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Sample records for asbestos tremolite anthophyllite

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of shape and thickness on SEM-EDS microanalysis of asbestos fibres and bundles: the case of anthophyllite, tremolite and actinolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdrè, G.; Moro, D.; Ulian, G.

    2018-01-01

    Asbestos is a generic term used for six types of silicate minerals that are found in fibres or bundles of fibres, which can be easily cleaved into thinner ones. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) quantitative microanalysis of asbestos mineral fibres still represents a complex analytical issue because of the variable fibre shape and small thickness (square section and thicknesses from to 0.1 μm to 10 μm, for electron beam energies of 5, 15 and 25 keV. A strong influence of the asbestos mineral fibres and bundles shape and thickness on the detected EDS X-ray intensity was observed. In general, the X-ray intensities as a function of fibre thickness showed a considerable reduction below about 0.5 μm at 5 keV, 2 μm at 15 keV, and 5 μm at 25 keV for all the elements and minerals, with a non-linear dependence. Correction parameters, k-ratio, for the thickness effect were calculated and proposed.

  2. Dissolution study of tremolite and anthophyllite: pH effect on the reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozalen, M.; Ramos, M.E.; Gervilla, F.; Kerestedjian, T.; Fiore, S.; Huertas, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dissolution rates strongly depend on pH and it is different for each mineral. • Anthophyllite dissolves up to 8 times faster than tremolite in similar conditions. • SEM images show different particle breakage and carbonation effects at basic pHs. • Our results are a good background to develop remediation processes of contaminated sites. - Abstract: The effect of pH on the kinetics of tremolite and anthophyllite dissolution was investigated at 25 °C in batch reactors over the pH range of 1–13.5, in inorganic buffered solutions. Dissolution rates were obtained based on the release of Si and Mg. Results obtained in this study show different behaviors for both minerals. For tremolite, dissolution rates show a noticeable dependence on pH between 1 and 8, decreasing as pH increases and reaching a minimum around neutral conditions. At basic pH this dependence becomes even stronger, but dissolution takes place together with collateral effects of saturation and carbonation. A preferential release of Ca and Mg is observed in acid media, lowering the Mg/Si ratio to the extent that Mg solubility decreases with pH. For anthophyllite, dissolution rates also show a strong dependence on pH, between 1 and 9.5. At the same pH, anthophyllite dissolves up to 8 times faster than tremolite. For pH > 9.5 this dependence is smooth, and it is probably associated with effects of saturation and carbonation. Dissolution is also non-stoichiometric with a faster release of Mg with respect to Si in acid media. SEM observations show differences in the breakage mechanism of the fibers. The anthophyllite particle breakage during dissolution consists of the splitting of bundle fibers parallel to the fiber longitudinal direction. However, for tremolite, other than fiber splitting, particles shorten induced by coalescence of etch pits developed perpendicular to c axe

  3. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  4. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; McGavran, M.H.; Subach, J.; Sybers, H.D.; Greenberg, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances

  5. Asbestos in commercial cosmetic talcum powder as a cause of mesothelioma in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald E; Fitzgerald, Sean; Millette, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic talcum powder products have been used for decades. The inhalation of talc may cause lung fibrosis in the form of granulomatose nodules called talcosis. Exposure to talc has also been suggested as a causative factor in the development of ovarian carcinomas, gynecological tumors, and mesothelioma. Purpose: To investigate one historic brand of cosmetic talcum powder associated with mesothelioma in women. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) formvar-coated grids were prepared with concentrations of one brand of talcum powder directly, on filters, from air collections on filters in glovebox and simulated bathroom exposures and human fiber burden analyses. The grids were analyzed on an analytic TEM using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine asbestos fiber number and type. Results: This brand of talcum powder contained asbestos and the application of talcum powder released inhalable asbestos fibers. Lung and lymph node tissues removed at autopsy revealed pleural mesothelioma. Digestions of the tissues were found to contain anthophyllite and tremolite asbestos. Discussion: Through many applications of this particular brand of talcum powder, the deceased inhaled asbestos fibers, which then accumulated in her lungs and likely caused or contributed to her mesothelioma as well as other women with the same scenario. PMID:25185462

  6. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  7. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  8. Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transmission parts), heat-resistant fabrics, packaging, gaskets, and coatings. Some vermiculite or talc products may contain asbestos. ... of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-57 Atlanta, GA 30333 Phone: ...

  9. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  10. 29 CFR 1910.19 - Special provisions for air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for air contaminants. 1910.19 Section 1910.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Standards § 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants. (a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and...

  11. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Asbestos Contact Us Share Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  12. Asbestos fibre concentrations in the lungs of brake workers: another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2008-08-01

    To reanalyse data on the lung content of asbestos fibres among brake mechanics. I re-analysed data published by Butnor, Roggli and colleagues on the lung content of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos fibres among brake mechanics and controls. Statistics of the distributions were estimated by maximum likelihood to accommodate observations below the detection limit. Mean concentrations were compared by the t-test, bootstrap resampling and interval-censored survival methods. The mean concentrations of fibres were higher among the brake workers than the controls. The concentration of tremolite fibres was higher than the concentration of chrysotile, a pattern similar to that observed among Quebec chrysotile miners and millers. Re-analysis of published data does not support the interpretation that, in automotive brake repair workers with malignant mesothelioma, asbestos content is within the normal range. The alternative interpretation that brake mechanics have a greater than background burden of asbestos fibres, attributable to occupational exposure to dusts from friction products manufactured from Canadian chrysotile, appears more credible. This asbestos burden might be associated with an increased risk of asbestos-associated cancers.

  13. Quantification of Tremolite in Friable Material Coming from Calabrian Ophiolitic Deposits by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Campopiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the infrared absorption band suitable for quantifying tremolite in three powdered samples (fine, medium, and large size classes coming from a quarry of ophiolitic friable rocks in the western part of the Calabria region of Italy. Three IR bands were considered: OH stretching band between 3700 and 3650 cm−1, the stretching bands of the Si-O-Si linkage between 1200 and 900 cm−1, and the absorbance band at 756 cm−1 attributable to tremolite. The amount of tremolite in the test samples was quantified by using the curve parameters of the three analytical bands. The quantitative analysis of tremolite using the band due to OH stretchings (3700–3650 cm−1 and the bands attributed to the Si-O-Si stretchings (1200–900 cm−1 showed high values for all test samples. Their use overestimated the tremolite amount because both bands were affected at the interfering mineral silicates such as talc, kaolinite, chlorite, and serpentinites. The abundant presence of antigorite in studied samples mainly in medium size class sample had a key role in our findings. The band at 756 cm−1 was not affected at the interfering minerals and can be used for quantitative analysis of tremolite in sample coming from ophiolitic deposits.

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

  15. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  16. Size- and type-specific exposure assessment of an asbestos products factory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtice, Midori N; Berman, D Wayne; Yano, Eiji; Kohyama, Norihiko; Wang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    This study describes fibre size and type-specific airborne asbestos exposures in an asbestos product factory. Forty-four membrane filter samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the size distribution of asbestos fibres, by workshop. Fibre frequencies of bivariate (length by width) categories were calculated and differences between workshops were tested by analysis of variance. Data were recorded for 13,435 chrysotile and 1075 tremolite fibres. The proportions between size metrics traditionally measured and potentially biologically important size metrics were found to vary in this study from proportions reported in other cohort studies. One, common size distribution was generated for each asbestos type over the entire factory because statistically significant differences in frequency between workshops were not detected. This study provides new information on asbestos fibre size and type distributions in an asbestos factory. The extent to which biologically relevant fibre size indices were captured or overlooked between studies can potentially reconcile currently unexplained differences in asbestos-related disease (ARD) risk between cohorts. The fibre distributions presented here, when combined with similar data from other sites, will contribute to the development of quantitative models for predicting risk and our understanding of the effects of fibre characteristics in the development of ARD.

  17. Asbestos textile production linked to malignant peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma in women: Analysis of 28 cases in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhibin; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jixian; Shao, Dichu; Shao, Huajiang; Yang, Hanqing; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kiyokawa, Takako; Kobayashi, Makio; Shinohara, Yasushi; Røe, Oluf D; Zhang, Xing; Morinaga, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Chrysotile had been used in asbestos textile workshops in Southeast China but a clear relation to mesothelioma is lacking. All patients diagnosed with mesothelioma from 2003 to 2010 at Yuyao People's Hospital were re-evaluated by multiple expert pathologists with immunohistochemistry and asbestos exposure data were collected. Of 43 patients with a mesothelioma diagnosis, 19 peritoneal and nine pleural cases were finally diagnosed as mesothelioma. All were females, and the mean age of the patients with peritoneal or pleural mesothelioma was 52.4 and 58.2 years, respectively. All these cases had a history of domestic or occupational exposure to chrysotile. Two-thirds of the patients were from two adjoining towns with multiple small asbestos textile workshops. Contamination of tremolite was estimated to be less than 0.3%. This is a report of mesothelioma in women exposed to chrysotile asbestos at home and at work, with an over-representation of peritoneal mesothelioma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Structural and compositional characterization of synthetic (Ca,Sr)-tremolite and (Ca,Sr)-diopside solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M.; Najorka, J.; Andrut, M.

    Tremolite (CaxSr1-x)2Mg5[Si8O22/(OH)2] and diopside (CaxSr1-x)Mg[Si2O6] solid solutions have been synthesized hydrothermally in equilibrium with a 1 molar (Ca,Sr)Cl2 aqueous solution at 750°C and 200 MPa. The solid run products have been investigated by optical, electron scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray-powder diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized (Ca,Sr)-tremolites are up to 2000 µm long and 30 µm wide, the (Ca,Sr)-diopsides are up to 150 µm long and 20 µm wide. In most runs the tremolites and diopsides are well ordered and chain multiplicity faults are rare. Nearly pure Sr-tremolite (tr0.02Sr-tr0.98) and Sr-diopside (di0.01Sr-di0.99) have been synthesized. A continuous solid solution series, i.e. complete substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ on M4-sites exists for (Ca,Sr)-tremolite. Total substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ on M2-sites can be assumed for (Ca,Sr)-diopsides. For (Ca,Sr)-tremolites the lattice parameters a, b and β are linear functions of composition and increase with Sr-content whereas c is constant. For the diopside series all 4 lattice parameters are a linear function of composition; a, b, c increase and β decreases with rising Sr-content. The unit cell volume for tremolite increases 3.47% from 906.68 Å3 for tremolite to 938.21 Å3 for Sr-tremolite. For diopside the unit cell volume increases 4.87 % from 439.91 Å3 for diopside to 461.30 Å3 for Sr-diopside. The observed splitting of the OH stretching band in tremolite is caused by different configurations of the next nearest neighbors (multi mode behavior). Resolved single bands can be attributed to the following configurations on the M4-sites: SrSr, SrCa, CaCa and CaMg. The peak positions of these 4 absorption bands are a linear function of composition. They are shifted to lower wavenumbers with increasing Sr-content. No absorption band due to the SrMg configuration on the M4-site is observed. This indicates

  19. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  20. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornero, Elisa; Belluso, Elena; Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata

    2009-01-01

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure

  1. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  2. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  3. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steam pipes, and hot water pipes. The automotive industry uses asbestos in vehicle brake shoes and clutch pads. Asbestos has also been used in ceiling and floor tiles; paints, coatings, and adhesives; and plastics. In addition, asbestos has ...

