleura, thereby mimicking mesothelioma, rather than the primary tumor. Encasement of the lung by direct spread or metastasis, termed pseudomesotheliomatous spread, occurs with several other primary cancer types, including certain late-stage tumors from genetic cancer syndromes exhibiting chromosomal instability. Although immunohistochemical staining patterns differentiate most carcinomas, lymphomas, and mestastatic sarcomas from mesotheliomas, specific genetic markers in tumor or somatic tissues have been recently identified that may also distinguish these tumor types from asbestos-related mesothelioma. A registry for genetic screening of mesothelioma cases would help lead to improvements in diagnostic criteria, prognostic accuracy and treatment efficacy, as well as improved estimates of primary mesothelioma incidence and of background rates of cancers unrelated to asbestos that might be otherwise mistaken for mesothelioma. This information would also help better define the dose-response relationships for mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, as well as other risk factors for mesothelioma and other mesenchymal or advanced metastatic tumors that may be indistinguishable by histology and staining characteristics.

  5. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environ-mental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. Methods. The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated env...

  6. Incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-yong; LI Xiao-feng; L(U) Xiao-dong; LIU Ying-long

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of congenital heart disease has been studied in developed countries for many years, but rarely in the mainland of China. Fetal echocardiographic screening for congenital heart disease was first performed in Beijing in the early 2000s, but the impact was not clear. The current study was undertaken to determine the incidence of congenital heart disease in Beijing, China and to estimate the impact of fetal echocardiography on the incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease.Methods The study involved all infants with congenital heart disease among the 84 062 total births in Beijing during the period of January 1 and December 31, 2007. An echocardiographic examination was performed on every baby suspected to have congenital heart disease, prenatally or/and postnatally.Results A total of 686 infants were shown to have congenital heart disease among 84 062 total births. The overall incidence was 8.2/1000 total births. Mothers of 128 of 151 babies diagnosed prenatally were chosen to terminate the pregnancy. Two of the 151 infants died in utero. A specific lesion was identified for each infant and the frequencies of lesions were determined for each class of infants (total births, stillbirths and live births). The incidence of congenital heart disease in stillbirths and live births was 168.8/1000 and 6.7/1000, respectively. The difference between the incidence of total birth and the incidence of live birth was statistically significant (P<0.001).Conclusions The incidence of liveborn congenital heart disease in Beijing is within the range reported in developed countries. Fetal echocardiography reduce significantly the incidence of livebom congenital heart disease.

  7. Chest radiographs in subjects with asbestos-related abnormalities: comparison between ILO categorizations and clinical reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, B; Borgerson, A; Lien, J T; Langård, S

    1992-01-01

    The findings of a previous chest X-ray screening, determined without using standardized criteria, were reassessed by means of the ILO classification. Of 470 radiographs that had been determined as showing asbestos-related changes, 430 were categorized according to the ILO Classification. Small opacities with profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 were described in 39 (52%) of 75 participants who, on the original clinical reading, had been determined as having lung fibrosis, and in 45 (12.7%) of 355 who were determined as having pleural changes only. When considering circumscribed pleural thickening at the chest wall or diaphragm, as categorized by the ILO Classification, such changes were present in 401 (93.7%) of 428 subjects with pleural changes as determined on the clinical reading. In addition to the improved sensitivity and specificity achieved, the ILO Classification also allows comparison with other studies. The most apparent disadvantage of the ILO system is that it cannot firmly separate the various types of asbestos-related pleural changes. The study revealed that the previous asbestos exposure of the case subjects had occurred in many different workplaces and occupations.

  8. Incidence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, A.; Collette, H.J.A.; Bartelds, A.I.M.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence and some risk factors of Parkinson's disease were investigated in a study performed in The Netherlands. The study was based on a disease register of the Sentinel Stations, which provide a complete ascertainment of new patients with Parkinson's disease in 60 general practices in The

  9. Incidence, Risk and Prognosis of Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.L. de Lau (Lonneke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractParkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and is clinically characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural imbalance. These typical motor symptoms result from a selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the subs

  10. Incidence, Risk and Prognosis of Parkinson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Lonneke

    2006-01-01

    textabstractParkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and is clinically characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural imbalance. These typical motor symptoms result from a selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra in the brain stem. Despite intensive research in the last decades, the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for this process are still not completely understood and therapies for PD are as ye...

  11. Estimation of incidences of infectious diseases based on antibody measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, J; Mølbak, K; Falkenhorst, G;

    2009-01-01

    Owing to under-ascertainment it is difficult if not impossible to determine the incidence of a given disease based on cases notified to routine public health surveillance. This is especially true for diseases that are often present in mild forms as for example diarrhoea caused by foodborne bacter...

  12. The effects of vaccination, the incidence of the target diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof S van den; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Melker HE de; Geubbels ELPE; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Talsma E; Plantinga AD; Rumke HC; CIE

    1998-01-01

    As a result of improved socio-economic state and related hygiene, and the introduction of the National Vaccination Programme (RVP), the incidence of the target diseases of the RVP is low nowadays. Insight in the occurrence of the diseases remains necessary in order to be able to signal possible seco

  13. Contextual factors and social consequences of incident disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Large geographical variations in the incidence of disability benefits have been reported, but it is unclear to what extent that is confounded by variations in disability rates and disease pattern in the population and whether local variations in rehabilitation and health insurance...... practice modify the employment effect of disease. We have studied risk of labour market exclusion following incident hospitalization for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and whether this risk may be modified by contextual factors on the municipal level. Methods: A cohort design on a 10% random sample...

  14. Statistical issues in modelling radiation effects on disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author attempts to outline an overview of some models which have proven useful in recent work with radiation effects data. Topics addressed are mathematical models for radiation effects on disease incidence, modelling of background rates, relative versus excess risk models, dose-response effects, dose effect modification (sex and age at exposure), temporal variation in risks. (Author)

  15. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  16. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum. PMID:24459193

  17. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  18. Impact of Neuroprotection on Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl de la Fuente-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that high levels of education and intellectual activity increase the cognitive reserve and reduce the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the impact that different neuroprotective strategies may have on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Using a simple mathematical regression model, it is shown here that age-specific counts of basic cognitive units (surrogate of neurons or synapses) in the normal population can be estimated from Alzheimer's inciden...

  19. An unjustified prognosis of the number of asbestos-related lung cancer cases caused by an increase in airborne asbestos concentrations as a result of removing of asbestos-cement products.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have read the recently published article under an interesting title “Environmentally Related Diseases and the Possibility of Valuation ofTheir Social Costs” by I. Hajok et al. [1], the main objective of which was “to estimate the risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers which occurs during the removal and disposal of asbestos-cement products in Poland.” Contrary to mesotheli...

  20. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marsili; Benedetto Terracini; Vilma S. Santana; Juan Pablo Ramos-Bonilla; Roberto Pasetto; Agata Mazzeo; Dana Loomis; Pietro Comba; Eduardo Algranti

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to ...

  1. Impact of neuroprotection on incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl de la Fuente-Fernández

    Full Text Available Converging evidence suggests that high levels of education and intellectual activity increase the cognitive reserve and reduce the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the impact that different neuroprotective strategies may have on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Using a simple mathematical regression model, it is shown here that age-specific counts of basic cognitive units (surrogate of neurons or synapses in the normal population can be estimated from Alzheimer's incidence rates. Hence, the model can be used to test the effect of neuroprotection on Alzheimer's incidence. It was found that the number of basic cognitive units decreases with age, but levels off in older people. There were no gender differences after correcting for survival. The model shows that even modest neuroprotective effects on basic cognitive units can lead to dramatic reductions in the number of Alzheimer's cases. Most remarkably, a 5% increase in the cognitive reserve would prevent one third of Alzheimer's cases. These results suggest that public health policies aimed at increasing the cognitive reserve in the general population (e.g., implementing higher levels of education are likely the most effective strategy for preventing Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Incidence of very mild to severe dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Nielsen, H; Lolk, A;

    1999-01-01

    Calculation of incidence of dementia and AD, including cases in the earliest phases of the diseases.......Calculation of incidence of dementia and AD, including cases in the earliest phases of the diseases....

  3. Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, George David;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease.......To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease....

  4. Incidence and initial disease course of inflammatory bowel diseases in 2011 in Europe and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegh, Z; Burisch, J.; Pedersen, N.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study was to validate the IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) incidence reported in the 2010 ECCO-EpiCom (European Crohn's and Colitis Organization-Epidemiological Committee) inception cohort by including a second independent inception cohort from...... (25%) from Eastern, 461 (65%) from Western Europe and 72 (10%) from Australia; 259 (37%) patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease, 380 (53%) with ulcerative colitis and 72 (10%) with IBD unclassified. The mean annual incidence rate for IBD was 11.3/100,000 in Eastern Europe, 14...... participating centers in 2011 and an Australian center to investigate whether there is a difference in the incidence of IBD between Eastern and Western European countries and Australia. METHODS: Fourteen centers from 5 Eastern and 9 Western European countries and one center from Australia participated...

  5. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P carcass traits should be given consideration by future studies that aim to develop selection strategies based on specific

  6. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  7. Changes of disease incidence among atomic-bomb survivors 1956-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical observation was made concerning changes with time of incidences of various diseases in autopsy cases since 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was established, and the following results were obtained. The incidence of lung cancer tended to increase in men and women of both groups (an exposed group and a non-exposed group). A marked decrease of the incidence of leukemia was recognized in men and women of both groups, and a decrease of that of malignant lymphoma was recognized in men. The incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatic cancer tended to decrease in men and women of both groups. The incidence of colon cancer tended to increase in both groups, but that of stomach cancer decreased recently in men and women of both groups. Incidences of digestive organ diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disorder, and respiratory organ diseases tended to increase in both groups, but urinary tract diseases, infectious diseases, and blood diseases tended to decrease in both groups, which suggested an increase of older persons' diseases due to aging of the exposed. Incidences of various diseases in the exposed changed almost in parallel with those in the non-exposed, and a difference in incidences of various diseases tended to be shortened. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. THE INCIDENCE OF PARASITIC DISEASES IN LIVESTOCK IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suratma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of livestock in Bali has continuously increased from year to year. However, some problems are encountered with parasitic infections in livestock. Parasitic infections may be caused by worms, protozoa or ectoparasites. In cattle, the most common infections are those caused by Oesophagostomum sp, Ostertagia sp, Haemonchus sp, Mecistocirrus sp, and Cooperia sp which is the most dominant. Neoascaris vitulorum was reported to be as high as 29.1% in calves. Fascioliasis in cattle was found highly prevalent, between 34.9 to 56.7% and was caused by Fasciola gigantica. Also Paramphistomum infection was reported to be highly prevalent (50.1%. In addition, Boophilus microplus was recorded as high as 36.9%. In goat and sheep, the incidence of Haemonchus contortus was 27.7% and 53.6% respectively. Infestation of Paramphistomum sp in goat was 9.27%. Concerning ectoparasites, Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of death of 67% of young goats and up to 11% of older gats in Br. Penginuman, Gilimanuk Negara. Parasitic infections in pigs were caused by Cysticercus tenuicollis (11% and Ascaris suum (24.2% and 21.1% showed Metastrongylus apri and also Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of skin disease in pigs. In poultry, parasitic infection were caused by Raillietina (96%, Heterakis gallinae (66.7%, Capillaria sp (6.6%, Ascardia galli (56.7%, Oxyspirura mansoni (50%, Acuaria spiralis (13.3% and Syngamus trachea (3.3%. Multiple infections are common.

  9. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P yield (P yield (P yield (P < 0.01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass

  10. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. III. Disease incidence and life expectancy. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, C.P.; Perkins, E.H.; Peterson, W.J.; Walburg, H.E.; Makinodan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of various immunosuppressive treatments on mean life-span and disease incidence have been studied. Significant life shortening was seen only in mice which received X-irradiation early in life and can be ascribed primarily to an increased incidence of certain malignancies. Marginal life shortening was seen in cyclophosphamide-treated animals, however, survival patterns between those and control animals did not differ until 30 months of age and the magnitude of life-shortening never approached that seen in X-irradiated animals. Thymectomy, splenectomy or cortisone treatment did not alter survival. All immunosuppressive treatments enhanced mortality due to non-neoplastic diseases, however, only a small percentage of animals die with these disease entities. With the exception of cortisone all immunosuppressive treatments increased the incidence of neoplastic disease. However, their effects on various neoplastic processes were variable and unpredictable. Four primary patterns in terms of relative immune competence, disease incidence and life expectancy were seen. Thus, immunodepression may or may not correlate with increased disease incidence, which in turn may or may not have a life-shortening effect. These findings are discussed in terms of the marked reduction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity normally seen in aged mice and the significance of postulated immune surveillance mechanisms to survival.

  11. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases. PMID:25282798

  12. Emerging vector borne diseasesincidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  13. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  14. Serum IgG Antibody Levels to Periodontal Microbiota Are Associated with Incident Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, James M.; Nikolaos Scarmeas; Celenti, Romanita S.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B; Nicole Schupf; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodontitis and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with systemic inflammation. This research studied serum IgG to periodontal microbiota as possible predictors of incident AD. Methods Using a case-cohort study design, 219 subjects (110 incident AD cases and 109 controls without incident cognitive impairment at last follow-up), matched on race-ethnicity, were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a cohort of longitudinally followed northern M...

  15. The incidence of chickenpox in the community: lessons for disease surveillance in sentinel practice networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Falcao, I.; Vega Alonso, T.; Padilla, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel practice networks have been established in many European countries to monitor disease incidence in the community. To demonstrate the value of sentinel networks an international study on the incidence of chicken pox has been undertaken. Chickenpox was chosen as an acute condition for which i

  16. The incidence of ulcerative colitis (1995-2011) and Crohn's disease (1995-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Nielsen, Jan; Fonager, Kirsten;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) has increased during the 20th century in North America and Western Europe. However, there are conflicting reports whether the incidence has declined, stabilized or even continued to increase. No nationwide Danish...

  17. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum;

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  18. Change in Reported Lyme Disease Incidence in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, 1991-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how reported Lyme disease incidence has changed by state since 1991, based on the number of new cases per 100,000 people. The total change has...

  19. The inverse association of incident cardiovascular disease with plasma bilirubin is unaffected by adiponectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Boersema, Jeltje; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bilirubin may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heme oxygenase pathway is crucial for bilirubin generation, and is stimulated by adiponectin. We tested the relationship of plasma bilirubin with adiponectin, and determined whether the association of incident

  20. Immune complex associated complications in the subacute phase of meningococcal disease: incidence and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Goedkoop, C.A.; Rosenstiel, von, I.A.; Bos, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the incidence of immune complex associated complications (IAC) after severe meningococcal disease (SMD) in a group of Dutch children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

  1. Change in Reported Lyme Disease Incidence in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, 1991–2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how reported Lyme disease incidence has changed by state since 1991, based on the number of new cases per 100,000 people. The total change has...

  2. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  3. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  4. Global dynamics of a vector-borne disease model with latency and saturating incidence rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a vector-borne disease model containing latency and nonlinear incidence rates. Global analysis is completely determined by suitable Lyapunov functionals. We explicitely determine the basic reproduction number and find that if this number is less than one then disease dies out, but if the number is larger than one, the disease causing strain become endemic. The study shows that the latency delay explicitely in°uence the disease persistence. Keywords: Latency, saturating incidence, basic reproduction number, global attractivity, Lyapunov functionals.

  5. Serologic incidence of some diseases in Kansas wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, J K; Applegate, R D; Osborne, S J

    1998-01-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, n = 1164) were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella pullorum from 1990 to 1997. Although 3.3% of the turkeys were suspect for one or more diseases, only 0.9% were serologically positive for M. gallisepticum. These 11 positives were all from one country in south-central Kansas.

  6. Incidence of Hansen's Disease--United States, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Leisha; Haberling, Dana; Scollard, David; Truman, Richard; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Blum, Laura; Blaney, David

    2014-10-31

    Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae and is reportable in many states. It is a chronic disease affecting the skin and nerves, commonly presenting as pale or reddish skin patches with diminished sensation. Without treatment, it can progress to a severely debilitating disease with nerve damage, tissue destruction, and functional loss. An important factor in limiting HD morbidity is early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy. Because HD is rare, clinicians in the United States are often unfamiliar with it; however, HD continues to cause morbidity in the United States. To better characterize at-risk U.S. populations, HD trends during 1994-2011 were evaluated by reviewing records from the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). When the periods 1994-1996 and 2009-2011 were compared, a decline in the rate for new diagnoses from 0.52 to 0.43 per million was observed. The rate among foreign-born persons decreased from 3.66 to 2.29, whereas the rate among U.S.-born persons was 0.16 in both 1994-1996 and 2009-2011. Delayed diagnosis was more common among foreign-born persons. Clinicians throughout the United States should familiarize themselves with the signs and symptoms of HD and understand that HD can occur in the United States. PMID:25356604

  7. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahzad I.; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Results: Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology. PMID:27507907

  8. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Sherine E.; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ...

  9. [Incidence of skin manifestations of Lyme disease in Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, A; Balić-Winter, A; Bolanca-Bumber, S; Skerlev, M

    1992-01-01

    In the study, the most relevant historical data concerning Lyme-borreliosis are shortly reviewed. The most frequent skin manifestations, i.e. erythema cronicum migrans (ECM), lymphocytoma cutis (LCC) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) are described. The clinical course of Lyme disease and the chronologic review of the most significant data on the disease are given. The frequency of skin manifestations of Lyme-borreliosis in various areas of Croatia from 1988 to 1989 based on the reports of dermatologists throughout Croatia is presented. According to our results, it can be concluded that skin manifestations of Lyme-borreliosis are much more frequent in the central and western parts of Croatia than elsewhere. The authors hope that the use of a fluorescent method for detecting antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi since 1989 in the Serologic Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology, Salata, Zagreb will lead to more precise results about this disorder in the future.

  10. Incidence, severity, and prevention of infections in chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouy, R; Fischer, A; Vilmer, E; Seger, R; Griscelli, C

    1989-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the frequency and nature of infections occurring in 48 patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The long-term use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ketoconazole as a preventive therapy for infections has also been evaluated. Lymphadenitis, lung infections, dermatitis, enteral infections, and hepatic abscesses were the most frequent infections. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Aspergillus were the main microorganisms encountered. Twelve patients died: five from lung aspergillosis, three from hepatic abscesses, two from pneumonopathy of unknown origin, one from salmonellosis, and one from another probable infection that could not be proved. The actuarial survival rate was 50% at 10 years of age, with a prolonged plateau thereafter. There was no difference in survival rates between patients with X-linked and those with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease. The 8-year actuarial survival rate was significantly higher for patients born in 1978 or afterward than for patients born before 1978 (92.9% vs 70.5%). A retrospective analysis of the occurrence of bacterial and fungal infections in patients who received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ketoconazole as infection prophylaxis indicated that the former was effective against bacterial infections but that ketoconazole provided no protection against Aspergillus infections.

  11. Incidence of juvenile-onset Crohn's disease in Scotland : Association with northern latitude and affluence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armitage, EL; Aldhous, MC; Anderson, N; Drummond, HE; Riemersma, RA; Ghosh, S; Satsangi, J

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: The incidence of Crohn's disease in Scottish children has increased steadily over 30 years. Many studies have investigated genetic influence or possible links with childhood events. We aimed to study sociodemographic and/or geographic distribution of juvenile=onset Crohn's disease

  12. Traveling Wave Solutions for a Delayed SIRS Infectious Disease Model with Nonlocal Diffusion and Nonlinear Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Tian; Rui Xu

    2014-01-01

    A delayed SIRS infectious disease model with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear incidence is investigated. By constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions and using Schauder's fixed point theorem, we derive the existence of a traveling wave solution connecting the disease-free steady state and the endemic steady state.

  13. Executive function, but not memory, associates with incident coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostamian, Somayeh; van Buchem, Mark A; Westendorp, Rudi G J;

    2015-01-01

    models. RESULTS: During 3.2 years of follow-up, incidence rates of coronary heart disease and stroke were 30.5 and 12.4 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In multivariable models, participants in the lowest third of executive function, as compared to participants in the highest third, had 1.85-fold......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of performance in cognitive domains executive function and memory with incident coronary heart disease and stroke in older participants without dementia. METHODS: We included 3,926 participants (mean age 75 years, 44% male) at risk for cardiovascular diseases...

  14. Education and cardiovascular disease incidence in Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Social inequality in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. However, the causal paths driving this association are unclear. To disentangle the effect of education from underlying background factors we investigated the association between education and the risk of CVD using...... twin data to adjust for familial confounding. Methods The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to official registers in Statistics Denmark, including the National Inpatient Registry and Causes of Death Registry. A total of 12 240 monozygotic (MZ) and 20 822 dizygotic same sexed...... (DZSS) twins were analysed. Unpaired and intrapair analyses were compared. Results In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD risk was observed, particularly in women. This association was not replicated in the intrapair analyses of female MZ twins, but it persisted among female...

  15. Gamma radiation influences postharvest disease incidence of pineapple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of gamma radiation for improving the storage of pineapple fruits [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen] has been studied in an attempt to reduce decay caused by fungal pathogens such as Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade)-Moreau and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll. Gamma radiation at 50, 75, 100, 150, and 250 Gy improved shelf life. The maximum tolerable dose was approximately 250 Gy. Fruits irradiated with up to 150 Gy and then stored at 25 to 28C maintained their texture better than did the controls. Radiation, particularly at doses 250 Gy, caused browning of the skin and softening of tissues. Browning increased with increasing radiation dose and storage duration. Excessively high doses promoted spoilage. Doses in the range of 50 to 250 Gy, in combination with storage at 11 to 13C, can be used to reduce postharvest losses in pineapple due to fungal diseases and senescence, thereby extending shelf life

  16. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible...... Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number....

  17. Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use

    OpenAIRE

    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska; Beata Świątkowska; Wojciech Sobala; Zuzanna Szubert; Urszula Wilczyńska

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. Material and Methods: The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945–1998. The study is based on data obtained ...

  18. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  19. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  20. Use of a claims database to characterize and estimate the incidence rate for Castleman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Nikhil; Mehra, Maneesha; van de Velde, Helgi; Desai, Avinash; Potluri, Ravi; Vermeulen, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder affecting single (unicentric; UCD) or multiple (multicentric; MCD) lymph nodes. The incidence of this difficult to diagnose disease is poorly understood, as no International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code is available. This study utilized a unique strategy to estimate its incidence using two commercial claims databases, IMS LifeLink™ and Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®). Patients with an index diagnosis of lymphadenopathy (ICD-9 code 785.6) were followed longitudinally for 1 year prior to and 2 years post-index diagnosis date. An algorithm that identifies potential patients with CD was developed to determine the incidence rate in person-years. The incidence rate for CD was calculated as 21 (IMS LifeLink™) and 25 (MarketScan(®)) per million person-years. Additionally, 23% of patients with CD were identified as potentially suffering from MCD. These results are consistent with the definition of an orphan disease, and the low incidence of the disease estimated in the literature.

  1. Reduced incidence of end stage renal disease among the elderly in Denmark: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Heaf James G; Wehberg Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of studies during the nineties have shown that antihypertensive therapy, particularly using RAS blockade, can reduce uremia progression, and ESRD incidence. Methods National incidence rates were studied of end stage renal disease (ESRD) for Denmark between 1990 and 2011, and of national prescription of antihypertensive drugs between 1995 and 2010, in order to investigate whether prescription rates had changed, and whether the expected change in ESRD had materializ...

  2. Reducing the incidence of chronic lung disease in very premature infants with aminophylline

    OpenAIRE

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian; Zohreh Badiee; Raha Afghari; Nima Salehimehr; Akbar Hassanzade; Soghra Sheikhzadeh; Maryam Shariftehrani; Gohar Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to assess the safety and preventative effects of aminophylline on the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very premature infants. Methods: This was a long follow-up randomized clinical trial. The prophylactic effect of aminophylline on the incidence of CLD was investigated in very premature infants. The study group received aminophylline for the 1 st 10 days of life and control infants received no aminophylline during the 1 st 10 days of l...

  3. Homocysteine Levels in Chronic Gastritis and Other Conditions: Relations to Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Redéen, Stefan; Ryberg, Anna; Petersson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Olle; Nägga, Katarina; Borch, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Background Homocysteine levels in circulation are determined by several factors and hyperhomocysteinemia is reportedly associated with cardiovascular diseases and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of chronic gastritis and other conditions to homocysteine levels and their relation to incident cardiovascular diseases and dementia. Methods An adult population-based cohort (N = 488) was screened for H. pylori infection, gastro-duodenitis (endoscopic biopsies), disease h...

  4. Incidence of poultry diseases in different seasons in Khushab district, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Abbas; Sohail Hassan Khan; Mehdi Hassan; Sajid Mahmood; Salma Naz; Syeda Surriya Gilani

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the prevalence of various poultry diseases in broilers and layers at Khushab district in Pakistan. The prevalence study was conducted in 360 poultry farms. Diagnosis of diseases in poultry was done based on history, clinical signs, post-mortem examination, cultural, and biochemical characterization. Overall, incidence of Newcastle disease (ND) was found as the highest (avg. 7.85%) in broiler, followed by Fowl typhoid (avg. 6.58%), Mycoplasma (avg. 5.68...

  5. Incidence and distribution of coeliac disease in Campania (Italy): 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; West, Joe; Auricchio, Renata; Maria Bevilacqua, Rosa; Bile, Guido; Borgheresi, Patrizia; Erminia Bottiglieri, Maria; Caldore, Mariano; Capece, Giuseppe; Cristina Caria, Maria; Crudele, Antonio; Cuomo, Rosario; Lucia Garofano, Maria; Giardullo, Nicola; Gerarda Gravina, Antonietta; Greco, Luigi; Iannotta, Patrizia; Kosova, Paolo; Lamanda, Roberto; Malamisura, Basilio; Marmo, Riccardo; Napoli, Gianfranco; Nardone, Gerardo; Pacelli, Maria; Pascarella, Filomena; Riccio, Elisabetta; Riegler, Gabriele; Rispo, Antonio; Rocco, Alba; Romano, Marco; Saffiotti, Ottavio; Saviano, Paola; Sorrentini, Italo; Speranza, Pietro; Tolone, Carlo; Tortora, Raffaella; Troncone, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Background There exists a wide variation in the reported incidence of coeliac disease in recent decades. We aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of coeliac diagnoses performed in an Italian region, Campania, between 2011 and 2013 and its variation therein. Methods All coeliac diagnoses made from 2011 to 2013 and registered within the Campania coeliac disease register (CeliacDB) were identified. Incidence rates were analysed by sex, age and province of residence, with a Poisson model fitted to determine incidence rate ratios. Results We found 2049 coeliac disease diagnoses registered in the CeliacDB between 2011 and 2013; 1441 of these patients were female (70.4%) and 1059 were aged less than 19 years (51.7%). The overall incidence of coeliac disease in Campania was 11.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 11.3–12.3) during the study period, with marked variation by age [27.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 25.8–29.1) in children under 19 years of age and 7.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 6.8–7.8) in adults] and sex [16.1 per 100,000 person-years in females (95% CI 15.3–16.9) and 7.2 per 100,000 person-years in males (95% CI 6.6–7.8)]. Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar in Naples, Salerno, Caserta and Avellino, but about half in Benevento. More than 80% of our study population was diagnosed by the combination of positive antitransglutaminase IgA and Marsh 3. More than half of the patients were symptomatic at the time of coeliac disease diagnosis (39.7% had a classical presentation and 21.1% a non-classical one according to the Oslo definition). Conclusions Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar among Campania provinces, except in Benevento where it was about half, probably due to less awareness of coeliac disease in this area. The incidence of coeliac disease in Campania appears to be lower than that reported by most of the previous literature, suggesting the necessity of new coeliac awareness programmes. PMID:25922679

  6. Incidence Rate of Concomitant Systemic Diseases in the Aging Population with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sayılır

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the concomitant systemic diseases with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to investigate the points to be considered in treatment approach of patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 110 female patients admitted to our clinic and followed up after postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis. Besides the demographic data; the concomitant diseases of the patients such as hypertension, hypo-hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, malignancy, osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal system diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD- asthma and depression were also recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients included in our study was 65.9±9.8 years. When the concomitant systemic diseases were examined; 40 patients had hypertension, 32 patients had osteoarthritis, 24 patients had gastrointestinal tract problems, 22 patients had thyroid disease, 21 patients had depression, 15 patients had hyperlipidemia, 12 patients had diabetes mellitus, 10 patients had COPD - asthma, 7 patients had cardiac diseases, 5 patients had malignancy and 2 patients had Alzheimer disease. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease in the geriatric population. As a chronic disease with an increasing incidence with aging; it can cause many health problems, prevalently pathological bone fractures, in our country and all over the world. Constitutively, prophylaxis of osteoporosis should be the first step. Because systemic diseases with increasing incidence with aging may affect the severity of osteoporosis and impair the treatment; it is important for both clinicians and the society to have sufficient information about osteoporosis.

  7. Vitamin D status, liver enzymes, and incident liver disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Borglykke, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with liver diseases. Both cholestatic and non-cholestatic liver diseases can cause vitamin D deficiency. Whether vitamin D status can also affect liver function is poorly understood. To investigate the association between vitamin D status, liver enzymes......, and incident liver disease, we included a total of 2,649 individuals from the Monica10 study conducted in 1993-1994. Vitamin D status as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were measured at baseline....... Information on fatal and non-fatal liver disease was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register and The Danish Registry of Causes of Death, respectively. Median follow-up time was 16.5 years, and there were 62 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal liver disease. Multivariable Cox regression analyses...

  8. A putative quantitative trait locus on chromosome 20 associated with bovine pathogenic disease incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Snowder, G D

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to detect QTL associated with the incidence of multiple pathogenic diseases in offspring from half-sib bovine families. Four F(1) sires were used to produce offspring: Brahman x Hereford (BH; n = 547), Piedmontese x Angus (PA; n = 209), Brahman x Angus (n = 176), and Belgian Blue x MARC III (n = 246). Treatment records for bovine respiratory disease, infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye), and infectious pododermatitis (footrot) were available for all of the offspring from birth to slaughter. The incidences of these 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were combined into a single binary trait to represent an overall pathogenic disease incidence. Offspring diagnosed and treated for 1 or more of the previously mentioned pathogenic diseases were coded as a 1 for affected. Cattle with no treatment record were coded as 0 for healthy. A putative QTL for pathogenic disease incidence was detected in the family derived from the BH sire at the genome-wise suggestive level. This was supported by evidence, in the same chromosomal region, of a similar QTL in the family derived from the PA sire. The maximum F-statistic (F = 13.52; P = 0.0003) was located at cM 18. The support interval of the QTL spanned from cM 9 to 28. Further studies should explore this QTL by using other bovine populations to further confirm the QTL and refine the QTL support interval. Offspring inheriting the Hereford allele, in the family from the BH sire, and the Angus allele, in the family from the PA sire, were less susceptible to incidence of pathogenic diseases, when compared with those inheriting the Brahman allele and Piedmontese allele, from the BH and PA sires, respectively. PMID:18502878

  9. Viability of Sea Fan Populations Impacted by Disease: Recruitment versus Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Sabat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases are a threat to the viability of an increasing number of coral populations. In this study we analyze the effect of infection and recruitment rate on the viability and structure of sea fan (Gorgonia ventalina populations using a size-based matrix model parameterized with data from field studies. The model predicts that the viability of sea fan populations is strongly influenced by disease incidence and recruitment. Under high recruitment rate, the disease incidence threshold for population viability is 0.12/yr. However, populations with no or low incidence may also go locally extinct given persistent low recruitment. The model also predicts an effect of recruitment on disease prevalence. Everything else being equal, sites with low recruitment will exhibit higher disease prevalence than ones with high recruitment, particularly in medium and large colonies. Elasticity analysis reveals that changes in colony survivorship are likely to have the strongest effect on population growth rate, particularly given low recruitment. We conclude that under current levels of incidence sea fan populations in the Caribbean are not at risk. However, future epizootics are likely to produce local extinctions particularly if coinciding spatially or temporally with low recruitment.

  10. Genetic influences on incidence and case-fatality of infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic susceptibility contributes to familial aggregation of infectious diseases or to death from infections. We estimated genetic and shared environmental influences separately on the risk of acquiring an infection (incidence) and on dying from...

  11. Trends in mortality, incidence and case fatality of ischaemic heart disease in Denmark, 1982-1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Sørensen, S;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, as in many other Western countries, a decline in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been observed. The present study assesses whether the decline in IHD mortality is due to a decrease in incidence and/or case-fatality, and whether parallel changes occurred in...

  12. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  13. Coronary heart disease incidence among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Anne; Zinckernagel, Line; Krasnik, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing global migration has made immigrants’ health an important topic worldwide. We examined the effect of country of birth, migrant status (refugee/family-reunified) and income on coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. Design: This was a historical prospective register...

  14. Anxiety and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the association between anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Background Less research has focused on the association of anxiety with incident CHD in contrast to other negative emotions, such as depression. Methods A meta-analysis of ref

  15. Bayesian modeling of incidence and progression of disease from cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, B; Baird, Donna D

    2002-12-01

    In the absence of longitudinal data, the current presence and severity of disease can be measured for a sample of individuals to investigate factors related to disease incidence and progression. In this article, Bayesian discrete-time stochastic models are developed for inference from cross-sectional data consisting of the age at first diagnosis, the current presence of disease, and one or more surrogates of disease severity. Semiparametric models are used for the age-specific hazards of onset and diagnosis, and a normal underlying variable approach is proposed for modeling of changes with latency time in disease severity. The model accommodates multiple surrogates of disease severity having different measurement scales and heterogeneity among individuals in disease progression. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is described for posterior computation, and the methods are applied to data from a study of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:12495135

  16. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fagundes SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68 was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI. There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease.

  17. Local Public Health Systems and the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Suh, Allen; Bekemeier, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of local public health system organization and local health department resources with county-level sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence rates in large US health jurisdictions. Methods. We linked annual county STD incidence data (2005–2008) to local health department director responses (n = 211) to the 2006 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Local Public Health Systems, the 2005 national Local Health Department Profile Survey, and the Area Resource File. We used nested mixed effects regression models to assess the relative contribution of local public health system organization, local health department financial and resource factors, and sociodemographic factors known to be associated with STD incidence to county-level (n = 307) STD incidence. Results. Jurisdictions with local governing boards had significantly lower county-level STD incidence. Local public health systems with comprehensive services where local health departments shoulder much of the effort had higher county-level STD rates than did conventional systems. Conclusions. More integration of system partners in local public health system activities, through governance and interorganizational arrangements, may reduce the incidence and burden of STDs. PMID:22813090

  18. Incidence of Alzheimer′s disease in India: A 10 years follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Mathuranath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine overall and age-specific incidence rates of Alzheimer′s disease (AD in a southern Indian province, Kerala. Materials and Methods: A 10-year (2001-2011 prospective epidemiologic study of community residing subjects aged ≥55 years at enrollment. The catchment area included four urban and semi-urban regions of Trivandrum city in Kerala, India, was selected to provide a range of demographic and socioeconomic representation. Cognitive and functional ability screening were done at baseline and 24-month follow-up assessments. Consensus diagnostic procedures were done using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition (DSM-IV, and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINDS-ADRDA criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and AD. Results: Among the 1066 eligible participants who were cognitively normal at baseline, 104 developed dementia (98 with AD over a follow-up period of 8.1 years. The incidence rates per 1000 person-years for AD was 11.67 (95% CI: 10.9-12.4 for those aged ≥55 years and higher for those aged ≥65 years (15.54, 95% CI: 14.6-16.5. In those aged ≥65 years, the world age standardized incidence rate was 21.61 per 100,000, and standardized against the age distribution for the year 2000 U.S. Census, the age-adjusted incidence rate was 9.19 (95% CI: 9.03-9.35 per 1000 person-years. Incidence rate of AD increased significantly and proportionately with increasing age. Conclusion: These are the first AD incidence rates to be reported from southern India. The incidence rates appear to be much higher than that reported from rural north India, comparable with that reported from China, and marginally lower than that reported from the western world.

  19. Psychiatric disease incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that religious practice can have a positive effect on mental health, but may also have potential for harm. In Denmark, unique possibilities are available for studying the influence of religious practice on mental health: Denmark is characterized as a secular...... society and it is possible to follow members of religious societies in nationwide registers. In this study, we follow a cohort of Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) and Baptists in a nationwide psychiatry register and compare the incidence in this cohort with the general population. METHODS: We followed...... a cohort of 5,614 SDA and 3,663 Baptists in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contained information on psychiatric hospitalizations from 1970 to 2009. Psychiatric disease incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios and within...

  20. Efficiency of radioiodine therapy in Graves disease and adenoma toxicum and incidence of hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the this study was to evaluate different states in hyperthyroid patients and incidence of hypothyroidism after I-131 therapy.We observed a total of 184 hyperthyroid pts, from which 108(58,7%)pts with Graves' disease,65(35,3%)pts with single toxicum nodule and 11(6%)pts with toxicum multinodular goitre,treated with radioiodine therapy during the period 1986-2001.Dose of I-131 orally administered ranged 150-1100MBq and was calculated according to the 'MBq/gram' method.The radioiodine-131 therapy was performed once in 69,5%(128/184)pts,twice in 21,2%(39/184)pts and in 9,3%(17/184)pts more than two doses. Completely cured of hyperthyroidism occurred in 61%(66/108)pts with Graves' disease,81,8%(9/11)pts with toxic multinodular goiter and 90,7%(59/65)pts with single toxic nodule. The patients in our study were evaluated 6 months to 15 years after received J-131 therapy. Incidence of early hypothyroidism within one year was 23,1%(25/108) in Graves' disease,9%(1/11) in toxic multinodular goiter and 4,6%(3/65) with single toxicum nodule.Overall incidence of hypothyroidism within one year was 17,6% and had cumulative increase of Graves' disease every following year approximately for 3%,while for adenoma toxicum there was no any significant changes. We concluded that radioiodine therapy is simple,comfortable radical method for medical treatment of hyperthyroidism and indicate higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated with I-131 for Graves' disease than that of patients treated for toxicum multinodular goiters and single toxic nodule

  1. Correlations Between the Incidence of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Public Open Data, Including Meteorological Factors and Medical Facility Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Ji-Hae; Je, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Myeong-Ji; Bae, Young Mee; Son, Hyeon Seok; Ahn, Insung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of national notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs) and meteorological factors, air pollution levels, and hospital resources in Korea. Methods: We collected and stored 660 000 pieces of publicly available data associated with infectious diseases from public data portals and the Diseases Web Statistics System of Korea. We analyzed correlations between the monthly incidence of these diseases and monthly av...

  2. Health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 3. Disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morbidity of 1557 grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation were analyzed. Three groups were singled out. Group 1 consisted of children whose grandfathers were exposed, group 2 of children grandmothers were exposed and group 3 of children whose both grandparent were exposed. Total morbidity level and morbidity structure for 13 classes of diseases and 60 nosological entities was assessed. The study showed that disease incidence in general, structure by disease and individual nosological entities, the share of frequently falling ill children, and health index in the test group corresponded to those in controls. Reliable differences were observed only for respiratory diseases, at the expense of acute respiratory diseases, which were frequent during the second-third years of life in children whose both grandparents were occupationally exposed to radiation

  3. Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Lower Prevalence and Subsequent Incidence of Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars E; Jepsen, Peter; Christensen, Lisbet A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection may protect against some chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examined H. pylori infection and its association with the prevalence of the gastrointestinal diseases Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and coeliac disease [Ce......D]. Incident cases in a follow-up period after H. pylori testing were recorded to investigate if protective effects of H. pylori persisted after probable eradication. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study performed in the Central Denmark Region. Patients were enrolled consecutively from primary health...... care centres after a urea breath test [UBT] for H. pylori and were then followed for a median of 6 years. The patient's diseases, country of birth, and gender were acquired from nationwide administrative registries. We used logistic regression to compare the prevalences of CD, UC, and CeD and Cox...

  4. Incidence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing First-Time Coronary Angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Kralev, Stefan; Schneider, Kathrin; Lang, Siegfried; Süselbeck, Tim; Borggrefe, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background In standard reference sources, the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) ranged between 24 and 46.5%. Since then, the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) has increased and modern treatment strategies (“pill in the pocket”) are only applicable to patients without structural heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of CAD in patients with AF. Methods From January 2005 until December 20...

  5. Panic disorder and incident coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Wittert, Gary A.; Turnbull, Deborah A.; Beltrame, John F.; Horowitz, John D; Cosh, Suzanne; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and remain largely tenuous. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding panic disorder with respect to incident CHD or myocardial infarction. Methods/Design Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) will be searched using a search strategy explod...

  6. Five-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and its predictors in Greece: the ATTICA study

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; STEFANADIS, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Abstract The 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its determinants, in a sample of men and women from Greece, was evaluated. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (> 18 years old) without any clinical evidence of CVD, living in the Attica area, Greece, were enrolled in the ATTICA study. In 2006, a group of experts performed the 5-year follow-up (941 of the 3042 (31%) participants were lost to follow-up)...

  7. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson's disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, A; Sofiane, K; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, A.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Moisan, F.; Kravietz, A

    2016-01-01

    International audience Meeting: 20th International Congress Abstract Number: 467 Objective: Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B exposure with Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence. Background: In addition to regulating calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is involved in multiple biological pathways. Lower vitamin D is associated with increased mortality, in ...

  8. Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand: time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. METHODS: Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA models. RESULTS: No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (β =  0.130, SE =  0.060, p <0.01 and inversely related to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI two months previously (β =  -0.008, SE =  0.004, p <0.05. By contrast, salmonellosis was positively associated with temperature (β  = 0.110, SE = 0.020, p<0.001 of the current month and SOI of the current (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.050 and previous month (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.05. Forecasting accuracy of the multivariate models for cryptosporidiosis and salmonellosis were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Although spatial heterogeneity in the observed patterns could not be assessed, these results suggest that temporally lagged relationships between climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems.

  9. Incidence of poultry diseases in different seasons in Khushab district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the prevalence of various poultry diseases in broilers and layers at Khushab district in Pakistan. The prevalence study was conducted in 360 poultry farms. Diagnosis of diseases in poultry was done based on history, clinical signs, post-mortem examination, cultural, and biochemical characterization. Overall, incidence of Newcastle disease (ND was found as the highest (avg. 7.85% in broiler, followed by Fowl typhoid (avg. 6.58%, Mycoplasma (avg. 5.68%, Escherichia coli infection (avg. 5.52%, Coccidiosis (avg. 4.59%, Mycotoxicosis (avg. 4.56%, Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD; avg. 2.84%, Infectious coryza (avg. 2.50%, Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS; avg. 1.67%, and Infectious bronchitis (IB; avg. 1.59%. The period during April to June appeared to be comparatively safer for the broilers as low incidence of disease was recorded at this period. In case of layers, incidence of ND was the highest (avg. 7.92%, followed by Fowl typhoid (avg. 6.97%, Mycotoxicosis (avg. 5.52%, Coccidiosis (avg. 4.75%, IBD (avg. 3.17%, Mycoplasmosis (avg. 3.0%, Infectious coryza (avg. 2.52%, Fowl cholera (avg. 1.52%, IB (avg. 0.90k%, E. coli infection (avg. 0.73%, and HPS (avg. 0.46%. For layers, the period during January to March appeared to be safer. In conclusion, diversified diseases are prevalent in both layers and broilers. Thus, proper vaccination practices, brooding arrangements, preventive measures, and biosecurity practices are recommended.