  4. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  5. Determinants of Toxicity of Environmental Asbestos Fibers ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent EPA-led studies have addressed the comparative toxicity and pathological mechanisms of environmental asbestos samples from Libby, Montana and other communities in the United States. Longer amosite fibers induce a 4-10 fold greater induction of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and HO-1 than Libby fibers in human airway epithelial cells, as well as a number of other genes involved in cellular stress and toxicity. Similarly, equal mass doses of longer amosite fibers administered intratracheally to F344 rats cause greater pathological effects than Libby fibers, from 1 day to 2 years post-exposure. However, both intratracheal and inhalation studies show comparable effects of Libby fibers and shorter UICC amosite fibers. Dosimetry modeling and potency analysis studies are using these data to predict effects in humans. Libby fibers induce an acute phase response and systemic increases in selected markers of inflammation, and induce components of the NALP-3 inflammasome in the lung, while surface complexed iron inhibits these responses. Libby fibers alter genes involved in inflammation, immune regulation, and cell-cycle control, and also induce autoimmune responses in a rat model. Comparative toxicity studies showed that chrysotile fibers from Sumas Mountain, Washington caused greater lung interstitial fibrosis than Libby fibers, which were significantly more potent than tremolite fibers from El Dorado, California and actinolite “cleavage fragments” from

  6. Asbestos in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiovanni, Daniela; Pesce, Bruno; Pondrano, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases remain common in Italy due to past exposures that were tolerated by a government distracted and manipulated by multinational asbestos corporations. The incidence of asbestos-related cancers has taken on almost epidemic proportions, for example, in Casale Monferrato in northwest Italy, where Eternit remained in operation until 1985, and in Monfalcone in northeast Italy, where naval dockyards and related activities created pollution. Authorities took action only after public protests, trade union pressures, and campaigning by the families of victims. Now that a ban exists in Italy, it is vital that it be fully enforced to reverse the epidemic of mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other asbestos-related diseases.

  7. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  8. The global spread of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur L; Joshi, T K

    2014-01-01

    Asbestos continues to be used in large quantities around the world and to be an important commodity in global trade. To assess and quantify current global patterns of asbestos production, export and use; to examine global patterns of asbestos-related disease; and to examine barriers to an asbestos ban. Review of the biomedical literature describing patterns of asbestos exposure and disease; review of documents from national governments, UN agencies, and NGOs on asbestos production and use. Despite widespread knowledge of the hazards of asbestos and bans on any use of asbestos in more than 50 countries, an estimated 2 million tons of asbestos continue to be used around the world each year. Although this amount is significantly less than peak annual consumption of nearly 5 million tons two decades ago, significant amounts of asbestos are still used in India, China, Russia, and some developing countries. This use of asbestos is responsible for disease today and will cause still more asbestos-related disease in the years ahead. Real and artificially manufactured controversies regarding asbestos such as arguments about the relative hazards of different asbestos fiber types and fiber sizes have impeded bans on asbestos. All forms of asbestos pose grave dangers to human health. All are proven human carcinogens. There is no continued justification for the use of asbestos. Its production and use should be banned worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impending proliferation of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, B I; Vera Vera, M J

    1980-01-01

    The international asbestos industry is under considerable pressure in some countries to control dust exposures in the workplace and restrict pollution. In addition, major firms in the United States face mounting compensation costs for past failures to protect asbestos workers. At the same time, however, the asbestos industry is expanding in developing nations, largely on the strength of sales of asbestos-cement construction materials. This report describes problems encountered with the use of asbestos-cement in schools and low-income housing in Puerto Rico, resulting in the condemnation of these buildings and the relocation of over 1,000 families at public expense. The manufacturer of the asbestos-cement panels, a Colombian affiliate of the European-based multinational Eternit, escaped all liability. The issue is presented as a needless, expanding threat to public health worldwide. Safe, economic alternatives exist, such as the use in some cases of crop waste fibers in place of asbestos as a cement binder. There have also been major advances in the commercialization of asbestos-free brake and clutch friction products.

  10. Asbestos in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  12. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  13. Asbestos and its diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, A. R; Craighead, John E

    2008-01-01

    ... Chapter 8. Malignant Diseases of the Pleura, Peritoneum, and Other Serosal Surfaces Allen R. Gibbs and John E. Craighead 190 Chapter 9. Nonthoracic Cancers Possibly Resulting from Asbestos Exposu...

  14. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Current asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  15. The asbestos war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries.

  16. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters and guidance that detail the requirements of asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants as is applies to vermiculite asbestos-containing material during residential demolitions

  17. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  18. Criminality and Asbestos in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2017-02-01

    Criminal prosecutions of individuals in the asbestos industry are reviewed, particularly the case of asbestos owner-executive Stephan Schmidheiny. Italian courts sentenced Schmidheiny to sixteen to eighteen years in jail for creating an environmental disaster causing three thousand deaths. The convictions were overturned on a technicality, and a murder case against Schmidheiny has started. His firm, Eternit, made asbestos-cement building products in many countries. Schmidheiny directed a cover-up that the Italian Court of Appeal blamed for delaying the ban of asbestos in Italy by ten years. Today, the asbestos industry is a criminal industry, profiting only by minimizing its costs for the prevention and compensation of occupational and environmental illness. The asbestos industry should only be consulted by governments for the purpose of closing it and dealing with the legacy of in-place asbestos.

  19. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  20. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite, anthophylite...

  1. Mapping potentialy asbestos-bearing rocks using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Kokaly, R.F.; Higgins, C.T.; Clinkenbeard, J.P.; Clark, R.N.; Lowers, H.A.; Sutley, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Rock and soil that may contain naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), a known human carcinogen, were mapped in the Sierra Nevada, California, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to determine if these materials could be uniquely identified with spectroscopy. Such information can be used to prepare or refine maps of areas that may contain minerals that can be asbestiform, such as serpentine and tremolite-actinolite, which were the focus of this study. Although thick vegetation can conceal underlying rock and soil, use of linear-mixture spectra calculated from spectra of dry grass and serpentine allowed detection of serpentine in some parts of the study area with up to ???80% dry-grass cover. Chaparral vegetation, which was dominantly, but not exclusively, found in areas underlain by serpentinized ultramafic rocks, was also mapped. Overall, field checking at 201 sites indicated highly accurate identification by AVIRIS of mineral (94%) and vegetation (89%) categories. Practical applications of AVIRIS to mapping areas that may contain NOA include locating roads that are surfaced with serpentine aggregate, identifying sites that may require enhanced dust control or other safety measures, and filling gaps in geologic mapping where field access is limited. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  2. Why asbestos should be banned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outburst of public anger after the ‘discovery’ of asbestos polluted social housing, despite there being several other topical asbestos related incidents. This coupled with the spectacular Turin trial against some captains of industry who were sentenced for knowingly exposing their

  3. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  4. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  5. Replacement of Asbestos Aboard Naval Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-10

    aircraft and engine manufacturers were not aware of the potential asbestos shortage problem, only of the health effects. Asa result, asbestos...resistance, low abrasiveness, excellent absorption and filtering properties, and excellent processing characteristics in resinous mixtures. Table I Major...Facing Woven, containing asbestos yarn, tape, or cloth Nonwoven -dutch lining, transnission lining Asbestos-Cement Materials Flat sheets and wallboard, all

  6. Asbestos Consumption in Mongolia: 1996–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naransukh Damiran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is still used in Mongolia in the energy and construction sectors, among others. However, limited data is available on asbestos consumption and asbestos-related disease in Mongolia. The purpose of this paper is to present the available information on the importation of asbestos into Mongolia. We used data on annual asbestos imports between 1996 and 2014 from Mongolian Customs Statistics and the National Council on Toxic and Hazardous Substances Affairs. The uses of this material are also presented with respect to chrysotile alone. Most asbestos is used for construction. Mongolia started using asbestos in the energy and construction industries as thermal insulation in 1961. Asbestos is still allowed for use in Mongolia under the Law on Toxic and Hazards Substances. There are no asbestos mines in Mongolia, and the manufacture of asbestos-containing materials does not take place there. Thus, asbestos is mainly imported from China and Russia. Mongolia used 44,422 metric tons of asbestos-containing materials between 1996 and 2014. In Mongolia, with the current use of asbestos, there will be a continuing risk of developing asbestos-related diseases from past use, and proper oversight of asbestos-involving activities and the safe removal and disposal of asbestos must be considered.

  7. Asbestos Consumption in Mongolia: 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Naransukh; Frank, Arthur

    2018-01-15

    Asbestos is still used in Mongolia in the energy and construction sectors, among others. However, limited data is available on asbestos consumption and asbestos-related disease in Mongolia. The purpose of this paper is to present the available information on the importation of asbestos into Mongolia. We used data on annual asbestos imports between 1996 and 2014 from Mongolian Customs Statistics and the National Council on Toxic and Hazardous Substances Affairs. The uses of this material are also presented with respect to chrysotile alone. Most asbestos is used for construction. Mongolia started using asbestos in the energy and construction industries as thermal insulation in 1961. Asbestos is still allowed for use in Mongolia under the Law on Toxic and Hazards Substances. There are no asbestos mines in Mongolia, and the manufacture of asbestos-containing materials does not take place there. Thus, asbestos is mainly imported from China and Russia. Mongolia used 44,422 metric tons of asbestos-containing materials between 1996 and 2014. In Mongolia, with the current use of asbestos, there will be a continuing risk of developing asbestos-related diseases from past use, and proper oversight of asbestos-involving activities and the safe removal and disposal of asbestos must be considered.

  8. Asbestos Consumption in Mongolia: 1996–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Naransukh Damiran; Arthur Frank

    2018-01-01

    Asbestos is still used in Mongolia in the energy and construction sectors, among others. However, limited data is available on asbestos consumption and asbestos-related disease in Mongolia. The purpose of this paper is to present the available information on the importation of asbestos into Mongolia. We used data on annual asbestos imports between 1996 and 2014 from Mongolian Customs Statistics and the National Council on Toxic and Hazardous Substances Affairs. The uses of this material are a...

  9. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  10. Asbestos-related morbidity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Gupta, Rohit K

    2003-01-01

    In India, locally mined asbestos is not enough for its current needs, hence a great deal of asbestos is imported from Canada. Asbestos products manufacturers have prevailed upon the government to reduce tariffs on imported material. The efforts of the health and safety professionals who joined with nongovernmental organizations to form the Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) are being consistently sabotaged by the industry, using its influence and false propaganda that chrysotile asbestos can be safely used in a controlled manner. Weak legislation and lack of data are being exploited by the industry to convince policymakers that asbestos use in India has caused no major health problems. Despite this, the ban-asbestos movement has gained momentum and was able to persuade government to consider banning asbestos use. With the growing strength of the movement it is expected that asbestos manufacturers may find it increasingly difficult to manipulate the government in the future.