  10. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the intervention group compared with the control group. Secondary outcome measures were stroke, combined events (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, or both), and mortality. RESULTS: 6091 (52.4%) people...

  11. Incidence and Predictors of End-Stage Renal Disease in Outpatients With Systolic Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Helle Skovmand; Gislason, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Finn;

    2013-01-01

    Background- Renal dysfunction is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF), but whether this dysfunction progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. Therefore, we examined incidence and predictors of ESRD in outpatients with HF. Methods and Results- Patients with systolic HF...... were identified in The Danish Heart Failure database and new-onset ESRD from the Danish Registry on Dialysis. Renal function was estimated by The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation and patients grouped by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-group I: ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m...

  12. Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated

  13. Incidence and clinical significance of repetitive ventricular response in patients without identifiable organic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treese, N; Geibel, A; Kasper, W; Meinertz, T; Pop, T; Meyer, J

    1984-10-01

    We determined the incidence of repetitive ventricular response (RVR) after programmed electrical stimulation and the incidence of spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias during 24 hr Holter monitoring in 38 patients in whom extensive non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tests had excluded abnormalities suggestive of organic heart disease. A standardized stimulation protocol with single (S1S2) and double (S1S2S3) extrastimuli during ventricular drive at cycle lengths of 600, 500 and 430 msec with a current strength below 5 mA at the right ventricular apex was employed. RVR occurred in 20 patients (58%) after S1S2 and in 30 patients (79%) after S1S2S3 stimulation. Eighteen patients (47%) showed RVR with 2 echo beats and 1 patient had 3 echo beats. RVR was due to bundle branch reentry (BBR) in 20 patients independent of the mode of stimulation. RVR due to intraventricular reentry (IVR) was found in 17 patients (47%) only after S1S2S3 stimulation. The incidence of both BBR and IVR was influenced by the basic ventricular driving rate, decreasing with shorter basic cycle lengths. 17 patients had no ventricular premature depolarizations (VPDs), 12 patients had uniform, 4 multiform (Lown III), 2 consecutive (Lown IVA) VPDs, and 1 patient had parasystolic rhythm. There was no relation to the incidence of repetitive ventricular response. We conclude that in patients without identifiable organic heart disease RVR with more than 2 consecutive beats is rarely found if single and double extrastimuli are employed during ventricular drive. Both bundle branch and intraventricular reentry with one or two echo beats are a common finding in this population without relation to the incidence of spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias.

  14. INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF LEAF AND FRUIT DISEASES OF PLUMS IN LATVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals

  15. INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF LEAF AND FRUIT DISEASES OF PLUMS IN LATVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals

  16. Swedish snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease. A population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedblad Bo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between smoking and an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases is well known. Whether smokeless tobacco (snuff is related to myocardial infarction (MI or stroke is still controversial. Aim of this study was to explore whether snuff users have an increased incidence of MI or stroke. Methods A total of 16 754 women and 10 473 men (aged 45–73 years, without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, belonging to the population-based "Malmö Diet and Cancer" study were examined. Incidence of MI and stroke were monitored over 10.3 years. Results Snuff was used by 737 (7.0% men and 75 (0.4% women, respectively. Among men, snuff was significantly associated with low occupation level, single civil status, high BMI and with current and former smoking. In women, snuff was associated with lower systolic blood pressure. A total of 964 individuals (3.5%, i.e.544 men (5.3% and 420 (2.5% women suffered a MI during the follow-up period. The corresponding numbers of incident stroke cases were 1048, i.e. 553 men (5.3% and 495 (3.0% women, respectively. Snuff was not associated with any statistically significant increased risk of MI or stroke in men or women. The relative risks (RR in male snuff users compared to non-users were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.8–1.4, p = 0.740 for incident MI and 0.97 (0.7–1.4, p = 0.878 for stroke, after taking age and potential confounders into account. In women none of the 420 (2.5% women who were snuff users had a MI and only one suffered a stroke during the follow-up. Conclusion Several life-style risk factors were more prevalent in snuff-users than in non-users. However, the present study does not support any relationship between snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease in men.

  17. East-West gradient in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J; Pedersen, Natalia; Čuković-Čavka, S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Eastern Europe. The reasons for these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD in Europe exists. DESIGN: A prospective, uniformly diagnosed......, population based inception cohort of IBD patients in 31 centres from 14 Western and eight Eastern European countries covering a total background population of approximately 10.1 million people was created. One-third of the centres had previous experience with inception cohorts. Patients were entered...... (11%) with IBD unclassified (IBDU). The overall incidence rate ratios in all Western European centres were 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.4) for CD and 2.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) for UC compared with Eastern European centres. The median crude annual incidence rates per 100,000 in 2010 for CD were 6.5 (range 0...

  18. Incidence of coronary artery disease before valvular surgery in isolated severe aortic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun Jeong Cho; Sung-Ji Park; Sung-A Chang; Dong Seop Jeong; Sang-Chol Lee; Seung Woo Park; Pyo Won Park

    2014-01-01

    Background Angina pectoris has been recognized as one of the principal symptoms of aortic valve stenosis (AS),even in patients without significant coronary artery disease (CAD).However,the incidence of angina pectoris and related CAD in such patients is controversial.There is continuing debate as to whether coronary angiography is necessary before aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe AS.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of CAD in patients with severe AS in a Korean population.Methods Data from all consecutive patients with severe AS undergoing AVR at a major tertiary cardiac and vascular center in Korea were entered in a prospective registry beginning in 1995.Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up data were recorded into the database annually.Significant CAD was defined as one or more major coronary arteries having an estimated narrowing of ≥70% and left main coronary arteries having an estimated narrowing of ≥50% on coronary angiography.We excluded patients with multiple valve disease,significant aortic regurgitation,or prior CAD or valve surgery.Results Totally 574 patients with severe AS (mean age,(65.9±9.6) years) were enrolled in this study.Significant CAD was found in 61 patients (10.6%).Factors associated with increased likelihood of CAD were age,hypertension,diabetes mellitus,chronic renal failure,carotid disease,and aorta calcification.In Logistic regression analysis,the independent predictor of the presence of CAD was age (P=0.011).The incidence of CAD increased significantly at 69.2 years of age.Having two risk factors for cardiovascular disease was the most useful cutoff to predict whether a patient was going to have significant CAD.Conclusions There was a low incidence of significant CAD in a population of Korean patients with severe AS.Therefore,coronary angiography before AVR will be considered in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease or in patients more than

  19. Inflammatory bowel diseases: A disease (s) of modern times? Is incidence still increasing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Sam Gismera; Beatriz SicUia Aladrén

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases, not always easy to diagnose, even more difficult to classify, and diagnostic criteria are not always uniform. Well done population-based studies are not abundant, and so comparisons among different geographical areas or populations are not always very reliable. In this article, we have reviewed epidemiological studies available on the world's population while making a critical review of published data.

  20. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Dalby, Tine; Weinberger, Daniel M;

    2014-01-01

    conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2008-2010), and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods were estimated. Predicted incidences of serotypes were estimated controlling for cyclical trends from historical patterns observed during the past 20 years. RESULTS: We observed a 21% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-25%) in IPD......BACKGROUND: The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination...... incidence in the total population after PCV13's introduction, and a 71% reduction (95% CI, 62%-79%) in children aged vaccine effectiveness. We estimated a 28% reduction (95% CI, 18%-37%) in IPD-related 30-day mortality, from 3.4 deaths (95% CI, 3.2-3.6) per 100 000 population...

  1. Spatio-temporal information and knowledge representation of disease incidence and respective intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew; von Cavallar, Stefan; Wyres, Kelly L; Reumann, Matthias; Sepulveda, Martin J; Rogers, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The supplementation of medical data with environmental data offers rich new insights that can improve decision-making within health systems and the healthcare profession. In this study, we simulate disease incidence for various scenarios using a mathematical model. We subsequently visualise the infectious disease spread in human populations over time and geographies. We demonstrate this for malaria, which is one of the top three causes of mortality for children under the age of 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa, and its associated interventions within Kenya. We demonstrate how information can be collected, analysed, and presented in new ways to inform key decision makers in understanding the prevalence of disease and the response to interventions.

  2. The three-year incidence of fracture in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Kyla L; McArthur, Eric; Leslie, William D; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Jamal, Sophie A; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Pouget, Jennie G; Lok, Charmaine E; Hodsman, Anthony B; Adachi, Jonathan D; Garg, Amit X

    2014-10-01

    Knowing a person's fracture risk according to their kidney function, gender, and age may influence clinical management and decision-making. Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada, we conducted a cohort study of 679,114 adults of 40 years and over (mean age 62 years) stratified at cohort entry by estimated glomerular filtration rate ((eGFR) 60 and over, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and under 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), gender, and age (40-65 and over 65 years). The primary outcome was the 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture (proportion of adults who fractured (hip, forearm, pelvis, or proximal humerus) at least once within 3-years of follow-up). Additional analyses examined the fracture incidence per 1000 person-years, hip fracture alone, stratification by prior fracture, stratification by eGFR and proteinuria, and 3-year cumulative incidence of falls with hospitalization. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture significantly increased in a graded manner in adults with a lower eGFR for both genders and both age groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture in women over 65 years of age across the 5 eGFR groups were 4.3%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.8%, and 9.6%, respectively. Corresponding estimates for men over 65 years were 1.6%, 2.0%, 2.7%, 3.8%, and 5.0%, respectively. Similar graded relationships were found for falls with hospitalization and additional analyses. Thus, many adults with chronic kidney disease will fall and fracture. Results can be used for prognostication and guidance of sample size requirements for fracture prevention trials.

  3. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  4. Early Parkinson’s Disease. Incidence, clinical features and quality of life in a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) in Norway is about 100/100 000 inhabitants. For planning of health care needs and for research purposes, incidence figures are considered the more valuable information, but have in Norway not been available for PD. Earlier incidence studies have shown variable results, likely due to methodological differences. To improve comparability, research criteria for high quality incidence studies of PD have been proposed in 2003.PD ...

  5. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klil-Drori, Adi J; Tascilar, Koray; Yin, Hui; Aprikian, Armen; Bitton, Alain; Azoulay, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. By lowering androgen levels, ADT inhibits the progression of prostate cancer, but it may also affect gut autoimmunity. We investigated the association between ADT and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease using a cohort of 31,842 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1988 and 2014, identified in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Exposure to ADT was treated as a time-varying variable and lagged by 1 year to account for diagnostic delays, with nonuse as the reference category. During 133,018 person-years of follow-up, 48 men were newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (incidence rate (IR) = 36/100,000 person-years (PY)) and 12 were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (IR = 9/100,000 PY). In Cox proportional hazards models, ADT was associated with a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis (IR = 24/100,000 PY vs. IR = 50/100,000 PY; hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.99) and a nonsignificant decreased risk of Crohn's disease (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.11, 1.37). These findings indicate that the use of ADT may be associated with intestinal autoimmunity. Further research is warranted to replicate these findings and assess their clinical significance. PMID:27268031

  6. Incidence of sickle cell disease in an unselected cohort of neonates born in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, Stephan; Frömmel, Claudia; Brose, Annemarie; Klein, Jeannette; Blankenstein, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) does not occur in the indigenous German population. However, with the increasing numbers of immigrants its prevalence is steadily rising. Nevertheless, robust epidemiological data is not available for Germany and, consequently, the German newborn screening (NBS) program does not include SCD. Between 1 September 2011 and 30 November 2012, an unselected cohort of 34,084 Berlin newborns was tested for SCD. The results of 14 newborns were consistent with SCD and 265 babies were identified as hemoglobin S (Hb S) carriers. These data indicate a 95% probability that the incidence of SCD in Berlin is at least 2.5/10,000.

  7. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    affected. Sequence alignments and Blast searches showed that the phytoplasma causing NGSD in Uganda belonged to the phytoplasma group 16SrXI, with single nucleotide sequence variants in a few districts. Therefore, there is a need for development of an area wide NGSD management strategy to contain......The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...

  8. Protein Interaction-Based Genome-Wide Analysis of Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Karoline; Pers, Tune Hannes; Dworzynski, Piotr;

    2011-01-01

    in genes associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results-Genome-wide association analyses of approximately approximate to 700 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 899 incident CHD cases and 1823 age-and sex-matched controls within the Nurses' Health and the Health Professionals...... for the number of complexes tested, 1 gene set was overrepresented in CHD-associated genes (P = 0.002). Centered on the beta 1-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1), this complex included 18 protein interaction partners that have not been identified as candidate loci for CHD. Of the 19 genes in the top complex, 5...

  9. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life : The role of time since cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter H M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Fur

  10. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F;

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the gl...

  11. Incidence and detection of beak and feather disease virus in psittacine birds in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimuddin, F; Abidi, F; Jafer, O; Li, C; Wernery, U; Hebel, Ch; Khazanehdari, K

    2016-01-01

    Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported the incidence of circovirus in different species of psittacine birds. The sensitivity of our assay was found to be very high with detection limit of up to 3.5 fg of DNA in the sample. The mean prevalence of circovirus was found to be 58.33% in African Grey Parrots, 34.42% in Cockatoos, 31.8% in amazon parrots and 25.53% in Macaws. The Taqman assay is a quick, reliable and sensitive detection method that has been instrumental in identifying this disease that was not previously reported in the region. PMID:27077045

  12. Minimum incidence of adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Blantyre, Malawi an urban african setting: a hospital based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Mtunthama, Neema; Gordon, Stephen B; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old) population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.7, 62.7) per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7) mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5) per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9). We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population level indirect

  13. Minimum incidence of adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Blantyre, Malawi an urban african setting: a hospital based prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naor Bar-Zeev

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 53.7, 62.7 per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7 mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5 per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9. We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population

  14. Economic consequences of incident disease: the effect on loss of annual income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe L; Christensen, Ulla; Hougaard, Charlotte Ø;

    2008-01-01

    income is similar across three different diagnostic categories with different consequences in terms of functional limitations. METHODS: This was a register-based study with a longitudinal design using a register of the Danish population covering 412,450 person years. Data on hospitalization are linked......AIMS: To estimate the effect of incident disease on loss of annual income on an individual level, to analyse whether loss of job mediates the effect on loss of annual income, to analyse whether an association is modified by socioeconomic position, and to determine whether the effect on annual...... to information on income and employment. The setting was a 10% random sample of all individuals living in Denmark and aged 43-60 years in 1996-99. RESULTS: Male cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), female cases of breast cancer and both male and female cases of intervertebral disease were associated...

  15. Healthy lifestyles reduce the incidence of chronic diseases and dementia: evidence from the Caerphilly cohort study.

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    Peter Elwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyles based on non-smoking, an acceptable BMI, a high fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and low/moderate alcohol intake, are associated with reductions in the incidence of certain chronic diseases, but to date there is limited evidence on cognitive function and dementia. METHODS: In 1979 healthy behaviours were recorded on 2,235 men aged 45-59 years in Caerphilly, UK. During the following 30 years incident diabetes, vascular disease, cancer and death were recorded, and in 2004 cognitive state was determined. FINDINGS: Men who followed four or five of the behaviours had an odds ratio (OR and confidence intervals (CI for diabetes, corrected for age and social class, of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.31; P for trend with increasing numbers of healthy behaviours <0.0005. For vascular disease the OR was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.84; P for trend <0.0005, and there was a delay in vascular disease events of up to 12 years. Cancer incidence was not significantly related to lifestyle although there was a reduction associated with non-smoking (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.79. All-cause mortality was reduced in men following four or five behaviours (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.67; P for trend <0.005. After further adjustment for NART, the OR for men following four or five healthy behaviours was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.12, 1.09; P for trend <0.001 for cognitive impairment, and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.99; P for trend <0.02 for dementia. The adoption of a healthy lifestyle by men was low and appears not to have changed during the subsequent 30 years, with under 1% of men following all five of the behaviours and 5% reporting four or more in 1979 and in 2009. INTERPRETATION: A healthy lifestyle is associated with increased disease-free survival and reduced cognitive impairment but the uptake remains low.

  16. Incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease in the adult health study sample, 1958 - 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 16,000 study subjects in the Adult Health Study sample who had received examination at least once during the 20 years (1958 - 78) in Hiroshima or Nagasaki and were found to have neither stroke nor coronary heart disease (CHD) at the initial examination were studied for the incidence of stroke and CHD and the relationship of these to atomic bomb radiation exposure. Their secular trends were also studied. Findings suggestive of a relationship between stroke and radiation exposure among Hiroshima females were first discovered for the years 1969 - 73, that is, 24 - 28 years after A-bomb exposure. In general, this association is supported by the present analysis. Stroke incidence continued to decrease during the present report's period of observation. Analysis by type showed that cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage both decreased, but the decrease of the latter is especially remarkable. The trend to decrease is observed in both sexes and in both cities. A relationship between CHD and radiation exposure was, as noted for stroke, first observed only in Hiroshima females for the years 1969 - 73, but from this analysis it appears that the trend began earlier and the association is getting stronger with the passage of time. Analysis by type showed myocardial infarction (MI), but not angina pectoris, to be related to radiation exposure. The incidence rate for CHD, especially for MI, was almost constant during the observation period, it being 1.2/1,000 person-years on the average. Comparing by sex, the incidence rate was constant in males. In females, the pattern varied with time. There appear to be no between-city differences in secular trends - essentially constant. (author)

  17. Serum IgG antibody levels to periodontal microbiota are associated with incident Alzheimer disease.

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    James M Noble

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and Alzheimer disease (AD are associated with systemic inflammation. This research studied serum IgG to periodontal microbiota as possible predictors of incident AD.Using a case-cohort study design, 219 subjects (110 incident AD cases and 109 controls without incident cognitive impairment at last follow-up, matched on race-ethnicity, were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP, a cohort of longitudinally followed northern Manhattan residents aged >65 years. Mean follow-up was five years (SD 2.6. In baseline sera, serum IgG levels were determined for bacteria known to be positively or negatively associated with periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies-2. In all analyses, we used antibody threshold levels shown to correlate with presence of moderate-severe periodontitis.Mean age was 72 years (SD 6.9 for controls, and 79 years (SD 4.6 for cases (p640 ng/ml, present in 10% of subjects was associated with increased risk of AD (HR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.8. This association was stronger after adjusting for other significant titers (HR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5-6.4. In this model, high anti-E. nodatum IgG (>1755 ng/ml; 19% of subjects was associated with lower risk of AD (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.2-0.9.Serum IgG levels to common periodontal microbiota are associated with risk for developing incident AD.

  18. Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence

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    Ruud Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Norwegian animal welfare regulations, it has been forbidden to build new tie-stall barns since the end of 2004. Previous studies have shown that cow performance and health differ between housing systems. The interaction between housing system and herd size with respect to performance and disease incidence has not been evaluated. Methods Cow performance and health in 620 herds housed in free-stall barns were compared with in 192 herds housed in tie-stall barns based on a mail survey and data from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording and Cattle Health Systems. The housing systems herds were comparable with respect to herd size (15-55 cows. Associations between performance/disease incidence and housing system, herd size and year of building the cow barn were tested in general linear models, and values for fixed herd size of 20 and 50 cows were calculated. On the individual cow level mixed models were run to test the effect of among others housing system and herd size on test-day milk yield, and to evaluate lactation curves in different parities. All cows were of the Norwegian Red Breed. Results Average milk production per cow-year was 134 kg lower in free-stall herd than in tie-stall herds, but in the range 27-45 cows there was no significant difference in yields between the herd categories. In herds with less than 27 cows there were increasingly lower yields in free-stalls, particularly in first parity, whereas the yields were increasingly higher in free-stalls with more than 45 cows. In free-stalls fertility was better, calving interval shorter, and the incidence rate of teat injuries, ketosis, indigestions, anoestrus and cystic ovaries was lower than in tie-stalls. All of these factors were more favourable in estimated 50-cow herds as compared to 20-cow herds. In the larger herd category, bulk milk somatic cell counts were higher, and the incidence rate of mastitis (all cases and all diseases was lower

  19. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the SUN Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallal, Raúl; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Hernández-Hernández, Aitor; García-Arellano, Ana; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet is known to play a key role in atherogenesis and in the development of cardiovascular events. Dietary factors may mediate these processes acting as potential modulators of inflammation. Potential Links between inflammatory properties of diet and the occurrence of cardiovascular events have not been tested previously. Objective We aimed to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a method to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods In the prospective, dynamic SUN cohort, 18,794 middle-aged, Spanish university graduates were followed up for 8.9 years (median). A validated 136-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the relationship between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between the DII and incident cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death). Results The risk for cardiovascular events progressively increased with each increasing quartile of DII (ptrend = 0.017). The multivariable-adjusted HR for participants in the highest (most pro-inflammatory) vs. the lowest quartile of the DII was 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.88). Conclusions A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk for developing cardiovascular events. PMID:26340022

  20. The effect of perennials as green manure on cereal productivity and disease incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuodiene, R.; Nekrosiene, R.

    2012-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2002-2007. They were designed to ascertain the effects of phytomass of different perennial pre-crops used for green manure on the productivity and on the occurrence of foliar fungal diseases of cereal agrocenoses. Plant residues and phytomass ploughed down as green manures positively affected cereal indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced the productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) 83.23-84.76% GJ ha{sup 1}. The potential accumulated by perennials of the second year of development was more efficiently utilised by winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) cv. Tevo, and that of perennials of the third year of development was more efficiently utilised by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Ula. Perennials had a significant effect on the spread of foliar diseases in winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) agrocenoses. The severity of the disease was 1.1-1.3 times higher in the winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) treatments with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pre-crops. Foliar disease incidence and severity was 1.1-1.2 times higher in the agrocenoses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after legumes of the third year of development, especially after lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). (Author) 28 refs.

  1. Asbestos-related radiographic changes by ILO classification of 10 x 10 cm chest X-rays in a screening of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, B; Hillerdal, G; Lund-Larsen, P G; Lien, J T; Langård, S

    1995-02-01

    A sample of 1388 10 x 10 cm chest X-rays from a previous population screening of males aged 40+ years were reevaluated by use of the ILO classification. There were 1036 films of subjects from an industrialized town, and 352 from a rural community. The observed rates of parenchymal changes (profusion > or = 1/0) at the reevaluation were 1.3% in the urban community and 3.4% in the rural community. The corresponding figures for pleural changes were 5.0% and 0.6%, respectively. Based on additional questionnaire information on asbestos exposure, it was found that the radiographic changes were probably related to past asbestos exposure for 2.3% of the subjects from the urban community and 0.6% from the rural community. In cases of asbestos-related illnesses the mean time since first exposure to asbestos was 35.9 years, whereas the mean duration of the exposures was 11.4 years. The results seem to indicate that the ILO reassessment of the radiographs was more sensitive in detecting pleural changes than the previous clinical screening of both small and large films.

  2. Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson's Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Ruth Brauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD. These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes.Using primary care data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which individuals with diabetes who were newly prescribed GTZ (GTZ-exposed group were matched by age, sex, practice, and diabetes treatment stage with up to five individuals prescribed other diabetes treatments (other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. Patients were followed up from 1999 until the first recording of a PD diagnosis, end of observation in the database, or end of the study (1 August 2013. An incidence rate ratio (IRR was calculated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for possible confounders. 44,597 GTZ exposed individuals were matched to 120,373 other antidiabetic users. 175 GTZ-exposed individuals were diagnosed with PD compared to 517 individuals in the other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. The incidence rate (IR of PD in the GTZ-exposed group was 6.4 per 10,000 patient years compared with 8.8 per 10,000 patient years in those prescribed other antidiabetic treatments (IRR 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.87. Adjustments for potential confounding variables, including smoking, other medications, head injury, and disease severity, had no material impact (fully adjusted IRR 0.75, 0.59-0.94. The risk was reduced in those with current GTZ prescriptions (current GTZ-exposed IRR 0.59, 0.46-0.77 but not reduced among those with past prescriptions (past GTZ-exposed IRR 0.85, 0.65-1.10. Our study only included patients with diabetes who did not have a PD

  3. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  4. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Shioda

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries.Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR.Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25% and 159 (30% were positive for norovirus, 13 (4% and 31 (6% for sapovirus, and 28 (8% and 18 (3% for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87% in Lwak and 140 (88% in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116, followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440 and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879. For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera compared to cases aged ≥5 years.Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8-3.3 million, 0.45-0.54 million, and 0.77-0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in Kenya.

  5. Crohn's disease incidence evolution in North-western Greece is not associated with alteration of NOD2/CARD15 variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the trends in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) over 23 years in the same area and to identify genetic factors related to incidence evolution.METHODS: Patients with IBD arising from Northwestern Greece were systematically recorded through the 1983-2005 period. Trends in disease incidence and genetic patterns related to CARD15 variants were documented and correlated.RESULTS: A total of 447 patients with IBD were recorded (23.5% Crohn's disease, 72.7% Ulcerative colitis and 3.8% indeterminate colitis). Mean annual incidence rates of CD and UC were 0.9/100000 (95% CI 0.1-1.7) and 2.7/100000 (95% CI 1.7-4.1) inhabitants,respectively. There was a statistically significant increase of CD incidence (P < 0.01) during the study period, in contrast to the UC incidence. There were no statistical differences in CARD15 variants over the study period.CONCLUSION: The incidence of CD in North-western Greece has risen disproportionately to that of UC in the 21st century. This is not related to alterations of genetic background though.

  6. The effects of postplanting environment on the incidence of soilborne viral diseases in winter cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle-Davidson, L; Bergstrom, G C

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) are putatively transmitted to small grains by the obligate parasite Polymyxa graminis, but little is known about environmental requirements for transmission and the resulting disease incidence. We planted susceptible wheat and triticale cultivars in field nurseries on different autumn dates in 3 years and observed the incidence of symptomatic plants in each following spring. Autumn postplanting environment explained most of the variation in disease caused by both viruses. Little apparent transmission, based on eventual symptom development, of either virus occurred after the average soil temperature dropped below 7 degrees C for the remainder of the winter. To forecast disease, we tested an SBWMV transmission model in the field, based on laboratory results, that predicts opportunities for transmission based on soil temperature and soil moisture being simultaneously conducive. This model was predictive of soilborne wheat mosaic in 2 of 3 years. Zoospores of P. graminis have optimal activity at temperatures similar to those in the SBWMV transmission model. Furthermore, the matric potential threshold (as it relates to waterfilled pore sizes) in the SBWMV transmission model fits well with P. graminis as vector given the size restrictions of P. graminis zoospores. Conditions optimal for SBWMV transmission in the laboratory were not conducive for WSSMV transmission in the laboratory or for wheat spindle streak mosaic development in the field. This differential response to environment after emergence, as indicated by disease symptoms, may be due to virus-specific environmental conditions required to establish systemic infection via the same vector. Alternatively, the differential response may have been due to the involvement of a different vector in our WSSMV nursery than in our SBWMV nursery. Our results suggest that, as a control tactic for SBWMV or WSSMV, earliness or lateness of

  7. Men's and Women's Health Beliefs Differentially Predict Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…

  8. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada: Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Fedorak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning inflammatory bowel diseases – specifically, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

  9. Assessment of smoking patients awareness on the effects of smoking on the incidence of civilization diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Białkowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is known to affect the body adversely and to contribute significantly to the development of many diseases. It is necessary to carry out education programs, to develop healthy attitudes and to motivate smokers to start the fight against addiction. The aim is to show the patients’ point of view on the effects of tobacco smoking on health. It was also an attempt to assess patients’ knowledge about the effects of smoking and the incidence of civilization diseases. The authors analyze the health behaviours and habits of nicotine-dependent patients from data from patients hospitalized in the rehabilitation and internal diseases wards. Material and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in patients hospitalized at the University Hospital in Olsztyn and Healthcare Complex in Nidzica. The study included 50 smokers aged 21 to 80 years. The data was used to develop statistical methods: analysis of rho-Spearman correlation to examine relationships between variables, non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney U to detectsignificant differences between the compared groups and one-way analysis of variance to test differences between groups. Results: Prevalence of symptoms of the disease in patients is associated with an increased awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco. Knowledge of these risks among the respondents is independent of age and education. Educational activities conducted by therapists are indeed important for the patients’ health-related behaviors. Conclusions: Awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking is fixed and is not determined by the age of the smoker, education or the fact of suffering from a particular disease. Therapists who have frequent contact with the patients are able to affect their health behaviors. In connection with the manifestation of tolerance to the phenomenon of heavy smokers’ nicotine addiction, people from a particular physical neighborhood are more likely to adopt the habit. There are

  10. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  11. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  12. Ischemic heart disease in workers at Mayak PA: latency of incidence risk after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoforo Simonetto

    Full Text Available We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA. This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16 [Formula: see text] while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established.

  13. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.L.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.; Whitworth, U.G.; Markowski, D.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    2004-01-01

    Data on nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted by the public to the University of Rhode Island Tick Research Laboratory for testing from 1991 to 2000 were compared with human case data from the Rhode Island Department of Health to determine the efficacy of passive tick surveillance at assessing human risk of Lyme disease. Numbers of ticks submitted were highly correlated with human cases by county (r = 0.998, n = 5 counties) and by town (r = 0.916, n = 37 towns), as were the numbers of positive ticks submitted (r = 0.989 by county, r = 0.787 by town). Human cases were correlated with ticks submitted by town each year, and with positive ticks in all but 2 years. Thus, passive tick surveillance effectively assessed geographical risk of human Lyme disease. In contrast, tick submissions through time were not correlated with human cases from year to year. Dog seropositivity was significantly correlated with human cases by county in both years tested, but by town in only one of two years. Numbers of ticks submitted were correlated with dog seropositivity by county but not by town, apparently because of high variability among towns with small sample sizes. Our results suggest that passive tick surveillance, using ticks submitted by the public for Lyme spirochete testing, can be used to assess the geographical distribution of Lyme disease risk, but cannot reliably predict Lyme incidence from year to year.

  14. Large-scale metabolomic profiling identifies novel biomarkers for incident coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganna, Andrea; Salihovic, Samira; Sundström, Johan; Broeckling, Corey D; Hedman, Asa K; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Larsson, Anders; Siegbahn, Agneta; Zilmer, Mihkel; Prenni, Jessica; Arnlöv, Johan; Lind, Lars; Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of circulating metabolites in large prospective epidemiological studies could lead to improved prediction and better biological understanding of coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomics study for association with incident CHD events in 1,028 individuals (131 events; 10 y. median follow-up) with validation in 1,670 individuals (282 events; 3.9 y. median follow-up). Four metabolites were replicated and independent of main cardiovascular risk factors [lysophosphatidylcholine 18∶1 (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] increment = 0.77, P-valueratio = 1.05 per SD increment in MG 18∶2, P-value = 0.05) on CHD, as suggested by Mendelian randomization analysis. In conclusion, we identified four lipid-related metabolites with evidence for clinical utility, as well as a causal role in CHD development. PMID:25502724

  15. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  16. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Pat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor neuron disease (MND is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. Methods 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. Findings During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 – 2·7 to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 – 15·3 per 100,000 women aged 50–54 to 70–74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03. There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (pfor trend = 0·009: obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m2 or more had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to 2(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03. This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Interpretation MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  17. Television viewing and incident cardiovascular disease: prospective associations and mediation analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Wijndaele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD, non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0, free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years. Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.08; 2,620 cases, non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.09; 2,134 cases, and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03-1.13; 940 cases, independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA(1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered.

  18. Increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in the recent years: data from the ICONA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cingolani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs data collected in HIV+ patients could be used as indicator of risky sexual behaviour possibly linked to HIV transmission. We described the STDs incidence over time and identified higher incidence factors. Methodology: All patients in the ICONA Foundation Study enrolled after 1998 were included. STDs considered: any-stage syphilis, human papilloma virus (HPV diseases, gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis, herpes simplex virus (HSV genital ulcers, vaginitis and acute hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis A virus (HAV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections (only for non-IVDU (intravenous drug user patients. STDs incidence rate (IR: number of STDs divided by person years of follow-up (PYFU. Calendar periods: 1998–2002, 2003–2007 and 2008–2012. Predictors of STDs occurrence were identified using Poisson regression and sandwich estimates for the standard errors were used for multiple STD events. Results: Data of 9,168 patients were analyzed (median age 37.3 (SD=9.3, 74% male, 30% MSM. Over 46,736 PYFU, 996 episodes of STDs were observed (crude IR 17.3/1,000 PYFU. Median (IQR CD4/mmc and HIV-RNA/mL at STD: 433 (251–600 and 10,900 (200–63,000. Highest crude IRs were observed for any-stage syphilis (3.95, 95% CI 3.59–4.35, HPV diseases (1.96, 1.71–2.24 and acute hepatitis (1.72, 1.49–1.99. At multivariable analysis (variables of adjustment shown in Figure 1, age (IRR 0.82 per 10 years younger, 95% CI 0.77–0.89, MSM contacts (IRR 3.03, 95% CI 2.52–3.64 vs heterosexual and calendar period (IRR 1.67, 95% CI 1.42–1.96, comparing 2008–2012 with 1998–2002 significantly increased the risk of acquiring STDs. Moreover, having a HIV-RNA >50 c/mL (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19–1.74 vs HIV-RNA 500 showed an increased risk of STDs. Being on ARV treatment significantly reduced the risk of developing an STD (IRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.32–0.43 compared to ART-naïve people, even in the situation of

  19. The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative associatio...

  20. Mild hyponatremia, hypernatremia and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in older men: A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S.G.; Shaper, A. G.; LENNON, L; Papacosta, O.; Whincup, P

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between serum sodium concentration and incident major cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and total mortality in older men. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective study of 3099 men aged 60-79 years without a history of cardiovascular disease followed up for an average 11 years during which there were 528 major CVD events (fatal coronary heart disease [CHD] and non-fatal MI, stroke and CVD death) and 873 total deaths. A U shaped relationship was seen between serum...

  1. The pathogen- and incidence-based DALY approach: an appropriate [corrected] methodology for estimating the burden of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée J Mangen

    Full Text Available In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the 'Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE' project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY, composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL and due to disability (YLD. To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005-2007. Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries.

  2. Older Candidates for Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease Have a Higher Incidence of Psychiatric Serious Adverse Events

    OpenAIRE

    Cozac, Vitalii V.; Ehrensperger, Michael M.; Gschwandtner, Ute; Hatz, Florian; Meyer, Antonia; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schuepbach, Michael; Taub, Ethan; Fuhr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    International audience Objective: To investigate the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE) of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We investigated a group of 26 patients with PD who underwent STN-DBS at mean age 63.2 ± 3.3 years. The operated patients from the EARLYSTIM study (mean age 52.9 ± 6.6) were used as a comparison group. Incidences of SAE were compared between these groups. Results: A higher incidence of psych...

  3. Assessment of the co-incidence between non alcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Sohair Abd El-Kader; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Ahmed, Amr Mahmmoud

    2014-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver biochemistry and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Those with NAFLD have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis, as shown by increased carotid artery intimal media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study is to assess the co-incidence and prevalence between NAFLD and carotid atherosclerosis. In this study seventy-two subjects were categorized into 2 groups. GI: 52 patients diagnosed as NAFLD with diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity or hyperlipedemia. GII: 20 diseased controls diagnosed as NAFLD without other predisposing factor. CIMT and plaque prevalence were estimated by carotid ultrasonography as a single trained operator who was blind to clinical characteristics of participants. The results showed that CIMT by carotid duplex ultrasonography was significantly higher in group A than group B but CIMT did not reveal any significant difference as regards to the etiology of NAFLD. CIMT was significantly higher in cases with bright liver than those with homogenous liver (by abdominal US) in group I and II. CIMT was significantly higher in those with moderate steatosis than those with mild steatosis (in GI & GII).

  4. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal was to clarify if insulin resistance (IR) would predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). BACKGROUND: Although the cause of MetSyn is not well defined, IR has been proposed to be an important cause. Only a small number of population......-based studies have sought to clarify if IR predicts CVD independent of MetSyn. METHODS: This was a prospective Danish population-based study of 2,493 men and women, age 41 to 72 years, without major CVD at baseline. We defined MetSyn according to both the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) and the National......, and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender...

  5. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across  quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential: HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09;  HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71; and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60. When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40. Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.

  6. Plasma branched-chain amino acids and incident cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B.; Hruby, Adela; Liang, Liming; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that baseline BCAA concentrations predict future risk of CVD and that a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) intervention may counteract this effect. Methods We developed a case-cohort study within the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED), with 226 incident CVD cases and 781 non-cases. We used LC-MS/MS to measure plasma BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine), both at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite of incident stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline leucine and isoleucine concentrations were associated with higher CVD risk: the hazard ratios (HRs) for the highest vs. lowest quartile were 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.76) and 2.09 (1.27–3.44), respectively. Stronger associations were found for stroke. For both CVD and stroke, we found higher HRs across successive quartiles of BCAAs in the control group than in the MedDiet groups. Using stroke as the outcome, a significant interaction (P=0.009) between the baseline BCAA score and the intervention with MedDiet was observed. No significant effect of the intervention on 1-yr changes in BCAAs nor any association between 1-year changes in BCAAs and CVD were observed. Conclusions Higher concentrations of baseline BCAAs were associated with increased risk of CVD, especially stroke, in a high cardiovascular risk population. A Mediterranean-style diet had a negligible effect on 1-year changes in BCAAs, but it may counteract the harmful effects of BCAAs on stroke. PMID:26888892

  7. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter HM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are sensitive to assumptions

  8. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshuizen Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are

  9. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Uygur and Han Chinese adults in Urumqi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yan Niu; Yong-Li Zhou; Rong Yan; Ni-La Mu; Bao-Hua Gao; Fang-Xiong Wu; Jin-Yan Luo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its related risk factors in Uygur and Han Chinese adult in Urumqi,China.METHODS:A population-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a total of 972 Uygur (684 male and 288 female) aged from 24 to 61 and 1023 Han Chinese (752 male and 271 female) aged from 23 to 63 years.All participants were recruited from the residents who visited hospital for health examination from November 2011 to May 2012.Each participant signed an informed consent and completed a GERD questionnaire (Gerd Q) and a lifestyle-food frequency questionnaire survey.Participants whose Gerd Q score was ≥ 8 and met one of the following requirements would be enrolled into this research:(1) being diagnosed with erosive esophagitis (EE) or Barrett's esophagus (BE) by endoscopy; (2) negative manifestation under endoscopy (non-erosive reflux disease,NERD) with abnormal acid reflux revealed by 24-h esophageal pH monitoring; and (3) suffering from typical heartburn and regurgitation with positive result of proton pump inhibitor test.RESULTS:According to Gerd Q scoring criteria,340 cases of Uygur and 286 cases of Han Chinese were defined as GERD.GERD incidence in Uygur was significantly higher than in Han Chinese (35% vs 28%,x2 =11.09,P < 0.005),Gerd Q score in Uygur was higher than in Han Chinese (7.85 ± 3.1 w 7.15 ± 2.9,P < 0.005),and Gerd Q total score in Uygur male was higher than in female (8.15 ± 2.8 vs 6.85 ± 2.5,P <0.005).According to normalized methods,304 (31%) cases of Uygur were diagnosed with GERD,including 89 cases of EE,185 cases of NERD and 30 cases of BE; 256 (25%) cases of Han Chinese were diagnosed with GERD,including 90 cases of EE,140 cases of NERD and 26 cases of BE.GERD incidence in Uygur was significantly higher than in Han Chinese (31% vs 25%,x2=9.34,P < 0.005) while the incidences were higher in males of both groups than in females (26% vs 5% in Uygur,x2 =35.95,P < 0

  10. Emerging Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers and Incident Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Statin-Treated Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Kohli, Payal; Lambert, Gilles; DeMicco, David A; Laskey, Rachel; Messig, Michael M; Kastelein, John J P; Waters, David D

    2016-08-15

    Whether biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk also predict incident diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Our objective was to determine if a panel of 18 biomarkers previously associated with risk of cardiovascular disease also predicts incident DM in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The Treating to New Targets (TNT) study is a randomized trial that compared the efficacy of high (80 mg) versus low (10 mg) dose atorvastatin for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease events. Fasting plasma levels of standard lipids and of 18 emerging CAD risk biomarkers were obtained after an 8-week run-in period on atorvastatin 10 mg in a random sample of 1,424 TNT patients. After exclusion of patients with DM at baseline (n = 253), 101 patients developed DM during the median follow-up of 4.9 years. Patients with incident DM had lower levels of total and high-molecular weight adiponectin, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products, and vitamin D compared with patients without incident DM. In contrast, insulin, soluble CD40 ligand, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were higher in patients with incident DM compared with those without. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, cystatin C, lipoprotein(a), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, osteopontin, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were comparable in patients with and without incident DM. After multivariate adjustment, total and high-molecular weight adiponectin as well as Lp-PLA2 were negatively associated with incident DM. Results of this study suggest that plasma lipids and some emerging CAD risk biomarkers, such as adiponectin and Lp-PLA2, may be useful for predicting incident DM in statin-treated patients with stable CAD. PMID:27328952

  11. Coronary artery disease incidence between type II diabetic and non-diabetic patients with Leriche syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeren M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major determinant of preoperative morbidity and mortality for patients requiring major vascular surgery. The management of CAD in these patients is controversial. AIMS: The incidence and severity of CAD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with Leriche syndrome was explored. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: 107 patients with Leriche syndrome were selected as major vascular occlusion and grouped according to their diabetic Status. Sex, age, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, clinic cardiac status, coronary angiographic lesions and coronary revascularisation procedures were noted. MATERIAL & METHODS: Patients′ demographics, intra-operative and per-operative data were recorded and compared. In every patient with Leriche syndrome scheduled for elective vascular reconstruction coronary angiography was performed. Lesions were evaluated for the percentages of stenosis. Preliminary coronary bypass or percutaneous coronary intervention was recommended for those found to have advanced or severe CAD. Results of revascularisation procedures were compared. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square or Fisher exact chi-square test is used for conditional variables. Independent samples was analysed by using t-test. Kruskal-Wallis variance test was used if the variances are not homogeneous according to the Levene test. RESULTS: No difference was found in both groups except family history and obesity. Coronary angiographic investigation indicates that 59% of DIAB group and 38% of NONDIAB group patients have advanced or severe CAD which has a high probability for myocardial revascularization. Overall revascularisation rate is 37.8% in DIAB group and 45.7% in NONDIAB group (p=0,641. Preoperative mortality was found 2.7% in diabetics and 4.2% in non-diabetics (p=0.342. CONCLUSIONS: Leriche syndrome with diabetes mellitus is more likely to have advanced coronary disease than those without diabetes mellitus. Coronary angiography

  12. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZENGIN, KURSAD; TANIK, SERHAT; SENER, NEVZAT CAN; ALBAYRAK, SEBAHATTIN; EKICI, MUSA; BOZKURT, IBRAHIM HALIL; BAKIRTAS, HASAN; GURDAL, MESUT; IMAMOGLU, MUHAMMED ABDURRAHIM

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast visualization in the collecting duct system on intravenous urography and having a split renal function of <10% on nuclear renal function studies. Following pathological evaluation, 9 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, 9 with malignant tumors and 79 with chronic pyelonephritis. Of the patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 2 also had renal adenomas. The malignant tumors included 3 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 3 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (1 sarcomatoid, 1 papillary and 1 clear cell RCC), whereas 1 patient had concurrent RCC and TCC. In conclusion, non-functioning kidneys, particularly those with kidney stones, should be managed as possible malignancies, due to the higher incidence of malignant tumors in such patients compared with the normal population. PMID:26171211

  13. Incidence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing first-time coronary angiography.

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    Stefan Kralev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In standard reference sources, the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF ranged between 24 and 46.5%. Since then, the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors (CRF has increased and modern treatment strategies ("pill in the pocket" are only applicable to patients without structural heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of CAD in patients with AF. METHODS: From January 2005 until December 2009, we included 261 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with paroxysmal, persistent or permanent AF in this prospective study. All patients underwent coronary angiography and the Framingham risk score (FRS was calculated. Patients with previously diagnosed or previously excluded CAD were excluded. RESULTS: The overall incidence of CAD in patients presenting with AF was 34%; in patients >70 years, the incidence of CAD was 41%. The incidence of patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG was 21%. Patients with CAD were older (73±8 years vs 68±10 years, p = 0.001, had significantly more frequent hypercholesterolemia (60% vs 30%, p<0.001, were more frequent smokers (26% vs 13%, p = 0.017 and suffered from angina more often (37% vs 2%, p<0.001. There was a significant linear trend among the FRS categories in percentage and the prevalence of CAD and PCI/CABG (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of CAD in patients presenting with AF was relatively high at 34%; the incidence of PCI/CABG was 21%. Based upon increasing CRF in the western world, we recommend a careful investigation respecting the FRS to either definitely exclude or establish an early diagnosis of CAD--which could contribute to an early and safe therapeutic strategy considering type Ic antiarrhythmics and oral anticoagulation.

  14. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in the US Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalilani, Linda; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Palokangas, Tuire; Durgin, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88–2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population. PMID:27583564

  15. Association of Rare Loss-Of-Function Alleles in HAL, Serum Histidine: Levels and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Yu (Bing); A.H. Li (Alexander H.); D. Muzny (Donna); N. Veeraraghavan (Narayanan); P.S. de Vries (Paul); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S. Musani (Solomon); D. Alexander (Danny); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.G. Wilson (James); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R. Gibbs (Richard); P. Wei (Peng); E. Boerwinkle (Eric)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Histidine is a semiessential amino acid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few data are available on the associations between genetic variants, histidine levels, and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods and Results-By cond

  16. Diffuse lung disease: Pneumoconioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper begins with a discussion of the 1980 International Labour Organization classification of the pneumoconioses. Emphasis is on the common pneumoconioses, that is, silicosis, coalworker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal disease. Examples of the five radiographic forms of silicosis-simple and complicated silicosis, Caplan syndrome, silicotuberculosis, and acute silicosis- are presented, and the differential diagnoses are discussed. Discussion of asbestos-related disease included pleural manifestations such as plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and asbestos pleural effusion as well as asbestosis and malignancies associated with asbestos exposure, such as bronchogenic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. Although the standard radiographic findings are stressed, the use of CT in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and the staging of dust-related malignancies is also discussed

  17. Increased incidence of coronary heart disease associated with "double burden" in a cohort of Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Fabrizio; d'Errico, Angelo; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with the combination of employment status and child care among women of working age, also examining the sex of the offspring. Only two previous studies investigated the effect of double burden on CHD, observing an increased risk among employed women with high domestic burden or providing child care, although the relative risks were marginally or not significant. The study population was composed of all women 25-50 years old at 2001 census, living in Turin in families composed only by individuals or couples, with or without children (N = 109,358). Subjects were followed up during 2002-2010 for CHD incidence and mortality through record-linkage of the cohort with the local archives of mortality and hospital admissions. CHD risk was estimated by multivariate Poisson regression models. Among employed women, CHD risk increased significantly by 29% for each child in the household (IRR = 1.29) and by 39% for each son (IRR = 1.39), whereas no association with the presence of children was found among non-employed women or among employed women with daughters. When categorized, the presence of two or more sons significantly increased CHD risk among employed women (IRR = 2.23), compared to those without children. The study found a significant increase in CHD risk associated with the presence of two or more sons in the household, but not daughters, among employed women. This is a new finding, which should be confirmed in other studies, conducted also in countries where the division of domestic duties between males and females is more balanced, such as the European Nordic countries.

  18. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, trends in deaths in the Tula region (1991—2011

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    Valentina Nikolayevna Sorotskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD and theirs outcomes in the Tula Region in 1991 to 2011. In this period, the incidence of ARF decreased to 0.002, which was much lower than Russia's rates. That of CRHD in 2011 accounted for 1.6 per 1,000 adult population, which was comparable to the values in Russia. CRHD mortality rates showed a 2.5-fold decrease. The main causes of fatal outcomes were cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, trends in deaths in the Tula region (1991—2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Nikolayevna Sorotskaya; D Sh Vaisman; R M Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD) and theirs outcomes in the Tula Region in 1991 to 2011. In this period, the incidence of ARF decreased to 0.002, which was much lower than Russia's rates. That of CRHD in 2011 accounted for 1.6 per 1,000 adult population, which was comparable to the values in Russia. CRHD mortality rates showed a 2.5-fold decrease. The main causes of fatal outcomes were cardiovascular disorders.

  20. Large-scale metabolomic profiling identifies novel biomarkers for incident coronary heart disease.

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    Andrea Ganna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of circulating metabolites in large prospective epidemiological studies could lead to improved prediction and better biological understanding of coronary heart disease (CHD. We performed a mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomics study for association with incident CHD events in 1,028 individuals (131 events; 10 y. median follow-up with validation in 1,670 individuals (282 events; 3.9 y. median follow-up. Four metabolites were replicated and independent of main cardiovascular risk factors [lysophosphatidylcholine 18∶1 (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] increment = 0.77, P-value<0.001, lysophosphatidylcholine 18∶2 (HR = 0.81, P-value<0.001, monoglyceride 18∶2 (MG 18∶2; HR = 1.18, P-value = 0.011 and sphingomyelin 28∶1 (HR = 0.85, P-value = 0.015]. Together they contributed to moderate improvements in discrimination and re-classification in addition to traditional risk factors (C-statistic: 0.76 vs. 0.75; NRI: 9.2%. MG 18∶2 was associated with CHD independently of triglycerides. Lysophosphatidylcholines were negatively associated with body mass index, C-reactive protein and with less evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in additional 970 participants; a reverse pattern was observed for MG 18∶2. MG 18∶2 showed an enrichment (P-value = 0.002 of significant associations with CHD-associated SNPs (P-value = 1.2×10-7 for association with rs964184 in the ZNF259/APOA5 region and a weak, but positive causal effect (odds ratio = 1.05 per SD increment in MG 18∶2, P-value = 0.05 on CHD, as suggested by Mendelian randomization analysis. In conclusion, we identified four lipid-related metabolites with evidence for clinical utility, as well as a causal role in CHD development.

  1. Using linked birth, notification, hospital and mortality data to examine false-positive meningococcal disease reporting and adjust disease incidence estimates for children in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A; Jorm, L; McIntyre, P

    2015-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rare, rapidly progressing condition which may be difficult to diagnose, disproportionally affects children, and has high morbidity and mortality. Accurate incidence estimates are needed to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination and treatment. We used linked notification, hospital, mortality and birth data for all children of an Australian state (2000-2007) to estimate the incidence of meningococcal disease. A total of 595 cases were notified, 684 cases had a hospital diagnosis, and 26 cases died from meningococcal disease. All deaths were notified, but only 68% (466/684) of hospitalized cases. Of non-notified hospitalized cases with more than one clinical admission, most (90%, 103/114) did not have meningococcal disease recorded as their final diagnosis, consistent with initial 'false-positive' hospital meningococcal disease diagnosis. After adjusting for false-positive rates in hospital data, capture-recapture estimation suggested that up to four cases of meningococcal disease may not have been captured in either notification or hospital records. The estimated incidence of meningococcal disease in NSW-born and -resident children aged 0-14 years was 5·1-5·4 cases/100 000 child-years at risk, comparable to international estimates using similar methods, but lower than estimates based on hospital data. PMID:25573266

  2. Incidência de doenças e necessidade de controle em cultivo protegido de videira Incidence of diseases and needs of control in overhead covered grapes

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    Geraldo Chavarria

    2007-01-01

    ência de podridão ácida (-77,10% e a severidade de podridão-da-uva-madura (-89,47%, podridão-cinzenta-da-uva (-57,56% e podridão ácida (-84,54% em função da cobertura plástica. De modo geral, as condições microclimáticas do cultivo protegido não permitiram o estabelecimento de míldio e diminuíram a incidência e severidade de podridões de cacho reduzindo as exigências e os custos com controle fitossanitário. Portanto, essa tecnologia pode apresentar-se como uma possibilidade de cultivo com menores impactos de contaminação para o ambiente, produtor e consumidor, desde que sejam consideradas as reduções de tratamentos fitossanitários. Isso fica evidente com os dados de acúmulo residual de fungicidas, que foi maior no cultivo protegido comparado ao convencional, de forma que o manejo fitossanitário deve ser diferenciado em relação ao cultivo convencional.The plastic overhead cover (POC of grapes is increasing in Brazilian vineyards aiming to reduce physical and biological damages. The objectives of this work had been to characterize the incidence and severity of diseases, and, consequently, the needs of control, as well as to evaluate the residues of fungicides in POC conditions. The experiment was installed in 2005/2006, in Flores da Cunha-RS, in a vineyard cv. Moscato Giallo, led in "Y Shape", with impermeable plastic covering (160µm, in 12 rows with 35m, being left 5 rows without covering (control. In both areas, the microclimate was evaluated with relationship to the presence of free water ( visual register , temperature (T, relative humidity (UR of the air, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and wind speed (WS close to the leaves and clusters. In the covered area were only applied fungicides when necessary. In the control plants sprays were accomplished by calendar. Incidence and severity of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, powdery mildew (Uncinula necator, botrytis (Botrytis cinerea, rip rot (Glomerella cingulata and sour rot

  3. Retrospective study of disease incidence and other clinical conditions diagnosed in owned dogs in Delta State, Nigeria

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    Kundu F. Shima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, knowledge on the epidemiology of diseases of dogs is limited. A retrospective study of data from clinical records of six veterinary clinics was undertaken to determine the incidence of disease in owned dogs in Delta State, Nigeria from 2012 to 2014. Association between the diagnosed diseases and the studied variables was explored using Chi-Squared test statistics. This study revealed that most of the conditions presented to the veterinary clinics were preventable. Thirty-one (31 clinical conditions were diagnosed from 571 cases recorded, involving nonspecific (21.6%, infectious (70.9%; P=0.001 and non-infectious (7.5% diseases. The most occurring clinical conditions comprised helminthoses (21.4%, mange (10.5%, parvovirosis (8.4%, babesiosis (7.9%, septicemia (7.2%, gastroenteritis (7.0%, myiasis (7.0%, trauma (6.3%, poisoning (6.0%, ectoparasitism (3.7%, ascites (2.5%, dermatitis (2.3%, aural hematoma (1.2%, and orchitis (1.1%. Disease incidence was highest in Alsatian (40.3%, mixed/cross (33.1%, Rottweiler (7.0% and toy breeds (4.6%. Details on the least occurring diseases and the association between disease and the studied variables are given. The outcomes demonstrate the prevalence of the clinical conditions diagnosed, inadequate husbandry and veterinary care accorded to owned dogs in the State. Education of dog owners on preventive measures is paramount in alleviating some of these health problems.

  4. Vitamin K dependent protein activity and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease: The multi ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular diseas...

  5. Monitoring of incidence, severity, and causality of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease

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    Sharminder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Development of ADR in one of every five cardiac patient points toward a grave situation, but a higher incidence of Type A reactions in cardiology department means that these can be avoided.

  6. Improved incidence of end-stage renal disease of type 1 diabetes in Japan, from a hospital-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Toshika; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore whether the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was lowered over time, and how the baseline characteristics and risk factor management during follow-up were associated with the incident ESRD. Research design and methods An observational cohort study was performed in 1014 patients with T1DM diagnosed from 1961 to 1999, who were admitted to the diabetes center. The incidence of ESRD up to 2010 and the effect of risk factors, including annual mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood pressure, were investigated. Results During a mean follow-up of 19.3 years, with 88.3% follow-up rate, the incidence of ESRD was significantly lower in T1DM diagnosed in 1985–1999 than in 1961–1984 (0.8 vs 5.0 per 1000 person-years, p<0.0001), which was not precluded by preceding death. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the former group (vs the latter) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of ESRD independent of baseline variables of age, duration and gender (p<0.01). The continuous variable of year of T1DM diagnosis remained significant after adjustment for the above variables plus baseline proteinuria and retinopathy (p=0.02). Time-dependent Cox regression analysis indicated that ESRD was associated with annual mean HbA1c (p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (p<0.001) and baseline proteinuria (p<0.001), followed by continuous variable of year of T1DM diagnosis (p=0.09). Conclusions Our data indicate that incidence of ESRD is decreasing over time, coinciding with enhanced glycemic and blood pressure controls. The incidence of ESRD in recently diagnosed T1DM appears to be much lower than previously reported ESRD incidence. PMID:27110369

  7. Incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Turkish-Cypriot population of Northern Cyprus: a population based study.

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    Thomas M F Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first report of the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD of the Turkish-Cypriot population in Northern Cyprus. METHODS: Data were collected over eight consecutive years (2004-2011 from all those starting renal replacement therapy (RRT in this population. Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was calculated and comparisons made with other national registries. We collected DNA from the entire prevalent population. As an initial experiment we looked for two genetic causes of ESRD that have been reported in Greek Cypriots. RESULTS: Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was 234 and 327 per million population (pmp per year, respectively. The mean age was 63, and 62% were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of RRT in Turkish-Cypriots was 1543 pmp on 01/01/2011. The incidence of RRT is higher than other countries reporting to the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association, with the exception of Turkey. Diabetes is a major cause of ESRD in those under 65, accounting for 36% of incident cases followed by 30% with uncertain aetiology. 18% of the incident population had a family history of ESRD. We identified two families with thin basement membrane nephropathy caused by a mutation in COL4A3, but no new cases of CFHR5 nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first estimate of RRT incidence in the Turkish-Cypriot population, describes the contribution of different underlying diagnoses to ESRD, and provides a basis for healthcare policy planning.

  8. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chelle L.; Clark-Snustad, Kindra; Devine, Beth; Grembowski, David; Thornton, Timothy A.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py]) were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000). The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000) in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000) in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000) in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000). Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low. PMID:27293427

  9. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelle L. Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py] were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000. The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000 in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000 in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000 in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000. Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low.

  10. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of

  11. Prevalence and Incidence of Black Band Disease of Scleractinian Corals in the Kepulauan Seribu Region of Indonesia

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    Ofri Johan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD is the oldest recognised disease associated with scleractinian corals. However, despite this, few BBD surveys have been conducted in the Indonesian archipelago, one of the world’s hot spots for coral diversity. In this study, we show that BBD was recorded in the reefs of Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia, at the time of surveying. The disease was found to mainly infect corals of the genus Montipora. In some instances, upwards of 177 colonies (31.64% were found to be infected at specific sites. Prevalence of the disease ranged from 0.31% to 31.64% of Montipora sp. colonies throughout the archipelago. Although BBD was found at all sites, lower frequencies were associated with sites closest to the mainland (17.99 km, as well as those that were furthest away (63.65 km. Despite there being no linear relationship between distance from major population centers and BBD incidence, high incidences of this disease were associated with sites characterized by higher levels of light intensity. Furthermore, surveys revealed that outbreaks peaked during the transitional period between the dry and rainy seasons. Therefore, we suggest that future surveys for disease prevalence in this region of Indonesia should focus on these transitory periods.

  12. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

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    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02. The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88; 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40. The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17 in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

  13. Manure and Paper Mill Sludge Application Effects on Potato Yield, Nitrogen Efficiency and Disease Incidence

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    Anne Drapeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate organic amendment management is essential in potato production to increase soil productivity and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. quality. The objectives of this two-year field study (2004–2005 were to evaluate the effects of organic amendment applications with or without mineral N fertilizer addition on potato yield, N uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and on disease incidence. The experimental design was a split-plot, which included nine treatments with four different organic amendments applied in fall 2003 or in spring 2004 at a rate of 40 Mg ha−1 (wet basis and an unamended control in main plots, and N fertilizer rates (0 and 90 kg N ha−1 in sub-plots. Organic amendments consisted of fresh cattle manure (FCM, composted cattle manure (CCM, paper mill sludge with C/N ratio <15 (PMS1 and paper mill sludge with C/N >15 (PMS2 applied alone (0 kg N ha−1 or supplemented with mineral fertilizer at a rate 90 kg N ha−1. The N fertilizer rate in the unamended control consisted of 0 and 150 kg N ha−1. No organic amendments were applied in 2005 to evaluate residual effects. Fall and spring applications of FCM, CCM and PMS alone significantly increased N uptake and potato marketable yields by 2.5 to 16.4 Mg ha−1, compared to the unfertilized control. Combining organic amendments with N fertilizer at 90 kg N ha−1 increased potato yields, N uptake, and specific gravity, which were comparable to those obtained in mineral N fertilizer treatments (150 kg N ha−1. Residual effects of organic amendments alone had no significant effects on potato yields or on N uptake compared to the unfertilized control. Potato NUE for FCM, CCM and PMS ranged from 6% to 25% in the first year and from 2% to 8% in the residual year. The NUE values were higher for PMS with lower C/N ratio compared to FCM and CCM. This study did not show any difference between organic amendment applied in spring or fall on potato yield and quality. It was also demonstrated that

  14. Incidence and Clinical Features of Peptic Ulcer Disease In Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: -Experience of Moroccan University Hospital Unit-

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    Y. Cherradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD has been recognized as the leading cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB. This study aims to report general features of bleeding peptic ulcers in patients who benefit of urgent endoscopy in our department after an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Results: A total of 1809 patients were explored for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our unit since 2003 to 2008. Gastroduodenal peptic ulcers were the most frequent diagnosed etiology. They present 38% of all reported causes of bleeding (n=527 (table I. 25% were located at duodenal mucosa (n= 347 and 13% were gastric ulcers (n=180. No esophageal ulcers were reported. Incidence of both duodenal and gastric ulcers decreases during the last years. Conclusion: In our department, incidence of bleeding peptic ulcer disease is decreasing but they continue to be the first cause of AUGIB.

  15. Incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in Danish men and women with a prolonged heavy alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, M.E.; Thygesen, L.C.;

    2008-01-01

    rates of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than the population in general. METHODS: The cohort comprised 19,185 subjects (15,368 men and 3,817 women) who attended outpatient clinics for alcohol abusers within the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (1954 to 1992). Incidence rates were standardized (SIR......BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have found U- or J-shaped relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular conditions. The influence of heavy drinking is, however, sparsely studied. The objective of the present study was to examine whether alcohol addicts have higher incidence.......45-2.99; women: SIR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.18-3.48). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates increased risks of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in subjects with an excessive alcohol intake Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  16. The incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis since 1995 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Due; Baldal, Mira Eggebrecht; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskær;

    2016-01-01

    AND METHODS: All children and adolescents years with a diagnosis of CD or UC registered in the Danish National Patient Registry from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2013 were included. Using a Poisson regression model we estimated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the annual change in the incidence...... to 10.0 (95% CI: 7.5-13.2) per 100,000 person years for girls and 9.4 (95% CI: 7.0-13.2) for boys, in 2013. Similar, the incidence of UC increased to 7.2 (95% CI: 5.0-9.9) per 100,000 person years for girls and 6.2 (95% CI: 4.3-8.7) for boys. CONCLUSIONS: In a period of 19 years from 1995 to 2013 we...... adjusted for gender and age. The cumulative incidence was described using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. RESULTS: The IRR for CD was 1.052 (95% CI: 1.039-1.065), and for UC the IRR was 1.022 (95% CI: 1.011-1.033), adjusted for age and gender. The incidence rate of CD increased during the study period...

  17. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarajan, Badri N.; Faber, Kelley M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Bennett, David A.; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Goate, Alison M.; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A.; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z.; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0

  18. Linfogranuloma venério: aumento na incidência sugere surto mundial da doença Lymphogranuloma venereum: increased incidence suggests diseases world outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Lucia Hernani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O Linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV é uma doença sexualmente transmissível (DST causada pelos sorotipos L1, L2 ou L3 da bactéria intracelular Chlamydia trachomatis. Possui caráter endêmico em partes da África, Ásia, América do Sul e Caribe, e é rara em países industrializados. No entanto, vários casos foram diagnosticados em homossexuais masculinos, na Holanda, e desde 2004, essa doença vem sendo notificada por outros países da Europa, da América do Norte e Austrália. Esse aumento da incidência tem características de surto, e tem acometido homens brancos com menos de 35 anos que mantém relações sexuais com outros homens e apresentam infecções anorretais com diversos sintomas, que incluem dor retal, tenesmo e constipação. A maior parte dos pacientes (>70% também está co-infectada pelo HIV. Depois das primeiras notificações, muitos países passaram a fazer buscas ativas em suas populações. Pela falta de um teste diagnóstico rápido e de uso difundido, os doentes com quadros sugestivos devem receber terapia antimicrobiana durante pelo menos três semanas. Há autores fazendo a mesma recomendação nas retites observadas durante a retoscopia, na presença de mais de 10 leucócitos por campo nas amostras colhidas com swab e nos doentes HIV-positivo.20 Acreditamos que o número de casos esteja também aumentando no Brasil e, por desconhecimento sobre a doença, a mesma não venha sendo diagnosticada. Sugerimos que a hipótese diagnóstica de LGV, seja afastada nos doentes que pratiquem sexo anal e apresentem úlceras na região ou quadros de retite.Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted disease (STD caused by L1, L2 L3 sorovars of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It has endemic features in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and Caribbean, and is rare in developed countries. Meanwhile, many cases were diagnosed, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM, in the Netherlands, and since 2004

  19. Renal function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Magnus G; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Impaired renal function is of major concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Methods: We used a mixed effects linear regression model to determine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in a population-based cohort of incident Danish HIV patient...

  20. HIV Infection and Risk for Incident Pulmonary Diseases in the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    OpenAIRE

    Crothers, Kristina; Huang, Laurence; Goulet, Joseph L.; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Brown, Sheldon T.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Rimland, David; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Butt, Adeel A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: In aging HIV-infected populations comorbid diseases are important determinants of morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary diseases have not been systematically assessed in the combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.

  1. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. PMID:26080753

  2. Incidence of post-harvest fungal diseases of ripe papaya in Mymensingh

    OpenAIRE

    Hamim, I.; Alam, M.Z.; Ali, M. A.; M. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted during November, 2012 to May, 2013 to assess the status of major post harvest diseases of papaya fruits in the local markets of Mymensingh. Average percentage of diseased fruits at the markets were 29.83 and diseased fruits ranged from 20.40% to 38.04% during the study period. Highest percentage of diseased fruits (38.04%) was recorded in the month of May, 2013 followed by March, 2013 (37.98%). The minimum percentage of diseased fruits (20.40%) was recorded in January, ...

  3. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  4. Association of subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy with incidence of autoimmune disease, ischemic heart disease, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment of IgE-mediated allergic disease. Little is known about potential effects of SCIT on the risk of other chronic immune-related diseases. Over the years, a few casuistic reports have caused concern that SCIT might ac...... as a trigger of autoimmune disease.......Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment of IgE-mediated allergic disease. Little is known about potential effects of SCIT on the risk of other chronic immune-related diseases. Over the years, a few casuistic reports have caused concern that SCIT might act...

  5. [Epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma cases in Italy: incidence and asbestos exposure figures by the Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Chellini, Elisabetta; De Zotti, Renata; Gennaro, Valerio; Menegozzo, Massimo; Mensi, Carolina; Merler, Enzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Musti, Marina; Pannelli, Franco; Romanelli, Antonio; Scarselli, Alberto; Tosi, Sergio; Tumino, Rosario; Nesti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The Study describes the epidemiological surveillance of mesothelioma cases carried out by the Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM). A Regional Operating Centre (COR) is present in nearly all Italian regions (17 out of 20) and it collects malignant mesothelioma cases and investigate the modalities of asbestos exposure by using a structured questionnaire. The register produces malignant mesothelioma incidence measures and analyses of the modalities of the asbestos exposure. The standardized incidence rate of malignant mesothelioma in 2001 was 2.98 (in 100,000 inhabitants) among men and 0.98 among women; a professional (certain, probable, possible) exposure has been detected in 67.4% of defined cases. In addition to the conventional sectors (shipbuilding, railways repair and demolition, asbestos-cement production), also textile, building, transport, chemical and glass industries, petroleum and sugar refineries, electricity production and distribution plants are getting involved. Despite the absence of some regions completing the national coverage and the non homogeneity in collecting and coding data, the epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma carried out by ReNaM is an important tool for the scientific knowledge and the prevention of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:18050854

  6. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Nicholas, Owen; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Background Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts are commonly performed in clinical practice. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence of association with cardiovascular diseases. Methods We used linked primary care, hospitalisation, disease registry and mortality data in England (the CALIBER (CArdiovascular disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme). We included people aged 30 or older without cardiovascular disease at baseline, and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs for the association of eosinophil or lymphocyte counts with the first occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Results The cohort comprised 775 231 individuals, of whom 55 004 presented with cardiovascular disease over median follow-up 3.8 years. Over the first 6 months, there was a strong association of low eosinophil counts (eosinophil count was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89). There were similar associations with low lymphocyte counts (eosinophil counts and low lymphocyte counts in the general population are associated with increased short-term incidence of heart failure and coronary death. Trial registration number NCT02014610; results. PMID:27621833

  7. Incidence of neoplastic diseases in infants in Cienfuegos province from January 1988 to December 1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pedro Hernández Sosa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of neoplasias in children gathers of cancer that appear in children less than 15 years of age although some authors have stated that this age should be widened till youngsters less than 20 years. Although neoplasias in this age group only represent around 5 % of all neoplasms, there are important reasons that justify their investigation. Objective: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of neoplasm in children in Cienfuegos province. Method: Descriptive- retrospective study with a universe that gathered all the patients less than 15 years of age who had a diagnosis of neoplasia in Cienfuegos province, Cuba in the period January1988 – December 1998 . The rate of incidence per 100 000 inhabitants aged less than 15 was obtained and the variables under study were identification data: age, sex, race, (classified as whites and no whites , municipality of origin and type of tumour. The difference in incidence at the beginning and at the end of the period under study were calculated too. Results: The Annual means in the province was 12.45 x 10 5 inhabitants. The most affected age group was from 1 to 4 years of age with a rate of incidence of 15,25 x 10 5 inhabitants, with a predominance of white females. Cruces was the most affected municipality with a rate of 22,26 x 10 5 inhabitants. The tendency of infantile cancer in the province has diminished and it is more significant in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  8. [Experience of using bacteriophages and bitsillin-5 to reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases of bacterial ethiology in military personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimkin, V G; Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-02-01

    The authors defined epidemiological efficacy and safety of the use of bacteriophages(streptococcal, staphylococcal, piobakferiophage multipartial) and bitsillin-5 to reduce tonsillitis morbidityand other respiratory diseases with bacterial etiology in groups of servicemen during their formationagainst increase of seasonal morbidity. The results of the use of these preventive agents were evaluatedby a comparative analysis of this disease in experimental and control groups. In total 510 healthy conscriptswere involved into the study. The effectiveness of prophylactic use of bacteriophages and bitsillin-5, whichprovided a reduction in the incidence of respiratory infections of bacterial ethiology, tonsillitis, and otherrespiratory diseases is showed. Recommendations on the choice of drugsfor the prevention of these infections,methods and organization of their application in organized groups are given.

  9. Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

  10. Incidence and detection of beak and feather disease virus in psittacine birds in the UAE

    OpenAIRE

    F. Hakimuddin; Abidi, F; Jafer, O; Li, C; U. Wernery; Ch. Hebel; K. Khazanehdari

    2016-01-01

    Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported...

  11. The Incidence of Hypothyroidism Following the Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Graves’ Disease and the Predictive Factors Influencing its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseni, Maha Abd El-Kareem El-Sayed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the incidence of hypothyroidism following different fixed radioactive iodine-131 (131I) activities in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD) and to investigate the predictive factors that may influence its occurrence. This retrospective analysis was performed on 272 patients with GD who were treated with 131I, among whom 125 received 370 MBq and 147 received 555 MBq. The outcome was categorized as hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, and persistent hyperthyroidism. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affect the development of hypothyroidism. The incidence of hypothyroidism following the first low activity was 24.8% with a high treatment failure rate of 58.4%, compared with 48.3% and 32% following high activity. The overall cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism following repeated activities was 50.7%, out of which 73.9% occurred after the first activity and 20.3% after the second activity. The higher 131I activity (P < 0.001) and average and mild enlargement of the thyroid gland (P = 0.004) were identified as significant independent factors that increase the rate of incidence of hypothyroidism (Odds ratios were 2.95 and 2.59). No correlation was found between the development of hypothyroidism and the factors such as age, gender, presence of exophthalmos, previous antithyroid medications, and the durations, and Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate thyroid uptake. In view of the high treatment failure rate after first low activity and lower post high activity hypothyroid incidence, high activity is recommended for GD patients, reserving the use of 370MBq for patients with average sized and mildly enlarged goiter; this increases patient convenience by avoiding multiple activities to achieve cure and long-term follow-up. PMID:26912976

  12. Smoking and interstitial lung disease. The effect of cigarette smoking on the incidence of pulmonary histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, A J; Basset, F; Saumon, G; Danel, C; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Chrétien, J; Georges, R

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking produces marked alterations in the lung parenchyma and in the population of immune and inflammatory cells present in the lower respiratory tract. These cigarette-induced changes appear to influence the incidence of two different interstitial lung diseases, histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Smoking is a strong risk factor for the development of pulmonary histiocytosis X, since the incidence of smoking is very high among patients with histiocytosis X: 90% of the patients with histiocytosis X were smokers; 46% of the controls were smokers (p less than .001). In contrast, smoking appears to reduce the incidence of sarcoidosis: 31% of the patients with sarcoidosis were smokers (p less than .05 compared to controls). In an effort to understand how cigarette smoking influences the incidence of these two disorders, we compared the numbers and types of immune and inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from nonsmoking and smoking controls and patients with histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Although nonsmoking patients with histiocytosis X did not have a significant increase in the number of alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage (p greater than .2 compared to normals), smoking patients had an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages similar to that observed in the control population. In contrast, the number of macrophages recovered from patients with sarcoidosis who smoked was considerably less than that observed in normal smokers (p less than .05 comparing patients with sarcoidosis and controls who smoked 1-20 cigarettes/day). This difference in the intensity of the cigarette-induced macrophage alveolitis observed in the two patient groups may be important in explaining the opposite effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. PMID:3488004

  13. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is not Related to the Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Shan Bi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was assessed in 413 type 2 diabetic patients, by testing the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER. The NAFLD was diagnosed based on patient’s medical history and liver ultrasound. The difference in diabetic nephropathy incidence between patients with and without NAFLD was tested by χ2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Total 363 out of 413 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The incidences of NAFLD and diabetic nephropathy in participants were approximately 56% (202/363 and 38% (137/363 respectively, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy between patients with and without NAFLD (37.1% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.787. The duration of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.014–1.120, p = 0.012, waist circumference (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.040–1.116, p = 0.000, and fasting blood glucose (FBG; OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023–1.1262, p = 0.017 were significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, whereas sex, high blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI were not significantly associated with the disorder. The present results suggest that NAFLD is not related to the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but the duration of diabetes, waist circumference, and FBG are important factors for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

  14. Relationships between Fusarium population structure, soil nutrient status and disease incidence in field-grown asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Sommerville, D.W.; Maheux, E.; Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Whalen, J.K.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species cause important diseases in many crops. Lack of knowledge on how Fusarium species and strains interact with their environment hampers growth management strategies to control root diseases. A field experiment involving asparagus as host plant and three phosphorus fertilization levels

  15. The association of atopy with incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is a systemic inflammatory disease that could theoretically affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes through inflammatory pathways or mast cell-induced coronary spasm. Whether allergy is associated with an increased risk of CVD and diabetes is largely unknown. We...

  16. Epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Incidence. risk factors and sulVival in European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJO) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with a highly interesting aetiology and potentially important public health implications. l In aetiological terms, CJD is one of the human prion diseases, characterised by rapid neurodegeneration leading to a characteri

  17. Phylloquinone and vitamin D status: associations with incident chronic kidney disease in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD and vascular disease are etiologically linked. Evidence suggests deficiencies of vitamins D and K may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but data from longitudinal studies are lacking. W...

  18. Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases developing in childhood. The incidence of the disease in children increases for unknown reasons at a rate from 3 to 5% every year worldwide. The background of T1DM is associated with the autoimmune process of pancreatic beta cell destruction, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency and organ damage. Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically predisposed patients. The T1DM-inducing autoimmune process can also affect other organs, resulting in development of additional autoimmune diseases in the patient, thereby impeding diabetes control. The most common T1DM comorbidities include autoimmune thyroid diseases, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis; additionally, diabetes can be a component of PAS (Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome). The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence of T1DM-associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents and their impact on the course of T1DM. We also present suggestions concerning screening tests. PMID:27525273

  19. Disease: H00015 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common type, accounting for about 70% of all MM cases. Past asbest...os exposure represents the major risk factor for MPM, as the link between asbest...SA:5155] [KO:K17386] IGF-1 (expression) [HSA:3479] [KO:K05459] IGF-R1 (expression) [HSA:3480] [KO:K05087] Asbest...aughlin AM, Beckett WS, Sime PJ. Asbestos-related lung disease. Am Fam Physician

  20. Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort of young adults according to the presence of chronic cough and phlegm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Marco, Roberto; Accordini, Simone; Cerveri, Isa; Corsico, Angelo; Anto, Josep M.; Kunzli, Nino; Janson, Christer; Sunyer, Jordi; Jarvis, Deborah; Chinn, Susan; Vermeire, Paul; Svanes, Cecilie; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Leynaert, Benedicte; Neukirch, Francoise; Schouten, Jan P.; Wjst, Matthias; Burney, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The few prospective studies aimed at assessing the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to the presence of chronic cough/phlegm have produced contrasting results. Objectives: To assess the incidence of COPD in a cohort of young adults and to test whether c

  1. Dynamical analysis and simulation of a 2-dimensional disease model with convex incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wahl, Lindi M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a previously developed 2-dimensional disease model is studied, which can be used for both epidemiologic modeling and in-host disease modeling. The main attention of this paper is focused on various dynamical behaviors of the system, including Hopf and generalized Hopf bifurcations which yield bistability and tristability, Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, and homoclinic bifurcation. It is shown that the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation and homoclinic bifurcation provide a new mechanism for generating disease recurrence, that is, cycles of remission and relapse such as the viral blips observed in HIV infection.

  2. [Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Vliet, J A; Reusken, C B E M

    2008-04-12

    Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms among Hospitalized Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Vaisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD experience frequent hospitalizations and use of immunosuppressive medications, which may predispose them to colonization with antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO.

  4. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  5. Determination of disease incidence of fig endosepsis in mamme fruits of caprifigs

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Özlem; BENLİOĞLU, Seher

    2011-01-01

    There are important diseases affecting fruit quality in fig production which is an important crop for Turkish economy. Fig endosepsis caused by Fusarium spp. is one of the most important factors causing reduction in marketing value of fig. This disease is transmitted to the female (edible) fig fruits by means of an insect Blastophaga psenes L. which lives in caprifig fruits and is also responsible from pollination. Therefore, the contamination rates of fig endosepsis in mamme fru...

  6. Hepatitis C virus viremia increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....

  7. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors...

  8. Coronary heart disease: incidence, risk factors and interventions in Jiaozhou of Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hua; Li Dan; Chu Xianming; An Yi; Song Tongxun; Feng Huixin; Lin Peilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease and cause of heart attacks.This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of CHD and its risk factors in Jiaozhou,Shandong province,to ultimately find a way of reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular disease,and to provide a theoretical basis for establishing a cardiovascular disease management path under the regional medical collaborative mechanism.Methods A questionnaire survey was performed including 1 952 people aged 35 years or older who were questioned by means of stratified,cluster,proportional sampling to investigate the prevalence of CHD and its risk factors.The data were inputted into SPSS11.0 statistical software for processing and analysis.We advised the local medical institutions to establish health files for the residents with CHD and risk factors.They were followed up regularly.Their risk factors and life-style were monitored,and advice was given as to proper medications.Green channels were established,and the patients were transmitted in a timely manner to superior hospitals for better treatment if the necessary treatments were not available in the local hospitals.The control of risk factors was observed after the follow-up for half a year.Results In Jiaozhou,the rates of coronary artery disease,hypertension,diabetes,hyperlipidemia and overweight were 8.15%,28.54%,11.43%,35.46%,and 18.70% respectively.The rates of hypertension,diabetes,hyperlipidemia and overweight were higher than the data published in "The report of Chinese cardiovascular disease 2012"; which are 24%,9.7%,18.6%,and 9.7%,respectively.The control of risk factors improved significantly after the guidance of the residents lifestyle and medication for six months.Conclusions The high prevalence of coronary artery disease in Jiaozhou is closely related to age,gender,diet structure,family history of cardiovascular disease

  9. Prospective population-based study of the association between vitamin D status and incidence of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-09-01

    Beside its traditional role in skeletal health, vitamin D is believed to have multiple immunosuppressant properties, and low vitamin D status has been suggested to be a risk factor in the development of autoimmune disease. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and development of autoimmune disease. We included a total of 12,555 individuals from three population-based studies with measurements of vitamin D status (25-hydroxy vitamin D). We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 10.8 years). Relative risks of autoimmune disease were estimated by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95 % confidence intervals CIs). There were 525 cases of incident autoimmune disease. The risk for a 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D was: for any autoimmune disease (HR = 0.94 % CI 0.90, 0.98); thyrotoxicosis (HR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.72, 0.96); type 1 diabetes (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.88, 1.02), multiple sclerosis (HR = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.74, 1.07), iridocyclitis (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.17); Crohn's disease (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.80, 1.13), ulcerative colitis (HR = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.75, 1.04); psoriasis vulgaris (HR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.13); seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (HR = 0.97, 95 % CI 0.89, 1.07), and polymyalgia rheumatica (HR = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.83, 1.06). We found statistically significant inverse associations between vitamin D status and development of any autoimmune disease and thyrotoxicosis in particular. Our findings suggest a possible protective role of a higher vitamin D status on autoimmune disease but warrant further studies to clarify causality. PMID:25666936

  10. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, J W M; Ferreira, I; Schalkwijk, C G;

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.......This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  11. lHCV-related burden of disease in Europe: a systematic assessment of incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebert Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, end-stage cirrhosis, and liver cancer, but little is known about the burden of disease caused by the virus. We summarised burden of disease data presently available for Europe, compared the data to current expert estimates, and identified areas in which better data are needed. Methods Literature and international health databases were systematically searched for HCV-specific burden of disease data, including incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs, and liver transplantation. Data were collected for the WHO European region with emphasis on 22 countries. If HCV-specific data were unavailable, these were calculated via HCV-attributable fractions. Results HCV-specific burden of disease data for Europe are scarce. Incidence data provided by national surveillance are not fully comparable and need to be standardised. HCV prevalence data are often inconclusive. According to available data, an estimated 7.3–8.8 million people (1.1–1.3% are infected in our 22 focus countries. HCV-specific mortality, DALY, and transplantation data are unavailable. Estimations via HCV-attributable fractions indicate that HCV caused more than 86000 deaths and 1.2 million DALYs in the WHO European region in 2002. Most of the DALYs (95% were accumulated by patients in preventable disease stages. About one-quarter of the liver transplants performed in 25 European countries in 2004 were attributable to HCV. Conclusion Our results indicate that hepatitis C is a major health problem and highlight the importance of timely antiviral treatment. However, data on the burden of disease of hepatitis C in Europe are scarce, outdated or inconclusive, which indicates that hepatitis C is still a neglected disease in many countries. What is needed are public awareness, co-ordinated action plans, and better data. European physicians should be aware that many infections

  12. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD......) patients. The magnitude of the risk was found to differ, even in population-based studies. Recent figures suggest that the risk of colon cancer for people with IBD increases by 0.5-1.0% yearly, 8-10 years after diagnosis. The magnitude of CRC risk increases with early age at IBD diagnosis, longer duration...... explanations have to be investigated. One possible cancer-protective factor could be treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations (5-ASAs). Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is extremely rare, compared with adenocarcinoma of the large bowel. Although only few small bowel cancers have been reported...

  13. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...... of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 59,616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n = 11,629) and a control group (n = 47,987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up...... to four times over a five year period. All participants with an unhealthy lifestyle had individually tailored lifestyle counselling at all visits (at baseline and after one and three years); those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease, according to predefined criteria, were furthermore offered six...

  14. Application of a novel grey self-memory coupling model to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable diseases in China: dysentery and gonorrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea; the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. METHODS: The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1 model and the GM(1,1 model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1 model were used to predict the incidence rates of the two notifiable infectious diseases based on statistical incidence data. Both simulation accuracy and prediction accuracy were assessed to compare the predictive performances of the three models. The best-fit model was applied to predict future incidence rates. RESULTS: Simulation results show that the SMGM(1,1 model can take full advantage of the systematic multi-time historical data and possesses superior predictive performance compared with the linear model and the conventional GM(1,1 model. By applying the novel SMGM(1,1 model, we obtained the possible incidence rates of the two representative notifiable infectious diseases in China. CONCLUSION: The disadvantages of the conventional grey prediction model, such as sensitivity to initial value, can be overcome by the self-memory principle. The novel grey self-memory coupling model can predict the incidence rates of infectious diseases more accurately than the conventional model, and may provide useful references for making decisions involving infectious disease prevention and control.

  15. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of autoimmune disease in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey;

    2015-01-01

    disease in MS. METHODS: The PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles were searched, and abstracts were independently screened by two reviewers. The data were abstracted by one reviewer using a standardized data collection form...

  16. Educational class inequalities in the incidence of coronary heart disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M.; Kuulasmaa, Kari;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and to identify their major determinants in 15 European populations. METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) study comprised 49 cohorts of middle-aged European adults free of CHD...

  17. Drug-Gene Interactions of Antihypertensive Medications and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bis, Joshua C; Sitlani, Colleen; Irvin, Ryan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensive medica...