  11. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the manufacture of asbestos products (such as textiles, friction products, insulation, and other building materials) and during ... to raise a health and safety concern or report an injury). For more information see www.whistleblowers. ...

  12. Treatments of asbestos containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasiano, D; Pirozzi, F

    2017-12-15

    Since the second half of the twentieth century, many studies have indicated inhalation of asbestos fibers as the main cause of deadly diseases including fibrosis and cancer. Consequently, since the beginning of the 80s, many countries started banning production and use of asbestos containing products (ACP), although still present in private and public buildings. Due to some extraordinary catastrophic events and/or the aging of these products, people's health and environmental risk associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers keeps being high even in those countries where it was banned. For these reasons, many communities are developing plans for an environmental and sanitary safe asbestos removal and management. Asbestos containing wastes (ACW) are usually disposed in controlled landfills, but this practice does not definitively eliminate the problems related with asbestos fiber release and conflicts with the ideas of sustainable land use, recycling, and closing material cycles. Consequently, many scientific papers and patents proposed physical, chemical, and biological treatments aimed to the detoxification of ACW (or the reduction of their health effects) and looking for the adoption of technologies, which allow the reuse of the end-products. By including recent relevant bibliography, this report summarizes the status of the most important and innovative treatments of ACW, providing main operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  14. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  15. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  16. Asbestos' Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos is a mineral fiber that has been used commonly in a variety of building construction materials for insulation and as a fire-retardant. EPA and CPSC have banned several asbestos products. Manufacturers have also voluntarily limited uses of asbesto

  17. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  18. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains…

  19. The mesothelioma in Europe; Le mesotheliome en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignon, J. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    1999-12-01

    Though the primitive malignant tumors of the pleura have been identified in the years 1890, it is only in 1960 that Wagner and his team have published a study of 33 cases of mesothelioma in South Africa, attributed to crocidolite exposure for mines workers and their family. This publication went five years after the demonstration by Richard Doll in Great Britain of epidemiology relations between lungs cancer and professional exposure to asbestos dusts. Later, the research were on the type of asbestos fibers at the origin of the mesothelioma. The power of the chrysotile to induce this tumor among human beings was the object of controversy. but it is clear that the exposure to three kinds of amphibole asbestos (crocidolite, tremolite and anthophyllite) is responsible of the most important incidence of this cancer, even after low concentrations exposures. (N.C.)

  20. Drywall construction and asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, A; Rohl, A N; Langer, A M; Selikoff, I J

    1979-05-01

    The rapid development of the drywall construction trade in the United States is described. It is estimated that some 75,000 U.S. construction workers are currently employed in this trade. The use of a variety of spackle and taping compounds is shown to be associated with significant asbestos exposure; air samples taken in the breathing zone by drywall tapers during sanding of taping compounds show fiber concentrations exceeding, by several times, the maximum level permitted by United States Government regulations. These findings are given together with the result of a clinical field survey of drywall construction workers demonstrating that asbestos disease may be an important health hazard in this trade.

  1. Asbestos-related pleural disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The image shows asbestos plaques on the right parietal pleura of a 58-year-old former shipyard worker who died of acute suppurative bronchitis. He also had cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Histologically, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with asbestos bodies was demonstrated. The pleural plaques consist predominantly of dense collagen. This photograph was taken after removal of the lung with the camera held in the lower right thorax, at approximately the level of the diaphragm, looking up toward the apex of the chest cavity.

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable asbestos...

  3. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  4. How Canada Changed from Exporting Asbestos to Banning Asbestos: The Challenges That Had to Be Overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Kathleen

    2017-09-27

    Less than ten years ago, the asbestos industry enjoyed the support of every Quebec and Canadian political party. The Chrysotile Institute and the International Chrysotile Association, both located in Quebec, aggressively marketed asbestos around the world, claiming scientific evidence showed that chrysotile asbestos could be safely used. The industry created a climate of intimidation. Consequently, no groups advocating for victims of asbestos or campaigning for its outright ban existed in Quebec to challenge the industry. A campaign was launched to mobilize the scientific community to speak out. Working with scientists, activists, and asbestos victims around the world, a small group of Quebec scientists exposed the false arguments of the asbestos industry. They publicly and repeatedly challenged the unscientific and unethical asbestos policy of the government. By appealing to Quebec values and holding those in power accountable, the campaign won public support and succeeded against all odds in defeating the asbestos industry.

  5. How Canada Changed from Exporting Asbestos to Banning Asbestos: The Challenges That Had to Be Overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Ruff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Less than ten years ago, the asbestos industry enjoyed the support of every Quebec and Canadian political party. The Chrysotile Institute and the International Chrysotile Association, both located in Quebec, aggressively marketed asbestos around the world, claiming scientific evidence showed that chrysotile asbestos could be safely used. The industry created a climate of intimidation. Consequently, no groups advocating for victims of asbestos or campaigning for its outright ban existed in Quebec to challenge the industry. A campaign was launched to mobilize the scientific community to speak out. Working with scientists, activists, and asbestos victims around the world, a small group of Quebec scientists exposed the false arguments of the asbestos industry. They publicly and repeatedly challenged the unscientific and unethical asbestos policy of the government. By appealing to Quebec values and holding those in power accountable, the campaign won public support and succeeded against all odds in defeating the asbestos industry.

  6. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  7. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindall Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low.

  8. Asbestos in drinking water: a status report.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotruvo, J A

    1983-01-01

    The conference is briefly reviewed in the light of its impact on future regulatory decisions regarding the possible control of asbestos fiber in drinking water. The results of animal feeding studies indicate that asbestos fails to demonstrate toxicity in whole-animal lifetime exposures. The epidemiologic evidence of risk from ingestion of water containing asbestos fibers is not convincing, and in view of the lack of confirmation by animal studies, the existence of a risk has not been proven; ...

  9. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  10. Asbestos and drinking water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Wigle, D.; Meranger, J.C.; Mao, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Samples of raw, treated and distributed tap water were collected from 71 municipalities across Canada and analyzed for asbestos content by transmission electron microscopy. Chrysotile asbestos was identified as the major asbestos type present in drinking water with some 5% of public water supplies containing asbestos at concentrations greater than 10 million fibres per litre. Improvement factors of up to 300 were observed for the removal of chrysotile fibres from drinking water during treatment, indicating that coagulation/filtration treatment is efficient for this purpose. In certain cases there is evidence to suggest that erosion of asbestos from pipe material is taking place. Age-standardized mortality rates for gastro-intestinal cancers were calculated for each city for the period of 1966 to 1976. Rates for the 2 localities with the highest (congruent to 10(8)/L) concentrations of asbestos fibres in treated drinking water were compared with the weighted average of the rates for the 52 localities with asbestos concentrations not significantly greater than zero. Eleven localities had intermediate concentrations of asbestos and six were too small for meaningful statistical analysis. Relatively high mortality rates were apparent amongst males in city 1 for cancer of the large intestine except rectum, and in both sexes in city 1 and males in city 2 for stomach cancer. It is felt that these findings are probably related to occupational exposure to asbestos. Further statistical analyses are required, however, before the significance of these observations can be fully assessed.

  11. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  12. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  13. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  14. Assessing asbestos exposure potential in nonindustrial settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S N; White, L E; Scott, W D

    1987-01-01

    The presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in office and commercial buildings is a significant environmental problem. Asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer have been linked with industrial exposure to airborne asbestos. The extensive use of asbestos products in buildings has raised concerns about the widespread exposure of the general public to asbestos in nonoccupational settings. The presence of asbestos in a building does not necessarily mean that significant exposure of the occupants of the building has occurred, but it is important that the asbestos be monitored regularly to ensure that fibers do not become airborne. If ACM are contained within a matrix and not disturbed, exposure is unlikely. However, if the asbestos becomes friable (crumbling) or if building maintenance, repair, renovation or other activities disturb ACM, airborne asbestos fibers may be a source of exposure to the occupants of the building. Currently, asbestos exposure assessment is conducted by a phase contrast light microscope (PCM) technique. Due to its inherent limitation in resolution and the generic counting rules used, analysis by the PCM method underestimates the airborne asbestos fiber concentration as compared to analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is important that the air monitoring results analyzed by PCM be interpreted carefully in conjunction with a survey by a professional to judge the physical condition of the ACM in buildings. Exposure levels to airborne asbestos fibers vary from day to day and depend on the physical condition of the material involved and the type of operating and maintenance program in place.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  16. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieckel, H.G.; Hering, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [de

  17. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  18. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  19. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  20. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either...

  1. Asbestos in Colombia: A silent enemy = Asbesto en Colombia: un enemigo silencioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is a group of fibrous non-metallic minerals, composed of double chain silicates, that shows high resistance to tension and chemical degradation and low thermal conductivity. Despite being recognized as carcinogenic agents by the World Health Organization (WHO, based on experimental evidences and population studies, asbestos are still used in many countries at the expense of the health of workers. This has become a worldwide problem associated with the increase of asbestos-related diseases in exposed persons. In this article, we review asbestos and their associated diseases; the use, exposure and existing regulations on asbestos both in Colombia and in other countries. Finally, we raise the possibility of evaluating the usefulness of genetic monitoring in addition to following-up exposed individuals. This would enable a better surveillance in our country with respect to lung cancer, mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases.

  2. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  3. Assessment of LANL asbestos waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The intent of this effort is to evaluate the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for asbestos to determine if it meets applicable DOE, EPA, and OSHA requirements. There are numerous regulations that provide specific guidelines on the management of asbestos waste. An annotated outline for a generic asbestos WAC was developed using the type of information specified by 5820.2A. The outline itself is included in Appendix A. The major elements that should be addressed by the WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Forms; Waste Content/Concentration; Waste Packaging; and Waste Documentation/Certification

  4. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile. ...

  5. Current Best Practices for Preventing Asbestos Exposure Among Brake and Clutch Repair Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covers concerns about asbestos exposure for mechanics, how to tell if asbestos brake or clutch components contain asbestos, work practices to follow, protecting yourself for home mechanics, disposal of waste that contains asbestos.