  18. Inverse linear associations between liver aminotransferases and incident cardiovascular disease risk : The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Blokzijl, Hans; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) have been linked with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but their relationships with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of ALT and AST with CVD risk and determine their po

  19. Cardiac disease, depressive symptoms, and incident stroke in an elderly population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouts, L.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Bremmer, M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Previous research suggests that depression is a risk factor for stroke. However, the reliability of much research is limited by the lack of documentation on the presence of preexistent cardiovascular disease and by the use of limited measures of depression or stroke. OBJECTIVES: To test the

  20. Incidence and severity of atherosclerotic cardiovascular artery disease in patients undergoing TAVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusini, Laura; Mirea, Oana; Tamborini, Gloria; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Cefalù, Claudia; Ghulam Ali, Sarah; Maffessanti, Francesco; Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Alamanni, Francesco; Agrifoglio, Marco; Pepi, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has extended the treatment options for severe, symptomatic aortic valve stenosis (AS). Risk factors for AS have been shown to be similar to atherosclerosis. Consequently, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular and carotid artery diseases are often found concurrently with diagnostic, procedural and prognostic implications. This study sought to describe comprehensive vascular assessment in terms of prevalence, severity and correlations in TAVI candidates. A total of 323 patients (81 ± 6 years) undergoing TAVI were enrolled. Vascular pathologies were evaluated by invasive coronary angiography, computer-tomography (abdominal aorta, renal, iliac and femoral arteries), echo-color Doppler ultrasound (carotid artery), and transoesophageal echocardiography (thoracic aorta). CAD was found in 173 (54%) patients, of which 65 (38%) had 1-vessel, 45 (26%) 2-vessel and 59 (34%) 3-vessel disease. Carotid artery disease was present in 33.6% patients, of which 23.6% unilateral and 10.0% bilateral. Iliac, femoral and renal stenosis were found in 29.2%, 22.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. Cardiovascular risk factor and gender correlated with CAD. CAD patients presented more frequently with significant stenosis (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%) of at least one other district. Multi-districts significant stenosis stratified patients on long-term survival and the coexistence of 3-districts involvement with CAD negatively impacts on mortality. Multimodality imaging assessment shows that coronary, carotid, and peripheral artery disease are often found concurrently in patients undergoing TAVI. Several risk factors and gender correlate with the presence and severity of CAD and peripheral pathologies. Long-term mortality is increased in patients with a more compromised vascular situation. PMID:25805046

  1. The incidence of water-related diseases in the Brak area, Libya from 1977 to 1979, before and after the installation of water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, M A; Moore, K E; Al-Dulaimi, M; Nasr, M

    1981-09-01

    The incidence of nine water-related diseases in the Brak oases of the Sahara desert, before and after the installation of water treatment plants, are reported. Immediately following installation of the plants there was a drop in the incidence of most of the water related diseases. There then followed a gradual deterioration in the treatment plants and within a year the incidence of four of the diseases was again rising. Furthermore neither malaria or giardiases showed any drop in incidence over the study period. Bacillary dysentary, infectious hepatitis and bilharzia did however drop significantly over the three years. A correlation between bacillary dysentary and the mean noon-time temperature for two of the three years was noted.

  2. Influence of dietary manipulation on incidence of atopic disease in infants at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardare, M; Vaccari, A; Allievi, E; Brunelli, L; Coco, F; de Gaspari, G C; Flauto, U

    1993-10-01

    Of 5,500 newborn infants whose family histories were screened, 900 were found to have anamnestic risk. Cord-blood IgE was evaluable in 4,677 of these newborns, of which 394 had levels > or = 1 IU/mL; 84 infants had both anamnestic risk and elevated cord-blood IgE levels. Parents of infants with anamnestic risk were informed of their child's risk of atopy. Additionally, for 391 infants at two of the three participating hospitals, a preventive diet was prescribed that recommended breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with maternal diet restricted to no more than 200 dL of cow milk per day, no more than one egg per week, and no tomato, fish, shellfish, nuts, or foods allergenic to the mother. Only soy formula was recommended, and introduction of solid foods was also carefully prescribed. Furthermore, doctors recommended against exposure to tobacco smoke, animal allergens, and early entrance into daycare. Evaluable infants whose parents complied with the prescribed diet were found to have a lower incidence of atopy during the first year of life (13.3%, n = 158) than infants whose parents had ignored the prescribed diet (54.7%, n = 86) or infants whose parents were offered no dietary recommendations (28.9%, n = 218). Differences between the compliant group and the two groups with unrestricted diets were significant, indicating that this prescribed diet may protect against or delay onset of food allergies during the first year of life.

  3. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  5. Geographical variation of Crohn's disease residual incidence in the Province of Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe Anne-Marie; St-Onge Laurie; Michel Pascal; Bigras-Poulin Michel; Brassard Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Crohn's disease (CD) is clinically expressed as a chronic affection of the gastrointestinal tract currently known to have a multifactorial etiology involving a complex pathophysiological host response modulated by genetic susceptibilities, demographic determinants and environmental factors. With more than 20 cases per 100,000 person-years, the province of Quebec, Canada is among regions of the world with highest reported occurrence of CD in relation to other places where c...

  6. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zengin, Kursad; TANIK, SERHAT; Sener, Nevzat Can; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Ekici, Musa; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Bakirtas, Hasan; Gurdal, Mesut; Imamoglu, Muhammed Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast vis...

  7. Telomere length, antioxidant status and incidence of ischaemic heart disease in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, S.; D'Aiuto, F; Cooper, J.; Salpea, K.; Stephens, J. W.; Hurel, S. J.; Deanfield, J E; Humphries, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). An accelerated process of vascular ageing induced by an increased oxidative stress exposure is suggested as potential pathway accounting for this association. However, no studies have explored the relationship between markers of vascular ageing, measures of oxidative stress and risk of IHD in T2D. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between plasma antioxidant status, marker of cellular ...

  8. The incidence of malignant disease in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsner, A B; Farber, S. J.; Sheon, R P; Finkel, R I

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-six patients with definite or classical rheumatoid arthritis admitted to hospital between 1965 and 1974 for cytotoxic therapy were studied for the presence and type of malignant disease. Each of the cytotoxic treated patients was age and sex matched to a rheumatoid arthritis patient admitted to hospital during the same years but who did not receive cytotoxic therapy. There was no increase in malignancy in the cytotoxic treated group over the control group.

  9. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  10. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  11. The incidence and clinical characteristics of the immune phase eye disease in treated cases of human leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappachan Joseph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uveitis is increasingly being reported from south India following epidemics of leptospirosis. The incidence of eye involvement in treated patients has not been investigated properly in prospective studies. Aims :To determine the incidence, clinical spectrum and risk factors for Leptospiral uveitis in antibiotic-treated patients. Settings and Design: A prospective cohort study conducted among the patients treated for leptospirosis at Calicut Medical College between July and November 2002 and a seroprevalence study among sewage workers. Materials And Methods: As many as 360 patients admitted with suspected leptospirosis were studied by clinical examination, baseline ophthalmic survey, laboratory investigations and Leptospira serology (Microagglutination test - MAT; and IgM and IgG using ELISA during the epidemic. Of the 282 seropositive and antibiotic-treated cases, 174 patients who completed 30 months of regular follow-up were analyzed. A cross-sectional serosurveillance also was performed among 50 sewage workers to determine the baseline MAT titer. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis and logistic regression. Results: Thirty-two patients (18.4% developed the eye disease during follow-up. The mean age was 43.9 years and the sex ratio was equal. Twenty-one patients (65.6% had anterior uveitis. Only six patients (18.8% had visual symptoms. Median duration for developing anterior uveitis was 4 weeks. Recurrent uveitis was not seen following treatment. None had vision-threatening eye disease. Clinical and laboratory abnormalities during the acute phase did not pose risk for development of the eye disease later. Forty-six sewage workers (92% showed a MAT titer of 1/25. Conclusions: Uveitis is common following acute leptospirosis. Antibiotic-treated patients during the acute phase of illness developed only mild uveitis.

  12. De novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation: source of disease, incidence, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabia, R; Levy, M F; Crippin, J; Tillery, W; Netto, G J; Aguanno, J; Dysert, P; Goldstein, R M; Husberg, B S; Gonwa, T A; Klintmalm, G B

    1998-03-01

    New-onset hepatitis B (de novo B) after liver transplantation (OLTX) is an emerging concern. The goals of our study were to determine the incidence and pattern of this infection, to attempt determination of risk factors and the role of immunosuppression, and to review its morbidity/mortality. Over a 10-year period, 1078 OLTX were performed in 956 patients at our institution. Eight hundred twenty-six patients had proven negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) before transplantation. Among these, 14 patients (1.7%), 8 women and 6 men, ages 21-59 years (median, 42 years), developed positive HBsAg after transplantation and were defined as de novo B. In 10 of 14 patients (71%), positive HBsAg was revealed during routine annual visits, whereas 4 patients had titer verification prompted by illness. Blood product use (cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, and packed red blood cells) during the transplant hospitalization was similar between groups. Pretransplant hepatitis C infection was more prevalent among the 14 patients with de-novo B (7 of 14, 50% v 129 of 812, 16%; P infected patients is 24 (5-51) months. Twelve of these 14 de novo B patients were not clinically ill, with normal or near-normal transaminase levels. One of 14 has died from complications related to hepatic artery revascularization, and another is well after repeat OLTX for biliary strictures. Half of these de novo B patients remain free from viral antigens in their transplanted liver tissue. The high percentage of positive hepatitis C patients who acquire de novo B may indicate a link between these two viral infections and potential risk factor for de novo B. The origins of this infection are most likely multifactorial, needing further study. De novo B after liver transplantation is preliminarily associated with little clinical morbidity and mortality.

  13. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal was to clarify if insulin resistance (IR) would predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). BACKGROUND: Although the cause of MetSyn is not well defined, IR has been proposed to be an important cause. Only a small number of population...... Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and we quantified IR by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Prevalence of MetSyn was 21% according to IDF criteria and 16% according to NCEP criteria. Accordingly, we defined IDF-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 21% of the HOMA-IR distribution...

  14. Herpes simplex serious neurological disease in young children: incidence and long-term outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Katherine N.; Ohrling, Anu; Bryant, Naomi J; Bowley, Jennifer S; Ross, Euan M; Verity, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the contribution of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to serious neurological disease. Setting and patients A 3-year prospective survey of children aged 2–23 months in Britain and Ireland. Results 19 children had HSV central nervous system (CNS) infection; 13 aged 2–11 months had focal neuroimaging abnormalities and 11 long-term neurological sequelae. Of six aged 12–35 months, one had abnormal neuroimaging and three long-term neurological sequelae. 17 of the 19 had serious neu...

  15. Non-Dipper Status and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy as Predictors of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    An, Hye Rim; Park, Sungha; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Ryu, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Yong Kyu; Yu, Mina; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kim, Seung Jung; KANG, DUK-HEE; Choi, Kyu Bok

    2011-01-01

    We have hypothesized that non-dipper status and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in non-diabetic hypertensive patients. This study included 102 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography were performed at the beginning of the study, and the serum creatinine levels were followed. During the average follow-up period of 51 months, ...

  16. Incidence of distal femoral and distal tibial deformities in infantile and adolescent blount disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Thomas G; Fishman, Michael K; McCarthy, James J; Davidson, Richard S; Gaughan, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess distal femoral and tibial deformity in patients with infantile and adolescent Blount disease. This was a retrospective review of patients at the authors' institution diagnosed with Blount disease. Thirty-eight patients (21 in the infantile group and 17 in the adolescent group) met the study criteria. Measurements of the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), and tibiofemoral angle (TFA) were made from long-leg radiographs. The results of the infantile and adolescent measurements were compared with each other and to a normal database. Intraobserver and interobserver error was determined. The adolescent aLDFA measurements were significantly greater (more varus) than for the infantile group and normal database. The aLDTA (ankle) measurements were not statistically different between the two groups, or from the normal database. Analysis of both intraobserver and interobserver error for the aLDFA and aLDTA showed good reliability. PMID:15718905

  17. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  18. Association of the Lipoprotein Receptor SCARB1 Common Missense Variant rs4238001 with Incident Coronary Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available Previous studies in mice and humans have implicated the lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 in association with atherosclerosis and lipid levels. In the current study, we sought to examine association of SCARB1 missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4238001 with incident coronary heart disease (CHD.Genotypes for rs4238001 were imputed for 2,319 White, 1,570 African American, and 1,292 Hispanic-American MESA participants using the 1,000 Genomes reference set. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine association of rs4238001 with incident CHD, with adjustments for age, sex, study site, principal components of ancestry, body mass index, diabetes status, serum creatinine, lipid levels, hypertension status, education and smoking exposure. Meta-analysis across race/ethnic groups within MESA showed statistically significant association of the T allele with higher risk of CHD under a consistent and formally adjudicated definition of CHD events in this contemporary cohort study (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49, 95% CI [1.04, 2.14], P = 0.028. Analyses combining MESA with additional population-based cohorts expanded our samples in Whites (total n = 11,957 with 871 CHD events and African Americans (total n = 5,962 with 355 CHD events and confirmed an increased risk of CHD overall (HR of 1.19 with 95% CI [1.04, 1.37], P = 0.013, in African Americans (HR of 1.49 with 95% CI [1.07, 2.06], P = 0.019, in males (HR of 1.29 with 95% CI [1.08, 1.54], P = 4.91 x 10(-3 and in White males (HR of 1.24 with 95% CI [1.03, 1.51], P = 0.026.SCARB1 missense rs4238001 is statistically significantly associated with incident CHD across a large population of multiple race/ethnic groups.

  19. Incidence of gallstone disease in Italy: Results from a multicenter, population-based Italian study (the MICOL project)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Antonio Colecchia; Ada Dormi; Simona Capodicasa; Tommaso Staniscia; Adolfo F Attili; Paola Loria; Paolo Pazzi; Giuseppe Mazzella; Claudia Sama

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate gallstone incidence and risk factors in a large population-based study.METHODS:Gallstone incidence and risk factors,were evaluated by structured questionnaire and physical examination,respectively,in 9611 of 11 109(86.5%)subjects who were gallstone-free at the cross-sectional study.RESULTS:Six centers throughout Italy enrolled 9611 subjects (5477 males,4134 females,aged 3079 years),9517 of whom were included into analysis:424 subjects (4.4%) had gallstones and 61 (0.6%)had been cholecystectomized yielding a cumulative incidence of 0.67% per year (0.66% in males,0.81% in females).Increasing age,a high body mass index (BMI),a history of diabetes,peptic ulcer and angina,and low cholesterol and high triglyceride levels were identified as risk factors in men while,in females,the only risk factors were increasing age and a high BMI.Increasing age and pain in the right hypocondrium in men and increasing age in females were identified as predictors of gallstones.Pain in the epigastrium/right hypocondrium was the only symptom related to gallstones;furthermore,some characteristics of pain(forcing to rest,not relieved by bowel movements)were significantly associated with gallstones.No correlation was found between gallstone characteristics and clinical manifestations,while increasing age in men and increasing age and BMI in females were predictors of pain.CONCLUSION:Increasing age and BMI represent true risk factors for gallstone disease (GD);pain in the right hypocondrium and/or epigastrium is confirmed as the only symptom related to gallstones.

  20. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in HIV-Infected Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Quiros-Roldan

    Full Text Available Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs. To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs. A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males were included (person-years 28768.6. A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02 of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. NLR levels measured at baseline and during follow-up were independently associated with CVD incidence, when also adjusting for both traditional CVD risk factors and HIV-related factors (HR 3.05 for NLR≥ 1.2. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve showed a modest, not statistically significant, increase, from 0.81 to 0.83, with addition of NLR to Framingham risk score model covariates. In conclusion an elevated NLR is a predictor of risk CVD in HIV-infected patients, independently from the traditional CVD risk factors.

  1. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad;

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantitie...

  2. Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Hernandez-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the still unclear effect of the overall alcohol-drinking pattern, beyond the amount of alcohol consumed, on the incidence of cardiovascular clinical disease (CVD. Methods: We followed 14,651 participants during up to 14 years. We built a score assessing simultaneously seven dimensions of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP. It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, preference for wine, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. Results: During 142,177 person-years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality were identified. Compared with the category of better conformity with the MADP, the low-adherence group exhibited a non-significantly higher risk (HR of total CVD ((95% CI = 1.55 (0.58–4.16. This direct association with a departure from the traditional MADP was even stronger for cardiovascular mortality (HR (95% CI = 3.35 (0.77–14.5. Nevertheless, all these associations were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Better conformity with the MADP seemed to be associated with lower cardiovascular risk in most point estimates; however, no significant results were found and more powered studies are needed to clarify the role of the MADP on CVD.

  3. Waist Gain Is Associated with a Higher Incidence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Ko, Byung-Joon; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between changes in waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods A cohort study of 37,130 men and women were followed-up annually or biennially. Differences in WC between baseline and subsequent measurements were categorized in quartiles: first (WC loss), second (no change in WC as the reference), third and highest quartiles (WC gain). The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasound. Parametric Cox modeling was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of NAFLD. Results During 127,324.4 person-years of follow-up, 6249 participants developed NAFLD. Despite adjusting for possible confounders, the risk of development of NAFLD increased with increasing quartiles of WC change in a dose-response manner (p for trend < 0.001). Compared with the reference, WC loss was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD (men: aHR 0.79 [95% CI: 0.73–0.87]; women: 0.72 [0.63–0.81]), and the highest quartile (WC gain) was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD (men: 1.30 [1.19–1.42]; women: 1.48 [1.31–1.67]). Conclusion Waist gain appears to increase the risk of developing NAFLD, independently of the baseline body mass index and WC. PMID:27420035

  4. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    was found for conflicts with partner. High levels of worries/demands from or conflicts with family and friends were associated with a 40% higher risk of IHD. CONCLUSIONS: Negative aspects of close social relations are associated with higher risk of incident IHD hospitalization except for conflicts......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...... National Patient Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse data and all analyses were adjusted for age, gender, social class, cohabitation, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Worries/demands from and conflicts with children were associated with IHD hospitalization in an exposure-dependent manner...

  5. The incidence and clinical burden of respiratory syncytial virus disease identified through hospital outpatient presentations in Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelda A Okiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little information that describe the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV associated disease in the tropical African outpatient setting. METHODS: We studied a systematic sample of children aged <5 years presenting to a rural district hospital in Kenya with acute respiratory infection (ARI between May 2002 and April 2004. We collected clinical data and screened nasal wash samples for RSV antigen by immunofluorescence. We used a linked demographic surveillance system to estimate disease incidence. RESULTS: Among 2143 children tested, 166 (8% were RSV positive (6% among children with upper respiratory tract infection and 12% among children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI. RSV was more likely in LRTI than URTI (p<0.001. 51% of RSV cases were aged 1 year or over. RSV cases represented 3.4% of hospital outpatient presentations. Relative to RSV negative cases, RSV positive cases were more likely to have crackles (RR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.34-1.97, nasal flaring (RR = 2.66; 95% CI 1.40-5.04, in-drawing (RR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.47-3.40, fast breathing for age (RR = 1.34; 95% CI 1.03-1.75 and fever (RR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.33-1.80. The estimated incidence of RSV-ARI and RSV-LRTI, per 100,000 child years, among those aged <5 years was 767 and 283, respectively. CONCLUSION: The burden of childhood RSV-associated URTI and LRTI presenting to outpatients in this setting is considerable. The clinical features of cases associated with an RSV infection were more severe than cases without an RSV diagnosis.

  6. Striking elevation in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a province of western Hungary between 1977-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Mester; Zsuzssnna Erdelyi; Mihaly Balogh; Istvan Szipocs; Gyorgy Kamaras; Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2004-01-01

    AIM: An investigation into inflammatory bowel disease and colorectel cancer in Veszprem Province was conducted from 1977 to 2001.METHODS: Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and reviewed comprehensively. The majority of patients were followed up regularly.RESULTS: The population of the province was decreased from 386 000 to 376 000 during the period. Five hundred sixty new cases of ulcerative colitis (UC), 212 of Crohn's disease (CD), and 40 of indeterminate colitis (IC) were diagnosed. The inddence rates increased from 1.66 to 11.01 cases per 100 000 persons for UC, from 0.41 to 4.68 for CD and from 0,26 to 0.74 for IC. The prevalence rate at the end of 2001 was 142.6 for UC and 52.9 cases per 100 000 persons for CD. The peak onset age in UC patients was between 30 and 40 years, in CD between 20 and 30 years. A family history of IBD was present in 3.4 % in UC and 9.9% in CD patients. Smoking increased the risk for CD (OR=1.94) while it decreased the risk for UC (OR=0.25). Twelve colorectal carcinomas were observed in this cohort, the cumulative colorectal cancer risk after 10 years in UC was 2%, after 20 years 8.8%, after 30 years 13.3%.CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD have increased steadily in Veszprem Province, now equivalent to that in Western European countries. Rapid increase in incidence rates supports a probable role for environmental factors. The rate of colorectal cancers in IBD is similar to that observed in Western countries.

  7. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-06-01

    Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD.We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software.A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24-1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12-3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD.Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  8. [Hypertension in patients with polycystic kidney disease -  incidence, pathogenesis, prognosis, therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesař, V; Reiterová, J

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is common in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) very early usually already in adolescence and its occurrence precedes the decrease of glomerular filtration rate. Expansion of renal cysts causing local renal ischemia and activation of the reninangiotensin system is believed to play a decisive role in its pathogenesis. Hypertension in ADPKD leads to early development of left ventricle hypertrophy and definitely contributes to the progression of chronic renal insufficiency. In ADPKD optimal control of blood pressure dramatically decreases the risk of left ventricle hypertrophy and contributes to its regression, but the beneficial effect of optimal compared to standard blood pressure control on the progression of chronic renal insufficiency has yet to be unequivocally demonstrated. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/ or angiotensin receptor blockers are the drugs of choice in the treatment of hypertension in ADPKD. New drugs blocking the growth of renal cysts (e. g. inhibitors of V2 vasopressin antagonists) may have in ADPKD positive impact not only of the growth of the cysts and kidney volume, but also on the rate of loss of glomerular filtration rate. The influence of these drugs on the control of blood pressure, if any, remains uncertain. PMID:23808746

  9. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget. PMID:26458806

  10. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M; Mooney, Meghan D; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background: timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. Methods: for countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with ...

  11. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M; Mooney, Meghan D; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. METHODS: For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data...

  12. Accumulation of non-traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease is associated with incident coronary heart disease hospitalization and death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M K Wallace

    Full Text Available Assessing multiple traditional risk factors improves prediction for late-life diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD. It appears that non-traditional risk factors can also predict risk. The objective was to investigate contributions of non-traditional risk factors to coronary heart disease risk using a deficit accumulation approach.Community-dwelling adults with no known history of CHD (n = 2195, mean age 46.9±18.7 years, 51.8% women participated in the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey. Three risk factor indices were constructed to quantify the proportion of deficits present in individuals: 1 a 17-item Non-Traditional Risk Factor Index (e.g. sinusitis, arthritis; 2 a 9-item Traditional Risk Factor Index (e.g. hypertension, diabetes; and 3 a frailty index (25 items combined from the other two index measures. Ten-year risks of CHD events (defined as CHD-related hospitalization and CHD-related mortality were evaluated.The Non-Traditional Risk Factor Index, made up of health deficits unrelated to CHD, was independently associated with incident CHD events over 10 years after controlling for age, sex, and the Traditional Risk Factor Index [adjusted {adj.} Hazard Ratio {HR} = 1.31; Confidence Interval {CI} 1.14-1.51]. When all health deficits, both those related and unrelated to CHD, were included in a frailty index the corresponding adjusted hazard ratio was 1.61; CI 1.40-1.85.Both traditional and non-traditional risk factor indices are independently associated with incident CHD events. CHD risk assessment may benefit from consideration of general health information as well as from traditional risk factors.

  13. 石棉相关产品生产过程粉尘危害与控制对策%Dust hazards and control countermeasures in the process of asbestos-related production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇毅; 姜亢; 郭建中; 李琳

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos was widely used as an important mineral resource with its good performance. Due to asbestos dust generated in the production process of asbestos mining and asbestos-related products could cause serious harm to the physical health of the operating personnel, asbestos was included in the list of toxic substances released by Chinas Ministry of Health. In order to effectively control the health hazards of asbestos dust on workers, this paper based on the extensive research of asbestos mining and production enterprises, the characteristics and the job which could produce dust in the processing of asbestos mining and asbestos product producing were identified, typical work which had serious dust hazard were summarized in the in the processing of asbestos mining and asbestos product producing. Combined with our natural environment, production technology and management level and other factors , the reason why asbestos dust had serious harmful effects was analyzed, recommended countermeasures of controlling the occupational hazards of asbestos dust was proposed, in order to give advices of reducing or eliminate the hazards of asbestos-related production.%作为重要的矿产资源,石棉以其良好的性能得到广泛应用.由于石棉开采和石棉相关产品生产过程中产生的石棉粉尘对作业人员身体健康造成严重损害,石棉被列入我国卫生部发布的高毒物品名录.为有效控制石棉粉尘对作业人员的健康危害,在对我国石棉矿山和相关产品生产企业广泛调研基础上,辨识了石棉矿山开采、石棉制品生产过程存在粉尘危害的作业及特点,分析归纳石棉生产加工典型工序的粉尘危害因素.结合我国自然环境、生产技术和管理水平等因素,研究了我国石棉粉尘危害严重的原因,并提出控制石棉尘粉尘职业危害的建议对策,以期为达到降低或消除石棉相关产品生产企业石棉粉尘危害提供参考.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Catassi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years. By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT, we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years and parents (children younger than 8 years were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life. Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment.

  15. Occupational diseases in Poland — An overview of current trends

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    Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of occupational diseases (OD recorded in Poland in the 1990's rapidly increased, and the numer of recognized cases has steadily decreased until now. Hence, it was decided to demonstrate the trends of selected pathologies which in Poland are "underestimated" in comparison to other countries. The presented data may constitute a basis for further research into the dependence of OD on socio-economic factors. Materials and Methods: Occupational Disease Reporting Forms, completed and sent obligatorily by the state health inspectors to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases were used as source documents for analysis. This work analyzes changes in the incidence of chronic poisonings, asbestosis, voice organ diseases, cancers, viral hepatitis, asthma and the musculoskeletal disorders over the years 1998-2011. Results: In 1998, the total number of registered diseases reached the maximum - 12,017 cases, which fell in the subsequent years to 2,562 cases in 2011. During that period, the incidence rate decreased by 6 cases per year per 100,000 employees. A considerable decrease, exceeding 90% of cases, was observed in voice organ disorders, hearing loss, chronic poisonings and viral hepatitis. The abovementioned changes, as well as improved detection of asbestos-related diseases through implementing a medical examination program of former asbestos processing plant workers, are advantages of the current situation in the epidemiology of OD. However, the disadvantages include underestimation, in comparison to other countries, of asthma, cancer and pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Conclusion: The reported data indicates the need to assess the occupational fraction of the underestimated pathologies present in the work environment in Poland, as well as the need for studies aimed at clarifying the effect of systemic factors on identifying their occupational background.

  16. Cancer incidence among alcoholic liver disease patients in Finland: A retrospective registry study during years 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Färkkilä, Martti

    2016-06-01

    Both alcohol abuse and liver cirrhosis are known risk factors for various cancers. This article was aimed to assess the long-term risk of malignancies among patients with severe alcoholic liver disease (ALD), i.e., alcoholic liver cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. A cohort of 8,796 male and 3,077 female ALD patients from 1996 to 2012 was identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. This nationwide cohort was combined with the data from the Finnish Cancer Registry for incidence of malignancies during the years 1996-2013. The cancer cases diagnosed were compared with the number of cancers in the general population. The number of malignancies in our cohort was 1,052 vs. 368 expected. There was statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver, (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 59.20; 95% CI 53.11-65.61), pancreas (SIR 3.71; 95% CI 2.72-4.94), pharynx (SIR 9.25; 95% CI 6.05-13.56), mouth (SIR 8.31; 95% CI 4.84-13,29), oesophagus (SIR 7.92; 95% CI 5.49-11.07), tongue (SIR 7,21; 95% CI 3.60-12.89), larynx (SIR 5.20; 95% CI 2.77-8.89), lung (SIR 2.77; 95% CI 2.27-3.32), stomach (SIR 2.76; 95% CI 1.79-4.07), kidney (SIR 2.69; 95% CI 1.84-3.79) and colon (SIR 2.33; 95% CI 1.70-3.11). There was no decreased risk of any cancer among ALD patients. Severe ALD is associated with markedly increased risk of malignancies. The risk is especially high for hepatocellular carcinoma, but also significantly increased for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, pancreas and kidneys, and warrants cancer surveillance in selected cases. PMID:26756434

  17. Colorado IDDM Registry: lower incidence of IDDM in Hispanics. Comparison of disease characteristics and care patterns in biethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, E C; Hamman, R F; Carosone-Link, P J; Lezotte, D C; Cook, M; Stroheker, R; Klingensmith, G; Chase, H P

    1989-01-01

    The Colorado IDDM Registry identifies newly diagnosed cases of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) throughout the state. Hispanics in Colorado are a racial mixture of American Indian and White populations. Because American Indians have a low risk of IDDM, and differing frequencies of HLA antigens and haplotypes are reported for Hispanics and non-Hispanics, we compared incidence rates and disease characteristics. Eligible participants were less than 18 yr of age and Colorado residents at time of diagnosis, diagnosed between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1983, and on insulin within 2 wk of diagnosis. Subjects were reported by their physicians, and statewide validation of reporting was conducted through review of hospital discharge indexes. Incidence rates for Hispanics (n = 76) were significantly lower than those for non-Hispanics (n = 628), although 95% confidence intervals overlapped for children aged 10-17 yr. Age-adjusted rates were significantly lower in Hispanic than non-Hispanic males, whereas age-adjusted rates for females did not differ. The cumulative risk of IDDM was less for Hispanic males aged 0-17 yr than for non-Hispanic males (P less than .001); cumulative risk among females was males (P less than .001); cumulative risk among females was not different (P = .10). Clinical onset characteristics and medical care at diagnosis were similar. After diagnosis, hospitalizations per 100 person-yr appeared higher in Hispanics, but ketoacidosis and insulin reactions per 100 person-yr were similar. Difference in rate of hospitalizations may have been due to lower response rates among older non-Hispanics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2612305

  18. Dairy products and its association with incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Wallström, Peter; Gullberg, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Hedblad, Bo

    2011-08-01

    It is unclear whether specific dairy products are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this project was therefore to examine the association between intake of milk, cheese, cream and butter, and incidence of CVD in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Milk was separated into fermented (yoghurt and cultured sour milk) versus non-fermented milk, and low-fat versus high-fat milk. Among 26,445 individuals without a history of myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes (44-74 years; 62% females), 2,520 CVD cases (coronary and stroke events) were identified during a mean follow-up time of 12 years. Dietary data was collected using a modified diet history method. Overall consumption of dairy products was inversely associated with risk of CVD (P (trend) = 0.05). Among the specific dairy products, a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed only for fermented milk. The highest versus lowest intake category of fermented milk was associated with 15% (95% CI: 5-24%; P (trend) = 0.003) decreased incidence of CVD. We observed a statistically significant interaction between sex and cheese intake (P = 0.046). Cheese intake was significantly associated with decreased CVD risk in women (P (trend) = 0.03), but not in men (P (trend) = 0.98). The main finding was that a high intake of fermented milk may reduce the risk of CVD. This study suggests that it is important to examine dairy products separately when investigating their health effects. PMID:21660519

  19. Incidence and prognostic value of eosinophilia in chronic graft-versus-host disease after nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Chagnon, Miguel; Busque, Lambert; Cohen, Sandra; Kiss, Thomas; Lachance, Silvy; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sauvageau, Guy; Roy, Jean

    2011-11-01

    Data from a number of cohorts indicate that eosinophilia (Eo) could be associated with better outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). However, little is known about its significance and prognostic value in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after nonmyeloablative (NMA) transplantation. Data were collected from 170 patients who underwent HCT using the same preparative regimen and GVHD prophylaxis. Donors were 6/6 HLA-matched siblings and stem cell source was peripheral blood. An eosinophil count of ≥0.5 × 10(9)/L was defined as Eo. Patients were transplanted mainly for lymphoproliferative disorders. Median age and follow-up were 54 years and 58 months, respectively. Incidents of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and cGVHD were 8.2% and 81.2%. Median time from HCT to cGVHD diagnosis was 142 days. Organs involved were: mouth in 80% of patients, skin in 75%, liver in 57%, eyes in 37%, gut in 14%, lungs in 5%, others in 5%. Eo was found in 44% of patients at diagnosis of cGVHD (range: 0.5-4.4 × 10(9)/L). Median time between first appearance of Eo and diagnosis of cGVHD was 4.5 days. We found no correlation between organ involvement and Eo but a lower prevalence of Eo in cGVHD associated with thrombocytopenia (P = .023). Nevertheless, we observed no association among Eo and overall survival (OS), relapse incidence, or nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in the overall cohort, nor in subsets of patients with multiple myeloma and follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although Eo is observed frequently in cGVHD following NMA transplantation, we report no correlation beween Eo and outcome. PMID:21601640

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehghan

    Full Text Available Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS for incident coronary heart disease (CHD. Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting.We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases. SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10-6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up.In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10-6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10-3 and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10-9. Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049 was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02 and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08. Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10-3.QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders.

  1. Application of a Novel Grey Self-Memory Coupling Model to Forecast the Incidence Rates of Two Notifiable Diseases in China: Dysentery and Gonorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaojun; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Lifeng; Tang, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea); the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. Methods The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1) model and the GM(1,1) model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1) model) were used to predict the incidence rates of...

  2. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  3. Higher incidence of death in multi-vessel coronary artery disease patients associated with polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioli-Pereira Luciana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether 9p21 polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular events in a group of 611 patients enrolled in the Medical, Angioplasty or Surgery Study II (MASS II, a randomized trial comparing treatments for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and preserved left ventricular function. Methods The participants of the MASS II were genotyped for 9p21 polymorphisms (rs10757274, rs2383206, rs10757278 and rs1333049. Survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank statistic. We assessed the relationship between baseline variables and the composite end-point of death, death from cardiac causes and myocardial infarction using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. Results We observed significant differences between patients within each polymorphism genotype group for baseline characteristics. The frequency of diabetes was lower in patients carrying GG genotype for rs10757274, rs2383206 and rs10757278 (29.4%, 32.8%, 32.0% compared to patients carrying AA or AG genotypes (49.1% and 39.2%, p = 0.01; 52.4% and 40.1%, p = 0.01; 47.8% and 37.9%, p = 0.04; respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies between double and triple vessel disease patients were observed for the rs10757274, rs10757278 and rs1333049. Finally, there was a higher incidence of overall mortality in patients with the GG genotype for rs2383206 compared to patients with AA and AG genotypes (19.5%, 11.9%, 11.0%, respectively; p = 0.04. Moreover, the rs2383206 was still significantly associated with a 1.75-fold increased risk of overall mortality (p = 0.02 even after adjustment of a Cox multivariate model for age, previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, smoking and type of coronary anatomy. Conclusions Our data are in accordance to previous evidence that chromosome 9p21 genetic variation may constitute a genetic modulator in the cardiovascular system in different

  4. Neighborhood socioeconomic environment and incidence of coronary heart disease: a follow-up study of 25,319 women and men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn; Ahlén, Helena; Johansson, Sven-Erik

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicted incident coronary heart disease after adjustment for individual-level characteristics. A random sample of the Swedish population (25,319 women and men aged 35-74 years) was interviewed between 1986 and 1993 and was followed through December 1997 for incident coronary heart disease (1,189 events). Neighborhood socioeconomic environment was defined by small-area market statistics (6,145 neighborhoods) and measured by two indicators: neighborhood education (proportion of people with less than 10 years of education in the neighborhood) and neighborhood income (proportion of people with incomes in the lowest national income quartile). Separate multilevel Cox proportional hazards models showed that low neighborhood education and low neighborhood income each predicted incident coronary heart disease after adjustment for age, sex, and individual-level education and income (hazard ratios were 1.25 and 1.23, respectively). The authors conclude that neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicts incident coronary heart disease, having a significant effect on coronary heart disease risk beyond the individual effect. PMID:15033643

  5. Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort study (CKDCS: A prospective observational study of incident hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opgenorth Dawn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients, large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple potential research questions. Preliminary Results Data on the baseline characteristics from the first 1074 subjects showed that the average age of patients was 62 (range; 50-73 years. The leading cause of ESRD was diabetic nephropathy (41.9%, and the majority of the patients were white (80.0%. Only 18.7% of the subjects received dialysis in a satellite unit, and over 80% lived within a 50 km radius of the nearest nephrologist's practice. Discussion The prospective design, detailed clinical information, and stored biological specimens provide a wealth of information with potential to greatly enhance our understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. The scientific value of the stored patient tissue will grow as new genetic and biochemical markers are discovered in the future.

  6. EFFECT OF SHADING ON INCIDENCE OF BLACK ROT DISEASE AND YIELD QUALITY OF BROCCOLI IN HUMID TROPICAL REGIONS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental location of Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, from April to June, 2012. Split-plot in randomized complete block design was used in this experiment with four replications. The broccoli plants under the shading had the lowest incidence of black rot disease (14.48% which was significantly lower than the full sunlight (76.91%. There was a positive impact of the shading on yield quality of the broccoli. The Yok Kheo had the highest head length and diameter (39.13 cm and 12.11 cm, respectively when planting under the shading. These results consistent with broccoli total yield, the highest total yield was obtained from the Yok Kheo under the both shading and full sunlight (10.92 t.ha-1 and 8.29 t.ha-1, respectively, followed by the Green Queen under the shading (6.21 t.ha-1. Therefore, the appropriate variety for planting during dry season in humid tropical regions of Thailand was the Yok Kheo and Green Queen because its total yield per hectare was higher than of the Top Green and they also had higher quality of head.

  7. Association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D, incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J-B; Abnet, C. C.; Chen, W.; Dawsey, S M; Fan, J-H; Yin, L-Y; Yin, J.; Major, J M; Taylor, P R; Qiao, Y-L; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although vitamin D deficiency has been noted in cross-sectional studies of chronic liver disease and laboratory studies suggest possible benefits of vitamin D in preventing liver cancer, little epidemiologic data are available. Methods: We performed a nested case–control study in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials on participants developing incident liver cancer or dying from chronic liver disease over 22 years of follow-up. Baseline serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured for ...

  8. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known corona...

  9. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  10. [Analysis of morbidity and testing of trends for qualitatively variable incidence of occupational diseases induced by industrial dust in selected workplaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenda, A

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of occupational diseases induced by industrial dust (items 2-4 on the Polish list of occupational diseases) during the years 1970-89. The data were obtained from the Section of Work Hygiene of the former Sanitary and Epidemiological Station in Zielona Góra. In the population of workers under study, the incidence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) (items 3 and 4 on the Polish list of occupational diseases) was higher as compared with pneumoconiosis in terms of both the number of cases and the number of plants where they were observed. In case of pneumoconiosis, welding smoke and foundry dust were found to be etiologic factors responsible for its incidence, and organic dusts of plant and plastic origin together with industrial dust induced CRD. First cases of CRD were observed in the exposure interval of 6-10 years, and pneumoconiosis already in the interval of 0-5 years. The intensified incidence of both pneumoconiosis and CRD was observed after 11-25 years of occupational exposure. An upward trend in the incidence of pneumoconioses determined by the concentration of industrial dusts and the duration of exposure was found in one plant, and of CRD determined by the same factors in two plants under study.

  11. Misclassification of incident conditions using claims data: impact of varying the period used to exclude pre-existing disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, RI; O'Malley, CD; Herbert, RJ; Danese, MD

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating the incidence of medical conditions using claims data often requires constructing a prevalence period that predates an event of interest, for instance the diagnosis of cancer, to exclude those with pre-existing conditions from the incidence risk set. Those conditions missed during the prevalence period may be misclassified as incident conditions (false positives) after the event of interest.Using Medicare claims, we examined the impact of selecting shorter versus longer...

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dicker, Daniel; Duan, Leilei; Erskine, Holly; Feigin, Valery L.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Heuton, Kyle R.; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe; Laurie, Evan; Liang, Xiofeng; Lofgren, Katherine; Lozano, Rafael; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Odell, Shaun; Ortblad, Katrina; Roberts, David Allen; Roth, Gregory A.; Sandar, Logan; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Thomas, Bernadette; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey; Wolock, Timothy M.; Ye, Pengpeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Avila, Marco A.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Josef C.; Arnlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Anderson, H. Ross; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Arsenijevic, Valentain S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Basu, Arindam; Baxter, Amanda; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Cardenas, Rosario; Cabral, Norberto L.; Nonato, Ismael R. Campos; Campuzano, Julio C.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coggeshall, Megan; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Leslie T.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Coresh, Josef; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Dansereau, Emily; Dantes, Hector G.; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; de Veber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. R.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duber, Herbert; Durrani, Adnan M.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferri, Cluesa P.; Flaxman, Abraham; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Howard; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huang, Cheng; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Katz, Ronit; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A. H.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kramer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Lim, Stephen; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lind, Margaret; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Low, Nicola; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn M.; Margono, Chris; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard G.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGill, Neil W.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abby; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Moore, Ami R.; Moran, Andrew E.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Paria; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newman, Lori M.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nhung, Nguyen T.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortiz, Alberto; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, David; Phillips, Bryan; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima; Quistberg, D. A.; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Refaat, Amany; Rehm, Jurgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Riederer, Anne M.; Robinson, Margot; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Ksoreide, Kjetil; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Speyer, Peter; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stoeckl, Heidi; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Murray B.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stewart, Andrea; Stork, Eden; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tan, Feng; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Theadom, Alice M.; Thomas, Elissa; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; van Brakel, Wim H.; de Vijver, Steven van; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Linhong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Wong, Haidong; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yentur, Gokalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Kim, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhao, Yong; Zhu, Jun; Zonies, David; Zunt, Joseph R.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities f

  13. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, T.; Barber, R.M.; Bell, B.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities f

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Pujades-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available While rheumatoid arthritis is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, our knowledge of how the pattern of risk varies for different cardiovascular phenotypes is incomplete. The association between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were examined in a contemporary population of men and women of a wide age range.CALIBER data, which links primary care, hospital and mortality data in England, was analysed. A cohort of people aged ≥18 years and without history of CVD was assembled and included all patients with prospectively recorded rheumatoid arthritis from January 1997, until March 2010, matched with up to ten people without rheumatoid arthritis by age, sex and general practice. The associations between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were estimated using multivariable random effects Poisson regression models.The analysis included 12,120 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 121,191 comparators. Of these, 2,525 patients with and 18,146 without rheumatoid arthritis developed CVDs during a median of 4.2 years of follow-up. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted incidence ratio [IRR] = 1.43, 95%CI 1.21-1.70, unheralded coronary death (IRR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.18-2.18, heart failure (IRR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.43-1.83, cardiac arrest (HR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.69-3.02 and peripheral arterial disease (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.14-1.62; and lower rates of stable angina (HR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.73-0.95. There was no evidence of association with cerebrovascular diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm or unstable angina, or of interactions with sex or age.The observed associations with some but not all types of CVDs inform both clinical practice and the selection of cardiovascular endpoints for trials and for the development of prognostic models for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Serum urate gene associations with incident gout, measured in the Framingham Heart Study, are modified by renal disease and not by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J; Vazquez, Ana I; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Klimentidis, Yann C; Bridges, S Louis; Allison, David B; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that serum urate-associated SNPs, individually or collectively, interact with BMI and renal disease to contribute to risk of incident gout. We measured the incidence of gout and associated comorbidities using the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. We used direct and imputed genotypes for eight validated serum urate loci. We fit binomial regression models of gout incidence as a function of the covariates, age, type 2 diabetes, sex, and all main and interaction effects of the eight serum urate SNPs with BMI and renal disease. Models were also fit with a genetic risk score for serum urate levels which corresponds to the sum of risk alleles at the eight SNPs. Model covariates, age (P = 5.95E-06), sex (P = 2.46E-39), diabetes (P = 2.34E-07), BMI (P = 1.14E-11) and the SNPs, rs1967017 (P = 9.54E-03), rs13129697 (P = 4.34E-07), rs2199936 (P = 7.28E-03) and rs675209 (P = 4.84E-02) were all associated with incident gout. No BMI by SNP or BMI by serum urate genetic risk score interactions were statistically significant, but renal disease by rs1106766 was statistically significant (P = 6.12E-03). We demonstrated that minor alleles of rs1106766 (intergenic, INHBC) were negatively associated with the risk of incident gout in subjects without renal disease, but not for individuals with renal disease. These analyses demonstrate that a significant component of the risk of gout may involve complex interplay between genes and environment. PMID:26427508

  16. Incidence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in Asia, Africa and South America; combining expert opinion, official disease information and livestock populations to assist risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumption, K; Rweyemamu, M; Wint, W

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment procedures frequently require quantitative data on the prevalence of the disease in question. Although most countries are members of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the importance attached to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) reporting or surveillance for infection varies enormously between infected countries. There is a general consensus that FMD outbreaks in endemic countries are greatly under-reported, to a degree related either to the economic or the political development level of the country. This exploratory study was first undertaken by FAO, but thereafter extended and reviewed by the working group on FMD risk co-ordinated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The paper attempts to overcome the lack of reporting through using expert opinion to extrapolate incidence indices from countries considered to have 'representative' levels of FMD. These were combined with livestock density distributions to provide maps of prevalence indices, which were found to be highest in China (pigs), India (cattle), the Near East (small ruminants) and the Sahel (small ruminants and cattle). Similar patterns were found when weighted expert rankings of a range of additional ranked disease parameters were also produced, and then combined with susceptible animal densities to produce a weighted multi-species density. Results suggest that the methods can provide useful information at both national and sub-national resolution, even for countries for which quantitative FMD data is currently unavailable: two of the regions identified provide little or no data on a regular basis to the OIE and therefore may be overlooked if the level of officially reported FMD is only used. As the estimated prevalences are based on recent disease history and expert opinion, they are most likely to be inaccurate where FMD incursions are infrequent as a result of the preventive measures and geographical and trade isolation. This study, therefore, highlights the need for

  17. The Faroese IBD study – Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases across 54 years of population-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Nielsen, KR; Munkholm, Pia;

    2016-01-01

    [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. METHODS: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed...

  18. Incidence and predictors of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who achieved sustained virological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, S; Prosperi, M; Costarelli, S; Nasta, P; Maggiolo, F; Di Giambenedetto, S; Saracino, A; Di Pietro, M; Gori, A

    2016-09-01

    Data on the effects of sustained virologic response (SVR) to hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy on the outcome of extrahepatic complications are scarce. We conducted this study to assess the impact of SVR on the occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We analyzed coinfected HIV/HCV patients in the Management of Standardized Evaluation of Retroviral HIV Infection (MASTER) cohort. Only event-free patients with a serum HCV-RNA determination at baseline were included. Patients were divided into four groups: INF-exposed with SVR; INF-exposed without SVR; spontaneous HCV clearance; untreated viremic patients. We estimated the incidence of extrahepatic complications and employed Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression to assess the association of SVR/INF strata adjusted for a series of confounders. Data from 1676 patients were analyzed (20.29 % started an INF-based regimen). Overall, the incidence of CKD, DM, CVD, and death was 5.32 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.99-6.98], 10.13 (95 % CI 8.20-12.37), 6.79 (95 % CI 5.26-8.65), and 13.49 (95 % CI 11.29-16.0) per 1000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. In the Cox model for treated patients, SVR was not associated with a lower risk of CKD, DM, CVD, and death compared to non-SVR. Cirrhosis was significantly associated with a higher risk of CKD [hazard ratio (HR) 2.13; 95 % CI 1.06-4.31], DM (HR 3.48; 95 % CI 2.18-5.57), and death (HR 6.18; 95 % CI 4.1-9.31), but not of CVD (HR 1.14; 95 % CI 0.57-2.3). There are still many unknowns regarding the impact of SVR on the occurrence of extrahepatic complications in coinfected HIV/HCV patients. Further investigations are needed in order to elucidate the role of SVR as an independent prognostic factor for extrahepatic events. PMID:27272121

  19. AGE-DEPENDENT ASPECTS OF ACUTE CORONARY HEART DISEASE INCIDENCE RATE AND MORTALITY IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study gender and age characteristics of incidence rate, mortality and lethality in acute coronary heart disease (ACHD.Material and Methods. Analysis of the ACHD (ICD-10 codes: I21.0-I22.9, I20.0, I24 morbidity, mortality and lethality, depending on sex and age was performed in the population (n=285 736; 46% men of several city administrative districts of Voronezh, Ryazan and Khanty-Mansiysk. Morbidity, mortality and lethality were calculated on the basis of medical documentation as well as cases identified by the study protocol.Results. The ACHD morbidity and mortality in men were 1.99 and 1.79 times higher (p<0,001, respectively, than these in women. The studied parameters increase with age, reaching a maximum in 50-59 y.o., have a plateau in 60-79 y.o. and then they decrease. Morbidity and mortality in women increase with age, but reach a maximum in 70-79 y.o., being comparable with the male level, and then exceed it in ≥80 y.o. Age curve of lethality in men has J-alike shape with minimum in patients of 50-79 y.o. Women have a line age curve with minimum in patients of <50 y.o.Conclusion. The population of ACHD patients should be considered according to both the sex and age: <50, 50-79 and ≥80 y.o. Every of these population group has special epidemiological characteristics.

  20. Incidence of Treatment for End-Stage Renal Disease Among Individuals With Diabetes in the U.S. Continues to Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Nilka Ríos; Li, Yanfeng; Geiss, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined trends in incidence of treatment for diabetes-related end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using the U.S. Renal Data System, we obtained the number of individuals having diabetes listed as primary diagnosis who initiated ESRD treatment between 1990 and 2006. Incidence was calculated using the estimated U.S. population with diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey and then was age adjusted based on the 2000 U.S. standard populat...

  1. Prospective Analysis of Traffic Exposure as a Risk Factor for Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Haidong; Heiss, Gerardo; Rose, Kathryn M; Whitsel, Eric A.; Lurmann, Fred; Stephanie J. London

    2008-01-01

    Background For people living close to busy roads, traffic is a major source of air pollution. Few prospective data have been published on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objectives In this article, we examined the association between long-term traffic exposure and incidence of fatal and nonfatal CHD in a population-based prospective cohort study. Methods We studied 13,309 middle-age men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Com...

  2. Drug-Gene Interactions of Antihypertensive Medications and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease: A Pharmacogenomics Study from the CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Bis

    antihypertensive therapy meta-analyses (Pinteraction > 5.0×10-8. Similarly, findings were null for meta-analyses restricted to 66 SNPs with significant main effects on coronary artery disease or blood pressure from large published genome-wide association studies (Pinteraction ≥ 0.01. Our results suggest that there are no major pharmacogenetic influences of common SNPs on the relationship between blood pressure medications and the risk of incident CVD.

  3. The pathogen- and incidence-based DALY approach: An appropriated methodology for estimating the burden of infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.J. Mangen; D. Plass (Dietrich); A.H. Havelaar (Arie); R.J. Gibbons (Richard J.); A. Cassini (Alessandro); V. Mühlberger; R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); M. van den Brooke; T. Lai (Taavi); C. de Waure (Chiara); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the 'Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)' project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disa

  4. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Increasing incidence, decreasing surgery rate, and compromised nutritional status: A prospective population-based cohort study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from...... the two cohorts from Eastern Denmark we found higher incidence rates for IBD (5.0 and 7.2 in 1998–2000 and 2007–2009, respectively, P = 0.02) and CD (2.3 versus 3.3, P = 0.04). Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in surgery rates (15.8/100 person-years versus 4.2, P = 0.02) and an increase...... pediatric population. Conclusions: Over the past 12 years we found an increase in the incidence of IBD in children, an increasing use of IM, and decreasing 1-year surgery rates. CD patients had poor nutritional status....

  5. Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year coronary heart disease incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M Oude Griep

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. Therefore, we quantified the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with 10-year CHD incidence in a population-based study in the Netherlands and the effect of processing on these associations. METHODS: Prospective population-based cohort study, including 20,069 men and women aged 20 to 65 years, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Diet was assessed using a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated for CHD incidence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 10.5y, 245 incident cases of CHD were documented, which comprised 211 non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions and 34 fatal CHD events. The risk of CHD incidence was 34% lower for participants with a high intake of total fruit and vegetables (>475 g/d; HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45-0.99 compared to participants with a low total fruit and vegetable consumption (≤241 g/d. Intake of raw fruit and vegetables (>262 g/d vs ≤92 g/d; HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.47-1.04 as well as processed fruit and vegetables (>234 g/d vs ≤113 g/d; HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.54-1.16 were inversely related with CHD incidence. CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables, whether consumed raw or processed, may protect against CHD incidence.

  6. Incidence, risk factors and clinical epidemiology of melioidosis: a complex socio-ecological emerging infectious disease in the Alor Setar region of Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Natesan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melioidosis, a severe and fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is believed to an emerging global threat. However, data on the natural history, risk factors, and geographic epidemiology of the disease are still limited. Methods We undertook a retrospective analysis of 145 confirmed cases extracted from a hospital-based Melioidosis Registry set up from 2005 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah state, Malaysia, in order to provide a first description of the contemporary incidence, risk factors, and clinical epidemiology of the disease in this putatively high risk region of the country. Results The incidence of melioidosis in Alor Setar is remarkably high at 16.35 per 100,000 population per year. The mean age of patients was 50.40 years, with infection varying nonlinearly with age. Males (75.2%; P 2 = 30.57, P Conclusions Melioidosis represents a complex socio-ecological public health problem in Kedah, being strongly related with age, occupation, rainfall and predisposing chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Among cases, bacteremic patients were associated with significantly high mortality despite provision of the recommended antibacterial therapy. The burden of this disease is likely to grow in this region unless better informed interventions targeted at high-risk groups and associated diseases are urgently implemented.

  7. Malignant mesothelioma: global incidence and relationship with asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2007-06-01

    Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The highest annual crude incidence rates (about 30 cases per million) are observed in Australia, Belgium, and Great Britain. A lot of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos. The hot areas for mesothelioma exactly correspond to the sites of industries with high asbestos use, such as shipbuilding and asbestos-cement industry. However, in many countries with high asbestos consumption, mesothelioma incidence is low. The reasons for this fact are not clear. The latency periods elapsing between first exposure to asbestos and development of mesothelioma are mostly longer than 40 yr. An inverse relationship exists between intensity of asbestos exposure and length of the latency period. Mesothelioma generally develops after long-time exposures to asbestos. Some recent studies show that the risk increases with the duration of exposure. Possible co-factors in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related mesothelioma include genetic predisposition, diets poor in fruit and vegetables, viruses, immune impairment, recurrent serosal inflammation. The study of co-morbidity in mesothelioma could give an insight into the pathogenesis of the tumor. While a levelling-off in mesothelioma incidence has been registered in some countries, a worsening of the epidemic is predictable in large parts of the world. PMID:17634686

  8. The effect of alpha+-thalassaemia on the incidence of malaria and other diseases in children living on the coast of Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Sammy Wambua; Tabitha W Mwangi; Moses Kortok; Sophie M. Uyoga; Macharia, Alex W.; Mwacharo, Jedidah K.; Weatherall, David J.; Snow, Robert W.; Kevin Marsh; Williams, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alpha-thalassaemias are the commonest genetic disorders of humans. It is generally believed that this high frequency reflects selection through a survival advantage against death from malaria; nevertheless, the epidemiological description of the relationships between alpha-thalassaemia, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality remains incomplete. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the alpha+-thalassaemia-specific incidence of malaria and other common childhood disease...

  9. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Yannis Skoumas; Yannis Lentzas; Christodoulos Stefanadis

    2008-01-01

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years), free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examin...

  10. Copeptin and risk of incident stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes: The British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S. Goya; Welsh, Paul; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Whincup, Peter; Sattar, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between copeptin (a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin) and incident stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes. Research design and methods: A prospective study of 3536 men aged 60-79 years followed up for an average 13 years during which there were 437 major CHD events [fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)], 323 stroke events (fatal and non-fatal) and 497 CVD deaths. Pre...

  11. Clinical characteristics and the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease and malignant tumor in primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蜜蜜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical pathologic characteristics of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome (PBC-AIH OS) ,the incidence of extrahepatic autoimmune disease,malignant tumor and the abdominal lymph node enlargement.Methods From January 2000 to January 2012,the clinical data of 49 patients with PBC-AIH OS were retrospectively analyzed,which included general information,clinical manifestations,biochemical parameters,immu-

  12. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  13. Investigating the spatial variability in incidence of coronary heart disease in the Gazel cohort: the impact of area socioeconomic position and mediating role of risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...

  14. Environmentally Related Diseases and the Possibility of Valuation of Their Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Hajok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer was estimated in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers during the removal of asbestos-cement products and the possibility of the valuation of the social costs related to this risk. The prediction of the new incidences was made using linear regression model. The forecast shows that to the end of 2030 about 3,500 new cases of lung cancer can be expected as a result of occupational exposure to asbestos in the past which makes together with paraoccupational exposure about 14.000 new cases. The forecast shows the increasing number of asbestos-related lung cancer in Poland and indicates the priority areas where preventive action should be implemented.

  15. Environmentally related diseases and the possibility of valuation of their social costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajok, Ilona; Marchwińska, Ewa; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Kuraszewska, Bernadeta; Piekut, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer was estimated in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers during the removal of asbestos-cement products and the possibility of the valuation of the social costs related to this risk. The prediction of the new incidences was made using linear regression model. The forecast shows that to the end of 2030 about 3,500 new cases of lung cancer can be expected as a result of occupational exposure to asbestos in the past which makes together with paraoccupational exposure about 14.000 new cases. The forecast shows the increasing number of asbestos-related lung cancer in Poland and indicates the priority areas where preventive action should be implemented. PMID:25374934

  16. Hemorrhagic cystitis following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: incidence, risk factors and association with CMV reactivation and graft-versus-host disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lan-ping; ZHANG Yao-chen; LU Dao-pei; ZHANG Hong-yu; HUANG Xiao-jun; LIU Kai-yan; LIU Dai-hong; HAN Wei; CHEN Huan; CHEN Yu-hong; GAO Zhi-yong

    2007-01-01

    Background The definite pathogenesis of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has not been well elucidated. The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the development of HC remains obscure. This study determined the incidence and risk factors for HC after allo-HSCT and analyzed its association with CMV reactivation and GVHD. Methods We retrospectively studied 250 patients at high risk for CMV disease who underwent allo-HSCT all based on busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BU/CY) myloablative regimens. The incidence, etiology, risk factors and clinical management of HC were investigated.Results HC developed within 180 days of transplant in 72 patients, with an overall incidence of 28.8% and an incidence of 12.6% in patients with HLA-matched related donors (MRD), 34.38% in those with HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD), 49.45% in those with mismatched related donors (MMRD). CMV-viremia significantly increased the incidence of later onset HC (LOHC); however, only 9 out of 15 patients with CMV viruria actually developed LOHC. Multiple regression analysis identified grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute GVHD (RR=2.75; 95% CI 1.63-4.66; P<0.01) and grafts from MUD or MMRD (RR=2.60; 95% CI 1.52-5.20; P<0.01) as independent risk factors for HC. Event sequence analysis indicated a majority of HC episodes began around GVHD initiation.Conclusions CMV-viremia is a high risk factor for LOHC. Our data also showed a correlation between acute GVHD and HC, which suggested that alloimmunity may be involved in the pathogenesis of HC.

  17. Analysis of Incidence of Oral Disease in University Population%高校人群口腔疾病的发病率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福娴

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the oral health of university population and the incidence and characteristics of common oral diseases,therefore provide oral health care more efficiently,the common oral disease’s distribution and incidence have been obtained by collection of oral disease information.Method:1060 patients who came to community Hospital of Renmin University of China had been examinated for 20 months from 2012 to 2013.The incidence and distribution of common oral diseased was documented and analyzed in accordance with diseases and ages.Statistic analysis was also given.Result:The periodontitis,dental caries,endodontic disease,wedge-shaped defect and dentition defect rank top reasons for seeking medical service.Moreover,the etiological phenomenon existed in every age group. Conclusion:The common oral diseases happen also commonly in university population.The incidence and distribution of the diseased suggest corresponding physical examinations should be given to those live in university community regularly, and also the education of oral maintenance.%目的:了解高校教职工的口腔健康状况,及常见口腔疾病的发病情况及特点,为有针对性地开展教职工口腔卫生保健服务工作提供参考依据。方法:对中国人民大学医院口腔科20个月内就诊的在校职工1060人次,按就诊病因、年龄进行分类和统计分析。结果:牙周病、龋病、牙髓疾病、楔状缺损、牙列缺损是教职工就诊的主要原因,且各年龄组均有发生。结论:高校职工的口腔健康状况不容乐观,应在每年体检中增加口腔健康检查项目,并定期对职工进行系统的口腔健康教育。

  18. Increasing Incidence of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Transplantation – A Report from CIBMTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Sally; Arora, Mukta; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; He, Wensheng; Couriel, Daniel R.; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Cutler, Corey S.; Bacigalupo, Andrea A.; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E.; Juckett, Mark B.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Loren, Alison W.; Klumpp, Thomas R.; Prockup, Susan E.; Ringdén, Olle T.H.; Savani, Bipin N.; Socié, Gérard; Schultz, Kirk R.; Spitzer, Thomas; Teshima, Takanori; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Jacobsohn, David A.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Drobyski, William R.; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Akpek, Görgün; Ho, Vincent T.; Lewis, Victor A.; Gale, Robert Peter; DSc(hon); Koreth, John; Chao, Nelson J.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Cooper, Brenda W.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Hsu, Jack W.; Hematti, Peiman; Verdonck, Leo F.; Solh, Melhelm M.; Norkin, Maxim; Reddy, Vijay; Martino, Rodrigo; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Goldberg, Jenna D.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Pérez-Simón, José A.; Khera, Nandita; Lewis, Ian D.; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Olsson, Richard F.; Saber, Wael; Waller, Edmund K.; Blaise, Didier; Pidala, Joseph A.; Martin, Paul J.; Satwani, Prakash; Bornhäuser, Martin; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Although transplant practices have changed over the last decades there is no information on trends in incidence and outcome of cGVHD over time. This study utilized the central database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to describe the time trends for cGVHD incidence, non-relapse mortality, and the risk factors for cGVHD. The 12-year period was divided into three intervals: 1995-1999, 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and included 26,563 patients with acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. In the multivariate analysis, the incidence of cGVHD was shown to be increased in more recent years (odds ratio= 1.19, p<0.0001) and this trend was still seen when adjusting for donor type, graft type, or conditioning intensity. In patients with cGVHD, non-relapse mortality has decreased over time, but at 5-years there were no significant differences among different time periods. Risk factors for cGVHD were in line with previous studies. This is the first comprehensive characterization of the trends in cGVHD incidence and underscores the mounting need for addressing this major late complication of transplantation in future research. PMID:25445023

  19. Increasing incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic transplantation: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Sally; Arora, Mukta; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R; He, Wensheng; Couriel, Daniel R; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Cutler, Corey S; Bacigalupo, Andrea A; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E; Juckett, Mark B; Lee, Stephanie J; Loren, Alison W; Klumpp, Thomas R; Prockup, Susan E; Ringdén, Olle T H; Savani, Bipin N; Socié, Gérard; Schultz, Kirk R; Spitzer, Thomas; Teshima, Takanori; Bredeson, Christopher N; Jacobsohn, David A; Hayashi, Robert J; Drobyski, William R; Frangoul, Haydar A; Akpek, Görgün; Ho, Vincent T; Lewis, Victor A; Gale, Robert Peter; Koreth, John; Chao, Nelson J; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Cooper, Brenda W; Laughlin, Mary J; Hsu, Jack W; Hematti, Peiman; Verdonck, Leo F; Solh, Melhelm M; Norkin, Maxim; Reddy, Vijay; Martino, Rodrigo; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Goldberg, Jenna D; McCarthy, Philip L; Pérez-Simón, José A; Khera, Nandita; Lewis, Ian D; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Olsson, Richard F; Saber, Wael; Waller, Edmund K; Blaise, Didier; Pidala, Joseph A; Martin, Paul J; Satwani, Prakash; Bornhäuser, Martin; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Horowitz, Mary M; Pavletic, Steven Z

    2015-02-01

    Although transplant practices have changed over the last decades, no information is available on trends in incidence and outcome of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) over time. This study used the central database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to describe time trends for cGVHD incidence, nonrelapse mortality, and risk factors for cGVHD. The 12-year period was divided into 3 intervals, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2003, and 2004 to 2007, and included 26,563 patients with acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Multivariate analysis showed an increased incidence of cGVHD in more recent years (odds ratio = 1.19, P < .0001), and this trend was still seen when adjusting for donor type, graft type, or conditioning intensity. In patients with cGVHD, nonrelapse mortality has decreased over time, but at 5 years there were no significant differences among different time periods. Risk factors for cGVHD were in line with previous studies. This is the first comprehensive characterization of the trends in cGVHD incidence and underscores the mounting need for addressing this major late complication of transplantation in future research.

  20. Incidência de insetos e doenças em cultivares e populações de cebola Incidence of insects and diseases in onion cultivars and populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano LD Leite

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cebola é uma das hortaliças mais importantes no Brasil. Contudo, é atacada por insetos e doenças, tais como Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Botrytis squamosa, Alternaria porri e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. cepae. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de tripes, queima-das-pontas, mancha-de-alternaria e mal-de-sete-voltas em oito populações elite do programa de melhoramento genético de cebola da Embrapa ("CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda", "Valencianita" x "Aurora", "Primavera" x "Pera Norte" e "Pera Norte" x "Primavera" e oito variedades comerciais (Granex 429, BRS Cascata, Belém IPA 9, Crioula Alto Vale, Bola Precoce, Primavera, Régia e 1015 Y. Em regiões de alta incidência de C. gloeosporioides, os materiais recomendados são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074" e "CNPH 6244"; de A. porri são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "BRS Cascata", "Valencianita" x "Aurora", "Primavera" x "Pera Norte", "Belém IPA 9", "Bola Precoce", "Primavera" e "Régia"; e de T. tabaci são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "Granex 429", "Bola Precoce", "Primavera" e "Régia". As populações "CNPH 6415" e "CNPH 6074" apresentam resistência a esses três agentes etiológicos. Por outro lado, "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda" e "1015 Y" são suscetíveis a C. gloeosporioides, A. porri e T. tabaci. Todos os materiais estudados sofrem ataque considerável de B. squamosa.Onion (Allium cepa L. is one of the most important vegetable crops in Brazil. It is attacked by insects and diseases, such as Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, Botrytis squamosa (J.C. Walker, Alternaria porri (Ellis and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. cepae Penz. This work evaluated the incidence of thrips, onion leaf blight, purple blotch, and smudge in eight elite populations of the Embrapa's onion breeding program ("CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda", "Valencianita" x

  1. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  2. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  3. Analysis of the incidence of disease among the primary school pupils related to the organization of the physical education provided to the medically fragile children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Kazantseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the breadth and type of the diseases among the primary school pupils aiming on the physical education optimization. Material and Methods: general data of the incidence of disease among the primary school pupils was revealed in the analysis of the medical documentation for 235 pupils of 1–4 grades at the general secondary school-lyceum in urban village Novofyodorovka. Results: it was revealed that the most wide spread health disorders at the primary school pupils are frequent respiratory diseases, functional disorders of locomotor apparatus and visual organs. Conclusions: the need of systematical application of the eyes exercises, breathing exercises as well as exercises for prophylaxis and correction of the skeleton deformations has been shown to increase the health-improving character of the physical education lessons at the primary school

  4. The cumulative incidence of conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their population attributable risk in an Iranian population: The Isfahan Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death in Iran. The present study evaluated the 7-year incidence of CVD risk factors among the participants of Isfahan cohort study (ICS. Materials and Methods: ICS was a longitudinal study on adults over 35 years of age from the urban and rural areas in three counties in central Iran. Data on clinical examination and blood measurements were collected in 2001. Subjects were followed and similar data were collected in 2007. Cumulative incidence was calculated through dividing new cases of each risk factor by the population free of that risk factor at baseline. Incidence proportion was determined for major CVD risk factors including hypertension (HTN, hypercholesterolemia (HC, hypertriglyceridemia (HTg, obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and smoking. Results: A total number of 6323 adults free of CVDs were recruited. After 7 years of follow-up, 3283 individuals were re-evaluated in 2007. The participants′ age was 49.2 ± 10.3 years in 2001 (mean ± SD. The 7-year cumulative incidence of HTN, HC, HTg, overweight, obesity, DM, MetS, and smoking was 22.8%, 37.4%, 28.0%, 26.3%, 7.4%, 9.5%, 23.9%, and 5.9% in men and 22.2%, 55.4%, 33.5%, 35.0%, 18.8%, 11.3%, 36.1%, and 0.7% in women, respectively. Among those with overweight or obesity, 14.7% of men and 7.9% of women decreased their weight up to the normal level. Conclusions: The present study revealed a high incidence of CVD risk factors especially dyslipidemia, obesity, MetS and HTN. Therefore, the application of life-style modification interventions seems necessary.

  5. The effect of alpha+-thalassaemia on the incidence of malaria and other diseases in children living on the coast of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Wambua

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alpha-thalassaemias are the commonest genetic disorders of humans. It is generally believed that this high frequency reflects selection through a survival advantage against death from malaria; nevertheless, the epidemiological description of the relationships between alpha-thalassaemia, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality remains incomplete. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the alpha+-thalassaemia-specific incidence of malaria and other common childhood diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. We found no associations between alpha+-thalassaemia and the prevalence of symptomless Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia, the incidence of uncomplicated P. falciparum disease, or parasite densities during mild or severe malaria episodes. However, we found significant negative associations between alpha+-thalassaemia and the incidence rates of severe malaria and severe anaemia (haemoglobin concentration 10,000 P. falciparum parasites/mul and severe nonmalaria anaemia; the incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for alpha+-thalassaemia heterozygotes and homozygotes combined compared to normal children were, for severe malaria anaemia, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.15,0.73; p = 0.006, and for severe nonmalaria anaemia, 0.26 (95% CI, 0.09,0.77; p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest, first that selection for alpha+-thalassaemia might be mediated by a specific effect against severe anaemia, an observation that may lead to fresh insights into the aetiology of this important condition. Second, although alpha+-thalassaemia is strongly protective against severe and fatal malaria, its effects are not detectable at the level of any other malaria outcome; this result provides a cautionary example for studies aimed at testing malaria interventions or identifying new malaria-protective genes.

  6. Adult health study report 7. noncancer disease incidence in the atomic-bomb survivors, 1958-86 (examination cycles 1-14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the longitudinal data of the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort collected during 1958-86, we examined for the first time the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the incidence of 19 selected nonmalignant disorders. Diagnoses of the diseases were based on general laboratory tests, physical examinations, and histories taken during the biennial AHS examinations. The outcomes were encoded as three-digit International Classification of Diseases codes in the AHS data base, which served as the basis for case ascertainment. Statistically significant excess risk was detected for myoma uteri, chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, and thyroid disease, defined broadly as the presence of one or more of certain noncancerous thyroid conditions. The finding for myoma uteri might be additional evidence indicating that benign tumor growths are possible effects of radiation exposure. An age-at-exposure effect was detected in nonmalignant thyroid disease, with increased risk for those exposed at ages ≤ 20 yr, but not for older persons. Thus, the AHS data also suggest that the thyroid gland in young persons is more radiosensitive not only to the development of thyroid malignancies, as shown in the most recent LSS report on cancer incidence, but also possibly to the development of nonmalignant disorders. Our findings hold independent of the dose effects observed for thyroid malignancies. No significant dose-response relationships were detected in any of our cardiovascular disease endpoints. Our analysis also suggests that new occurrences of lens opacity during 1958-86 are not increased with radiation dose among the AHS participants. Our results emphasize the utility and importance of the AHS in searching for the effects of acute exposure to ionizing radiation in noncancer diseases. (J.P.N.)

  7. Five-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among cardiovascular disease-free Greek adults: Findings from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos1, Christos Pitsavos2, Yannis Skoumas2, Yannis Lentzas2, Christodoulos Stefanadis21Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece; 2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: We evaluated the 5-year incidence of diabetes in an adult population from Greece.Research design and methods: 3042 individuals (>18 years, free of cardiovascular disease, participated in the baseline examination (during 2001–2002. Of this sample, 1012 men and 1035 women were found alive at the time of follow-up, while 32 (2.1% men and 22 (1.4% women died during this period. The rest were lost to follow-up. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 1806 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline.Results: The age-adjusted 5-year incidence of diabetes was 5.5% (men, 5.8%; women, 5.2%. A linear trend was observed between diabetes incidence and age (5.6% increases in incidence per 1-year difference in age, p < 0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR per 1 yr = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06, waist (OR per 1 cm = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.003, physical activity (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.35–1.02 and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.58–4.53, as well as fasting glucose levels (OR per 1 mg/dl = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07, were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for various potential confounders. Additionally, presence of metabolic syndrome at baseline evaluation 2.95-fold the risk of diabetes (95% CI 1.89–4.61, and showed better classification ability than the model that contained the components of the syndrome (ie, correct classification rate: 94.5% vs. 92.3%.Conclusion: Our findings show that a 5.5% incidence rate of diabetes within a 5-year period, which suggests that the prevalence of this disorder in Greece is rising. Aging, heredity, and metabolic syndrome were the most significant

  8. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  9. Incidence of HCV and sexually transmitted diseases among hiv positive msm in antwerp, belgium, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, L; Koole, O; Bottieau, E; Vandenbruaene, M; Ophoff, D; Van Esbroeck, M; Crucitti, T; Florence, E

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are an indication of unsafe sexual practices and may be associated with HCV-infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. In a retrospective study we analysed the laboratory data of 99 HIV-positive MSM who acquired HCV during the observation period (cases) and 176 HIV-positive MSM who remained HCV negative during the observation period (controls), all followed at the HIV/STI-clinic in Antwerp, Belgium. All laboratory confirmed STI-episodes were recorded since the date of first consultation at our clinic, until the date of HCV-diagnosis of the cases. The HCV incidence varied between 0.24 (2001) and 1.36 (2011) new cases per hundred person-years, with a peak of 2.93 new cases per hundred person-years in 2009. The number of STI-episodes per person-year follow-up was significantly higher for the cases as compared to the controls for syphilis, non-LGV and LGV Chlamydia infections (p HCV conversion, all laboratory confirmed STIs remained more frequent among cases, but only the difference in syphilis incidence was statistically significant (p HCV and should lead to intensified screening for HCV and counselling of the patient. PMID:24635329

  10. Disease burden of stroke in rural South Africa: an estimate of incidence, mortality and disability adjusted life years

    OpenAIRE

    Maredza, Mandy; Bertram, Melanie Y; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of an epidemiologic transition in South Africa, in which cardiovascular disease is increasing, little is known about the stroke burden, particularly morbidity in rural populations. Risk factors for stroke are high, with hypertension prevalence of more than 50%. Accurate, up-to-date information on disease burden is essential in planning health services for stroke management. This study estimates the burden of stroke in rural South Africa using the epidemiological para...

  11. Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort study (CKDCS): A prospective observational study of incident hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Opgenorth Dawn; Cembrowski George; Holmes Daniel; Zimmerman Deborah; Chan Christopher; Gill John; Klarenbach Scott; Hemmelgarn Brenda; Thadhani Ravi; Bello Aminu K; Sibrian Rafael; Karkhaneh Mohammad; Tiv Sophanny; Wiebe Natasha; Tonelli Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factor...

  12. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, G.Y.; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; R. Sinha; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease...

  13. Influência do zinco na incidência de doenças do cafeeiro Zinc influence on coffee diseases

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    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Em cafeeiros, poucos estudos foram feitos relacionando aumento ou diminuição da resistência das plantas às doenças, com alteração dos níveis de nutrientes utilizados. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar os efeitos do sulfato de zinco aplicado isoladamente, e associado com fungicidas e cloreto de potássio sobre a ferrugem, cercosporiose e manchas foliares do cafeeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma lavoura de café em produção, onde foram testados oxicloreto de cobre, tebuconazole, sulfato de zinco + cloreto de potássio e sulfato de zinco e nas subparcelas foram realizadas diferentes concentrações de sulfato de zinco: ausência, 0,3 %, 0,6 % e 1,2 %. Verificou-se que os tratamentos com oxicloreto de cobre e tebuconazole reduziram a incidência e severidade de ferrugem, a incidência de cercosporiose, de manchas foliares (phoma e ascochyta e a desfolha, independente das concentrações de sulfato de zinco utilizadas. Concentrações de sulfato de zinco na faixa de 0,6 % - 0,75 % apresentaram menor severidade da ferrugem e o aumento nas concentrações de sulfato de zinco aumentou a incidência de cercosporiose, manchas foliares e a desfolha dos cafeeiros.The are few studies have been done related to the increase or decrease of disease resistance in coffee plants, with alteration from plant nutrient levels. The ain of this work was to verify the effect of zinc sulfate, applied either alone or in association with fungicides, and the effect of potassium chloride on coffee leaf rust, brown-eyes and leaf stains in coffee plants. Copper oxichloride, tebuconazole, sulfate of zinc + potassium chloride and sulfate of zinc were applied on plots and concentrations of zinc sulfate (0,0 %, 0,3 %, 0,6 % and 1,2 % were applied on sub plot. Treatments with copper and tebuconazole reduced the incidence and severity of rust, the incidence of brown-eyes and stains leaf (phoma and ascochyta and the defoliate independent of the zinc sulfate

  14. Very high coronary artery calcium score with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is associated with a moderate incidence of severe coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuoness, Salem A.; Goha, Ahmed M.; Romsa, Jonathan G.; Akincioglu, Cigdem; Warrington, James C.; Datta, Sudip; Gambhir, Sanjay; Urbain, Jean-Luc C.; Vezina, William C. [London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London, ON (Canada); Massel, David R. [London Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cardiology, London, ON (Canada); Martell, Rafael [Private Practice, London, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has limitations in the presence of balanced multivessel disease (MVD) and left main (LM) coronary artery disease, occasionally resulting in false-normal results despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in the presence of a very high Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (>1,000) in stable symptomatic patients without known CAD but with normal MPI results. A total of 2,659 prospectively acquired consecutive patients were referred for MPI and evaluation of CAC score by CT. Of this patient population, 8 % (222/2,659) had ischemia without myocardial infarction (MI) on MPI and 11 % (298/2,659) had abnormal MPI (MI and/or ischemia). On presentation 1 % of the patients (26/2,659) were symptomatic, had a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI results. The definition of normal MPI was strict and included a normal hemodynamic response without ischemic ECG changes and normal imaging, particularly absence of transient ischemic dilation. All of these 26 patients with a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI findings underwent cardiac catheterization. Of these 26 patients, 58 % (15/26) had severe disease (≥70 % stenosis) leading to revascularization. Of this group, 47 % (7/15) underwent percutaneous intervention, and 53 % (8/15) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All of these 15 patients had either MVD (14/15) or LM coronary artery disease (1/15), and represented 0.6 % (15/2,659) of all referred patients (95 % CI 0.3 - 0.9 %). The majority, 90 % (8/9), had severe CAD with typical chest pain. A very high CAC score (>1,000) with normal MPI in a small subset of symptomatically stable patients was associated with a moderate incidence of severe CAD (95 % CI 37 - 77 %). Larger studies and/or a meta-analysis of small studies are needed to more precisely estimate the incidence of CAD in this population. This study also supports

  15. Very high coronary artery calcium score with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is associated with a moderate incidence of severe coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has limitations in the presence of balanced multivessel disease (MVD) and left main (LM) coronary artery disease, occasionally resulting in false-normal results despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in the presence of a very high Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (>1,000) in stable symptomatic patients without known CAD but with normal MPI results. A total of 2,659 prospectively acquired consecutive patients were referred for MPI and evaluation of CAC score by CT. Of this patient population, 8 % (222/2,659) had ischemia without myocardial infarction (MI) on MPI and 11 % (298/2,659) had abnormal MPI (MI and/or ischemia). On presentation 1 % of the patients (26/2,659) were symptomatic, had a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI results. The definition of normal MPI was strict and included a normal hemodynamic response without ischemic ECG changes and normal imaging, particularly absence of transient ischemic dilation. All of these 26 patients with a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI findings underwent cardiac catheterization. Of these 26 patients, 58 % (15/26) had severe disease (≥70 % stenosis) leading to revascularization. Of this group, 47 % (7/15) underwent percutaneous intervention, and 53 % (8/15) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All of these 15 patients had either MVD (14/15) or LM coronary artery disease (1/15), and represented 0.6 % (15/2,659) of all referred patients (95 % CI 0.3 - 0.9 %). The majority, 90 % (8/9), had severe CAD with typical chest pain. A very high CAC score (>1,000) with normal MPI in a small subset of symptomatically stable patients was associated with a moderate incidence of severe CAD (95 % CI 37 - 77 %). Larger studies and/or a meta-analysis of small studies are needed to more precisely estimate the incidence of CAD in this population. This study also supports

  16. The impact of health behaviours on incident cardiovascular disease in Europeans and South Asians--a prospective analysis in the UK SABRE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Eriksen

    Full Text Available There is consistent evidence on the impact of health behaviours on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in European populations. As South Asians in the UK have an excess risk of CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD compared to Europeans, we investigated whether a similar association between combined health behaviours and risk of CVD and CHD among this high-risk group exists, and estimated the population impact.In a prospective cohort of 1090 Europeans and 1006 South Asians (40-69 y without prevalent CVD at baseline (1988-1990, followed up for 21 years to 2011, there were 601 incident CVD events [Europeans n = 255; South Asians n = 346] of which 520 were CHD events [n = 207 and 313 respectively]. Participants scored between 0 to 4 points for a composite score including four baseline healthy behaviours (non-smoker, moderate alcohol intake, physically active, frequent fruit/vegetable intake. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for incident CHD in Europeans who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were 1.33 (0.78-2.29, 1.96 (1.15-3.33, 1.36 (0.74-2.48 and 2.45 (1.18-5.10, respectively, p-trend = 0.025. In South Asians, corresponding HRs were 2.88 (1.33-6.24, 2.28 (1.06-4.91, 3.36 (1.53-7.39 and 3.48 (1.38-8.81, p-trend = 0.022. The results were similar for incident CVD; Europeans HR 2.12 (1.14-3.94, p-trend = 0.014; South Asians HR 2.73 (1.20-6.21, p-trend = 0.018. The population attributable fraction in Europeans was 43% for CHD and 28% for CVD. In South Asians it was 63% and 51% respectively.Lack of adherence to four combined health behaviours was associated with 2 to 3-fold increased risk of incident CVD in Europeans and South Asians. A substantial population impact in the South Asian group indicates important potential for disease prevention in this high-risk group by adherence to healthy behaviours.

  17. Impact of aspirin use in the incidence of thromboembolic events after bioprosthesis replacement in patients with rheumatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues Durães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is still much debate regarding the kind of antithrombotic therapy in the immediate postoperative period of bioprosthesis replacement (first three months. Thus, the authors consider relevant to determine the contemporary incidence of thromboembolic events in rheumatic patients early after implantation of aortic and mitral bioprosthesis replacement (first 90 days in the post-operative period and perform a comparison between isolated Aspirin uses versus no-antiplatelet therapy, in this same context. METHODS: Between the period of January 2010 to July 2012, all consecutive rheumatic patients, with basal sinus rhythm, who performed mitral and aortic valve replacement with bioprosthesis (pericardial bovine, were included in this prospective cohort study, 184 patients in total. The primary endpoint evaluated were the rate of embolic events. RESULTS: In the first 30 days, there were three cerebral ischemic events among patients treated in Aspirin group (5.2% compared with two events in patients without Aspirin therapy (1.7%, HR = 3.18; 95% CI 0.5 to 19.6; P=0.33. Between 31 and 90 days postoperatively, no patient had a primary outcome. The embolism-free survival, bleeding events and the overall survival were not statistically significant between the aspirin and no-antiplatelet groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of rheumatic patients, we found a low and very rare incidence rate of embolic events during the first 90 days postoperative period in mitral and isolated aortic position, respectively. The use of aspirin did not significantly reduce the rate of thromboembolism.

  18. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable

  19. Increased incidence of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London: 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabarro, L E B; Lever, R A; Armstrong, M; Chiodini, P L

    2015-08-01

    Giardia intestinalis is the commonest gastrointestinal protozoal pathogen worldwide, and causes acute and chronic diarrhoea with malabsorption. First-line treatment is with a nitroimidazole, with a reported efficacy rate of 89%. Failure of treatment can occur in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or be due to nitroimidazole-resistant organisms. There is little evidence to guide the clinical management of nitroimidazole-refractory disease. We performed a retrospective audit of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis in returned travellers at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 2011 and 2013. Seventy-three patients with microscopy-proven or PCR-proven giardiasis in whom nitroimidazole treatment had failed were identified, and their management was investigated. In 2008, nitroimidazole treatment failed in 15.1% of patients. This increased to 20.6% in 2011 and to 40.2% in 2013. Patient demographics remained stable during this period, as did routes of referral. Of patients with giardiasis, 39.0% had travelled to India; this rose to 69.9% in patients with nitroimidazole-refractory disease. Of the patients with refractory disease, 44.6% had HIV serological investigations performed and 36.5% had immunoglobulin levels determined. Patients with refractory disease were treated with various agents, including albendazole, nitazoxanide, and mepacrine, alone or in combination. All 20 patients who received a mepacrine-containing regimen were cured. This data shows a worrying increase in refractory disease, predominantly in travellers from India, which is likely to represent increasing nitroimidazole resistance. Improved tools for the diagnosis of resistant G. intestinalis are urgently needed to establish the true prevalence of nitroimidazole-resistant giardiasis, together with clinical trials to establish the most effective second-line agent for empirical treatment regimens. PMID:25975511

  20. Incidence and predictors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Ng; Xi Cheng; Chu-Pak Lau; Wai-Man Wong; Wai-Hong Chen; Hung-Fat Tse; Pui-Yin Lee; Kam-Chuen Lai; Sheung-Wai Li; Matthew Ng; Kwok-Fai Lam

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The use of low-dose aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease events is well established. However,the incidence and predictors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) with its use are unknown. We studied prospectively the incidence and outcome of peptic ulceration in low-dose aspirin users.METHODS: A total of 991 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on low-dose aspirin were prospectively followed-up for two years for the occurrence and clinical features of first hospitalized episode of UGIB.RESULTS: UGIB had a bimodal presentation with 45% occurring within four months of aspirin initiation and had an overall prevalence of 1.5% per year. There was no UGIB-related death. Hypertension (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.5 - 14.7, P = 0.009), history of peptic ulceration (OR = 3.1,95%CI 1.1 - 9.0, P = 0.039), tertiary education (OR =3.08, 95%CI 1.1 - 9.0, P = 0.039) and higher lean body mass (P = 0.016) were independent factors associated with UGIB. Use of nitrate did not reduce UGIB.CONCLUSION: The incidence of UGIB in patients with CAD on long-term low-dose aspirin is low, but is accompanied with significant morbidity. With prolonged use of aspirin, UGIB continues to be a problem for those with risk factors and especially in patients with a history of peptic ulcers, in which UGIB tends to occur early after aspirin therapy.