  6. Eradicating asbestos one click at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Two technology firms have launched asbestos tracking software, making bold claims that their programs will help rid Australia of asbestos by 2030. The move follows closely on the heels of the establishment of the Australian Asbestos Safety Eradication Agency (ASEA) last July. Asbestos-related deaths from diseases including lung cancer, asbestosis and mesothelioma are expected to continue until at least 2060, due to a latency period of 20-50 years before symptoms appear after initial exposure. Health experts predict there will be up to 40,000 deaths by 2020. Industry players, governments and trade unions are rightly concerned and have been working towards tracking and disposing of asbestos safely. In fact, just three weeks after ASEA began operations, then-Workplace Relations Minister Bill Shorten announced an additional $6.4 million in funding to implement the agency's national strategic plan for asbestos awareness and management. Now, two firms say they can fulfil the government's goal of eradicating asbestos by 2030 through the use of technology, while saving millions of dollars in the process. After three years of development, Octfolio, owned by investment firm Tulla Group, launched its Asbestos Management Software last September. It maps and manages asbestos by creating a centrally operated database bringing together asbestos stakeholders such as site assessors, removal workers, building owners and government agencies. Information from each stakeholder is recorded in a microformat — codes used to identify specific kinds of data in webpages — which is then processed to give users a big picture view of what is happening at asbestos-contaminated sites and buildings, as well as ongoing removal, disposal and storage of the material. The software also automatically generates reports from auditors who have submitted their inspection reports of asbestos-affected sites, which Octfoliosays will reduce the costs of auditing exercises by up to 75

  7. Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek

    2014-05-01

    This article aims to review the geological background of environmental asbestos exposure and the distribution of asbestos-related disease (ARD) in association with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), and discusses the potential health risks associated with exposure to non-occupational asbestos. With the motion of continental and oceanic plates, in some parts of the world serpentinites in the lower layer of the oceanic plate move into the continental plate and form the so-called ophiolites. Ophiolites consist of soil and rocks containing serpentine-type asbestos. There is an increase in ARDs in regions close to ophiolites. Indoor exposure and outdoor exposure to NOA, outdoor exposure to industrial asbestos and mines, urbanization and construction works in NOA regions are the known sources and types of environmental asbestos exposure. Although there is an expectance of decline in ARDs caused by industrial exposure to asbestos, the environmental exposure to asbestos is still a challenge waiting to be overcome.

  8. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  9. Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In the construction industry, asbestos is found in installed products such as shingles, floor tiles, cement pipe and sheet, roofing felts, insulation, ceiling tiles, fire-resistant drywall, and acoustical products...

  10. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

  11. Asbestos Workshop: Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    coatings Vinyl/asbestos floor tile Automatic transmission components Clutch facings Disc brake pads Drum brake linings Brake blocks Commercial and...A naturally-occurring pliant and fibrous mineral with heat-resistant properties • Serpentine Class: joint compound,‘popcorn’ceilings, brake pads...values for amphiboles and chrysotile; separate IUR values based on smoking status and gender EMDQ March 2012 14 Asbestos Risk Calculation EMDQ March

  12. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1977-12-01

    Fill material in natural- or mechanical-draft cooling towers can be manufactured from a variety of materials, including asbestos cement or asbestos paper. To aid in the environmental impact assessment of cooling towers containing these asbestos types of fill, information on these materials was obtained from cooling-tower vendors and users. Samples of makeup, basin, and blowdown waters at a number of operating cooling towers were obtained, and identification and enumeration of asbestos in the samples were performed by transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Asbestos fibers were detected in cooling-tower water at 10 of the 18 sites sampled in the study. At all but three sites, the fibers were detected in cooling-tower basin or blowdown samples, with no fibers detected in the makeup water. The fibers were identified as chrysotile at all sites except one. Concentrations were on the order of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter of water, with mass concentrations between <0.1 ..mu..g/liter to 37 ..mu..g/liter. The maximum concentrations of asbestos fibers in air near ground due to drift from cooling towers were estimated (using models) to be on the order of asbestos concentrations reported for ambient air up to distances of 4 km downwind of the towers. The human health hazard due to abestos in drinking-water supplies is not clear. Based on current information, the concentrations of asbestos in natural waters after mixing with cooling-tower blowdown containing 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter will pose little health risk. These conclusions may need to be revised if future epidemiological studies so indicate.

  13. Facilities Management Guide for Asbestos and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    FACILITIES MANAGEMENT GUIDE FOR ASBESTOS AND LEAD 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...and abatement of hazards The pertinent facilities management aspects of the asbestos program are: • Actively manage undamaged ACM in place, and...En su re tr ai ni ng in cl ud es th e to pi cs o ut lin ed in th e re gu la tio n FACILITIES MANAGEMENT Pa in t w ith L ea d, O SH

  14. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  15. Asbestos exposure of building maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S; Corn, M; Blake, C

    1996-06-01

    The exposures of building maintenance personnel and occupants to airborne asbestos fibers, and the effects of operations and maintenance programs on those exposures, continue to be an important public health issue. The subject of this investigation was a large metropolitan county with numerous public buildings which routinely conducted air sampling for asbestos. A total of 302 personal air samples in nine task categories collected during maintenance worker activities in proximity to asbestos-containing materials were analyzed; 102 environmental air samples in four task categories were also analyzed. The arithmetic means of the 8-hr time weighted average exposures for personal sampling for each task category were all below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 fibers (f)/cc > 5 microm. The highest mean 8-hr time weighted average exposure was 0.030 f/cc > 5 microm for ceiling tile replacement. The maximum asbestos concentration during sample collection for environmental samples was 0.027 f/cc > 5 microm. All asbestos-related maintenance work was done within the framework of an Operations and Maintenance Program (OMP) which utilized both personal protective equipment and controls against fiber release/dispersion. Results are presented in association with specific OMP procedures or controls. These results support the effectiveness of using Operations and Maintenance Programs to manage asbestos in buildings without incurring unacceptable risk to maintenance workers performing maintenance tasks.

  16. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostowski, P C; Foster, S A; Anderson, E L

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 x 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  17. Asbestos: the measures taken by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the Canton's Department for Installation, Equipment, and Housing launched a survey into the presence of asbestos in buildings built in Geneva before 1991. Their initial findings have caused some concern to the public, with buildings and landmarks such as the TSR Tower, the Temple de la Madeleine, and the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre all found to contain asbestos. Several employees here also contacted the Bulletin to find out more about CERN's approach in dealing with asbestos. In the 1960s, asbestos' use was widespread. Its low cost and attractive properties made it a popular choice for insulating buildings. It was used in buildings throughout the world, including many at CERN. However, since the 1970s the use of asbestos has been gradually limited. In France, the first specific rules for the protection of workers came about in 1977. Since then, its use was limited more and more, under pressure from European directives. Finally, a European directive in 1999 widened the ban on asbestos. It covered ...

  18. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

  19. Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quality at Work Healthy Air in Schools Outdoor Air Pollution What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & ... Join the fight for healthy lungs and healthy air. Donate Now. Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var arrows2 = ' Current ...

  20. [Issues related to long-term asbestos use and manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosić, Ivancica

    2009-11-01

    Extensive measures to ban mining, manufacture, use, and trade of asbestos and asbestos materials have been taken worldwide. In this century asbestos will continue to be an economic, industrial, health, social, and environmental issue. Five thousand products that are still in use have been inherited from a century of asbestos processing. In 1999, the EU member states decided to take steps that would eventually terminate the use of asbestos. At the same time, about 4000 t of asbestos had been imported to Croatia every year. EU member states started to enforce asbestos ban in 2005. This encouraged the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to issue a list of toxicants whose manufacture, trade, and use were banned, and which included asbestos and asbestos products. In 2007, several national acts came to force regulating protection of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is ubiquitous in the environment. It has been released from construction materials during renovations, demolitions, maintenance, and other building activities. It is released by drilling, blowing, demolishing, loading, transport, and improper storage of asbestos materials. Asbestos was often used for insulation. It was favoured for its resistance to heat, fire, moisture, noise, electricity, friction, and fraying. Materials used for firefighting, insulation, protection from noise, and construction frequently contain one or more types of asbestos. Landfills present a particular problem, since asbestos materials can not be recognised macroscopically. Asbestos can be identified by standardised polarising microscopy. This raises the need for education, because human exposure should be kept as low as possible to prevent the development of asbestos-related diseases.

  1. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  2. Pleural Plaque Related to Asbestos Mining in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman complained of twisting-like pain in her left lower chest. During physical examination, friction rubbing was noted in both lungs. Chest radiography showed extensive bilateral pleural calcification. High-resolution computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral calcified pleural plaques. The patient had worked at a Japanese asbestos factory in Taiwan for 1 year when she was 16 years old. Her job involved picking out asbestos fibers from crushed asbestos minerals, but no protective equipment was used at that time. This is believed to be the first reported case of asbestos-related disease in Taiwan that resulted from asbestos mining. We also summarize the history of domestic asbestos mining, importation of asbestos, and trends in asbestos use in Taiwan.

  3. Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) Enforcement Response Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) (40 CFR 763 Subpart E Appendix C) mandates safety training for those who do asbestos removal work, and implements the additional training requirements mandated by Congress

  4. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  5. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  6. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  7. Toward an Asbestos Ban in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Lemen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developed countries have banned the use of asbestos, but not the United States. There have, however, been multiple efforts in the US to establish strict exposure standards, to limit asbestos use, and to seek compensation through the courts for asbestos-injured workers’ In consequence of these efforts, asbestos use has declined dramatically, despite the absence of a legally mandated ban. This manuscript presents a historical review of these efforts.

  8. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  9. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  10. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  11. Asbestos induced oxidative injury to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N; Khan, S G; Ali, S; Athar, M; Rahman, Q

    1993-06-01

    DNA-damaging effects of asbestos in the presence of organic peroxides and hydroperoxides were investigated. The destabilization of the secondary structure of DNA, damage to deoxyribose sugar and DNA fidelity were measured, respectively, by S-1 nuclease hydrolysis, the formation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reacting species and a melting temperature (Tm) profile using calf thymus DNA. S-1 nuclease hydrolysis and Tm determinations have shown that the presence of benzoylperoxide (BOOB), cumene hydroperoxide (COOH) or tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) increased asbestos-mediated DNA damage by a large factor compared either to asbestos alone or to peroxide or hydroperoxide alone. However, no formation of TBA-reacting species could be observed in this system. The quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) afforded protection against DNA damage. These results suggest that asbestos in the presence of organic peroxides and hydroperoxides damage the DNA which is mediated by the generation of oxygen free radicals. The significance of these results in relation to the development of cancer of the respiratory tract among the asbestos exposed population is discussed.

  12. Asbestos fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue of former asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschler, H; Friedrichs, K H; Hoheisel, G B; Wick, G; Soltner, U; Thompson, A B; Konietzko, N; Costabel, U

    1994-03-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provides a simple method of sampling inhaled particles deposited in the lower respiratory tract. We hypothesized that BAL could be used to measure the quantity and quality of lung asbestos burden. This would be true if BAL fluid asbestos fiber content reflected the total content as well as the size distribution of both uncoated and coated asbestos fibers in lung parenchyma. Therefore, we analyzed the asbestos fiber counts of 23 individual sample pairs in both BAL fluid and lung tissue samples obtained from 20 patients with occupational asbestos exposure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, fiber type, fiber size, and aspect ratio were compared. Coated asbestos fibers were found in 10 of 23 BAL samples and 16 of 23 biopsies. The mean concentrations of coated asbestos fibers (i.e., asbestos bodies) in BAL and lung parenchyma showed a positive correlation (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Likewise, the mean amphibole fiber concentrations correlated positively (r = 0.55, p < 0.01). However, there was no relationship between the mean chrysotile fiber counts in BAL and lung parenchyma (r = 0.18, p = 0.40). Asbestos fibers in lung tissue were significantly longer (8.2 +/- 0.5 versus 4.8 +/- 0.6 microns; p < 0.001) but had the same width (0.12 +/- 0.27 versus 0.11 +/- 0.15 microns; p = 0.24) when compared with those retrieved by BAL from the airspace compartment. The aspect ratio (dividing fiber length by width) was much higher in lung tissue than in BAL fluid (66.4 +/- 0.4 versus 42.9 +/- 0.5; p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Asbestos as a risk factor for pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos is a recognised carcinogen, one of the most dangerous pollutants in the human environment. This is associated with a huge accumulation of asbestos-containing materials that, as a result of their degradation, release fibres that are practically indestructible. It is estimated that in recent years, asbestos was responsible for ca. 100 thousand death cases p.a. The pathogenic effects of asbestos on the respiratory system (the target organ) result from the inhalation of the respirable asbestos fibres suspended in the ambient air. The fibres accumulate in the lung tissue during the whole human lifetime, and the pathogenic effects become evident after a long period of latency, ranging from 20 to 40 years. A specific feature of asbestos activity is that the pathologies appear even after cessation of the exposure; another feature is the development of mesotheliomas associated with the environmental exposure. In Poland, the Act of 1997 banning the use of asbestos products has solved the problems associated with the occupational exposure in the asbestos processing industry, and prevented further accumulation of asbestos products. However, problems of the environmental exposures to asbestos remain unsolved. In spite that no worker has been occupationally exposed to asbestos during the recent 10 years, new cases of asbestosis, lung cancer pleural mesothelioma, non-malignant pleural diseases continue to be detected each year among the former workers of asbestos processing industry ("Amiantus" project). This paper reports on the current status of asbestos-related diseases in Poland and worldwide, risk of the development of lung cancers and asbestos-specific mesotheliomas and gives recent recommendations for diagnosing and certification of asbestos-related diseases.