  1. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  2. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Fonguimgo Tengoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense constitutes a serious threat to oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands. It is also expanding in some oil palm growing countries in Latin America and Africa and will soon become a worldwide concern to oil palm cultivation. To date, none of the various control measures developed and tested to control the disease since many decade gives entire satisfaction. An experiment was carried out to see whether incorporation of micronutrients, Copper (Cu, Boron (B and Manganese (Mn could reduce the incidence and severity of this disease on oil palm seedlings inoculated with G. boninense. The concentrations tested were 2 mg B/kg of soil, 2 mg Cu/kg of soil and 2 mg Mn/kg of soil incorporated into the basic fertilizer NPKMg 14-10-10-2. Treatments were applied in solution for three months before inoculation, followed by soil application for eight months after inoculation. The results showed that although no significant difference was detected among treatments, the double combinations of these micronutrients, B+Cu, B+Mn and Cu+Mn, performed better than the single nutrients in reducing the incidence and the severity of BSR, while their triple combination rather increased these pathological parameters. These double combinations could therefore be field-tested for their further integration in oil palm fertilization programme.

  3. Drug-gene interactions of antihypertensive medications and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: A pharmacogenomics study from the CHARGE consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bis (Joshua); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); R. Irvin (Ryan); C.L. Avery; G.D. Smith; F. Sun (Fangui); D.S. Evans (Daniel); S. Musani (Solomon); X. Li (Xiaohui); S. Trompet (Stella); B.P. Krijthe (Bouwe); T.B. Harris (Tamara); P.M. Quibrera (P. Miguel); J. Brody (Jennifer); S. Demissie (Serkalem); B.R. Davis (Barry); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); L.A. Lange (Leslie); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); D.J. Stott (David. J.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); L.J. Launer (Lenore); T. Stürmer; K.D. Taylor (Kent); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.H. Eckfeldt (John); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); Y. Liu (Yongmei); J.G. Wilson (James); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); A.J.M. De Craen (Anton J. M.); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Ford; A. Hofman (Albert); N. Sattar (Naveed); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran S.); T. Lumley (Thomas); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); H.A. Taylor (Herman); W. Post (Wendy); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); B.H. Stricker; E.A. Whitsel (Eric A.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensiv

  4. Comparison of two formulations of oxytetracycline given prophylactically to reduce the incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee

    1993-01-01

    A trial involving 1,803 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative effectiveness of a new oxytetracycline formulation, administered either intramuscularly (BMI) or subcutaneously (BMS), to a currently available oxytetracycline formulation, administered intramuscularly (LAB), for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. All experimental treatments were administered upon arrival at the feedlot and again...

  5. Decreasing Incidence of Chronic Lung Disease Despite the Gradual Reduction of Postnatal Dexamethasone Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Shim, Jae Won; Ko, Sun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sung Shin; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon; Shin, Son Moon

    2004-01-01

    Dexamethasone has been widely used in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) weighing less than 1,500 g at birth for the prevention or treatment of chronic lung disease (CLD). Recently, however the use of dexamethasone is being reduced, as its association with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is known. On the other hand, there have been persistent concerns about the increased risk of CLD according to the reduction of postnatal dexamethasone use. Hence, we did a retrospective cohort study to...

  6. Five-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (stage 3-5 and associated risk factors in a Spanish cohort: the MADIABETES Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Salinero-Fort

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use.The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners in Madrid (Spain.The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12-11.44 and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83-2.33 cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19-2.79 cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48. Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13-4.81, a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42-2.89, Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25-2.37, Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30-2.17, duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88 and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.24.After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5. Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM.

  7. Five-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease (Stage 3-5) and Associated Risk Factors in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco J.; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12–11.44) and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83–2.33) cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19–2.79) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR) for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48). Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13–4.81), a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42–2.89), Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25–2.37), Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30–2.17), duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88) and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02–2.24). Conclusions After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5). Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM. PMID:25856231

  8. Impacts of neglected tropical disease on incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: scientific links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G G

    2016-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of humans in Sub-Saharan Africa. Virtually all of the population living below the World Bank poverty figure is affected by one or more NTDs. New evidence indicates a high degree of geographic overlap between the highest-prevalence NTDs (soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma) and malaria and HIV, exhibiting a high degree of co-infection. Recent research suggests that NTDs can affect HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria disease progression. A combination of immunological, epidemiological, and clinical factors can contribute to these interactions and add to a worsening prognosis for people affected by HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria. Together these results point to the impacts of the highest-prevalence NTDs on the health outcomes of malaria, HIV/AIDS, and TB and present new opportunities to design innovative public health interventions and strategies for these 'big three' diseases. This analysis describes the current findings of research and what research is still needed to strengthen the knowledge base of the impacts NTDs have on the big three. PMID:26594012

  9. Prospective population-based study of the association between vitamin D status and incidence of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2015-01-01

    Beside its traditional role in skeletal health, vitamin D is believed to have multiple immunosuppressant properties, and low vitamin D status has been suggested to be a risk factor in the development of autoimmune disease. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and development of.......72, 0.96); type 1 diabetes (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.88, 1.02), multiple sclerosis (HR = 0.89, 95 % CI 0.74, 1.07), iridocyclitis (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.17); Crohn's disease (HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.80, 1.13), ulcerative colitis (HR = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.75, 1.04); psoriasis vulgaris (HR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0...... autoimmune disease. We included a total of 12,555 individuals from three population-based studies with measurements of vitamin D status (25-hydroxy vitamin D). We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 10.8 years). Relative risks of autoimmune...

  10. Increased incidence of invasive meningococcal disease of serogroup C / clonal complex 11, Tuscany, Italy, 2015 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Paola; Miglietta, Alessandro; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Fazio, Cecilia; Neri, Arianna; Vacca, Paola; Voller, Fabio; D'Ancona, Fortunato P; Guerra, Raniero; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rezza, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We report an increase of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive meningococcal disease in Tuscany. From January 2015 to end February 2016, 43 cases were reported, among which 10 were fatal, compared to two cases caused by serogroup C recorded in 2014 and three in 2013. No secondary cases occurred. Thirty-five strains belonged to C:P1.5-1,10-8:F3-6:ST-11(cc11). Control measures have been adopted and immunisation campaigns implemented. Studies on risk factors and carriage are ongoing. PMID:27035155

  11. Intakes of Dietary Fiber, Vegetables, and Fruits and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; ITO, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; ,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40–70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary o...

  12. Cognition and gait show a selective pattern of association dominated by phenotype in incident Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eLord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reports outlining the association between gait and cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD are limited because of methodological issues and a bias towards studying advanced disease. This study examines the association between gait and cognition in 121 early PD who were characterized according to motor phenotype, and 184 healthy older adults. Quantitative gait was captured using a 7m GAITrite walkway whilst walking for two minutes under single task conditions and described by five domains (pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry and postural control. Cognitive outcomes were summarized by six domains (attention, working memory, visual memory, executive function, visuospatial function and global cognition. Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression were used to determine independent associations for all participants and for PD tremor-dominant (TD and postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD phenotypes, controlling for age, sex, and premorbid intelligence using the National Adult Reading Test (NART. Cognitive and gait outcomes were significantly worse for PD. Gait, but not cognitive outcomes, were selectively worse for the PIGD phenotype. Significant associations emerged for two gait domains for controls (pace and postural control and four gait domains for PD (pace, rhythm, variability, and postural control.The strongest correlation was for pace and attention for PD and controls. Associations were not significant for participants with the TD phenotype. In early PD the cognitive correlates of gait are predominantly with fronto-executive functions, and are determined by the PIGD PD phenotype. These associations provide a basis for understanding the complex role of cognition in Parkinsonian gait.

  13. Validity of ICD-9-CM Coding for Identifying Incident Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections: Is MRSA Infection Coded as a Chronic Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.; Eber, Michael R.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Furuno, Jon P.; Popovich, Kyle J.; Hota, Bala; Rubin, Michael A.; Perencevich, Eli N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Investigators and medical decision makers frequently rely on administrative databases to assess methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection rates and outcomes. The validity of this approach remains unclear. We sought to assess the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code for infection with drug-resistant microorganisms (V09) for identifying culture-proven MRSA infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS All adults admitted to 3 geographically distinct hospitals between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007, were assessed for presence of incident MRSA infection, defined as an MRSA-positive clinical culture obtained during the index hospitalization, and presence of the V09 ICD-9-CM code. The k statistic was calculated to measure the agreement between presence of MRSA infection and assignment of the V09 code. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were calculated. RESULTS There were 466,819 patients discharged during the study period. Of the 4,506 discharged patients (1.0%) who had the V09 code assigned, 31% had an incident MRSA infection, 20% had prior history of MRSA colonization or infection but did not have an incident MRSA infection, and 49% had no record of MRSA infection during the index hospitalization or the previous hospitalization. The V09 code identified MRSA infection with a sensitivity of 24% (range, 21%–34%) and positive predictive value of 31% (range, 22%–53%). The agreement between assignment of the V09 code and presence of MRSA infection had a κ coefficient of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.25–0.27). CONCLUSIONS In its current state, the ICD-9-CM code V09 is not an accurate predictor of MRSA infection and should not be used to measure rates of MRSA infection. PMID:21460469

  14. The influence of low temperatures on the incidence of sugary disease on sorghum Influência de baixas temperaturas na incidência da doença-açucarada em sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Bogo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pre-flowering climatic conditions and sugary disease incidence was quantified in grain and forage sorghum genotypes at two sowing periods (mid November and mid December. The trials were carried out over the 2001/02 and 2002/03 growing seasons, in Lages, Santa Catarina State. Four commercial male-fertile sorghum hybrids (BR 600-forrage, BR 700-grain, BR 701-forage/silage and BR 800-forage and one male-sterile inbred line (BR 001-A were evaluated. When each genotype reached the flowering stage, 50 panicles were marked and sprayed with a suspension of Claviceps africana (1,000 spores mL-1. Air temperature, humidity and rainfall were recorded through out the growing cycle. Low temperatures three to four weeks prior to flowering, increased susceptibility. At both sowing periods, average night temperatures lower than 15°C during the critical period of pre-flowering turned the fertile hybrids as susceptible as the male-sterile inbred to ergot infection. The tested hybrids differed in their ability to tolerate pre-flowering cold stress. Seed set in uninoculated heads under pollination bags was also reduced, suggesting that increased susceptibility to sugary disease was the result of low temperature induced sterility.A relação entre as condições climáticas no pré-florescimento e a incidência da doença açucarada em sorgo foi quantificada, em duas épocas de semeadura (metade de novembro e metade de dezembro durante os anos agrícolas de 2001/02 e 2002/03. Experimentos foram conduzidos com quatro híbridos férteis (BR 600-forragem, BR 700-grão/silagem, BR 701-forragem/silagem and BR 800-corte/pastejo e uma linhagem macho-estéril (BR 001-A de sorgo granífero e forrageiro. Quando cada genótipo atingiu o florescimento, 50 panículas foram marcadas e aspergidas com uma suspensão de Claviceps africana (1.000 esporos mL-1. A temperatura e umidade relativa do ar e a precipitação foram registradas durante todo o ciclo da

  15. HLA alleles and type 1 diabetes mellitus in low disease incidence populations of Southern Europe: a comparison of Greeks and Albanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschou, Peristera; Bozas, Evangelos; Dokopoulou, Maria; Havarani, Beatrice; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; Ylli, Agron; Ylli, Zamira; Thymelli, Ioanna; Gerasimidi-Vazeou, Andriani; Bartsocas, Christos S

    2004-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is caused by environmental factors acting on genetically susceptible individuals. HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 are major genetic determinants of the disease. Greece and Albania represent the low DM1 incidence countries of South-Eastern Europe. The HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 associations with DM1 were investigated in these two groups, as reference for comparisons to the high-risk populations of Northern Europe. One hundred and thirty Greeks and 64 Albanians with DM1 were studied; 1,842 Greeks and 186 Albanians were analysed as controls. The samples were typed for six HLA-DQB1 alleles, using time-resolved fluorometry to detect the hybridisation of lanthanide labelled oligonucleotides with PCR products. Individuals positive for DQB1*0201 were selectively typed for three DQA1 alleles. In both populations DQB1*0201 increased the risk for DM1 while DQB1*0301 was protective. DQB1*0302 was associated with lower risk than *0201, while *0602 and *0603 were protective in Greeks but not in Albanians. It was also shown that DQA1 has a modifying effect, altering the risk conferred by the susceptible DQB1*0201. The low incidence of DM1 in these two countries correlates with the high frequency of the protective allele DQB1*0301 and the low impact of the susceptible DQB1*0302.

  16. A possible decline in the incidence and severity of Behçet's disease: implications for an infectious etiology and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direskeneli, Haner; Mumcu, Gonca

    2010-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic and inflammatory disorder mainly present along the ancient Silk Road, from the Mediterranean to East Asia. A wide range of prevalence figures (0.1-420/100.000) are reported for BD, also among populations of similar ethnicity living in different countries. Recently, a decline of the incidence of BD and a change of the disease spectrum to less severe mucocutaneous manifestations is reported from Japan, a genetically homogenous, affluent population with limited immigration. Among environmental factors, a change in atopy/allergic disorders and a decline in infections are two possible mechanisms for this epidemiological change. A shift in Th1/Th2 immune balance towards Th2-associated immune responses are possible, however 'hygiene hypothesis' associated with this approach does not explain the recent trend of the increase in Th1-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis in Western Countries. We hypothesise that a decline in oral infections, associated with the improvement in oral health in Japan, could be behind this decline. Better epidemiological studies in other populations will show whether this decline is a worldwide trend and may provide a better understanding of the environmental factors associated with the onset or relapses of BD, leading a way to new therapeutic approaches.

  17. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-infected and non-HIV infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette Vang; Ladelund, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study of H....... Injecting drug use, smoking, and the receipt of cART are suitable targets for preventive measures in the future......., 2.80 [95% CI, 2.70-2.91] compared with late cART) were significantly associated with an increased risk of IPD. Among HIV-infected individuals, male sex (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.49-1.66]), smoking (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.26-1.42]), and injecting drug use (RR, 2.51 [95% CI, 2.26-2.67]) were associated...

  19. Consumo de Camellia sinensis em população de origem oriental e incidência de doenças crônicas Camellia sinensis consumption by an Asian-Brazilian population and incidence of chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faria

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigar os prováveis benefícios dos hábitos culturais orientais, incluindo o consumo de Camellia sinensis (chá verde na prevenção de doenças crônicas. Trinta e quatro indivíduos entre 25 e 84 anos, de ambos os sexos, pertencentes à comunidade nipônica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, foram submetidos a anamnese alimentar e questionário socio-econômico-cultural. Dos indivíduos, 76% consumiam chá verde, sendo que 35% o ingeriam diariamente e 27% esporadicamente. Verificou-se que o consumo regular de álcool era predominante nos não usuários de chá verde, quando comparados com os apreciadores da bebida (50% e 35%, respectivamente, faziam uso de álcool. Não foi observado sedentarismo na amostra. Dos apreciadores do chá, 81% não apresentavam doenças crônicas. Já entre os consumidores, observamos um menor percentual de doenças crônicas, especialmente, de hipertensão, porém sem significância estatística.To investigate the probable benefits of Asian dietary habits, including the intake of Camellia sinensis (green tea, in preventing chronic-degenerative diseases. Thirty-four individuals aging from 25 to 84 years from a Japanese community in Rio de Janeiro answered a socioeconomic-cultural questionnaire. Seventy-six percent of the individuals consumed green tea, where 35% consumed it daily and 27% consumed it sporadically. The regular intake of alcohol predominated among the non-consumers of green tea, when compared with green tea consumers (50% and 35%, respectively consumed alcoholic beverages. None of the individuals in the sample had a sedentary lifestyle. Among the individuals who consumed green tea, 81% did not have any chronic illnesses. The consumers of tea presented a lower incidence of chronic diseases, especially hypertension, but it was not statistically significant.

  20. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Uchino, Miki; Sastry, Srinivas M.; Schaumberg, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Research has indicated some shared pathogenic mechanisms between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, results from prior epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent as to whether AMD is predictive of future CVD risk. Objective To systematically review population-based cohort studies of the association between AMD and risk of total CVD and CVD subtypes, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Data Sources A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases and reference lists of key retrieved articles up to December 20, 2012 without language restriction. Data Extraction Two reviewers independently extracted data on baseline AMD status, risk estimates of CVD and methods used to assess AMD and CVD. We pooled relative risks using random or fixed effects models as appropriate. Results Thirteen cohort studies (8 prospective and 5 retrospective studies) with a total of 1,593,390 participants with 155,500 CVD events (92,039 stroke and 62,737 CHD) were included in this meta-analysis. Among all studies, early AMD was associated with a 15% (95% CI, 1.08–1.22) increased risk of total CVD. The relative risk was similar but not significant for late AMD (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98–1.40). In analyses restricted to the subset of prospective studies, the risk associated with early AMD did not appreciably change; however, there was a marked 66% (95% CI, 1.31–2.10) increased risk of CVD among those with late AMD. Conclusion Whereas the results from all cohort studies suggest that both early and late AMD are predictive of a small increase in risk of future CVD, subgroup analyses limited to prospective studies demonstrate a markedly increased risk of CVD among people with late AMD. Retrospective studies using healthcare databases may have inherent methodological limitations that obscure such association. Additional prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the associations between AMD and specific CVD outcomes

  1. OMISSION OF DAY +11 METHOTREXATE DOES NOT APPEAR TO INFLUENCE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE AFTER ALLOGENEIC HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱康儿; 张涛; 陈盛亭; 钟隽; 曾慧兰

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of omission of the day +11 dose of methotrexate (MIX) on the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: From April 1997 to October 2002, 80 leukemia patients (46 men and 34 women aged from 12 to 56 years with a median age of 35) underwent allo-HSCT at our BMT unit. Among them, 58 patients received grafts from HLA-identical siblings, 8 from HLA one major antigen mismatched siblings and 14 from HLA-matched unrelated donors. All patients received a modified cyclosporine and short-course MTX regimen for GVHD prophylaxis, which included MTX 15 mg on day +1, and 10 mg on days +3 and +6 (MTX day +11 dose omitted) and cyclosporine given daily. Results: The overall incidence of grade I~IV acute GVHD was 57.5% (46/80 patients), with grade II~IV acute GVHD in 28 patients (35%) and grade III~IV acute GVHD in 7 patients (8.8%). Among 58 patients receiving grafts from HLA-identical siblings, 24 patients developed grade I~IV acute GVHD (41.4%), with grade II~IV acute GVHD in 13 patients (22.4%) and grade III~IV acute GVHD in 4 patients (6.9%). 2l out of 22 patients receiving grafts from HLA one major antigen mismatched siblings and HLA-matched unrelated donors developed grade I~IV acute GVHD (95.5%), with grade II~IV acute GVHD in 14 patients (63.6%) and grade III~IV acute GVHD in 3 patients (13.6%). Chronic GVHD occurred in 38 out of 56 evaluable patients (67.9%), with extensive form in 15 patients (26.8%) and limited form in 23 patients (41.1%). With a median follow-up of 960 days (range 180~1980 days), the probability of leukemia-free survival at 3 years was 61.3% for all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the day +11 MTX can be omitted without a major deleterious effect on the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling transplantation as well as HLA one major antigen mismatched sibling and HLA

  2. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  3. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  4. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  5. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  6. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  7. Incidence and Pattern of Graft-versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation after Nonmyeloablative Conditioning with Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Antithymocyte Globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Veltri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmyeloablative (NMA conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI/ATG has been shown to protect against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. We report here our institutional experience with allogeneic transplantation following NMA conditioning with TLI/ATG (. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of a combination of a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. Median patient age was 59 years. The median followup of surviving patients is 545 days. One patient experienced primary graft rejection. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 18 days and platelet engraftment was 9.5 days. The cumulative incidence (CI of grade II–IV acute GVHD at day +100 was 28.6% and 38.1% at day +180. The CI for grade III-IV acute GVHD was 28.6% at day +180. CI of chronic GVHD was 45.2% at 1 year. The CI of disease relapse was 9.5% at 1 year. The rate of nonrelapse mortality (NRM was 0% at day +100 and only 9.5% at 1 year. The overall and progression free survival at 1 year was 81% and 80.4%, respectively. Our limited, retrospective data show encouraging relapse and NRM rates with TLI/ATG-based NMA conditioning, but with higher than previously reported rates of acute and chronic GVHD, underscoring the need for novel strategies designed to effectively prevent GVHD.

  8. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A continuous increase in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC) has been suggested. Since Denmark provides excellent conditions for epidemiological research, we aimed to describe contemporary IBD...... incidence rates and patient characteristics in Copenhagen County and City. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with IBD during 2003-2005 were followed prospectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as disease extent, extraintestinal manifestations, smoking habits, medical treatment, surgical...... interventions, cancer, and death, were registered. RESULTS: Five-hundred sixty-two patients were diagnosed with IBD, resulting in mean annual incidences of 8.6/10(5) for CD, 13.4/10(5) for UC, and 1.1/10(5) for IC. Time from onset to diagnosis was 8.3 months in CD and 4.5 months in UC patients. A family history...

  9. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T;

    2006-01-01

    involvement. Twelve percent of CD patients and 6% of UC patients underwent surgery during the year of diagnosis, significantly less than earlier reported. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IBD in Copenhagen increased noticeably during the last decades. Time from onset of symptoms until diagnosis decreased......OBJECTIVES: A continuous increase in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC) has been suggested. Since Denmark provides excellent conditions for epidemiological research, we aimed to describe contemporary IBD...... incidence rates and patient characteristics in Copenhagen County and City. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with IBD during 2003-2005 were followed prospectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as disease extent, extraintestinal manifestations, smoking habits, medical treatment, surgical...

  10. Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence in Relation to Fine versus Total Particulate Matter Exposure in a U.S. Aluminum Industry Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neophytou, Andreas M; Noth, Elizabeth M; Liu, Sa; Costello, Sadie; Hammond, S Katharine; Cullen, Mark R; Eisen, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been linked to exposures to airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter TPM). To assess potential benefits of PM2.5 monitoring, we compared the exposure-response relationships between both PM2.5 and TPM and incidence of IHD in a cohort of active aluminum industry workers. To account for the presence of time varying confounding by health status we applied marginal structural Cox models in a cohort followed with medical claims data for IHD incidence from 1998 to 2012. Analyses were stratified by work process into smelters (n = 6,579) and fabrication (n = 7,432). Binary exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cut-off from the respective TPM and PM2.5 exposure distributions for each work process. Hazard Ratios (HR) comparing always exposed above the exposure cut-off to always exposed below the cut-off were higher for PM2.5, with HRs of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.60) and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.02-2.13) in smelters and fabrication, respectively. For TPM, the HRs were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.89-1.77) and 1.25 (95% CI: 0.88-1.77) for smelters and fabrication respectively. Although TPM and PM2.5 were highly correlated in this work environment, results indicate that, consistent with biologic plausibility, PM2.5 is a stronger predictor of IHD risk than TPM. Cardiovascular risk management in the aluminum industry, and other similar work environments, could be better guided by exposure surveillance programs monitoring PM2.5. PMID:27249060

  11. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  12. Incident Ischemic Heart Disease After Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Accounting for 2 Forms of Survivor Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Sadie; Neophytou, Andreas M; Brown, Daniel M; Noth, Elizabeth M; Hammond, S Katharine; Cullen, Mark R; Eisen, Ellen A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the heart disease risks associated with occupational, rather than traffic-related, exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5). We examined long-term exposure to PM2.5 in cohorts of aluminum smelters and fabrication workers in the United States who were followed for incident ischemic heart disease from 1998 to 2012, and we addressed 2 forms of survivor bias. Left truncation bias was addressed by restricting analyses to the subcohort hired after the start of follow up. Healthy worker survivor bias, which is characterized by time-varying confounding that is affected by prior exposure, was documented only in the smelters and required the use of marginal structural Cox models. When comparing always-exposed participants above the 10th percentile of annual exposure with those below, the hazard ratios were 1.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.52) and 3.95 (95% CI: 0.87, 18.00) in the full and restricted subcohorts of smelter workers, respectively. In the fabrication stratum, hazard ratios based on conditional Cox models were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37) per 1 mg/m(3)-year in the full and restricted subcohorts, respectively. Long-term exposure to occupational PM2.5 was associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease among aluminum manufacturing workers, particularly in smelters, after adjustment for survivor bias.

  13. Role of traditional risk factors and antiretroviral drugs in the incidence of chronic kidney disease, ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort, France, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Morlat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of antiretroviral drugs (ART, HIV-related and traditional risk factors on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-infected patients from 2004 to 2012. METHODS: CKD was defined using MDRD equation as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/mn/1.73 m(2 at 2 consecutive measurements ≥3 months apart. Poisson regression models were used to study determinants of CKD either measured at baseline or updated. ART exposure was classified as ever or never. We additionally tested the role of tenofovir (TDF, whether or not prescribed concomitantly with a Protease Inhibitor (PI, taking into account the cumulative exposure to the drug. RESULTS: 4,350 patients (74% men with baseline eGFR>60 ml/mn/1.73 m(2 were followed for a median of 5.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 96% had received ART, one third of them (35% jointly received TDF and a PI. Average incidence rate of CKD was 0.95% person-years of follow-up. Incidence of CKD was higher among women (IRR = 2.2, older patients (>60 y vs 90 and IRR = 7.1 for 70500/mm(3 (IRR = 2.5, and exposure to TDF (IRR = 2.0. Exposure to TDF was even strongly associated with CKD when co-administered with PIs (IRR = 3.1 vs 1.3 when not, p12 months [IRR = 3.0 with joint PIs vs 1.3 without (p<0.001]. A vast majority of those developing CKD (76.6% had a baseline eGFR between 60 and 80 ml/mn/1.73 m(2. CONCLUSION: In patients with eGFR between 60 and 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2, a thorough control of CKD risk factors is warranted. The use of TDF, especially when co-administered with PIs, should be mentioned as a relative contraindication in presence of at least one of these risk factors.

  14. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Guinovart, Caterina; Lim, Stephen S; Wolock, Timothy M; Roberts, D Allen; Dansereau, Emily A; Graetz, Nicholas; Barber, Ryan M; Brown, Jonathan C; Wang, Haidong; Duber, Herbert C; Naghavi, Mohsen; Dicker, Daniel; Dandona, Lalit; Salomon, Joshua A; Heuton, Kyle R; Foreman, Kyle; Phillips, David E; Fleming, Thomas D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Phillips, Bryan K; Johnson, Elizabeth K; Coggeshall, Megan S; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ferede, Semaw; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Achoki, Tom; Adeyemo, Austine Olufemi; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Binagwaho, Agnes; Blore, Jed D; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Brainin, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Courville, Karen J; Cowie, Benjamin C; Criqui, Michael H; Dandona, Rakhi; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Driscoll, Tim R; Durrani, Adnan M; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Paleo, Urbano Fra.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Glaser, Elizabeth L; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Pi, Ileana B Heredia; Hoek, Hans W; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Huang, John J; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Innos, Kaire; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kankindi, Ida; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, S; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; De Lima, Graça Maria Ferreira; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Lotufo, Paulo A; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; Maclachlan, Jennifer H; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; Mckay, Abigail Cecilia; Meaney, Peter A; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Mori, Rintaro; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Nowaseb, Vincent; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris Igor; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M; Razavi, Homie; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Ronfani, Luca; Roy, Nobhojit; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Samonte, Genesis May J; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J C; Schwebel, David C; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H; Silva, Andrea P; Simard, Edgar P; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen Begüm; Vallely, Andrew J; Vasankari, Tommi J; Venketasubramanian, N; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wong, John Q; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C; Yano, Yuichiro; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zou, Xiao Nong; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occurred since the Millennium Declaration. Methods To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010–13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets. Findings Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1

  15. 不同原因耳聋患者耳鸣的发生率调查%The Incidence of Tinnitus and Hearing Loss with Different Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓬; 阮紫娟; 龚慧涵; 郭恩钦; 安玲玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide clinic data to study the pathogenesis of tinnitus and the incidence and correlation of tinnitus and hearing loss with different diseases. Methods The clinic investigation was conducted for 376 hearing loss with different diseases consisting of 120 cases of sudden deafness, 21 cases of Meniere diseases, 10 cases of noise deafness, 10 cases of presbycusis, 70 cases of unknown causes sensorineural deafness, 70 cases of suppurative otitis media, 45 cases of secretory otitis media, 10 cases of otosclerosis, 2 cases of ossicular chain malformations, 4 cases of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation, 4 cases of external auditory canal cholesteatoma, 10 cases of impacted cerumen. Each patient was interviewed in detail regarding tinnitus onset and the degree of correlation about tinnitus and hearing loss was determined for the time and location. Results In 376 cases of deafness, the incidence of tinnitus are 51.3% ,and the incidence of tinnitus related deafness is 43.6%. The incidence of tinnitus is different in different diseases: sudden deafness and Meniere's disease are higher 90%, 85.7% respectively, while noise deafness may also be higher. The other diseases are very lower with an average of 13.3%. Conclusion No tinnitus has been noted in more than half of deaf cases, further research is warranted.%目的 对不同疾病致聋患者耳鸣的发生率及耳鸣与所患耳疾的有关与否进行调查,为进一步研究耳鸣的发病机理提供临床资料.方法 对376例不同原因导致的耳聋患者进行临床调查,包括突发性聋120例,梅尼埃病21例,噪声性聋10例,老年性聋10例,不明原因感音神经性聋70例,化脓性中耳炎70例,分泌性中耳炎45例,耳硬化10例,听骨链畸形2例,外伤性鼓膜穿孔4例,外耳道胆脂瘤4例,耵聍栓塞10例.对每例患者详细询问是否出现耳鸣,并根据耳鸣与耳聋发生的时间先后及部位等判定二者的相关程度.结果 376例耳聋患

  16. Genetic parameters estimated at receiving for circulating cortisol, immunoglobulin G, interleukin 8, and incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrum, R R; Speidel, S E; Salak-Johnson, J L; Chase, C C L; Peel, R K; Weaber, R L; Loneagan, G H; Wagner, J J; Boddhireddy, P; Thomas, M G; Prayaga, K; DeNise, S; Enns, R M

    2016-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (i.e., shipping fever and bacterial bronchopneumonia) is a multifaceted respiratory illness influenced by numerous environmental factors and microorganisms. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is just one component of BRD complex. Because BRD is moderately heritable, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of BRD through genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to determine the heritability and associative genetic relationships among immune system traits (i.e., cortisol, total IgG, IgG isotypes, and IL-8) in cattle monitored for BRD incidence. At an average of 83 d after weaning (219 d age and mean = 221.7 kg [SD 4.34]), crossbred steer calves ( = 2,869) were received at a commercial feedlot in southeastern Colorado over a 2-yr period. At receiving, jugular blood samples were collected at 212 (yr 1) and 226 d (yr 2) of age for immune trait analyses. The BRD phenotype was defined as a binomial variable (0 = no and 1 = yes) and compared with immune system traits measured at receiving (prior to illness onset). An animal identified as BRD positive exhibited ≥ 2 clinical signs (i.e., eye or nasal discharge, cough, lethargy, rapid breathing, acute interstitial pneumonia, or acute upper respiratory syndrome and/or a rectal temperature > 39.7°C). Heritability and genetic correlation estimates for categorical variable BRD, cortisol, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IL-8 were estimated from a sire model using ASREML. Heritability estimates were low to moderate for BRD (0.17 ± 0.08), cortisol (0.13 ± 0.05), IgG (0.15 ± 0.05), IgG1 (0.11 ± 0.05), IgG2 (0.24 ± 0.06), and IL-8 (0.30 ± 0.06). A moderate negative genetic correlation was determined between BRD and cortisol ( = -0.19 ± 0.32). Moderate positive correlations were found between BRD with IgG (0.42 ± 0.28), IgG1 (0.36 ± 0.32), and IL-8 ( = 0.26 ± 0.26). Variation in the BRD phenotype and immune system traits suggested herd health improvement may be achieved through genetic

  17. The Impact of Normal Range of Serum Phosphorus on the Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease by A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xiu Chang

    Full Text Available Although hyperphosphatemia is deemed a risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD, it remains unclear whether the normal range of serum phosphorus likewise deteriorates CKD. A propensity score analysis was applied to examine the causal effect of the normal range of serum phosphorus on the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD.A retrospective CKD cohort of 803 participants in a single institution was analyzed. Propensity score was estimated using 22 baseline covariates by multivariate binary logistic regression for the different thresholds of time-averaged phosphorus (TA-P in the normal range of serum phosphorus incremented by 0.1 mg/dL from 3.3 to 4.5 mg/dL.The incidence rate of ESRD was 33.9 per 1,000 person-years over median follow-up of 4.3 years. Total patients showed the mean baseline phosphorus of 3.37 mg/dL and were divided to quartile. The higher quartile was associated with the parameters consistent with the advancement of CKD. A stratified Cox regression showed the highest hazard ratio (HR at TA-P 3.4 mg/dL (HR 17.60, 95% CI 3.92-78.98 adjusted for baseline covariates such as sex, age, diabetic nephropathy, estimated GFR, serum albumin, Na-Cl, phosphorus, LDL-C and proteinuria. Adjusted HRs remained high up to TA-P 4.2 mg/dL (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.33-3.71. After propensity score matching conducted at the thresholds of TA-P 3.4, 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 mg/dL, the higher levels of TA-P showed the higher HRs by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p < 0.05 by stratified log-rank test. The numbers needed to treat were calculated as 3.9 to 5.3 over 5 years.The propensity score analysis shows that even the normal range of serum phosphorus clearly accelerates CKD progression to ESRD. Our results encourage clinicians to target serum phosphorus to inhibit CKD progression in the manner of 'the lower the better.'

  18. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of...

  19. Environmentally Related Diseases and the Possibility of Valuation of Their Social Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona Hajok; Ewa Marchwińska; Grzegorz Dziubanek; Bernadeta Kuraszewska; Agata Piekut

    2014-01-01

    The risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer was estimated in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers during the removal of asbestos-cement products and the possibility of the valuation of the social costs related to this risk. The prediction of the new incidences was made using linear regression model. The forecast shows that to the end of 2030 about 3,500 new cases of lung cancer can be expected as a result of occupational exp...

  20. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  1. Epidemiology of neurological disorders in India: Review of background, prevalence and incidence of epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson′s disease and tremors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gourie-Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of neuroepidemiology in India during the last four decades has been documented highlighting the historical milestones. The prevalence rates of the spectrum of neurological disorders from different regions of the country ranged from 967-4,070 with a mean of 2394 per 100000 population, providing a rough estimate of over 30 million people with neurological disorders (excluding neuroinfections and traumatic injuries. Prevalence and incidence rates of common disorders including epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson′s disease and tremors determined through population-based surveys show considerable variation across different regions of the country. The need for a standardized screening questionnaire, uniform methodology for case ascertainment and diagnosis is an essential requiste for generating robust national data on neurological disorders. Higher rates of prevalence of neurological disorders in rural areas, 6-8 million people with epilepsy and high case fatality rates of stroke (27-42% call for urgent strategies to establish outreach neurology services to cater to remote and rural areas, develop National Epilepsy Control Program and establish stroke units at different levels of health care pyramid.

  2. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. I. Humoral immune activity. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, E.H.; Peterson, W.J.; Gottlier, C.F.; Halsall, M.K.; Caccheiro, L.H.; Makinodan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different immunosuppressive treatments during young adulthood on humoral immune competence late in life was determined. It was found that the marked reduction in humoral immune competence in aged mice is further compromised when severe insults are administered early in life. Thus, thymectomy, splenectomy, and sublethal x-irradiation produced lasting immunodepression as measured in situ and by the hemolysin, direct and indirect plaque forming cells responses of adoptively transferred spleen cells. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate were without effect, indicating that drug-damaged cells of the immune system were replaced by competent cells during the course of time. Decrease in immune competence of aged thymectomized animals could not be correlated with a decrease in numbers of theta-bearing T or immunoglobulin receptor-bearing B lymphocytes. The significance of the observed unequal effects of these immunosuppressants on immune competence, as they relate to disease incidence and life expectancy, are dealt with in the third paper in this series.

  3. Urinary biomarkers are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration of kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine W;

    2016-01-01

    in unadjusted (HR 1.4 [95% CI 1.0, 1.9], p = 0.04) and adjusted (HR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1, 2.3], p = 0.013) models, and with a decline in the eGFR of >30% in unadjusted (HR 1.6 [95% CI 1.2, 2.2], p = 0.008) and adjusted (HR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1, 2.2], p = 0.007) models. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2...... in unadjusted (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.3, 2.8], p = 0.001) and adjusted (HR 2.0 [95% CI 1.2, 3.2], p = 0.004) models, and of all-cause mortality in unadjusted (HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.3, 3.9], p = 0.003) and adjusted (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.3, 4.8], p = 0.005) models. A higher adiponectin level was associated with CVD......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated two urinary biomarkers reflecting different aspects of renal pathophysiology as potential determinants of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and a reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria but without...

  4. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  5. Lung function and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after improved cooking fuels and kitchen ventilation: a 9-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters; questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO₂, CO, CO₂, NO₂, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions. Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁: decline in FEV₁ was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV₁, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y. The longer the duration of improved fuel use and

  6. Severidade da lixa-grande do coqueiro-anão e incidência de hiperparasitismo em Parnamirim, Rio Grande do Norte Disease severity and incidence of hiperparasitism in coconut (Cocos nucifera L. leaves affected by the fungi Sphaerodothis acrocomiae in Parnamirim, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Augusto Gouveia de Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em um coqueiral localizado na Estação Experimental Rammel Mesquita de Farias localizada no município de Parnamirim-RN, no período compreendido entre abril de 2000 e março de 2001. Foram efetuadas observações quanto ao progresso (incidência e severidade da lixa-grande do coqueiro causada pelo fungo Sphaerodothis acrocomiae e a ocorrência de hiperparasitismo sobre o agente causal da doença. Durante o período de observação, a incidência da lixa-grande foi igual a 100%. O progresso da severidade apresentou tendências distintas de aumento entre os meses de abril e julho de 2000 e de decréscimo a partir do mês seguinte até março de 2001; da mesma forma, foram as tendências da incidência de hiperparasitismo. A severidade da lixa-grande e a incidência de hiperparasitas correlacionaram-se positiva e significativamente com as variáveis climáticas, precipitação pluviométrica e umidade relativa, e negativamente com as temperaturas.The study was realized at the Experimental Station Rammel Mesquita Farias in the municipal district of Parnamirim, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, in the period from April, 2000, to March, 2001. The observations were concerned to the disease progress (incidence and severity on the coconut leaflets, as well as the occurrence of hiperparasitism on the causal agent. In all observations the disease incidence was equal to 100%. The progress of the severity presented different tendencies: increasing - from April to July, 2000 and decreasing from this month to Mach of 2001. In the same way were the tendencies of the hiperparasitism incidence. The disease severity and the hiperparasitism incidence were correlated positively and significantly with the climatic variables, pluviometric precipitation and relative humidity and, negatively with the temperatures.

  7. A comparison of management practices, farmer-perceived disease incidence and winter housing on organic and non-organic dairy farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Fritha M; Rutherford, Kenneth Md; Jack, Mhairi C; Sherwood, Lorna; Lawrence, Alistair B; Haskell, Marie J

    2009-02-01

    There have been increases in the number of organic dairy farms in the UK in recent years. However, there is little information on the impact of organic regulations on cow welfare. As part of a larger study, we aimed to investigate differences between organic and non-organic farms in management practices and winter housing quality. Forty organic and 40 non-organic farms throughout the UK were visited. Organic and non-organic farms were paired for housing type, and as far as possible for herd size, genetic merit and location. A detailed questionnaire covering key aspects of dairy management was carried out with each farmer. On a subset of twenty pairs, an assessment of the quality of the winter housing for both lactating and dry cows was undertaken, covering the parlour, bedding, loafing and feeding areas. Management practices and building conditions varied greatly within farm types and there was considerable overlap between organic and non-organic farms. Milk yield, level and composition of concentrate feed, management of heifers and calving, and use of 'alternative treatments' to prevent and treat mastitis differed between organic and non-organic farms. In all other respects there were no differences between farm types. Building dimensions per cow did not differ, even though organic recommendations advise greater space per cow than recommended for non-organic farms. The similarity between organic and non-organic farms in most respects indicates that cow housing and health, based on both the described management regimes and the farmers' perceptions of disease incidence, on organic dairy farms is neither compromised by the regulations, nor considerably better than on non-organic farms. PMID:18922194

  8. Incidence of Reinfections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Pig Farms Located in Respiratory-Disease-Free Regions of Switzerland – Identification and Quantification of Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidegger R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify risk factors for reintroduction of Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia onto pig farms in areas in Switzerland that were involved in an eradication programme from 1996 to 1999 and to assess the role of dealers in relation to these reinfections. The study was based on the comparison of pig farms that were reinfected in the year 2000 (cases and pig farms that remained uninfected in the same area (controls. Additionally, data were collected from Swiss pig dealers and transport companies. Out of a total of 3983 farms, 107 farms were reinfected in the year 2000. The incidences were 0.1% for Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and 2.6% for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia. Compared to reinfection rates prior to the eradication programme, this is a considerable reduction. Statistically significant risk factors for the reinfection were 'finishing farm', 'large mixed breeding-finishing farm', 'reinfected neighbour' and 'parking site for pig transport vehicles close to the farm'. Pig farmers that purchased pigs from only one supplier per batch had a lower risk of reintroducing infection (protective factor. As long as infected and uninfected regions co-exist in Switzerland, direct and indirect contact between farms, pig herds and slaughter sites via transport vehicles are a major pathway of disease spread. Risk management measures linked to these contacts are therefore of key importance. The survey of dealers indicated various areas for improvement such as strategic planning of pick-up routes or cleaning and disinfecting of trucks.

  9. INCIDENCIA DE CARDIOPATÍAS DURANTE EL EMBARAZO EN LA PROVINCIA DE VILLA CLARA / Incidence of heart disease during pregnancy in Villa Clara province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilín C. Luna Alonso

    2012-07-01

    . The objective of this research was to determine the behavior of heart disease in pregnant women, its medical care and evolution during and after pregnancy. Method: A prospective descriptive study was performed, which analyzed 283 pregnant women diagnosed with heart disease, and treated at the Obstetrics and Gynecology University Hospital "Mariana Grajales" in Santa Clara, Villa Clara, in the period 2008-2010. Information was obtained through review of individual medical records, interview, complete physical examination and laboratory tests to establish or confirm the diagnosis. Results: A heart disease incidence of 17.2 per thousand pregnant women was obtained and in 59.7% of them, the heart disease was acquired, and the mitral valve prolapse was the most frequent (45%. Of the congenital diseases, 36.8% was an atrial septal defect. Antibiotic prophylaxis was used in 96.8% of pregnant women and in 96.1% of them a medical monitoring was kept. 92.6% had functional class I and 4.6% presented disease-related complications. 77.4% gave birth between 37 and 42 weeks, and 82.7% had vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Pregnant women with heart disease were more common in ages 20 to 29 years, predominantly in those who had not given birth, whose pregnancies had been detected between 13 and 24 weeks, and with acquired heart diseases. The prevailing medical care was antibiotic prophylaxis and medical monitoring with satisfactory final outcome of pregnancy.