  14. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D

    1980-01-01

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs...

  15. Airborne asbestos fibres monitoring in tunnel excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Sanguineti, Elisa; Yus González, Adrián; Militello, Gaia Maria; Scuderi, Alberto; Parisi, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    Tunnelling across ophiolitic formation with Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) can release fibres into the environment, exposing workers, and the population, if fibres spread outside the tunnel, leading to increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Therefore, a careful plan of environmental monitoring is carried out during Terzo Valico tunnel excavation. In the present study, data of 1571 samples of airborne dust, collected between 2014 and 2016 inside the tunnels, and analyzed by SEM-EDS for quantification of workers exposure, are discussed. In particular, the engineering and monitoring management of 100 m tunnelling excavation across a serpentinite lens (Cravasco adit), intercalated within calcschists, is reported. At this chrysotile occurrence, 84% of 128 analyzed samples (from the zone closer to the front rock) were above 2 ff/l. However, thanks to safety measures implemented and tunnel compartmentation in zones, the asbestos fibre concentration did not exceed the Italian standard of occupational exposure (100 ff/l) and 100% of samples collected in the outdoor square were below 1 ff/l. During excavation under normal working conditions, asbestos concentrations were below 2 ff/l in 97.4% of the 668 analyzed samples. Our results showed that air monitoring can objectively confirm the presence of asbestos minerals at a rock front in relative short time and provide information about the nature of the lithology at the front. The present dataset, the engineering measures described and the operative conclusions are liable to support the improvement of legislation on workers exposure to asbestos referred to the tunnelling sector, lacking at present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 31, No. 1, February 2008, pp. 19–22. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 19. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings. ARNAB GANGULY and RAJI GEORGE*. M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, ... linings (Gopal et al 1994, 1996; Dharani et al 1995). Alternate reinforcing materials are being ...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair and assembly operations, the employer shall... products may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Employees who repair and replace automotive brakes and clutches... graphics. (v) At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to...

  18. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  19. Determinants of Toxicity of Environmental Asbestos Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent EPA-led studies have addressed the comparative toxicity and pathological mechanisms of environmental asbestos samples from Libby, Montana and other communities in the United States. Longer amosite fibers induce a 4-10 fold greater induction of pro-inflammatory mediators C...

  20. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  1. Comments on the 2014 Helsinki Consensus Report on Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) convened an Expert Committee in 2014 to update the 1997 and 2000 Helsinki criteria on asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer. The Collegium Ramazzini reviewed the criteria for pathological diagnosis of the diseases caused by asbestos presented in the 2014 Helsinki Consensus Report and compared them with the widely used diagnostic criteria developed in 1982 by the College of American Pathologists and the National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (CAP-NIOSH). The sections of the Helsinki Consensus Report dealing with pathological diagnosis are based on a biased and selective reading of the scientific literature. They are heavily influenced by the outdated and incorrect concept that analysis of lung tissue for asbestos bodies and asbestos fibers can provide accurate information on past exposure to asbestos. Five specific problems are : Accurate diagnosis of the diseases caused by asbestos must be based on a carefully obtained history of occupational exposure. An accurate exposure history is a far more sensitive and specific indicator of asbestos exposure than asbestos body counting or lung fiber burden analysis. The sections of the 2014 Helsinki Consensus Report on asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer dealing with pathologic diagnosis of the diseases caused by asbestos appear to have been influenced by members of the Expert Committee with undisclosed financial conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  3. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  4. Defining asbestos: differences between the built and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Mickey E

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos - while most think they know what this material is, few understand the current issues surrounding it. Few would also realize that asbestos is the form of a mineral, and even fewer would know that there are different types of asbestos, that not only had different industrial applications, but pose differing health risks when inhaled. Asbestos was in wide-spread use mid-last century in many consumer products, and no doubt saved thousands of lives, but by the latter part of last century concerns over its health risk caused its use to wane, to the point it was removed from many buildings. So in many ways the asbestos story was coming to an end in the 1990s, but two events in the USA - the vermiculite ore produced from Libby, Montana which contained amphibole asbestos and was used in a million homes in the USA as attic insulation and the concern for exposure to asbestos occurring in its natural setting in El Dorado Hills, California led to an increased concern of the potential for low-level environmental exposure to asbestos to the general public. The current dilemma we find ourselves in, especially in the USA, deals with the relationships between our knowledge of handling asbestos and an understanding of its risk potential in the built environment versus the natural environment. And one perfect metaphor for this is the term used by many non-geologists to differentiate asbestos in the built vs natural environment - 'naturally occurring asbestos'. Clearly a misstatement, but only one of many we must deal with as we struggle to understand the risk to humans of natural occurrences of asbestos. This paper will try and address some of these issues centering around those occurring in the USA.

  5. Review of published studies of orally administered asbestos.

    OpenAIRE

    Condie, L W

    1983-01-01

    There has been great public concern about the adverse health effects resulting from the presence of asbestos fibers in municipal drinking water supplies. This article reviews and summarizes the experimental findings of 11 published papers that have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of asbestos following its ingestion. The long-term, high-level ingestion of various types of asbestos fibers in more than one animal species failed to produce any definite, reproducible, organ-specific carcinoge...

  6. Role of the Inflammasome in Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    CRI as a potential target for the prevention or treatment of MM. 15. SUBJECT TERMS inflammasome, mesothelioma , asbestos, inflammation 16. SECURITY...AD ________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0462 TITLE: Role of the Inflammasome in Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma Formation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of the Inflammasome in Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Formation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0462

  7. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  8. The Global Health Dimensions of Asbestos and Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  10. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  11. Throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    An engineering assessment is presented for factors that could significantly limit the throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit. The assessment focuses mainly on volumetric throughput capacity (and related mass rate and feed density), and energy input. Important conclusions that were reached during this assessment are that the throughput is limited by feed densification capability and that the design energy input rating appears to be adequate

  12. Topics in asbestos and asbestos containing wastes (ACW); Problematica dell`amianto e dei rifiuti contenenti amianto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G.; Coronidi, M.

    1991-04-01

    In this work an overview of the asbestos emergency is presented, describing the nature of this material, the pathogenic effects on the human health and the main civil and industrial applications of the asbestos. The picture of the actual law is illustrated, particularly referring to European Community and Italian laws. The problems related to the asbestos containing wastes (ACW) is highlighted, and their production is discussed together with the features of recovery, treatment and disposal. The containment of the hazard relevant to workers exposure in asbestos contaminated areas is then briefly analyzed.

  13. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  14. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

    1992-05-01

    The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

  15. Validity and Reliability of Asbestos Knowledge and Awareness Questionnaire for Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Metintaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is no treatment for asbestos–related diseases, but they can be prevented. One of the first interventions is to improve the knowledge level of people in order to protect people from asbestos and asbestos–related diseases. The present study was conducted to develop a questionnaire for measuring the knowledge and awareness level of asbestos and also assess its validity and reliability in a rural population that is exposed to asbestos environmentally. Methods: A questionnaire, interviewer–administered, that included 37 items was employed on a convenient sample consisting of adult persons who attended a tertiary teaching hospital in Eskişehir where asbestos exposure is widespread in its rural areas. After assessment of validity and reliability of the results, the questionnaire was refined to 19 items and one subscale. Results: A total of 760 participants were included in this study. The mean age of participants was 53.2±15.1 years and 51.6% of them were male. The discrimination and difficulty indices of the asbestos knowledge and awareness questionnaire ranged between 20.0–60.5% and 0.39–0.98, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.951 for overall items. The median (min–max and mean (SD score of the study population were 30 (19–56 and 33.9 (11.9, respectively. The score increased correspondingly with greater knowledge levels. Conclusion: This questionnaire is a practical and easy tool to apply with acceptable reliability and validity on high-risk adults in rural areas with environmental asbestos exposure.

  16. [A Forensic Autopsy Case Applied for Asbestos-Related Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kosuke; Hamada, Tetsuo; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    We had a forensic autopsy case that required additive pathological examination for the asbestos-related lung disease compensatory application afterwards. A man in his sixties with a history of occupational asbestos inhalation who had neither visited a hospital nor received a physical examination received forensic autopsy because of his death from unknown cause. An inmate said, "He developed cough and dyspnea, and died in the progression of the symptoms." The autopsy revealed widespread pleural plaques on both sides of the parietal pleura and multiple tumors in both sides of the lungs. The cause of death was diagnosed as lung cancer. Additional pathological examination was asked by his family to certify that he had suffered from asbestos-related lung disease in order to apply to the Asbestos-related Damage Relief Law. The Japanese criteria of the compensation law of asbestos-related lung cancer is the detection of more than 5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, while his number of asbestos bodies was 4,860. Asbestos bodies were reported to be accumulated in the distal lung parenchyma with no pathological changes. The present lung samples were collected from proximal section around the tumor, which might have made the number of asbestos bodies less than the criteria. Both the number of patients suffering from asbestos-related lung disease and the number of forensic autopsy cases have increased in Japan. Collecting lung samples from the appropriate lung section is essential and should be noted when the lung cancer is suspected at forensic autopsy in order to apply for asbestos-related lung disease compensation.

  17. Australia's Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A; Keena, Victoria; Takahashi, Ken; Leigh, James

    2018-02-23

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia's asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia's discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government's response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia's complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases, including

  18. Comparative Study Of Asbestos And Rice Husk As Roofing Materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to get a replacement for asbestos as a roofing material cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, the researcher in this study critically analyses the characteristics of rice husk as compared to the characteristics of asbestos. Series of tests were carried out on rice husk roofing sheet while the results of tests carried out ...

  19. Application of Microwave Energy at Treatment of Asbestos Cement (Eternit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znamenáčková, Ingrid; Dolinská, Silvia; Lovás, Michal; Hredzák, Slavomír; Matik, Marek; Tomčová, Jana; Čablík, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Asbestos is the common name applied to a group of natural, fibrous silicate minerals, which were once one of the most popular raw materials to be used in building materials. Asbestos was mainly used for the production of assortment asbestos cement products. Today it is generally known that asbestos belongs to the group of hazardous materials and shows carcinogenic activity. It is therefore advisable to attempt to dispose of asbestos minerals in asbestos-containing materials and to convert them into a harmless material. One of methods may be microwave thermal decomposition of asbestos minerals. The research was used for old etemit roof ceiling. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of undesirable chrysotile. Its thermal destruction was carried out in a microwave oven in the power of 2500 W. In case the heating time was 15 min, X-ray analysis was confirmed chrysotile change into harmless minerals. Thermal analysis was used for characterization and the thermal behaviour of the asbestos cement sample.

  20. Asbestos and cancer: epidemiological and public health controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huncharek, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses many of the currently controversial issues surrounding asbestos health effects and their relationship to cancer risk assessment and risk management. The major conclusions reached from this analysis are: (1) All asbestos fiber types are carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health. Therefore, all fiber types should be regulated similarly. (2) The health risks associated with indoor asbestos exposure are uncertain. Available data show that some groups, such as building maintenance personnel (among others), may contract asbestos-related diseases secondary to indoor exposure. Clearly, additional research is needed to accurately determine the extent and nature of disease risk under these conditions. (3) Controlled use has proved an elusive goal. Limited information from underdeveloped countries parallels the experience of Western industrialized nations. Efforts by the Canadian government to establish markets for asbestos in these areas should be opposed. (4) Finally, asbestos-related cancer risk is no longer confined to asbestos industry workers. Asbestos-related mesothelioma has been documented in a wide variety of occupational and nonoccupational settings, highlighting the need for continued surveillance to minimize potential health risks.

  1. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  2. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by…

  3. Estimation of personal exposure to asbestos of brake repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Curriero, Frank C; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Breysse, Patrick N; Giraldo, Margarita; Méndez, Lorena; Torres-Duque, Carlos; Durán, Mauricio; González-García, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo

    2017-07-01

    Exposure assessments are key tools to conduct epidemiological studies. Since 2010, 28 riveters from 18 brake repair shops with different characteristics and workloads were sampled for asbestos exposure in Bogotá, Colombia. Short-term personal samples collected during manipulation activities of brake products, and personal samples collected during non-manipulation activities were used to calculate 103 8-h TWA PCM-equivalent personal asbestos concentrations. The aims of this study are to identify exposure determinant variables associated with the 8-h TWA personal asbestos concentrations among brake mechanics, and propose different models to estimate potential asbestos exposure of brake mechanics in an 8-h work-shift. Longitudinal-based multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the association between personal asbestos concentrations in a work-shift with different variables related to work tasks and workload of the mechanics, and some characteristics of the shops. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the 8-h TWA PCM-Eq personal asbestos concentration in work-shifts that had manipulations of brake products or cleaning activities of the manipulation area, using the results of the sampling campaigns. The simulations proposed could be applied for both current and retrospective studies to determine personal asbestos exposures of brake mechanics, without the need of sampling campaigns or historical data of air asbestos concentrations.

  4. Malignant mesothelioma due to asbestos exposure in dental tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Steven B; Moline, Jacqueline M

    2017-05-01

    Although most cases of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura are caused by one or more readily recognized sources of exposure to asbestos, cases of the disease with more occult exposure occur, especially since asbestos has been used in over 3,000 products. Dental lining tape contained asbestos from the 1930s until at least the 1970s and was used in the lost wax method of casting crowns, bridges, and other metal dental prosthetic devices. We report six cases of pathology-verified malignant mesothelioma, mostly among dentists, following exposure to airborne dust from asbestos dental tape, which resulted in asbestos tort litigation. According to evidence available at present, chrysotile asbestos was the type of asbestos used in dental tape in the past in the United States, and the described cases followed relatively brief and intermittent exposure to this type of asbestos. These cases underscore the need for comprehensive exposure histories to determine exposure scenarios. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:437-442, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma in South Africa | Rees | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the exposure experiences of South African mesothelioma cases, with emphasis on the contribution made to the caseload by different fibre types, the proportion of subjects with no recall of asbestos exposure and only environmental contact, and the importance of putative causes other than asbestos.

  6. [Possible health risks from asbestos in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Gennaro, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    The recent finding of asbestos fibres in drinking water (up to 700.000 fibres/litres) in Tuscany (Central Italy) leads to concerns about health risks in exposed communities. Exposure to asbestos has been linked with cancer at several levels of the gastrointestinal tract, and it has been documented, in an animal model, a direct cytotoxic effect of asbestos fibres on the ileum. It has been recently described a possible link between asbestos and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and asbestos fibres have been detected in humans in histological samples from colon cancer and in gallbladder bile. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility of an enterohepatic translocation of asbestos fibres, alternative to lymphatic translocation from lungs. In animal models, asbestos fibres ingested with drinking water act as a co-carcinogen in the presence of benzo(a) pyrene and, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC ), there is evidence pointing to a causal effect of ingested asbestos on gastric and colorectal cancer. The risk seems to be proportional to the concentration of ingested fibres, to the extent of individual water consumption, to exposure timing, and to the possible exposure to other toxics (i.e., benzo(a)pyrene). Furthermore, the exposure to asbestos by ingestion could explain the epidemiological finding of mesothelioma in subjects certainly unexposed by inhalation. In conclusion, several findings suggest that health risks from asbestos could not exclusively derive from inhalation of fibres. Health hazards might also be present after ingestion, mainly after daily ingestion of drinking water for long periods. In Italy, a systemic assessment of the presence of asbestos fibres in drinking water is still lacking, although asbestos-coated pipelines are widely diffused and still operating. Despite the fact that the existence of a threshold level for health risks linked to the presence of asbestos in drinking water is still under debate, the

  7. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  8. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  9. Pleural plaques and cigarette smoking in asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Levin, R; Goodman, L

    1981-06-01

    In a survey of 45 men aged 40 or over who had worked five years or more in an asbestos manufacturing plant, the prevalence of pleural plaques was studied with respect to age, duration of asbestos exposure, estimated cumulative asbestos dose, and smoking habit. Plaques were found in 38 to 53% of the men, depending on the interpretation of the chest film reader. Cigarette habit appeared to be the most important factor; the prevalence was lowest in non-smokers, intermediate in current smokers, and particularly high in exsmokers. There was some confounding of this relationship by estimated cumulative asbestos dose but such confounding did not seem to be sufficient to explain fully the relationship between the prevalence of plaques and smoking habit. Both factors must be considered in studies of the risk of pleural plaques in asbestos workers.

  10. Optical properties of cyanine dyes in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.; Belotitskii, Vladimir I.; Kumzerov, Yuri A.; Sysoeva, Anna A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of cyanine dye molecules incorporated in nanotubes of natural chrysotile asbestos are studied. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dye in asbestos have the similar shapes as in the ethanol solution, apart from small blue shift of the maxima. The Stokes shift in asbestos is smaller than in the ethanol solution. The fluorescence decay times of the dyes in asbestos nanotubes are found to be larger than that in the case of thin films of the same dyes formed on the transparent dielectric supports. This observation is rationalized in terms of the stereoisomerization hindrance in the excited electronic state of dye molecules. At the same time linear dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy observed in the experiment indicate that the embedded dye molecules are well-isolated monomer oriented predominantly along asbestos nanotubes.

  11. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E..., recognizing the potential hazards and subsequent liabilities associated with exposure, the following... Regional Asbestos NESHAPs contact below: Region I Asbestos NESHAPs Contact, Air Management Division, USEPA...

  13. Double standards: the multinational asbestos industry and asbestos-related disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Jock; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This study documents and contrasts the development of knowledge about asbestos-related disease (ARD) in South Africa and the United Kingdom. It also contributes to the globalization debate by exploring corporate decision-making in a multinational industry. Between the 1930s and 1960s, the leading U.K. asbestos companies developed a sophisticated knowledge of ARD, though in South Africa, where the leading companies such as Turner & Newall and Cape Asbestos owned mines, there was little attempt to apply this knowledge. Asbestos mines (and their environments) in South Africa were uniquely dusty and ARD was rife. Social and political factors in South Africa, especially apartheid, allowed these companies to apply double standards, even after 1960 when the much more serious hazard of mesothelioma was identified. This shows the need for greater regulation of multinationals. Because of the lack of such regulation in the early 1960s, an opportunity was lost to prevent the current high morbidity and mortality of ARD both in South Africa and worldwide.

  14. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  15. Association Between Laryngeal Cancer and Asbestos Exposure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferster, Ashley P O'Connell; Schubart, Jane; Kim, Yesul; Goldenberg, David

    2017-04-01

    It has been debated whether a link exists between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. Prior systematic reviews have been conducted on this topic, but no updates have been performed on the most recent literature since 2000. To provide an updated systematic review of the association between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. A search of electronic databases, including PubMed and the Cochrane Library, was performed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and April 30, 2016. Search terms, including laryngeal cancer and asbestos, were used to identify publications reviewing the risk of laryngeal cancer in association with asbestos exposure. Studies analyzing this association that were published in any language and translated reliably were included. Two independent reviewers assessed articles based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Each study was reviewed for quality using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence and assessed for their findings of support for or against a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. A total of 160 studies were retrieved from all databases, and 2 additional articles were identified by cross-references. Of the 162 articles screened, 15 articles comprising 438 376 study participants were included in this review. Of these 15 studies, 10 showed no correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. The remaining 5 studies claimed a correlation between asbestos exposure and incidence of laryngeal cancer, although only 1 accounted for smoking or alcohol exposure while 3 others did not, and 1 study included only 2 patients. Although asbestos is considered hazardous and carcinogenic, current evidence is lacking to support a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. Few studies have been able to definitively conclude a causal association between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer, and those that found an association often did not account for the

  16. Asbestos in drinking water; Asbest im Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurny, K.R.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements and analysis of more than 100 samples of tap-water, originated from different countries of the Federal Republik of Germany, have been performed by means of the standardized TEM-procedure (ISO). The results have shown that the drinking water is contaminated with fine fibers, with chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. The majority of investigated samples contained less than 10{sup 6} fibers/liter, and the fibers were thin and shorter than 5 {mu}m. Nevertheless, in some tap-water samples the asbestos fiber concentrations were higher than 10{sup 6} fibers/liter and/or the content of long fibers (longer than 5 {mu}m) was relatively high. It is recommended tapwater with asbestos fiber concentrations over 10{sup 6} fibers/liter and/or with greater content of long fibers should not be used for cooking or drinking unless filtered. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mehr als 100 Trinkwasser-Proben aus verschiedenen Bundeslaendern wurden untersucht und analysiert bei Anwendung eines standardisierten TEM-Verfahrens (ISO). Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Trinkwasser (alte Bundeslaender) mit feinen Asbestfasern, Chrysotil und Amphibolen, mehr oder weniger kontaminiert ist. In der Mehrheit der untersuchten Proben lagen die Asbestkonzentrationen im Bereich weniger als 10{sup 6} Fasern/Liter und die gemessenen Fasern waren duenn und kuerzer als 5 {mu}m. Nichtsdestoweniger, in einigen Wasserproben wurden Asbestfaser-Kontaminationen im Bereich ueber 10{sup 6} Fasern/Liter ermittelt. Diese Wasserproben enthielten auch hoeheren Anteil an langen Fasern. Es wird empfohlen, Wasser mit Asbestfaserkonzentrationen ueber 10{sup 6} Fasern/Liter oder mit einem hoeheren Anteil an langen Asbestfasern nicht ohne weitere Behandlung (Filtration) zu trinken und nicht zum Kochen zu verwenden. (orig.)