  10. A registry-based follow-up study, comparing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia: do social inequalities play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana F; Larsen, Finn; Nielsen, Signe S;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, we examined whether different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES...... and AMI included fatal and non-fatal events and were taken from registries. Using Cox regression models, we estimated incidence rates at 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: Immigrant men and women from Turkey and Pakistan had an increased incidence of CVD, compared with native Danish men. In the case of AMI......, differences in CVD and AMI were reduced after adjustment for SES, in particular, among Turks regarding CVD. In women, effects were particularly reduced among Yugoslavians in the case of CVD and in Turks in the case of CVD and AMI after adjustment for SES. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, country of birth...

  11. Perceived Stress Is Associated With Incident Coronary Heart Disease and All‐Cause Mortality in Low‐ but Not High‐Income Participants in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, Nicole; Richman, Joshua; Gamboa, Christopher M.; Albert, Michelle A.; Sims, Mario; Durant, Raegan W.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Safford, Monika M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived stress may increase risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and death, but few studies have examined these relationships longitudinally. We sought to determine the association of perceived stress with incident CHD and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results Data were from a prospective study of 24 443 participants without CHD at baseline from the national Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study cohort. Outcomes were expert‐adjudicated acute ...

  12. Predictive Effects of Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid–Binding Protein for Deteriorating Renal Function and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Without Advanced Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Shin-ichi; Haneda, Masakazu; Koya, Daisuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Isshiki, Keiji; Kume, Shinji; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To improve prognosis, it is important to predict the incidence of renal failure and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients before the progression to advanced nephropathy. We investigated the predictive effects of urinary liver-type fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP), which is associated with renal tubulointerstitial damage, in renal and cardiovascular prognosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (n = 618) with serum creatinine ≤1.0 mg/dL and ...

  13. Incidencia de enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en Cantabria (1995-2001 e implicaciones para el calendario vacunal Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in Cantabria, Spain, (1995-2001 and implications for the childhood inmunization schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la incidencia de enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en Cantabria en los años 1995-2001. Método: Consulta de los registros del conjunto mínimo básico de datos (CMBD de los hospitales públicos de Cantabria, así como altas de los hospitales privados, registro de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO, y diagnósticos microbiológicos e historias clínicas de los niños ingresados en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Cantabria (el hospital de referencia de tercer nivel. Resultados: Se obtuvo una incidencia de meningitis de 5,55, 5,03 y 0,76/100.000 en los niños Objective: To describe the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in Cantabria (Spain between 1995 and 2001. Method: We reviewed the records of the Minimum Data Set (MDS of public hospitals in Cantabria, discharges from private hospitals and the registry of diseases of mandatory reporting, as well as the microbiologic diagnoses and medical records of children discharged from the Pediatric Service of the Cantabria Hospital (the tertiary care hospital in our autonomous community. Results: We obtained a meningitis incidence of 5.55, 5.03 and 0.76/100,000 in children < 2 years, ≥ 2 and < 5 years, and ≥ 5 years respectively, and an incidence of invasive disease of 11.11, 11.32 and 1.49/100,000 in the same age groups. Conclusions: The incidence of meningitis and invasive pneumococcal disease in Cantabria is low. We discuss factors that should be taken into account when introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the childhood immunization schedule of Cantabria.

  14. A registry-based follow-up study, comparing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia: do social inequalities play a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen Anne H; Diderichsen Finn; Nielsen Signe S; Larsen Finn B; Hempler Nana F; Jørgensen Torben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, we examined whether different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES), such as employment, income and housing conditions influenced potential differences. Methods In this registry-based follow-up study individuals were identified in a large database that included individ...

  15. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Larsen, T; Sørensen, J T; Agger, J F; Blom, J Y

    2001-01-01

    The present review analyses the documentation on incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia. It is hereby evaluated whether the existing documentation seems sufficient for further modelling in a decision support system for selection of a control strategy. Several studies have been carried out revealing an incidence of milk fever most often in the level of 5-10%. Few studies indicate that the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia is several times higher than milk fever. The diagnosis based on clinical or laboratory methods or based on presence of risk factors is outlined. The clinical symptoms of milk fever are highly specific and the disease level may thus be determined from recording of treatments. Diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcaemia needs to include laboratory examinations or it may be determined by multiplying the incidence of milk fever by a certain factor. From the documentation on risk factors, it is very complex to predict the incidence from the exposure level of the risk factors. Due to uncertainty, sensitivity analyses over a wide range of values for each parameter are needed. The documentation of cow characteristics, nutrition, environment and management as risk factors are described. Among cow characteristics, parity or age, body condition and production level were found to be important. Risk factors associated with nutrition included most importantly dietary cation-anion difference and calcium level whereas the importance of general feeding related factors like type of feed stuff and feeding level were less clear. Environment and management included season, climate, housing, pasturing, exercise, length of dry period and prepartum milking. Several of the parameters on environment and management were confounded among each other and therefore firm conclusions on the importance were difficult. The documentation of the effect of milk fever includes the downer cows, reproductive disorders, occurrence of

  16. Uso de modelos epidemiológicos para estimar la incidencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas Use of epidemiological models to estimate the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Corsini Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de caries y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas mediante un modelo de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad (IPM. Material y Método: Se construyó un modelo IPM con la prevalencia estimada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2003 y los datos del Estudio de Carga de Enfermedad en Chile en el año 2007. Para efectos de estimar la población de mujeres embarazadas, se utilizó como variable de aproximación, los partos por edad de las mujeres según la información de los nacimientos registrado por el Instituto de Nacional de Estadística (INE. Los datos fueron ingresados en el programa DisMod para determinar las incidencias y comprobar la consistencia interna del modelo. Resultados: La incidencia de caries estimada por el modelo fue de 86.870 nuevos casos y de 7.983 casos incidentes al año para la enfermedad periodontal, en un universo estimado de 230.831 mujeres embarazadas. Conclusión: Los modelos epidemiológicos son una herramienta útil para determinar la epidemiología de cualquier enfermedad, en donde la estimación de la incidencia constituye un problema y estudios de investigación en campo serían muy costoso, de larga duración y/o en donde la problemática ética del estudio sería inaceptable.Objectives: To determine the incidence of caries and periodontal disease in pregnant Chilean women through an incidence, prevalence and mortality model (IPM. Material and Methods: An IPM model was constructed with the prevalence estimated the National Health Survey 2003 and data from the Burden of Disease study in Chile in 2007. The childbirths by age of women, according to the information from the National Statistics Institute, were used to estimate the population of pregnant women. Data were entered into the DisMod program to determine the incidence and check the internal consistency of the model. Results: The estimated incidence of caries by the model was of 86.870 new cases and 7

  17. Epidemiologic study on the current incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Madrid Estudio epidemiológico sobre la incidencia actual de la enfemedad inflamatoria intestinal en un área sanitaria de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López-Serrano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD varies widely according to geographical area and has been reported to have increased in the last few years. No data are available on the current incidence of this disease in Madrid (Spain. Aim: to determine the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the area of influence of University Hospital Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, and to compare our results with those from other Spanish and European series. Patients and methods: a prospective, population-based study was performed to determine the incidence of IBD in the area of University Hospital Fundación Alcorcón in Madrid between 2003 and 2005. Total population: 213,587 inhabitants (177,490 older than 14 years. Crude rates and age- and sex-specific rates adjusted to the European standard population were calculated. A retrospective study (1998-2003 was also performed. Results: a total of 69 cases were diagnosed -Crohn's disease (CD: 35, ulcerative colitis (UC: 33, indeterminate colitis: 1- in the prospective period. Crude rates of CD and UC were 7.92 and 7.47 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively (the population aged 0-14 years. Specific rates were 8.0 (95% CI, 7.03-8.97 and 7.47 (95% CI, 6.5-8.4, respectively. Mean age at diagnosis was 31.02± 10.76 and 39.91±16.19 years for CD and UC, respectively. Incidence in the retrospective study was 7.13 and 6.22 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively for CD and UC. Conclusions: the incidence of CD and UC in Madrid has increased in the last decades, with rates close to those in northern European countries for CD, higher than those recently published in Spanish prospective studies and similar to those previously described in Spain and southern countries for UC. Rates were higher in the prospective period than in the retrospective one.

  18. ARIMA模型与GRNN模型对性病发病率的预测研究%Prediction on the incidence of blood and sexually transmitted diseases with models of ARIMA and GRNN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琴; 苏虹; 王忱诚; 单晓伟; 常微微; 徐志伟; 王静; 韩红梅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prediction efficiency of sexually transmitted diseases with models of ARIMA and GRNN. METHODS ARIMA (0, 0, 1) model with the incidence of each month was established, the incidence of each month as CRNN model was input, and the corresponding next month incidence as the network was output. The the application of two models was compared. RESULTS The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 135.32/100 000, and rose slowly at average annual rate of 1.03 during 2005 to 2009 in xinzhan district of Hefei. The mean error rates (MSE) of ARIMA model and GRNN model were 33.8% and 27.0%, respectively; the R2 values of two models were 0.714 and 0.749, respectively. CONCLUSION The incidence of the sexual transmission disease showed a gentle wave-like uplift, GRNN model was suitable for forecasting the incidence of such diseases, and the result recommends the public health officer should control the epidemic situation according to forecast results in time.%目的 比较ARIMA模型与GRNN模型在性病发病率预测上的有效性.方法 以新站区2005 ~2009年传染病疫情资料为基础,利用月发病率建立ARIMA (0,0,1)模型;将各月的发病率作为GRNN模型的输入,对应下个月发病率作为网络的输出,对样本进行训练,比较两模型的应用效果.结果 合肥市新站区2005 ~2009年性病平均发病率达135.32/10万,并以年平均发展速度1.03缓慢上升.ARIMA (0,0,1)模型与GRNN模型的平均误差率分别是33.8%和27.0%; R2值分别是0.714和0.749.结论 新站区性病呈平缓的波浪式上升,GRNN模型较适合该类疾病的发病率预测,建议公共卫生人员依据疫情预测及时做好防控工作.

  19. A population-based study of syphilis and sexually transmitted disease syndromes in north-western Tanzania. 1. Prevalence and incidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Mosha, F; Nicoll, A; Barongo, L; Borgdorff, M.; Newell, J; Senkoro, K; Grosskurth, H.; Changalucha, J; Klokke, A.; Killewo, J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of syphilis and the prevalence and incidence of self-reported STD syndromes in the population of Mwanza Region, North-Western Tanzania. METHODS--A population-based random cluster sample survey, stratified by rural, roadside or urban residence, of 4173 individuals aged 15-54 years was performed in 1990-91. The seroprevalence of syphilis (using TPHA and RPR) and the prevalence and incidence of self-reported genital ulcer syndrome (GUS) and genital discharg...

  20. Quality incidents in projects

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    A quality incident is an occurrence that has a negative consequence on time, cost and quality.These incidents are important for quality management in the projects. Similar to Health,Safety and Environment Incidents (HSE incidents) which are widely used in organizations allaround the world and in their projects, quality incidents should also be reported. For thepurpose of this, quality incident reporting systems can be used.The main purpose of this project is to define and explain the current ...

  1. A registry-based follow-up study, comparing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia: do social inequalities play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Anne H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI between native Danes and immigrants born in Turkey, Pakistan and the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, we examined whether different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES, such as employment, income and housing conditions influenced potential differences. Methods In this registry-based follow-up study individuals were identified in a large database that included individuals from two major regions in Denmark, corresponding to about 60% of the Danish population. Incident cases of CVD and AMI included fatal and non-fatal events and were taken from registries. Using Cox regression models, we estimated incidence rates at 5-year follow-up. Results Immigrant men and women from Turkey and Pakistan had an increased incidence of CVD, compared with native Danish men. In the case of AMI, a similar pattern was observed; however, differences were more pronounced. Pakistanis and Turks with a shorter duration of residence had a lower incidence, compared with those of a longer residence. Generally, no notable differences were observed between former Yugoslavians and native Danes. In men, differences in CVD and AMI were reduced after adjustment for SES, in particular, among Turks regarding CVD. In women, effects were particularly reduced among Yugoslavians in the case of CVD and in Turks in the case of CVD and AMI after adjustment for SES. Conclusions In conclusion, country of birth-related differences in the incidence of CVD and AMI were observed. At least some of the differences that we uncovered were results of a socioeconomic effect. Duration of residence also played a certain role. Future studies should collect and test different indicators of SES in studies of CVD among immigrants.

  2. Prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos em recém-nascidos ao nascimento e em suas respectivas mães e incidência de doença hemolítica numa maternidade de São Paulo Prevalence of immunohematologic tests at birth and the incidence of hemolytic disease in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cianciarullo

    2003-01-01

    ção no grupo I. CONCLUSÕES: O grupo I, onde se concentram as incompatibilidades Rh, apresentou maior incidência de doença hemolítica e maior necessidade de tratamento com exsangüíneotransfusão, o que mostra ainda a gravidade deste sistema em nosso meio. O grupo D, onde se concentram as incompatibilidades ABO, apresentou maior incidência de doença hemolítica e tratamento com fototerapia e menor necessidade de exsangüíneotransfusão.The administration of anti-D globulin to the mothers has decreased the incidence of Rh hemolytic disease but the improvement of technologic assays has made it possible to identify several hemolytics diseases of the newborn. BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence of immunohematologic tests demonstrated by indirect (IC, direct (DC and elution tests; to identify the incidence of hemolytic disease and its treatment (phototherapy and/or exchange transfusion in neonates with hemolytic disease. This is a retrospective cohort-study performed from January 1st 1996 to July 1st 1998. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of the immunohematologic profile of 1698 mothers and their offsprings, as risk factors for developing hemolytic disease. The inclusion criteria were the positivity of the indirect (IC and direct (DC Coombs tests and elution tests. Based on the inclusion criteria three group of infants were analyzed: Group I was composed of 149 offsprings of Coombs-positive mothers (IC+ with antibodies associated with neonatal hemolytic disease. This group was further divided into two groups: Group I-A (IC+DC+ was composed of 83 Coombs-positive offsprings (DC+ of Coombs-positive mothers (IC+ and Group I-B (IC+DC- was composed of 66 Coombs-negative offsprings (DC- of Coombs-positive mothers (IC+; Group D was composed of 736 Coombs-positive offspring's of Coombs-negative mothers (IC-; and Group E was composed of 807 Coombs-negative and elution-positive offspring's of Coombs-negative mothers. RESULTS: This study shown that the overall prevalence of

  3. Influence of long-term colonoscopic surveillance on incidence of colorectal cancer and death from the disease in patients with precursors (adenomas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus;

    2007-01-01

    of the 27 patients died from CRC, the expected number being 25 (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.36). A total of 6 289 colonoscopies resulted in severe complications in 20 patients and two died from complications. Long-term colonoscopic surveillance may reduce incidence of CRC as well as mortality in patients...

  4. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990—2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J L Murray, Christopher; F Ortblad, Katrina; Guinovart, Caterina;

    2014-01-01

    and HIV deaths have been reversed and declines in tuberculosis deaths have accelerated. 101 countries (74 of which are developing) still have increasing HIV incidence. Substantial progress since the Millennium Declaration is an encouraging sign of the effect of global action. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates...

  5. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  6. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  7. Effect of Body Mass Index on All-cause Mortality and Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases - Report for Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To verify the optimal cut-off points for overweight and obesity in Chinese adults based on the relationship of baseline body mass index (BMI) to all-cause mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases from pooled data of Chinese cohorts. Methods The prospective study data of existing cohort studies in China were collected, and the age-adjusted all-cause mortality stratified by BMI were estimated. The similar analysis was repeated after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and after excluding smokers. The incidence of age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke stratified by BMI were also analyzed. Multiple Cox regression coefficients of BMI for the incidence of CHD and stroke after controlling other risk factors were pooled utilizing the methods of weighting by inverse of variance to reveal whether BMI had independent effect and its strength on the incidence of CHD and stroke. Results The data of 4 cohorts including 76 227persons, with 745 346 person-years of follow-up were collected and analyzed. The age-adjusted allcause mortality stratified by BMI showed a U-shaped curve, even after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and excluding smokers. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality increased when BMI was lower than 18.5 and higher than 28. The incidence of CHD and stroke, especially ishemic stroke increased with increasing BMI, this was consistent with parallel increasing of risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for both CHD and stroke. Each amount of 2 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI might cause 15.4%, 6.1% and 18.8 % increase in relative risk of CHD, total stroke and ischemic stroke. Reduction of BMI to under 24 might prevent the incidence of CHD by 11% and that of stroke by15 % for men, and 22 % of both diseases for women. Conclusion BMI ≤18.5, 24-27.9 and ≥28 (kg/m2) is the appropriate cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in

  8. Methotrexate Reduces the Incidence of Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease without Increasing the Risk of Relapse after Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Unrelated Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Stéphane; Tabrizi, Reza; Melot, Cyril; Coiffard, Joelle; Lafarge, Xavier; Marit, Gérald; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Pigneux, Arnaud; Leguay, Thibaut; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Schmitt, Anna; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Milpied, Noël

    2011-01-01

    Optimized prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation when preceded by a conditioning regimen utilizing antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is poorly defined. To investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) in this treatment setting, we conducted a retrospective analysis. Sixty-three patients were selected based on the administration of a total dose of 5 mg/kg of ATG in the conditioning regimen and then separated into either group M+ (n = 39), which received MTX or group M- (n = 24), which did not. All patients received cyclosporine. In the M- and M+ groups, cumulative incidences (CI) of grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 43% and 10%, respectively (P = .002). Multivariate analysis indicated that grade III-IV aGVHD was favored by both the absence of MTX and the provision of a female donor for a male recipient. At 2 years, the M+ and M- groups exhibited, respectively: overall survival of 69% and 40% (P = .06), disease-free survival of 57% and 43% (P = .2), nonrelapse mortality of 20% and 44% (P = .1), and incidence of relapse of 27% and 35% (P = .6). These data suggest that MTX reduces the incidence of severe aGVHD without increasing the risk of relapse but with an accompanying trend toward improved survival after unrelated reduced-intensity transplantation with ATG in the conditioning regimen.

  9. Survey of incidence of chronic diseases in senile community in a mining area in Handan City%邯郸矿院社区老年居民慢性病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海军; 刘芙蓉; 张天敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查邯郸矿院社区老年居民慢性病患病情况.方法 2009年3~5月对邯郸矿院社区老年居民进行整群随机抽样调查.结果 ①慢性病患病率75.6%.②超重患病率53.9%、肥胖30.3%、腹型肥胖81.7%.③高血压患病率42.5%,男、女性患病率相近;糖尿病患病率10.3%,男性患病率高于女性;冠心病3.62%与脑血管病1.14%,女性患病率高于男性;均与BMI、WC正相关.④高TC急病率28.2%、高TG33.1%、高LDL-C14.3%和低HDL-C 32.6%.⑤脂肪肝患病率21.5%,男性患病率高于女性.⑥不良生活、行为方式及日常诊疗不良习惯广泛存在.结论 邯郸矿院社区老年居民中慢性病患病率高,应采取措施,改善不良生活行为方式,纠正日常诊疗不良习惯,降低慢性病患病率.%Aim To survey the incidence of chronic diseases in senile residents in Handan Mining Community.Methods A cross-sectional survey of incidence of chronic disease in 525 senile residents was conducted. Results The total prevalence of chronic disease was 75.6%. The incidence rates of hypergravitation,obesity,centralobesity and hypertentsion were 53.9%, 30.3%, 81.7% and 42.5%. The incidence of diabetes was 10.3%, being higher in males than that of the females. The incidence rates of coronary heart disease and stroke were 3.62% and 1.14%, being higher in the females than that of the males and all positively correlated with BMI and WC. The incidence of hypercholesteremia,hypertriglyceridemia,high serium low density lipoprotein colesterol and low serium high density lipoprotein colesterol were 28.2%,.33.1%,14.3% and 32.6%. The prevalene of fatty liver was 21.5%. In addition,unhealthy lifestyle and habits as well as behaviors were also common. Conclution The prevalence of chronic disease was high and effective prevention and control measures be adopted to reduce the incidence and change their unhealthy lifestyle,behaviors and habits.

  10. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Guinovart, Caterina; Lim, Stephen S.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Roberts, D. Allen; Dansereau, Emily A.; Graetz, Nicholas; Barber, Ryan M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Wang, Haidong; Duber, Herbert C.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Dicker, Daniel; Dandona, Lalit; Salomon, Joshua A.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Foreman, Kyle; Phillips, David E.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Phillips, Bryan K.; Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Achoki, Tom; Adeyemo, Austine Olufemi; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Angel Alegretti, Miguel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Binagwaho, Agnes; Blore, Jed D.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Brainin, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Courville, Karen J.; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dilmen, Ugur; Ding, Eric L.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia Pi, Ileana B.; Hoek, Hans W.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kankindi, Ida; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, S.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Ferreira De Lima, Graca Maria; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Pedro Machado, Vasco Manuel; Maclachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Barrieotos Marzan, Melvin; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mckay, Abigail Cecilia; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Mori, Rintaro; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Nowaseb, Vincent; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris Igor; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Ronfani, Luca; Roy, Nobhojit; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen Begum; Vallely, Andrew J.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wong, John Q.; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yong C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zou, Xiao Nong; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between

  11. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, C.J.; Ortblad, K.F.; Guinovart, C.; Lim, S.S.; Wolock, T.M.; Roberts, D.A.; Dansereau, E.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between

  12. Incidence of major chronic diseases in Xiacheng district of Hangzhou, 2006-2011%2006-2011年杭州市下城区主要慢性病发病情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琪; 何宝华

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析杭州市下城区2006-2011年主要慢性病发病情况,为制定干预政策提供参考依据.方法 资料来源于杭州市下城区公共卫生监测系统2006-2011年慢性病监测数据库和年度报表,采用国际疾病分类法(ICD-10)进行编码,通过描述性流行病学方法对资料进行统计分析.结果 2006-2011年杭州市下城区恶性肿瘤、糖尿病、脑卒中和冠心病急性事件的平均发病率为864.37/10万,平均增长速度为10.37%,总体发病率呈逐年增长的趋势.四类慢性疾病的发病率,男性均高于女性,且差异有统计学意义(x2=134.67,P<0.05).各种慢性病的发病率均随年龄增加而升高,且在青少年均有发病.恶性肿瘤发病前5位依次为肺癌、大肠癌、胃癌、乳腺癌和肝癌.乳腺癌在女性恶性肿瘤发病中居第1位.糖尿病并发症的比例高,占发病总数的14.47%.脑卒中和冠心病急性事件中发病最高的分别是脑梗塞和急性心肌梗塞,发病率分别为174.02/10万和34.82/10万.结论 老年男性成为慢性病防治的重点人群,同时发病的年轻化趋势也不容忽视.应通过有针对性的健康教育,开展恶性肿瘤筛查以及对慢性病患者进行规范化管理等干预措施,降低慢性病的发病以及并发症的发生,提高居民生活质量.%Objective To analyze the incidence pattern of major chronic diseases in Xiacheng district of Hangzhou from 2006 to 2011 and provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention strategies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of chronic diseases in Xiacheng district from 2006 to 2011 collected from public health surveillance system in Xiacheng district and coded according to ICD-10. Results From 2006 to 2011, the overall average incidence of malignant tumors, diabetes, strokes, and acute coronary heart disease events was 864. 37/lakh with an annual increase of 10. 37% . The incidences of

  13. Meta-analysis of incidence of degenerative and sprained/strained cervical spine diseases in military aviators%军事飞行人员劳损退变性颈椎疾病荟萃分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立君; 卫杰; 龚成; 孔德良; 王飞; 范宇; 赵平; 王建昌

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析归纳军事飞行人员劳损退变性颈椎疾病的发病情况。方法检索Medline、Pubmed、中国生物医学文献数据库、中国生物医学期刊引文数据库、中华医学会数字化期刊全文数据库、维普中文生物医学期刊、中国学术期刊全文数据库,时间范围从各数据库起始收录年至2013年6月有关飞行人员劳损退变性颈椎疾病发病率的相关文献。依据荟萃分析原则,从调查方法、研究对象、样本量、调查结果、研究机构等方面对入选文献进行分析,将文献质量等级分为A~D共4级。分析文献的科学价值,归纳总结这类颈椎病的发病情况。结果共检索出军事飞行人员劳损退变性颈椎疾病相关中文文献121篇,英文文献393篇。其中与发病率有关中文文献12篇,英文文献22篇;A级2篇,B级7篇,C级17篇,D级8篇。飞行相关颈痛发病率为57.98%,颈椎病发病率为32.53%,住院率为5.42%,神经根型颈椎病发病率为0.50%。颈腰椎疾病军事飞行人员住院疾病构成比为10.01%,占停飞疾病的10.60%,均居第一位。结论近60%军事飞行人员会发生飞行相关性颈痛,颈椎病的发病率高达30%以上。颈腰椎疾病是军事飞行人员住院和停飞的第一大病种。%Objective Our goal was to analyze and conclude the incidence of degenerative and sprained/strained cervical spine diseases in military aviators.Methods We systematically searched Medline and Pubmed from 1950,CMB from 1978,CMCI from 1994,CMADP from 1998,CMJD from 1989 and CHKD from 1994 to June 2013 for literatures about incidence of degenerative and sprained/strained cervical spine diseases in military aviators,and critically reviewed literature.Then we assessed the quality of the literatures using a 4-grade scale, concerning study design,objects,sample size,results and research institutes,and concluded the incidence of disease.Results Of 121 Chinese literatures

  14. Clinical and radiological observations on asbestos-related pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlig, H.; Hain, E.

    1980-01-01

    The papers in this session, which are summarized briefly, do not cover the wide range of radiological and clinical problems resulting from inhalation of asbestos dust. Pleural effusions are found in persons exposed occupationally to asbestos, even in the absence of asbestosis, but they are difficult to attribute to such exposure. Asbestosis of the lung shows no striking symptoms and can also be diagnosed only after all other possibilities have been excluded. There are no convincing or striking morphological peculiarities that suggest that an 'asbestos lung cancer' exists. Mesotheliomas of the pleura and of the peritoneum are usually resistant to therapy of any kind, although several possibilities are discussed. Radiological surveillance is presented as being still the most effective and reliable method for medical surveillance of asbestos workers. Circumscribed pleural thickening is benign but a good indicator of exposure to mineral dusts. Diffuse pleural thickening occurs frequently in nonexposed groups and cannot, therefore, be used as an indication of exposure; however, it cannot yet be ruled out as being significant epidemiologically.

  15. The power of the age standardized incidence rate to discover the gene link between cancer diseases: development of a new epidemiological method to save money, time, and effort for genetic scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mohammed A El-Sheemy4 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2College of Medicine, University of Al-Baha, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 4Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development United, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study provides an incipient epidemiological rule using the concept of direct method of standardization to determine the genetic link between cancer diseases. Methods: The overall 8 or 10 years age standardized incidence rate (ASIR for both cancer diseases, for example (A and (B should be calculated for all regions of the country. A line chart should be used to display the overall ASIR trend of both diseases (A and B. Pearson’s correlation can be used to determine the strength of the association between the overall ASIRs of both diseases. The overlap or opposite direction of the overall ASIR trend of both diseases (A and B should be determined and studied for possible associations between cancer diseases. Results: If the trend of the overall 8 or 10 years ASIR of a disease (A follows that of disease (B in all regions of the country, then the genes of patients with both diseases (A and B will be highly homogeneous, and they should be studied in the region with the highest and lowest overall ASIR for both diseases (A and B. In addition, if there is an opposite direction or overlapping trend for both diseases (A and B in certain regions of the country or among specific groups of people with the same demographic characteristics, then the genes of patients will be investigated for both diseases to identify the potential gene link between cancer diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the overall ASIR trends of female breast cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer are very similar in all regions of Saudi Arabia and England

  16. Lack of association between serological evidence of past Coxiella burnetii infection and incident ischaemic heart disease: nested case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Amouyel Philippe; Bingham Annie; Ducimetiere Pierre; Yarnell John WG; Woodside Jayne V; Wyatt Dorothy E; O'Neill Hugh J; Coyle Peter V; McKenna James P; Murray Liam J; McCaughey Conall; Montaye Michele; Arveiler Dominique; Haas Bernadette; Ferrieres Jean

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii causes the common worldwide zoonotic infection, Q fever. It has been previously suggested that patients who had recovered from acute Q fever (whether symptomatic or otherwise) may be at increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. We undertook this study to determine if past infection with Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, is a risk factor for the subsequent development of ischaemic heart disease. Methods A nested case-control study with...

  17. Sandhoff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease, the incidence of which had been particularly ... gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use in humans. NIH ...

  18. Epidemiological survey analysis on correlated risk factors of the incidence of periodontal disease%影响牙周病发病的相关因素临床流行病学调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙维平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨影响牙周病发病的相关危险因素,为临床防治牙周病提供依据。方法采用回顾性病例对照法,分别收集145例牙周病患者和145例健康体检者的临床资料,采用单因素和多因素logistic回归分析法来筛选影响牙周病的相关危险因素。结果多因素分析结果显示糖尿病史(OR=4.362)、营养不良(OR=3.865)、不良口腔卫生习惯(OR=4.371)、牙结石(OR=5.743)、未定期口腔检查(OR=2.762)、缺少牙周病防治知识(OR=3.077)等因素为牙周病发病的危险因素。结论引起牙周病的病因和危险因素较为复杂,应针对各独立危险因素采取有效预防措施,从而降低牙周病的发生率。%Objective To explore correlated risk factors of the incidence of periodontal disease, and to provide preven-tion and treatment for periodontal disease. Methods With retrospective case-control study method, we respectively collected clinical data of 145 cases of periodontal disease and 145 cases of in health condition. Single factor and multiple factors logistic re-gression methods were chosen to screen correlated risk factors of periodontal disease. Results Multiple factor analysis result showed that the risk factors of periodontal disease included diabetes mellitus history (OR=4. 362), malnutrition (OR=3. 865), bad habit of oral hygiene (OR=4. 371), calculus dentalis (OR=5. 743), irregular oral examination (OR=2. 762) and lack of prevention and cure knowledge of periodontal disease (3. 077). Conclusion There are many causes and risk factors to evoke periodontal disease, so we should adopt effective prevention measures to aim directly at each independent risk factor, to cut down the incidence rate of periodontal disease.

  19. Cellular and inflammatory responses in bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs in rats after intratracheal instillation of Libby amphibole or amosite asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high incidence of asbestos-related disease in residents of Libby, Montana, is associated with the mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite, but the etiology of disease related to Libby amphibole asbestos (LA) exposure is unclear. In this study, water elutriation was used t...

  20. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  1. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  2. Incidences of notifiable communicable diseases of Taian city in Shandong province,2010%2010年山东省泰安市法定传染病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽莎; 李渊苓; 樊爱平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of notifiable communicable diseases in Taian and provide scientific evidence for the development of the prevention and control strategies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of notifiable communicable diseases in Taian in 2010. Results A total of 16 736 cases of 24 in 39 notifiable communicable diseases were reported, including 11 deaths. The reported incidence was 295. 63/lakh, the mortality was 0. 19/lakh and the case fatality was 0. 06%. The first five diseases with high case numbers were hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), pulmonary tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, other infectious diarrhea and dysentery. Conclusion Blood-borne/sexually transmitted diseases and respiratory diseases are the control priorities in Taian, which mainly include pulmonary tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, but it is still necessary to pay attention to the prevention and control of enteric infections.%目的 了解山东省泰安市2010年法定传染病的流行特征,为制定传染病防治对策提供参考依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对泰安市2010年法定传染病报告系统常规疫情资料进行分析.结果 在39种法定传染病中,泰安市报告了24种,共报告病例16 736例,死亡11例,报告发病率为295.63/10万,死亡率为0.19/10万,病死率为0.06%.发病数居前5位的是手足口病、肺结核、病毒性肝炎、其他感染性腹泻病和痢疾.结论 在法定报告传染病中,血源及性传播疾病和呼吸道传染病是泰安市的防控重点,其中以病毒性肝炎、肺结核为主,但肠道传染病也要加以重视.

  3. Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Children After Introduction of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Tsigrelis, Constantine; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Huskins, W. Charles; Lahr, Brian D.; Nyre, Lisa M.; Virk, Abinash; Baddour, Larry M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a well-characterized population in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with a combination of urban and rural residents likely to have a relatively low risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).

  4. Electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle and incident cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients (from the Strategies for the Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART] study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Khan, Faraaz; Roediger, Mollie P;

    2013-01-01

    Widening of the electrocardiographic (ECG) spatial QRS-T angle has been predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population. However, its prognostic significance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remains unknown. The spatial QRS-T angle was derived fr...

  5. The Transactivation Domain of Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) Meq Oncoprotein Does Not Affect Tumor Incidence But Plays a Role in Tumor Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, is responsible for the tumorigenic phenotype of the virus. We have previously shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens results in virus attenuation in chickens. To determine the...

  6. Raw and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. Therefore, we quantified the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with 10-yea

  7. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.L. Murray (Christopher); K.F. Ortblad (Katrina F); C. Guinovart (Caterina); S.S. Lim (Stephen); T.M. Wolock (Timothy M); D.A. Roberts (D Allen); E.A. Dansereau (Emily A); N. Graetz (Nicholas); R.M. Barber (Ryan M); J.C. Brown (Jonathan C); H. Wang (Haidong); H.C. Duber (Herbert C); M. Naghavi (Morteza); D. Dicker (Daniel); L. Dandona (Lalit); J.A. Salomon (Joshua); K.R. Heuton (Kyle R); K. Foreman (Kyle); D.E. Phillips (David E); T.D. Fleming (Thomas D); A.D. Flaxman (Abraham D); B.K. Phillips (Bryan K); E.M. Johnson (Elizabeth); M.S. Coggeshall (Megan S); F. Abd-Allah (Foad); S.F. Abera (Semaw Ferede); J.P. Abraham (Jerry P); I. Abubakar (Ibrahim); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J); N.M. Abu-Rmeileh (Niveen Me); T. Achoki (Tom); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); A.K. Adou (Arsène Kouablan); J.C. Adsuar (José C); E.E. Agardh (Emilie Elisabet); D. Akena (Dickens); M.J. Al Kahbouri (Mazin J); D. Alasfoor (Deena); M.I. Albittar (Mohammed I); G. Alcalá-Cerra (Gabriel); M.A. Alegretti (Miguel Angel); G. Alemu (Getnet ); R. Alfonso-Cristancho (Rafael); S. Alhabib (Samia); R. Ali (Raghib); F. Alla (Francois); P.J. Allen (Peter J); U. Alsharif (Ubai); E. Alvarez (Elena); N. Alvis-Guzman (Nelson); A.A. Amankwaa (Adansi A); A.T. Amare (Azmeraw T); H. Amini (Hassan); K.A. Ammar; B.O. Anderson; C.A.T. Antonio (Carl Abelardo T); P. Anwari (Palwasha); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); V.S.A. Arsenijevic (Valentina S Arsic); A. Artaman (Ali); R.J. Asghar (Rana J); R. Assadi (Reza); L.S. Atkins (Lydia S); A.F. Badawi (Alaa); K. Balakrishnan (Kannan); A. Banerjee (Amitava); S. Basu (Saonli); J. Beardsley (Justin); T. Bekele (Tolesa); M.L. Bell (Michelle Lee); E. Bernabe (Eduardo); T.J. Beyene (Tariku Jibat); N. Bhala (Neeraj); P.L. Bhalla (Pankaj); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); A.B. Abdulhak (Aref Bin); A. Binagwaho (Agnes); J.D. Blore (Jed D); D. Bose (Dipan); M. Brainin (Michael); N. Breitborde (Nicholas); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); F. Catalá-López (Ferrán); D. Chadha; J.-C. Chang (Jung-Chen); Y.T. Chiang; T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); M. Colomar (Mercedes); L.T. Cooper Jr. (Leslie Trumbull); C. Cooper (Charles); K.J. Courville (Karen J); M.R. Cowie (Martin R.); M. Criqui (Michael); R. Dandona (Rakhi); A. Dayama (Anand); D. de Leo (Diego); F. Degenhardt; B. Del Pozo-Cruz (Borja); K. Deribe (Kebede); D.C. Des Jarlais (Don C); M. Dessalegn (Muluken); S.D. Dharmaratne (Samath D); U. Dilmen (Uǧur); E.L. Ding (Eric); J.M. Driscoll; Z. Durrani; R.G. Ellenbogen (Richard G); S. Ermakov (Sergey); A. Esteghamati (Alireza); E.J.A. Faraon (Emerito Jose A); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); S.-M. Fereshtehnejad (Seyed-Mohammad); D.O. Fijabi (Daniel Obadare); M.H. Forouzanfar (Mohammad H); U. Fra.Paleo (Urbano); L. Gaffikin (Lynne); A. Gamkrelidze (Amiran); F.G. Gankpé (Fortuné Gbètoho); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); B.D. Gessner (Bradford D); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); I.A.M. Ginawi (Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed); E.L. Glaser (Elizabeth L); P. Gona (Philimon); A. Goto (Akimoto); H.N. Gouda (Hebe N); H.C. Gugnani (Harish Chander); R. Gupta (Rajeev); R. Gupta (Rajeev); N. Hafezi-Nejad (Nima); R.R. Hamadeh (Randah Ribhi); M. Hammami (Mouhanad); G.J. Hankey (Graeme); H.L. Harb (Hilda L); J.M. Haro (Josep Maria); R. Havmoeller (Rasmus); S.I. Hay (Simon I); M.T. Hedayati (Mohammad T); I.B.H. Pi (Ileana B Heredia); H.W. Hoek (Hans); J.C. Hornberger (John C); H.D. Hosgood (H Dean); P.J. Hotez (Peter); D.G. Hoy (Damian G); J. Huang (Jian); K.M. Iburg (Kim M); B.T. Idrisov (Bulat T); K. Innos (Kaire); K.H. Jacobsen (Kathryn H); P. Jeemon (Panniyammakal); P.N. Jensen (Paul N); V. Jha (Vivekanand); G. Jiang (Guohong); J.B. Jonas; K. Juel (Knud); H. Kan (Haidong); I. Kankindi (Ida); V. Karam (Vincent); F. Karch (Francois); C.K. Karema (Corine Kakizi); A. Kaul (Anil); N. Kawakami (Norito); D.S. Kazi (Dhruv S); A.H. Kemp (Andrew H); A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); A. Keren (Andre); M. Kereselidze (Maia); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); S.E.A.H. Khalifa (Shams Eldin Ali Hassan); E.A. Khan (Ejaz Ahmed); Y.-H. Khang (Young-Ho); I. Khonelidze (Irma); Y. Kinfu (Yohannes); J.M. Kinge (Jonas M); L. Knibbs (Luke); Y. Kokubo (Yoshihiro); S. Kosen (Soewarta); B.K. Defo (Barthelemy Kuate); V.S. Kulkarni (Veena S); C. Kulkarni (Chanda); K. Kumar (Kuldeep); R.B. Kumar (Ravi B); G.A. Kumar (G Anil); G.F. Kwan (Gene F); T. Lai (Taavi); A.L. Balaji (Arjun Lakshmana); H. Lam (Hilton); Q. Lan (Qing); V.C. Lansingh (Van C); H.J. Larson (Heidi J); A. Larsson (Anders); J.-T. Lee (Jong-Tae); P.N. Leigh (Nigel); M. Leinsalu (Mall); R. Leung (Ricky); Y. Li (Yichong); Y. Li (Yongmei); G.M.F. de Lima (Graça Maria Ferreira); H.-H. Lin (Hsien-Ho); S.E. Lipshultz (Steven); S. Liu (Simin); Y. Liu (Yang); B.K. Lloyd (Belinda K); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); V.M.P. Machado (Vasco Manuel Pedro); J.H. Maclachlan (Jennifer H); C. Magis-Rodriguez (Carlos); M. Majdan (Marek); C.C. Mapoma (Christopher Chabila); W. Marcenes (Wagner); M.B. Marzan (Melvin Barrientos); J.R. Masci (Joseph R); R. Mashal; A.J. Mason-Jones (Amanda J); B.M. Mayosi (Bongani); T.T. Mazorodze (Tasara T); M.J. Mckay (Michael); M.J. Meaney; M.M. Mehndiratta (Man Mohan); F. Mejia-Rodriguez (Fabiola); Y.A. Melaku (Yohannes Adama); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); W. Mendoza (Walter); T.R. Miller (Ted R); E.J. Mills (Edward J); K.A. Mohammad (Karzan Abdulmuhsin); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); G.L. Mola (Glen Liddell); L. Monasta (Lorenzo); M. Montico (Marcella); A.R. Moore (Ami R); R. Mori (Riccardo); W.N. Moturi (Wilkister Nyaora); M. Mukaigawara (Mitsuru); A.C. Murthy (Adeline C.); A. Naheed (Aliya); K.S. Naidoo (Kovin S); L. Naldi; M. Nangia (Monika); K.M.V. Narayan (Venkat); J.H.E. Nash (John); C. Nejjari (Chakib); R.D. Nelson (Robert); S.P. Neupane (Sudan Prasad); C. Newton (Cameron); M. Ng (Marie); M.I. Nisar (Muhammad Imran); S. Nolte (Sandra); O.F. Norheim (Ole F); V. Nowaseb (Vincent); L. Nyakarahuka (Luke); I.-H. Oh (In-Hwan); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); B.O. Olusanya (Bolajoko O); S.B. Omer (Saad B); J.N. Opio (John Nelson); O.E. Orisakwe (Orish Ebere); N.G. Pandian; C. Papachristou; M.S. Caicedo (Marco); J. Patten; V.K. Paul (Vinod K); B.I. Pavlin (Boris Igor); N. Pearce (Neil); D.M. Pereira (David M); Z. Pervaiz (Zahid); K. Pesudovs (Konrad); M. Petzold (Max); F. Pourmalek (Farshad); D. Qato (Dima); A.D. Quezada (Amado D); D.A. Quistberg (D Alex); A. Rafay (Anwar); K. Rahimi (Kazem); V. Rahimi-Movaghar (Vafa); S.U. Rahman (Sajjad Ur); M. Raju (Murugesan); S.M. Rana (Saleem M); H. Razavi (Homie); R.Q. Reilly (Robert Quentin); G. Remuzzi (Giuseppe); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); L. Ronfani (Luca); N. van Roy (Nadine); M.L. Sabin (Miriam Lewis); M.Y. Saeedi (Mohammad Yahya); M.A. Sahraian (Mohammad Ali); G.M.J. Samonte (Genesis May J); M.S. Sawhney (Monika); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); D.C. Schwebel (David C); S. Seedat (Soraya); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); E.E. Servan-Mori (Edson E); S. Sheikhbahaei (Sara); K. Shibuya (Kenji); H.H. Shin (Hwashin Hyun); I. Shiue (Ivy); R. Shivakoti (Rupak); I.D. Sigfusdottir (Inga Dora); D.H. Silberberg (Donald H); A.P. Silva (Andrea P); J. Simard (Jacques); J.A. Singh (Jasvinder); V. Skirbekk (Vegard); K. Sliwa (Karen); S. Soneji (Samir); S.S. Soshnikov (Sergey S); C.T. Sreeramareddy (Chandrashekhar T); V.K. Stathopoulou (Vasiliki Kalliopi); K. Stroumpoulis (Konstantinos); S. Swaminathan; B.C. Sykes (Bryan); K.M. Tabb (Karen M); R.T. Talongwa (Roberto Tchio); E.Y. Tenkorang (Eric Yeboah); A.S. Terkawi (Abdullah Sulieman); A.J. Thomson (Alan J); A.L. Thorne-Lyman (Andrew L); J.A. Towbin (Jeffrey A); J. Traebert (Jefferson); B.X. Tran (Bach X); Z.T. Dimbuene (Zacharie Tsala); M. Tsilimbaris (Miltiadis); U.S. Uchendu (Uche S); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); S.R. Vallely (Stephen); T.J. Vasankari (Tommi J); N. Venketasubramanian (Narayanaswamy); F.S. Violante (Francesco S); V.V. Vlassov (Vasiliy Victorovich); P. Waller (Patrick); M.T. Wallin (Mitchell T); L. Wang (Linhong); S.X. Wang; Y. Wang (Yanping); S. Weichenthal (Scott); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); R.G. Weintraub (Robert G); R. Westerman (Ronny); R.G. White (Richard); J.D. Wilkinson (James D); T.N. Williams (Thomas Neil); S.M. Woldeyohannes (Solomon Meseret); J.B. Wong (John); G. Xu (Gelin); Y.C. Yang (Yang C); K.-I. Yano; P. Yip (Paul); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); S.-J. Yoon (Seok-Jun); M. Younis (Mustafa); C. Yu (Chuanhua); K.Y. Jin (Kim Yun); M. El Sayed Zaki (Maysaa); Y. Zhao (Yong); Y. Zheng (Yuhui); M. Zhou (Ming); J. Zhu (Jun); X.N. Zou (Xiao Nong); A.D. Lopez (Alan D); T. Vos (Theo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to

  8. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) SEEDLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Fonguimgo Tengoua; Hanafi, Mohamed M.; A. S. Idris; Kadir Jugah; Jamaludin Nurul Mayziatul Azwa; Mohidin Hasmah; Syed Rastan Syed-Omar

    2014-01-01

    Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense constitutes a serious threat to oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands. It is also expanding in some oil palm growing countries in Latin America and Africa and will soon become a worldwide concern to oil palm cultivation. To date, none of the various control measures developed and tested to control the disease since many decade gives entire satisfactio...