  17. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  18. Malignant Mesothelioma after Household Exposure to Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Saba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive cancer that has been closely linked to asbestos exposure. Initially recognized as an occupational cancer in male workers, MM was later found to occur in their family members as well. We report the case of an 89-year-old female who presented with abdominal distention, pain, and findings consistent with malignant ascites. Family history was significant for fatal mesothelioma in her husband of 40 years, who was a worker at a tile factory. The diagnosis of MM was confirmed on pathologic examination of the omental core biopsy.

  19. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1979-03-01

    Water discharges from cooling towers constructed with asbestos fill were found to contain chrysotile--asbestos fibers at concentrations as high as 10 8 fibers/liter. The major source of these fibers, appears to be the components of the towers rather than the air drawn through the towers or the makeup water taken into the towers. Suggested mechanisms for the release of chrysotile fibers from cooling-tower fill include freeze-thaw cycles and dissolution of the cement due to acidic components of the circulating water. Ash- or other material-settling ponds were found to reduce asbestos-fiber concentrations in cooling-tower effluent. The literature reviewed did not support the case for a causal relationship between adverse human health effects and drinking water containing on the order of 10 6 chrysotile--asbestos fibers/liter; for this and other reasons, it is not presently suggested that the use of asbestos fill be discontinued. However, caution and surveillance are dictated by the uncertainties in the epidemiological studies, the absence of evidence for a safe threshold concentration in water, and the conclusive evidence for adverse effects from occupational exposure. It is recommended that monitoring programs be carried out at sites where asbestos fill is used; data from such programs can be used to determine whether any mitigative measures should be taken. On the basis of estimates made in this study, monitoring for asbestos in drift from cooling towers does not appear to be warranted

  20. [Effectiveness of support for asbestos health consultation in health centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yasuko

    2011-09-01

    In this research, we aimed to evaluate the support for asbestos health consultation in health centers. In this exploratory descriptive study, a self-administered original questionnaire was developed and used. Among all 517 health centers, valid responses were returned from 323 (62.5%) consenting centers. Consultations in the previous year ranged from 0-108 cases, with a facility median of 3.0 cases. Among staff members, 86.4% did not receive training and 35.4% had never used the manual. Workplaces that use asbestos within their jurisdiction were recognized by 39.2% of staff members, and 16.7% of these members always supported consultants psychologically. The staff members were not confident about asbestos health consultation: 71.2% for general questions, 76.2% for questions about asbestos-related diseases, and 76.4% for questions about risk of asbestos-related diseases; 51.4% were not confident about the Asbestos-Related Health Damage Relief System. Health center staff members who were significantly more confident were those who had more staff to work with; dealt with many consultations in the previous year; recognized the workplaces using asbestos within their jurisdiction; often used the manual and often psychologically supported consultants. According to the covariance structure analysis model, the 'use of support systems' consisting of 'the use of manual', 'training attendance' and 'recognition of workplaces that use asbestos' positively affected the frequency of psychological support (peffective in building the confidence of health center staff in relation to asbestos health consultation, although the use of these support systems was low.

  1. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  2. A statistical evaluation of asbestos air concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Both area and personal air samples collected during an asbestos abatement project were matched and statistically analysed. Among the many parameters studied were fibre concentrations and their variability. Mean values for area and personal samples were 0.005 and 0.024 f cm - - 3 of air, respectively. Summary values for area and personal samples suggest that exposures are low with no single exposure value exceeding the current OSHA TWA value of 0.1 f cm -3 of air. Within- and between-worker analysis suggests that these data are homogeneous. Comparison of within- and between-worker values suggests that the exposure source and variability for abatement are more related to the process than individual practices. This supports the importance of control measures for abatement. Study results also suggest that area and personal samples are not statistically related, that is, there is no association observed for these two sampling methods when data are analysed by correlation or regression analysis. Personal samples were statistically higher in concentration than area samples. Area sampling cannot be used as a surrogate exposure for asbestos abatement workers. (author)

  3. Analyses of asbestos using microscopic and x-ray diffractometric approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kenichi; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos such as chrysotile, crocidolite (riebeckite asbestos), and amosite (grunerite asbestos) in building materials have been analyzed using microscopic and/or X-ray diffractometric methods. Fibrous asbestos particles in air and building materials have often been observed and counted using optical microscope and scanning or transmission electron microscope. Using electron microscopic analyses, trace asbestos around 0.1 mass% can be easily detected because of higher spatial resolution; however, these microscopic analyses are unsuitable for obtaining mass concentration. Asbestos in building materials have been measured using substrate standard correction/X-ray diffractometric analysis based on JIS A 1481 with acid treatment for dissolving matrix components; the trace asbestos might be determined. On the other hand, asbestos in pulverized building materials can directly be determined using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer analysis without chemical treatments. We reviewed microscopic and X-ray diffractometric methods concerned with quantitative analyses of asbestos. (author)

  4. Cancer risk after cessation of asbestos exposure: a cohort study of Italian asbestos cement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, C; Ferrante, D; Barone-Adesi, F; Bertolotti, M; Todesco, A; Mirabelli, D; Terracini, B

    2008-03-01

    We aimed to study mortality for asbestos related diseases and the incidence of mesothelioma in a cohort of Italian asbestos cement workers after cessation of asbestos exposure. The Eternit factory operated from 1907 to 1986. The cohort included 3434 subjects active in 1950 or hired in 1950-86, ascertained from company records, without selections. Local reference rates were used for both mortality and mesothelioma incidence. Mortality was increased in both sexes for all causes (overall 1809 observed (obs) vs 1312.3 expected (exp); p<0.01), pleural (135 obs vs 3.6 exp; p<0.01) and peritoneal (52 vs 1.9; p<0.01) malignancies and lung cancer (249 vs 103.1; p<0.01). In women, ovarian (9 vs 4.0; p<0.05) and uterine (15 vs 5.8; p<0.01) malignancies were also in excess. No statistically significant increase was found for laryngeal cancer (16 obs vs 12.2 exp). In Poisson regression analyses, the RR of death from pleural neoplasm linearly increased with duration of exposure, while it showed a curvilinear increase with latency and time since cessation of exposure. RR for peritoneal neoplasm continued to increase by latency, duration and time since cessation of exposure. RR for lung cancer showed a reduction after 15 years since cessation of exposure and levelled off after 40 years of latency. This study of a cohort of asbestos exposed workers with very long follow-up confirmed the reduction in risk of death from lung cancer after the end of exposure. It also suggested a reduction in risk for pleural mesothelioma with over 40 years of latency, while risk for peritoneal mesothelioma showed a continuing increase.

  5. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  6. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  7. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  8. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  9. Porcelain Factory Worker With Asbestos-related Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor among the general population, but for people exposed to asbestos, the lifetime risk is high. A 58-year old man presented with suffering from chest pain, upper back pain, shortness of breath, and coughing that had continued for several months. A chest X-ray revealed right-side pleural effusion; however, pleural biopsy from drainage treatment confirmed a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. According to his occupational and environmental history, the patient had worked continuously in a porcelain factory for 30 years. The specific characteristics of his work, making asbestos wallboards and gaskets, entailed working in high-temperature conditions with a high fine-particle content in the atmosphere. The high working temperature caused asbestos debris and dust to fall down regularly from the wallboards, however, it was not until recently that the patient had started to wear personal protection. Asbestos is a significant source of hazardous exposure in old buildings, and this case serves as a reminder of the importance of asbestos-related exposure history, which facilitated the correct diagnosis of pulmonary malignant mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials that are now banned or regulated are still present in older buildings and remain an exposure hazard; they continue to be a serious health concern in many countries.

  10. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  11. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D  3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  13. Asbestos exposure among transmission mechanics in automotive repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Natalia; Cely-García, María Fernanda; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Asbestos has been used in a broad variety of industrial products, including clutch discs of the transmission system of vehicles. Studies conducted in high-income countries that have analyzed personal asbestos exposures of transmission mechanics have concluded that these workers are exposed to asbestos concentrations in compliance with the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) occupational standards. Clutch facings are the friction component of clutch discs. If clutch facings are sold separated from the support, they require manipulation before installation in the vehicle. The manipulation of asbestos containing clutch facings is performed by a group of mechanics known as riveters, and includes drilling, countersinking, riveting, sanding, and occasionally grinding, tasks that can potentially release asbestos fibers, exposing the mechanics. These manipulation activities are not reported in studies conducted in high-income countries. This study analyzes personal asbestos exposures of transmission mechanics that manipulate clutch facings. Air sampling campaigns in two transmission repair shops (TRS) were conducted in November 2012 and July 2013 in Bogotá, Colombia. Four workers employed in these TRS were sampled (i.e. three riveters and one supervisor). Personal samples (n = 39), short-term personal samples (n = 49), area samples (n = 52), blank samples (n = 8), and background samples (n = 2) were collected in both TRS during 3-5 consecutive days, following US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. Asbestos samples were analyzed by an American Industrial Hygiene Association accredited laboratory. On at least one of the days sampled, all riveters were exposed to asbestos concentrations that exceeded the US OSHA permissible exposure limit or the Colombian permissible limit value. Additionally, from the forty-seven 30-min short-term personal samples collected, two (4.3%) exceeded the US OSHA excursion

  14. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Releasability of asbestos fibers from weathered roof cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberta, Andrew F; Poye, Lee; Compton, Steven P

    2018-03-26

    Chrysotile asbestos fibers were added to roofing products, including roof cement, for several decades. The fibers were described as "encapsulated" and therefore incapable of being released, an assertion that is disproved by the study reported herein. Three test panels of roof cement from the original container were exposed to ambient weathering in 2015 and 2016. Two panels were then sampled using the ASTM D5755 microvacuum method. Sampling revealed a light brown sub-layer under the dark brown surface layer, both of which crumbled and became friable during sampling. Analysis of the microvacuum samples with transmission electron microscopy showed that the material on the two panels contained 4,432,000 and 3,320,000 asbestos structures per cm² with nearly all of the structures consisting of fibers less than 5 µm long. Energy dispersive spectrometry determined that none of the fibers reported were coated with asphalt. The presence of free fibers were confirmed by direct examination of the surfaces of the panels and of dust released from handling the panels via scanning electron microscopy. This study confirmed the releasability of uncoated asbestos fibers from dried roof cement that was indicated in two previous studies published in 2007 and 2010. These results suggest that the finding of the 5th Circuit Court in 1997 that uncoated airborne asbestos fibers cannot be released from roof cement, and therefore do not present a potential exposure by inhalation, was erroneous in retrospect. Theexemption of roof cement from regulation under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Construction Industry Standard for asbestos by the Court should not be relied on by employers of workers who remove weathered asbestos-containing roof cement, and precautions should be taken against exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during this work.