  9. Invasively-treated incidence of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease and associated factors in Taiwan: 2000–2011 nationwide hospitalized data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Nien-Tzu; Chan, Chien-Lung; Lu, Yu-Tzuen; Hsu, Jin-Chyr; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Chu, Dachen; Yang, Nan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower extremity (LE) peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is associated with a reduced quality of life and increased mortality from atherosclerotic cardio-/cerebro-vascular occlusion, is a significant public health problem, especial for an aging society such as that of Taiwan. Methods Specific datasets of the 2000–2011 nationwide inpatient databases were analyzed. Two inclusion criteria, including one of the major diagnosis codes of PAD and one of three categorical invasive treat...

  10. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LNmastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  11. Retrovirus-induced spongiform encephalopathy: the 3'-end long terminal repeat-containing viral sequences influence the incidence of the disease and the specificity of the neurological syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    DesGroseillers, L; Rassart, E; Robitaille, Y; Jolicoeur, P

    1985-01-01

    Using chimeric murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) constructed in vitro with parental viral genomes from the neurotropic Cas-BR-E MuLV and the nonneurotropic amphotropic 4070-A MuLV, we previously mapped the paralysis-inducing determinant of Cas-BR-E MuLV within a pol-env region. To assess the role of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) in influencing the neurological disease, we constructed another chimeric MuLV (pNEMO-1)m harboring the gag-pol-env from Cas-BR-E MuLV and the LTR region from the str...

  12. INCIDENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI WITH ACID PEPTIC DISEASE AND MALIGNANT CONDITIONS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IN A TERTIARY CENTRE - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamoorthy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper gastro intestine endoscopy in Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Institute and to study the association of Helicobacter pylori with Acid peptic diseases and Malignant conditions of upper gastro intestine tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS 389 cases of dyspepsia, studied clinically as per the proforma over a period of three years from July 2012 to April 2015, were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy under topical anaesthesia, during which 4 biopsies, two each from the antrum and the pathological areas were taken. Two biopsy specimens, one of the antral area and the other of the pathological finding were immediately subjected to rapid urease test. Positive test for Helicobacter pylori was indicated by change in colour of the medium from yellow to pink or red. The other two biopsy specimens were sent for routine histopathology and special staining with Giemsa stain. The case was taken as Helicobacter pylori positive when the rapid urease test and/or histopathological examination was positive. RESULTS Out of 389 patients with mean age of 41.8 years; 172 patients were diagnosed to have been infected with Helicobacter pylori (44.21%. Out of 49 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, 37 patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori (75.51%; 22 out of 25 patients (88% with duodenal ulcers and 10 out of 14 patients (71.4% with gastric ulcers were positive for H. pylori, while only 8 out of 10 patients (80% with gastric cancer were positive for H. pylori. Out of remaining 340 patients, out of which 43 were found to be positive for Helicobacter pylori infection (33.85% and 213 patients with gastritis/duodenitis, out of which 92 were infected with Helicobacter pylori (43.19%. There were 127 patients with normal endoscopic findings. CONCLUSION In this study, we found that Helicobacter pylori was consistently associated with

  13. APPLICATION OF GIS AND STATISTICAL METHODS IN ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DISEASE INCIDENCE RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kutle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical environment can influence human health causing chronic medical problems related to long-term, low-level exposures to toxic agents such are trace elements. Humans can be directly exposed to toxic substances by inhalation of air dust or indirectly through food chain or by consumption of local water for drinking, cooking, personal hygiene and recreational purposes. Chronic medical problems related to geochemical characteristics of the environment can also be caused by chronic deficit of chemical elements essential for humans. In this paper we will present several applications of the GIS and statistical methods for relating the geographical distribution of diseases with geochemical characteristics of the environment. In addition, we are presenting methods applied for distinguishing natural distribution of elements from anthropogenic contribution, which is important information for establishing protective measures necessary for decreasing the health risk (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Impact of weather factors on hand, foot and mouth disease, and its role in short-term incidence trend forecast in Huainan City, Anhui Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Desheng; Wang, Lulu; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Li, Kesheng; Wen, Lingying; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Su, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the most common communicable diseases in China, and current climate change had been recognized as a significant contributor. Nevertheless, no reliable models have been put forward to predict the dynamics of HFMD cases based on short-term weather variations. The present study aimed to examine the association between weather factors and HFMD, and to explore the accuracy of seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model with local weather conditions in forecasting HFMD. Weather and HFMD data from 2009 to 2014 in Huainan, China, were used. Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was applied to examine the relationship between weather factors and HFMD. The forecasting model for HFMD was performed by using the SARIMA model. The results showed that temperature rise was significantly associated with an elevated risk of HFMD. Yet, no correlations between relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall, and HFMD were observed. SARIMA models with temperature variable fitted HFMD data better than the model without it (sR 2 increased, while the BIC decreased), and the SARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 0)52 offered the best fit for HFMD data. In addition, compared with females and nursery children, males and scattered children may be more suitable for using SARIMA model to predict the number of HFMD cases and it has high precision. In conclusion, high temperature could increase the risk of contracting HFMD. SARIMA model with temperature variable can effectively improve its forecast accuracy, which can provide valuable information for the policy makers and public health to construct a best-fitting model and optimize HFMD prevention.

  15. Lower Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease but Suboptimal Pre-Dialysis Renal Care in Schizophrenia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Han Hsu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors which are consequently attributable to the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. However, no study has been conducted to examine ESRD-related epidemiology and quality of care before starting dialysis for patients with schizophrenia. By using nationwide health insurance databases, we identified 54,361 ESRD-free patients with schizophrenia and their age-/gender-matched subjects without schizophrenia for this retrospective cohort study (the schizophrenia cohort. We also identified a cohort of 1,244 adult dialysis patients with and without schizophrenia (1:3 to compare quality of renal care before dialysis and outcomes (the dialysis cohort. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR for dialysis and death. Odds ratio (OR derived from logistic regression models were used to delineate quality of pre-dialysis renal care. Compared to general population, patients with schizophrenia were less likely to develop ESRD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8, but had a higher risk for death (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3. Patients with schizophrenia at the pre-ESRD stage received suboptimal pre-dialysis renal care; for example, they were less likely to visit nephrologists (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8 and received fewer erythropoietin prescriptions (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9. But they had a higher risk of hospitalization in the first year after starting dialysis (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, P < .05. Patients with schizophrenia undertaking dialysis had higher risk for mortality than the general ESRD patients. A closer collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists or internists to minimize the gaps in quality of general care is recommended.

  16. Zebra chip disease incidence on potato is influenced by timing of potato psyllid infestation,but not by the host plants on which they were reared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; John Jifon; Xiangbing Yang; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The Zebra chip (ZC) syndrome is an emerging disease of potato and a major threat to the potato industry.The potato psyllid,Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc) is believed to be a vector of the ZC pathogen,which is now thought to be Candidatus Liberibacter,a bacterium.To further understand the relationship between potato psyllid infestation and ZC disease expression,healthy potato plants at different growth stages (4,6 and 10 weeks after germination) were exposed separately to potato psyllids that were separately reared on four solanaceons hosts plants (potato,tomato,eggplant or bell pepper) for more than 1 year.ZC symptoms,leaf rates and total nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in leaves and tubers of healthy and psyllid-infested plants were monitored and recorded.Typical ZC symptoms were observed in leaves and tubers of all plants exposed to potato psyllids regardless of the host plant on which they were reared.This was also accompanied by significant reductions in net photosynthetic rate.Caged potato plants without exposure to potato psyllids (uninfested controls) did not show any ZC symptom in both foliage and in harvested tubers.Foliage damage and ZC expression were most severe in the potato plants that were exposed to potato psyllids 4 weeks after germination compared to plants infested at later growth stages.Tubers from potato psyllid-infested plants had significantly higher levels of reducing sugars (glucose) and lower levels of starch than those in healthy plants,indicating that potato psyllid infestation interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in either leaves or tubers,resulting in ZC expression.

  17. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T;

    2001-01-01

    of risk factors is outlined. The clinical symptoms of milk fever are highly specific and the disease level may thus be determined from recording of treatments. Diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcaemia needs to include laboratory examinations or it may be determined by multiplying the incidence of milk fever......, environment and management as risk factors are described. Among cow characteristics, parity or age, body condition and production level were found to be important. Risk factors associated with nutrition included most importantly dietary cation-anion difference and calcium level whereas the importance...... of general feeding related factors like type of feed stuff and feeding level were less clear. Environment and management included season, climate, housing, pasturing, exercise, length of dry period and prepartum milking. Several of the parameters on environment and management were confounded among each other...

  18. Life-span shortening and disease incidence in male BALB/c and C57BL mice after single, fractionated d(50)-Be neutron or gamma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-span shortening and causes of death, ascertained by autopsy and histological examination at the time of spontaneous death, after single or fractionated x-ray, gamma, or d(50)-Be neutron irradiation, are being studied for two mouse strains (BALB/c and C57BL) with different disease characteristics. Fractionation schedules that have been implemented are x rays, four weekly exposures (C57BL); gamma rays, 10 daily exposures (BALB/c; and neutrons, eight exposures at 3-h intervals (C57BL). The data are incomplete but suggest that the dependency of life shortening on dose is related to the types of effects induced by radiation and results in different functions, linear or sigmoid, for the two mouse strains. Fractionated gamma irradiation causes more tumors than single exposure, but, generally, this is a result of multiple tumors occurring in animals. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for life shortening for d(50)-Be neutrons as compared to gamma rays is on the order of 1 to 2 and is slightly greater for the C57BL than for the BALB/c strain. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Increasing Incidence of Degenerative Spinal Diseases in Japan during 25 Years: The Registration System of Spinal Surgery in Tohoku University Spine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Toshimi; Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Ko; Kanno, Haruo; Morozumi, Naoki; Koizumi, Yutaka; Sato, Tetsuro; Hyodo, Hironori; Kasama, Fumio; Ogawa, Shinji; Murakami, Eiichi; Kawahara, Chikashi; Yahata, Jun-Ichiro; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Spinal disorders affect mainly older people and cause pain, paralysis and/or deformities of the trunk and/or extremities, which could eventually disturb locomotive functions. For ensuring safe and high-quality treatment of spinal disorders, in 1987, the Tohoku University Spine Society (TUSS) was established by orthopedic departments in Tohoku University School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals in and around Miyagi Prefecture. All spine surgeries have been enrolled in the TUSS Spine Registry since 1988. Using the data from this registration system between 1988 and 2012, we demonstrate here the longitudinal changes in surgical trends for spinal disorders in Japan that has rushed into the most advanced "aging society" in the world. In total, data on 56,744 surgeries were retrieved. The number of spinal surgeries has annually increased approximately 4-fold. There was a particular increase among patients aged ≥ 70 years and those aged ≥ 80 years, with a 20- to 90-fold increase. Nearly 90% of the spinal operations were performed for degenerative disorders, with their number increasing approximately 5-fold from 705 to 3,448. The most common disease for surgery was lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (35.9%), followed by lumbar disc herniation (27.7%) and cervical myelopathy (19.8%). In 2012, approximately half of the patients with LSS and cervical myelopathy were ≥ 70 years of age. In conclusion, the number of spinal operations markedly increased during the 25-year period, particularly among older patients. As Japan has a notably aged population, the present study could provide a near-future model for countries with aging population.

  20. Increasing Incidence of Degenerative Spinal Diseases in Japan during 25 Years: The Registration System of Spinal Surgery in Tohoku University Spine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Toshimi; Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Ko; Kanno, Haruo; Morozumi, Naoki; Koizumi, Yutaka; Sato, Tetsuro; Hyodo, Hironori; Kasama, Fumio; Ogawa, Shinji; Murakami, Eiichi; Kawahara, Chikashi; Yahata, Jun-Ichiro; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Spinal disorders affect mainly older people and cause pain, paralysis and/or deformities of the trunk and/or extremities, which could eventually disturb locomotive functions. For ensuring safe and high-quality treatment of spinal disorders, in 1987, the Tohoku University Spine Society (TUSS) was established by orthopedic departments in Tohoku University School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals in and around Miyagi Prefecture. All spine surgeries have been enrolled in the TUSS Spine Registry since 1988. Using the data from this registration system between 1988 and 2012, we demonstrate here the longitudinal changes in surgical trends for spinal disorders in Japan that has rushed into the most advanced "aging society" in the world. In total, data on 56,744 surgeries were retrieved. The number of spinal surgeries has annually increased approximately 4-fold. There was a particular increase among patients aged ≥ 70 years and those aged ≥ 80 years, with a 20- to 90-fold increase. Nearly 90% of the spinal operations were performed for degenerative disorders, with their number increasing approximately 5-fold from 705 to 3,448. The most common disease for surgery was lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (35.9%), followed by lumbar disc herniation (27.7%) and cervical myelopathy (19.8%). In 2012, approximately half of the patients with LSS and cervical myelopathy were ≥ 70 years of age. In conclusion, the number of spinal operations markedly increased during the 25-year period, particularly among older patients. As Japan has a notably aged population, the present study could provide a near-future model for countries with aging population. PMID:26876801

  1. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.;

    2010-01-01

    of death and survival rates of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD in the ERA-EDTA Registry. Methods. Thirteen national registries providing data on patients who started RRT from 1986-2005 to the ERA-EDTA Registry participated. Incidence per million population (pmp) of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD and other...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986......-1990 to 2.52 pmp in 2001-2005. MM and LCDD patients compared to non-MM patients were older and a higher percentage was on haemodialysis at day 91 after the start of RRT. The most common causes of death in MM and LCDD patients were malignancy (36.1%), cardiovascular causes (17.2%) and infection (14.7%). MM...

  2. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  3. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  4. Influência do sistema de condução do tomateiro sobre a incidência de doenças e insetos-praga Influence of the training systems of tomato plants on the incidence of diseases and insect-pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernando Wamser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos métodos de tutoramento e de condução de plantas de tomate sobre a severidade de doenças foliares e sobre a incidência de pragas em frutos em diferentes cultivares. Dois experimentos foram realizados em 2004/2005 e 2005/2006 em Caçador, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de duas cultivares (Carmen e Débora Max, em 2004/2005, e Nemo Netta e San Vito, em 2005/2006; quatro métodos de tutoramento (cruzado, 'mexicano', vertical com bambu e vertical com fitilho e dois métodos de condução de plantas (com uma e duas hastes por planta mantendo o mesmo número de hastes por área em parcelas sub-subdivididas. Foram avaliadas as severidades de requeima, pinta-preta e mancha bacteriana nas folhas e a porcentagem de frutos com danos causados por doenças fisiológicas ou fitopatológicas e por brocas. Os métodos de tutoramento vertical proporcionaram menor severidade de requeima, pinta-preta e mancha bacteriana nas folhas e ataque de brocas nos frutos, em relação ao método de tutoramento cruzado. A severidade de doenças foliares e porcentagem de frutos com ataque de brocas não diferiram entre métodos de condução de plantas.The effect of different methods of staking and training tomato plants was investigated to determine the severity of leaf damage and the incidence of pests in fruits of different cultivars. Two experiments were carried out in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of the combination of two cultivars, Carmen and Débora Max, in 2004/2005, and Nemo Netta and San Vito, in 2005/2006; four staking methods, crossed fence, 'Mexican', vertical staking with bamboo and vertical staking with polypropylene cord; and two training methods, one and two stems per plant keeping the same number of stems per area. Severities of late blight, early blight and bacterial spot in leaves and the percentage of fruits with physiological and phytopathological

  5. 大棚与露地豇豆病虫害发生情况比较%Comparison of disease situation and insect-pests incidences in cowpea plantations in greenhouse and open field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丰; 孔祥义; 刘勇; 肖春雷; 许如意; 曹兵

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对设施大棚与露地栽培条件下豇豆病虫害发生情况进行比较分析,为设施大棚病虫害防治及其在海南省的推广应用提供依据.[方法]2010~2011年冬季和2011年春夏季,分别进行露地与设施大棚豇豆栽培试验,调查记录不同季节大棚及露地豇豆斜纹夜蛾、豆荚螟、斑潜蝇、蓟马、叶螨、白粉病、锈病、轮纹病、煤霉病等病虫害发生情况.[结果]大棚内豇豆斜纹夜蛾、豆荚螟、斑潜蝇、蓟马等虫口数略低于露地,其中蓟马在豇豆整个生育期虫口数较高,是危害豇豆的主要害虫;豇豆病害以锈病和轮纹病为主,其中2011年春夏季种植的豇豆锈病和轮纹病明显比2010~2011年冬季重.[结论]设施大棚对豇豆害虫有一定的隔离作用,达到降低害虫虫口基数的目的;但对于病害,露地与设施大棚豇豆病害总体未见太大差异.%[Objective]The regularity of disease and insect pests incidences in cowpea plantations were compared in greenhouse and open field conditions to develop proper disease and insect pests control measures in Hainan. [Method] Cowpea cultivation experiments were conducted separately in open field and greenhouse during winter in 2010-2011 and spring and summer in 2011 to investigate the presence of diseases and insects pests such as Prodenia lituia, bean-pod borer, Liriomyza sativae, thrip, leaf mite, powdery mildew, rust disease, ring rot, and black leaf mold, etc. [Result]The initial population number of Ptodenia lituia, bean梡od borer, Liriomyza sativae and thrips in greenhouse was lower than those recorded in open field conditions. The initial population number of thrips was high at all growth stages of cowpea, i.e., thrips were the main insect pest which affected cowpea growth and development. Rust and ring rot diseases were identified as the major diseases and these were significantly more severe in cowpea planted during spring and summer of 2011 compared to

  6. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH.

  7. Influência da hipertensão arterial na incidência de doença renal terminal em negros e mulatos portadores de glomerulonefrite Influence of hypertension on the incidence of end-stage renal disease in negroes and mulattoes with glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO ALBERTO LOPES

    2002-06-01

    whether hypertension diagnosed during the first two months of follow-up is associated with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in negroes and mulattoes with glomerulonephritis after taking into account age, gender and the histological diagnosis.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on a sample of' 120 negro and mulatto patients with glomerulonephritis, 26 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN, 58 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSG and 36 with other types of glomerulonephritis (OTGN. Hypertension was considered present if antihypertensive treatment was used, in adults (age >18 years with a mean of the three first systolic blood pressures of 140 mmHg or a mean of the corresponding diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater. For ages equal to or below 18 years the criteria recommended by the "Task Force on Blood Pressure in Children" were used.RESULTS: Hypertension was diagnosed in 48 of the 120 patients (41.6%. The incidence of ESRD was approximately 2.6 times higher in hypertensive patients (relative risk(RR=2.62; 95 % confidence interval (CI =1.01-7.03, p=0.031. This association between hypertension and higher risk of ESRD was similar between the group younger than 19 and the group older than 18 years. Even after adjusting for age, gender and histologic type, the incidence of ESRD remained higher (and marginally significant in the hypertensive than in the normotensive group (adjusted RR=2.15; IC 95%=0.86-5.39, p=0.07.CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings, early detection of hypertension in negroes and mulattoes with glomerulonephritis helps to identify patients with higher risk of ESRD, independently of age, gender and histologic type. Further research is needed to determine to what extent the severity of hypertension and the degree of blood pressure control contribute to the development of ESRD in negroes and mulattoes with glomerulonephritis.

  8. Large whale incident database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  9. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  10. Incident Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Incident Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any enforcement related situations they have encountered on an observed...

  11. Incidencia de enfermedades respiratorias en funcionarios vacunados y no vacunados contra la influenza. Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente, año 2000 INCIDENCE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AMONG HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL WITH AND WITHOUT INfLUENZA VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA MORENO W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período invernal las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA son causa de un alto número de licencias médicas, cuando este hecho se manifiesta en el personal de salud, que se encuentra más expuesto y que tiene como objetivo atender a la población en este período, no sólo se trata de ausentismo laboral sino un menoscabo importante en la oferta de atención médica. Estos dos hechos han sido los pilares fundamentales, en muchos países, que justifican la vacunación del personal de salud contra la influenza. Se presenta un estudio de cohorte del personal del Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente vacunado y no vacunado contra la influenza y, la incidencia de infecciones respiratorias durante el año 2000. El total del personal vacunado fue de 3.479 personas y los no vacunados alcanzaron a 272; los casos de infección respiratoria, ocurridos en el período mayo-octubre del mismo año alcanzaron a 644 eventos que se clasificaron en CIE-10 con los códigos: J-00 a J-22 (infecciones agudas del sistema respiratorio, J-45 (asma y H-67 (otitis media aguda. Los resultados de este trabajo demuestran una menor incidencia de gripe, que generan licencia médica, en los funcionarios expuestos a vacuna antiinfluenza. La diferencia entre expuestos y no expuestos a la vacuna fue estadísticamente significativa (p Acute Respiratory Disease (ARD is an important cause of sickness leave during winter-time. This fact gets more importance as it affects health care personnel, who had to face an increased requirement of people asking for health care during this period of the year. These facts are the rationale for enforcing influenza vaccination in the health care personnel (HCP. This is a cohort-study developed during the year 2000, in HCP that works at Santiago's South East Health Service. It aims to show if there is any difference between ARD's incidence in people who were vaccinated and people who were not. 3.479 people received the influenza

  12. NRC Incident Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates civilian nuclear activities to protect the public health and safety and to preserve environmental quality. An Incident Response Plan had been developed and has now been revised to reflect current Commission policy. NUREG-0728, Rev. 2 assigns responsibilities for responding to any potentially threatening incident involving NRC licensed activities and for assuring that the NRC will fulfill it statutory mission. This report has also been reproduced for staff use as NRC Manual Chapter 0502

  13. Is the incidence of heart attack still decreasing in Australia? Developing reliable methods for monitoring trends in myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (AUS-MOCHA): a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedkoff, Lee; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael S T; Hung, Joseph; Mathur, Sushma; Beilby, John; Reynolds, Anna; Briffa, Tom G; Lopez, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Accurate monitoring of acute coronary heart disease (CHD) is essential for understanding the effects of primary and secondary prevention and for planning of healthcare services. The ability to reliably monitor acute CHD has been affected by new diagnostic tests for myocardial infarction (MI) and changing clinical classifications and management of CHD. Our study will develop new and reliable methods for monitoring population trends in incidence, outcomes and health service usage for acute CHD and chest pain. Methods and analysis The study cohort of all CHD will be identified from the Western Australian Data Linkage System using state-wide data sets for emergency department presentation, hospitalisations and mortality data for 2002–2014. This core linked data set will be supplemented with data from hospital medical record reviews, pathology data and hospital pharmacy dispensing databases. The consistency over time of the coding of the different subgroups of CHD/chest pain (ST-elevation MI, non-ST elevation MI, unstable angina, stable angina, other CHD, non-CHD chest pain) in linked data will be assessed using these data sources, and an algorithm developed detailing groups in which temporal trends can be reliably measured. This algorithm will be used for measurement of trends in incidence and outcomes of acute CHD, and to develop further methods for monitoring acute CHD using unlinked and linked data with varying availability of hospitalisation history. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committees of the WA Department of Health (#2016/23) and The University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/7230). Findings will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals, and presentation at national and international conferences. There will also be a strong platform for dissemination of new monitoring methods via collaboration with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare which will assist with

  14. Comparison of the incidence of late stent thrombosis after implantation of different drug-eluting stents in the real world coronary heart disease patients: three-year follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-lin; LIU Hai-bo; WU Yong-jian; YUAN Jin-qing; CHEN Jue; YOU Shi-jie; DAI Jun; GAO Run-lin; GAO Li-jian; YANG Yue-jin; LI Jian-jun; QIAO Shu-bin; XU Bo; HUANG Jing-han; YAO Min; QIN Xue-wen

    2010-01-01

    Background Late stent thrombosis (LST) is still concerned by interventions cardiologists in daily clinical practice. This study aimed to compare the incidence of LST after implantation of different drug-eluting stents (DES) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in the real world.Methods From December 2001 to February 2009, a total of 11 875 consecutive CHD patients undergone DES implantation were enrolled in this single-center registery study. Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, mixed DES implantation, restenosis lesions, and patients who could not take dual antiplatlet medication and those who were contraindicated for coronary interventional treatment were excluded. All patients were treated with completed dual antiplatelet medications for at least 9 months after DES deployment. The follow-up was completed by outpatient visits, letter correspondence, phone calls and coronary angiography. Definite LST was diagnosed auording to the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definition.Results Cypher or Cypher Select stents were implanted in 4104 cases, Taxus or Taxus Liberty stents in 2271 cases and Firebird stents (Chinese rapamycin-eluting stents) in 5500 cases. One-year follow-up was completed in 9693 patients, including 3346 cases with Cypher or Cypher Select stents, 1529 cases with Taxus or Taxus Liberty stents and 4818 cases with Firebird stents. Two- and three-year follow-up results were obtained in 7133 and 4353 patients, respectively, including 2410 and 1760 cases with Cypher or Cypher Select stents, 1285 and 900 cases with Taxus or Taxus Liberty stents as well as 3438 and 1693 cases with Firebird stents. One-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of LST was 1.08% in patients with Cypher or Cypher Select stents, 1.24% in those with Taxus or Taxus Liberty stents and 0.71% in those with Firebird stents; there was no significant difference between those with Cypher or Cypher Select and Firebird stents, but there was significant

  15. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  16. Incidence of occupational diseases of female workers in Longgang district of Shenzhen during 2001-2010%深圳市龙岗区2001-2010年女工职业病状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽英; 于碧鲲; 陈浩

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握深圳市龙岗区2001-2010年女工职业病发病情况,分析女工职业病发病规律和特征,为制定防治对策及措施提供科学依据.方法 对深圳市龙岗区2001-2010年诊断的女工职业病例和职业卫生调查资料进行回顾性分析,分析女工职业病种类、患者年龄和行业分布等特征.结果 龙岗区2001-2010年共发生116例女工职业病,引起职业中毒的化学及物理因素以有机溶剂为主,共发生57例(49.14%),慢性职业性铅中毒55例(47.41%).职业中毒的行业系统分布主要以金属制品业(30.95%)、电子及通信设备制造业(19.05%)、家具制造业(16.67%)和塑料制品业(11.90%)为主.结论 深圳市龙岗区女工职业病的发生在高危行业和重点毒物有明显的集中趋势,加强对重点行业、重点毒物的卫生监管,是预防控制女工职业病的重要环节.%Objective To study the incidence of occupational diseases of female labors in Longgang district of Shenzhen from 2001 to 2010 and to analyze the disease occurrence and characteristics in order to provide a scientific basis for formulating the preventive and cure countermeasures. Methods Retrospective analysis on the occupational diseases in the female workers in Longgang district of Shenzhen from 2001 to 2010 was conducted. Characteristics including category of their occupational diseases, distribution of patient ages and the behavior of female workers were analyzed. Results A total of 116 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed in the female labors in Longgang during the period of 2001 -2010. Organic solvent was the most common factor contributing to the occupational poisoning, accounting for fifty-seven cases (49.14%). 55 cases (47.41%) of chronic occupational diseases were caused by lead poisoning, and most of the poisoning was related to the contact with metal products (30.95%). Electronic products, telecommunication, furniture manufacturing industry and plastic

  17. Incidence of coronary artery disease and outcome of patients with left ventricular noncompaction%左室心肌致密化不全患者的冠状动脉病变特点及其预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓津; 吕蓉; 祝捷; 杨跃进; 康连鸣; 张健; 江勇; 赵世华; 陆敏杰; 程怀兵; 罗晓亮; 蒋文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and outcome of patients with left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). Methods Fifty-one patients with LVNC evaluated by echocardiography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) from January 2006 to August 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Coronary angiography or MDCT was performed for detecting coronary artery disease. Predictors of the cardiac events were analyzed by Cox regression analysis. Results There were 31 LVNC patients without CAD and 20 LVNC patients with CAD including single vessel coronary disease in 9 cases, double vessel coronary disease in 3 cases, three vessel coronary disease in 5 cases and left main coronary disease in 3 cases. Coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed in 4 patients. Compared to LVNC patients without CAD, mean age ( P = 0. 008 ), incidence of hypertension (65.0% vs. 19. 4% , P = 0. 001 ), diabetes mellitus (40. 0% vs. 12. 9% , P = 0. 026) and hyperlipidemia ( 55.0% vs. 25. 8%, P = 0. 035 ) were significantly higher while NT-proBNP level was significantly lower( P = 0. 049 ) in LVNC patients with CAD. Incidence of major cardiac events was similar in LVNC patients with or without CAD. LogNT-proBNP is the independent prognostic factor for adverse cardiac events in patients with LVNC( HR 3.993,95% CI 1. 140-13. 988 ,P =0. 030). Conclusions Coronary artery disease is common in patients with LVNC and associated with traditional risk factors for CAD. Poor prognosis is associated with increased NT-proBNP but not with CAD in this patient cohort.%目的 总结左室心肌致密化不全(LVNC)患者的冠状动脉病变特点,并对LVNC预后的影响因素进行分析.方法 连续入选自2006年1月至2010年8月经超声心动图和(或)心脏磁共振成像确诊为LVNC并进行了冠状动脉造影或多排螺旋CT(MDCT)检查的患者共51例,总结其冠状动脉病变特点,并分析冠

  18. Comparing electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown white powder to reports received by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Federal Bureau of Investigation: U.S.A., 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Geroncio C; Posid, Joseph; Papagiotas, Stephen; Lowe, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There have been periodic electronic news media reports of potential bioterrorism-related incidents involving unknown substances (often referred to as "white powder") since the 2001 intentional dissemination of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal System. This study reviewed the number of unknown "white powder" incidents reported online by the electronic news media and compared them with unknown "white powder" incidents reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) during a 2-year period from June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011. Results identified 297 electronic news media reports, 538 CDC reports, and 384 FBI reports of unknown "white powder." This study showed different unknown "white powder" incidents captured by each of the three sources. However, the authors could not determine the public health implications of this discordance.

  19. A population-based study on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Oviedo (Northern Spain Incidencia de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII en población general en el área de Oviedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodrigo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Oviedo (Northern Spain, and to describe the clinical features of new patients. Patients and methods: a prospective population-based study was made at the Health Area IV, Principality of Asturias (Oviedo, 312,324 inhabitants. All new diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease were registered over a 2-year period. Results: a total of 85 patients were included, 47 of these with ulcerative colitis (UC, 37 with Crohn's disease (CD, and 1 with undetermined colitis. The overall adjusted incidence rate of UC and CD per 10(5 inhabitants between 15-64 years was 9.1 (95% CI: 5-13.1 and 7.5 (95% CI: 3.8-11.2, respectively. The global male/female ratio was 0.9, without significant differences between both diseases. CD patients were younger than those with UC (33 ± 15 years vs 45 ± 20 years; p Objetivo: conocer la incidencia de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal en el área de Oviedo y describir las características clínicas de los nuevos pacientes. Pacientes y métodos: estudio prospectivo poblacional en el Área Sanitaria IV del Principado de Asturias (Oviedo, 312.324 habitantes. Fueron registrados todos los pacientes nuevos diagnosticados de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal en un periodo de 2 años consecutivos. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 85 pacientes, 47 con colitis ulcerosa (CU, 37 con enfermedad de Crohn (EC y 1 con colitis indeterminada (CI. La tasa de incidencia ajustada por 10(5 habitantes entre 15 y 64 años, de CU y EC, fue de 9,1 para CU (IC95%: 5-13,1 y 7,5 para la EC (IC95%: 3,8-11,2. La proporción hombre/mujer fue de 0,9, sin diferencias significativas entre ambas enfermedades. Los pacientes con EC eran más jóvenes que los que tenían CU (33 ± 15 años vs 45 ± 20 años; p<0,05. La mayor parte de los pacientes con EC tenían menos de 35 años (65%, mientras que los que presentaban CU fueron diagnosticados entre los 25 y 64 años (81%. La extensi

  20. Application of PDCA Circulation Method Reduced the Incidence of Occupational Exposure to Infectious Diseases Hospital Nurse%运用PDCA循环法降低传染病院护士职业暴露的发生率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华; 周海翠; 彭胜利

    2015-01-01

    目的:将PDCA循环法运用于传染病院护士的职业防护中,以降低临床护士职业暴露的发生率。方法对传染病院2008~2013年护士发生的67例职业暴露案例进行全面分析,找出根本原因,通过PDCA循环法进行管理。结果实施后临床护士职业暴露发生率由2013年的3.74%下降至2014年的1.57%。结论 PDCA循环法用于职业防护,有助于提高护士的防护意识,保证职业安全。%Objective To reduce the incidence of occupation exposure, PDCA cycle method is applied in the occupation protection for clinical nurses in infectious disease hospital.MethodsWe have comprehensively analyzed 67 cases of nurse occupation exposure factors in infectious disease hospital from 2008 to 2013, to find out the root cause. Then managed the hospital through the PDCA circulation method. ResultsOne year later, the clinical nurse occupation exposure rate decreased to 1.57% from 3.74% in 2013.Conclusion PDCA cycle method applied in occupation protection can help to improve the nurses’ protection consciousness, and to guarantee occupation safety.

  1. Related factors of Keshan disease on incidence influence of residents in endemic area%克山病发病相关因素对病区居民患病情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相有章; 王秀红; 张文静; 屈福荣; 刘源; 张文明; 王静

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察克山病发病相关因素对克山病患病情况的影响,为病因研究提供科学依据.方法 选择莒县、沂水、平邑、邹城4个克山病病区县(市)的克山病发病村设立监测点,自1990年起连续观察20年,每5年为一阶段.每阶段对同一组人群连续观察5年,第1、3、5年对全部观察对象进行临床查体和描记心电图,可疑病人X线胸部后前位摄片,诊断符合“克山病诊断标准”.同时采集头发、小麦、玉米、红薯干(地瓜干),应用荧光法测定硒含量.调查经济收入和人均占有粮食.结果 20年共观察人群15 368例/次,克山病年均检出率3.12%,潜在型为2.68%,慢型0.44%,慢型检出率并呈逐年下降趋势.采集发样800份,小麦766份,玉米658份和地瓜干668份.发硒水平逐年升高(P<0.05~0.01),1997年后达到硒适宜地区水平,粮食硒水平基本恒定.经济收入与人均占有粮食显著增加,从1990年的535.8元/人、254.6 kg/人逐年增加至2009年的3200.0元/人、683.0 kg/人.结论 克山病病情稳定,慢型克山病病情呈逐年下降态势,硒营养状况改善是影响病情变化的重要因素.%Objective To observe the related factors of Keshan disease ( KSD) on incidence influence of residents in endemic area in order to provide the scientific basis of etiology study of Keshan disease. Methods To choose the epidemic villages in KSD area of Juxian, Yishui, Pingyi, Zoucheng counties were set up observing points. Every five years was made as a stage since 1990.3 to 14 - year - old residents and over 14 - year - old suspicious patients were selected as surveillance subjects from first stage to third stage but all residents were selected as surveillance subjects in fourth stage. The same group of surveillance subjects in each stage were observed consecutively for 5 years. Surveillance contents included physical checkup, electrocardiogram( ECG) and X - ray. At the same time samples of hair, wheat

  2. Nontuberculous Pulmonary Mycobacteriosis in Denmark: Incidence and Prognostic Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andréjak, Claire; Thomsen, Vibeke O; Johansen, Isik S;

    2010-01-01

    with patient age, sex, comorbidity, NTM species, and NTM disease status. Of 1,282 adults with 2,666 NTM-positive pulmonary specimens, 335 (26%) had definite NTM disease, 238 (19%) possible disease, and 709 (55%) colonization only. NTM incidence rates decreased until 2002, followed by an increase from 2003......-positive pulmonary specimen during 1997-2008 were identified using national medical databases and were categorized as having possible or definite NTM disease or colonization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We calculated annual age-standardized NTM incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death associated......RATIONALE: Few population-based data are available regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease epidemiology and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine NTM pulmonary colonization incidence, disease incidence, and prognostic factors. METHODS: All adults in Denmark with at least one NTM...

  3. 职业病体检人群肝损害的发病率与影响因素分析%Analysis of incidence rate and influencing factors of liver injury of occupation disease health examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨职业病体检人群肝损伤的影响因素,为防治提供参考依据.方法 2012年10月至2013年6月,对体检科查体的职业病体检者389例进行统计分析,调查分析肝损伤患者的临床资料、流行病学调查及实验室检查.选取同期非职业病体检人群400例作为对照组,对两组人群的肝功能的指标进行统计分析.结果 389例体检者中,砷超标率为83.55%;B超异常320例,检出率为82.3%;脂肪肝297例,检出率为76.3%;肝功能异常163例,检出率为41.9%.观察组体检者砷超标率、B超异常、脂肪肝、肝功能异常罹患率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随着工龄的增加,工人砷超标率与B超异常罹患率随工龄增大而呈上升趋势,每个工龄组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 车间工人职业性中毒与职业性肝损害发生率较高,随着工龄的增长而增加,应根据影响因素采取积极防治措施.%Objective To investigate the influencing factors of liver damage in occupation disease physical examination,and provide reference for prevention and control.Methods From October 2012 to June 2013,389 cases of occupational disease were given the examination of the department of physical examination for statistical analysis,survey analysis of clinical data was made,and epidemiological investigations and laboratory tests of liver damage in patients was made.Four hundred non-occupational disease examination cases in the same period were chose as control group,statistical analysis of the two populations of liver function indicators was made.Results Among the 389 cases,arsenic exceeding the standard rate was 83.55% ; B ultrasound abnormality in 320 cases,the detection rate was 82.3% ; 297 cases of fatty liver,the detection rate was 76.3%.The arsenic exceeding the standard rate,B ultrasound abnormalities,fatty liver,liver function abnormal rate of the observation group were significantly

  4. Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-21

    Dr. Stephan Monroe, a deputy director at CDC, discusses the impact of low-incidence, high-consequence pathogens globally.  Created: 2/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  5. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  6. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  7. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  8. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  9. Influence of Nursing Intervention on Incidence of Angina Pectoris of Coronary Heart Disease%护理干预对冠心病心绞痛发生率的影响探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究护理干预对冠心病心绞痛发生率的影响。方法选择2015年1月~2016年1月来我院就诊的冠心病心绞痛患者152例为研究对象,将其分成两组,对照组行常规优质护理,以此为基础观察组患者行个性化护理,治疗后,观察两组患者的治疗期间心绞痛发生次数和住院时长。结果和对照组相比,观察组患者在心绞痛发生次数和住院时长方面结果较好,组间数据差异有统计学意义,P <0.05。结论对于冠心病心绞痛患者,使用个性化护理干预,能够在极大程度上降低患者心绞痛发生次数和住院时长,降低医疗成本。%Objective To explore the influence of nursing intervention on the incidence of coronary heart disease angina pectoris. Methods 152 cases of patients with coronary heart disease angina were chosen as the research object from January 2015 to January 2016 in our hospital, it is divided into two groups, control group routine quality care, observation group of patients based on personalized care, after the treatment, observe two groups during the treatment of patients with angina frequency and duration in hospital. Results Compared with control group, the observation group of patients hospitalized in angina frequency and duration, significantly better, data statistical differences between groups, P<0.05. Conclusion For the coronary heart disease angina pectoris, the use of personalized nursing intervention, to reduce the number of patients with angina pectoris occurred on the great degree and the hospitalization time, reduce the medical cost.

  10. Incidência de pragas e doenças em agroecossistemas de café orgânico de agricultores familiares em Poço Fundo-MG Incidence of plagues and diseases in agroecossystems of organic coffee of familiar farmers in Poço Fundo-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Martins

    2004-12-01

    2002, de 2.010 Kg ha-1.Having as an aim the determination of insect plagues, Leucoptera coffeella (GUÉRIN-MENÉVILLE, 1842 and Hypothenemus hampei (FERRARI, 1867 and diseases incidence Hemileia vastatrix (BERK e BROOME, 1869 and Cercospora coffeicola (BERK e CURTIS, 1880 during the period from January of 2001 to December of 2002, three agroecosystems with production of organic coffee conducted by familiar farmers of the city of Poço Fundo-MG were selected. The agroecosystem I possesses 2.200 plants of the cultivar 'Red Catuai' spaced 2,5 x 1,3 m (0,72 ha. The agroecosystem II has 2.000 plants ('Red Catuai' spaced 2,8 x 1,0 m (0,56 ha. The agroecosystem III possesses 1.100 feet ('Yellow Icatu' spaced 3,0 x 0,9 m (0,36 ha. The determination of the incidence of L. coffeella, C. coffeicola and H. vastatrix was accomplished starting from monthly surveys. The determination of the infection for C. coffeicola in fruits was accomplished in the months of April, May and June of 2001 and 2002. The survey of the infestation by H. hampei was accomplished from January to June/July of each year. It was determined that the infestation by L. coffeella has reached over 20% in the upper third (mainly during the dry period. The infestation by H. hampei has reached the damage level only in the agroecosystem I on 2001 and agroecosystem III on 2002. The infection by H. vastatrix in the agroecosystem III did not reach the damage level due to the tolerance of the cultivar ('Yellow Icatu' to the infection by this fungus, however, the agroecosystem I and II ('Red Catuai' the infection in the field exceeded 10% (dry period. The infection by C. coffeicola in leaves and fruits reached high levels (dry period. The productivity of the agroecosystem I was 510 Kg ha-1 on 2001 and 2.340 Kg ha-1 on 2002, in the agroecosystem II, it was 420 Kg ha-1 on 2001 and 1.290 Kg ha-1 on 2002, and in the agroecosystem III, it was practically zero on 2001 and 2.010 Kg ha-1 on 2002.