  16. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  17. Asbestos in drinking water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and problems associated with drinking water contaminated by asbestos fibers. Water supply contamination by asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Topics also include distribution data, epidemiology studies, health effects, detection, and measurement methods. (Contains a minimum of 114 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrauskaite Everatt, R; Smolianskien, G; Jankauskas, R [Institute of Hygiene, Etmonu 3/6, LT-01129 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tossavainen, A [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41a A, FI-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Cicens, S, E-mail: grazina.smolianskiene@dmc.l [Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, Santaritkiu 1, LT-08660 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3} in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  19. Asbestos-in-Schools: A Guide to New Federal Requirements for Local Education Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    In 1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law requiring the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. The new rule, The Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule, requires all…

  20. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos... teleconference of the SAB Libby Amphibole Asbestos Panel to discuss the Panel's revised draft review report of EPA's Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011 Draft). DATES: The public...

  1. 77 FR 38658 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Asbestos in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...; Asbestos in Shipyards Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the..., ``Asbestos in Shipyards Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for... INFORMATION: The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard requires employers to train workers about the hazards of...

  2. Risk factors for malignant mesothelioma in people with no known exposure to asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musk, Bill; Gordon, Len; Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison; Olsen, Nola; Mina, Robin; Franklin, Peter; Peters, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Brims, Fraser; Hui, Jennie; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and generally fatal cancer, usually caused by asbestos, although about 5-10% of cases report no asbestos exposure. This study aimed to identify sources whereby people in Western Australia (WA) may be unknowingly exposed to asbestos or to other

  3. How To Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's Self-Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator called the "AHERA (Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act) designated person" (DP) who is responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities. This manual presents some recommendations designed to help those persons appointed…

  4. Transnational Dynamics Amid Poor Regulations: Taiwan’s Asbestos Ban Actions and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Yi-Jui Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban. Correlation between asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases has already been established; however, authorities have been unable to effectively regulate the extensive application of asbestos in various light industries that support economic growth since the 1960s. More stringent regulations on asbestos use in industries and an eventual ban were caused indirectly by appeals made by visionary scholars and healthcare professionals but also due to the subsidence of asbestos-related industries. With the elucidation of factors that affect asbestos regulation and ban, a thorough long-term healthcare plan for the neglected victims of asbestos-related diseases and upstream measures for policy change must be developed.

  5. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  6. [Asbestos exposure assessment in the first case of intrasplenic mesothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscetti, Giorgio; Bodo, Patrizia; Lumare, A; Abbritti, E P; Garofani, Patrizia; Burani, V

    2016-01-20

    In 2013 the International Journal of Surgical Pathology published a case report of intrasplenic malignant mesothelioma (MM) in a 48-year-old man: it was the first report in literature describing a case of primitive intra-splenic MM, described without  a history of asbestos exposure. To verify the possible past exposure to asbestos, ignored by the patient himself, by studying in depth his environmental and occupational history. Information about the occupational and non-occupational history of the subject was collected by Experts of the Operational Unit of Occupational Health and Safety Control (UOC PSAL) of the Local Health Unit Umbria 1 - Perugia, using the Italian National Mesothelioma Register (ReNaM) questionnaire and guide lines; an inspection was  carried out at the past canning industry where the patient worked in the period 1982-1990 and material was taken to be analysed by MOCF and SEM. Samples showed the presence of asbestos  fibres belonging to the amphibole class (amosite and crocidolite) and to the serpentine class (chrysotile). The survey described the past occupational exposure to asbestos in a canning industry, where  the subject worked in the period 1982-1990,  unknown to the patient himself. The authors strongly confirm the  usefulness of standardized methods, such as the ReNaM Questionnaire, and the importance of technical expertise of the investigator to find and analyse the suspect materials and to demonstrate  possible past occupational exposure to asbestos.

  7. Performance of membrane filters used for TEM analysis of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, James S; Czuhanich, Alex G; Carhart, Laurie J

    2007-10-01

    This article presents findings related to characteristics of membrane filters that can affect the recovery of asbestos and the quality of preparations for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Certain applications and preparation steps can lead to unacceptable performance of membrane filters used in analysis of asbestos by TEM. Unless substantial care is used in the collapsing of mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters with an acetone hot block, grid preparations can suffer and fiber recoveries can be compromised. Calibration of the etching depth of MCE filters, especially at differing locations in an asher's chamber, is critical for reliable fiber recovery. Excessive etching of MCE filters with aerosol-deposited asbestos can lead to loss of short fibers, while insufficient etching of MCE filters with aqueous-deposited asbestos can, paradoxically, also lead to loss of short fibers. Interlaboratory precision on MCE filters is improved by aerosol-deposited asbestos, as opposed to aqueous deposition. In comparison, straightforward preparation, improved solvents, and reduced contamination make PC filters an increasingly acceptable alternative. Variations in the geometric configuration during application of carbon films can lead to fiber loss and unacceptable grid quality for either type of filter.

  8. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the resolution process and even after a case's conclusion, little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one party in a WTO case, who analyzes what happened from a public health point of view. The analysis concludes that the public health justification for banning asbestos was accepted in the end by WTO economists, despite the WTO's bias in favor of the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation), despite the WTO's lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. The case nevertheless illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  9. 75 FR 17164 - Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in its Standard on Asbestos in General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001). DATES: Comments must... workers with protection from hazardous asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure results in asbestosis, an...

  10. Evaluating the efficiency of an asbestos stabilizer on ceiling tiles and the characteristics of the released asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Sung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Kim, Seongmi; Lee, Wooseok; Lim, Ho-ju; Kim, Hyunwook

    2015-12-30

    The efficiency of asbestos stabilizers and their adaptability were evaluated by investigating the characteristics of asbestos fibers released from ceiling tiles. The impact of such variables as the wind speed or vibration conditions was also studied along with the asbestos stabilizers. The concentrations of the asbestos fibers released from damaged ceiling tiles treated with stabilizers decreased by 69.5-84.4% compared with those of untreated tiles for all variables, with a statistically significant difference (ptiles and stabilizers were the main factors affecting the concentration, and the reliability of these factors was estimated as 58.3%. The lengths of the chrysotile fibers released from the damaged ceiling tiles were in the range of 0.991-79.1 μm for the untreated tiles and 3.74-35.6 μm for the tiles treated with inorganic stabilizers. It was confirmed that inorganic stabilizers are more efficient for damaged ceiling tiles. The results of this study also show that the asbestos concentrations are greatly reduced after treating damaged ceiling tiles with a stabilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  12. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. Structural and microstructural aspects of asbestos-cement waste vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Zawada, Anna; Przerada, Iwona; Lubas, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of the work was to evaluate the vitrification process of asbestos-cement waste (ACW). A mixture of 50 wt% ACW and 50 wt% glass cullet was melted in an electric furnace at 1400 °C for 90 min and then cast into a steel mold. The vitrified product was subjected to annealing. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effects of the vitrification. The chemical constitution of the material before and after the vitrification process was also analyzed. It was found that the vitrified product has an amorphous structure in which the components of asbestos-cement waste are incorporated. MIR spectroscopy showed that the absorption bands of chrysotile completely disappeared after the vitrification process. The results of the spectroscopic studies were confirmed by X-ray studies - no diffraction reflections from the chrysotile crystallographic planes were observed. As a result of the treatment, the fibrous asbestos construction, the main cause of its pathogenic properties, completely disappeared. The vitrified material was characterized by higher resistance to ion leaching in an aquatic environment than ACW and a smaller volume of nearly 72% in relation to the apparent volume of the substrates. The research has confirmed the high effectiveness of vitrification in neutralizing hazardous waste containing asbestos and the FT-IR spectroscopy was found to be useful to identify asbestos varieties and visualizing changes caused by the vitrification process. The work also presents the current situation regarding the utilization of asbestos-containing products.

  14. Crude fiber determination using ceramic fiber to replace asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R L; Engvall, D S; Ginther, B E

    1982-09-01

    Crude fiber was determined in a wide range of feed products by a method which specifies ceramic fiber as a filter medium instead of the more hazardous and difficult to obtain asbestos. Results correlated well with those obtained by using AOAC official final action method 7.061-7.065 (correlation coefficient, 0.9994). For 8 samples, the coefficients of variation ranged from 0.74 to 4.80%. Compared with the AOAC method the proposed method showed a slight negative bias of 0.1%. Compared with asbestos, ceramic fiber was easier to prepare for use, filtering was faster, and samples bumped less.

  15. Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Middleton, C G

    1980-04-01

    Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The results are discussed in light of present and proposed Occupational Health Standards, and in terms of its implications for other workers, household contacts, and consumer's risk. Measures to reduce and control the health hazards associated with the process are described.

  16. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB's, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives

  17. Development of an automated asbestos counting software based on fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Maxym; Ichida, Etsuko; Nishimura, Tomoki; Aoki, Kousuke; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Kuroda, Akio

    2015-01-01

    An emerging alternative to the commonly used analytical methods for asbestos analysis is fluorescence microscopy (FM), which relies on highly specific asbestos-binding probes to distinguish asbestos from interfering non-asbestos fibers. However, all types of microscopic asbestos analysis require laborious examination of large number of fields of view and are prone to subjective errors and large variability between asbestos counts by different analysts and laboratories. A possible solution to these problems is automated counting of asbestos fibers by image analysis software, which would lower the cost and increase the reliability of asbestos testing. This study seeks to develop a fiber recognition and counting software for FM-based asbestos analysis. We discuss the main features of the developed software and the results of its testing. Software testing showed good correlation between automated and manual counts for the samples with medium and high fiber concentrations. At low fiber concentrations, the automated counts were less accurate, leading us to implement correction mode for automated counts. While the full automation of asbestos analysis would require further improvements in accuracy of fiber identification, the developed software could already assist professional asbestos analysts and record detailed fiber dimensions for the use in epidemiological research.

  18. Asbestos exposure increases the incidence of histologically confirmed usual interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Hoshi, Eishin; Murai, Kazumi; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Sugita, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that asbestos exposure increases the incidence of macroscopically visible and histologically confirmed usual interstitial pneumonia (histological UIP). We retrospectively examined 1718 cases (1202 males; mean age 66.7 years) who underwent lobectomy for resection of pleuropulmonary tumours. Objective markers for asbestos exposure included: the presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma, the presence of pleural plaques (PPs) and asbestos bodies in the histological specimen. Risk factors for histological UIP were examined. Two separate groups were studied: 183 with asbestos exposure, and 239 with histological UIP. The 183 cases with asbestos exposure had higher rates of positive occupational history and histological UIP (31%) than the remaining 1535. Among the asbestos-exposed group, small numbers of asbestos bodies were found in histological specimens of 21 cases of histological UIP. PPs and asbestos bodies were more frequent in the 239 patients with histological UIP than in the remaining 1479 UIP-negative patients. Multivariate analysis showed that asbestos exposure, especially positivity for asbestos bodies, that does not meet the current criteria for asbestosis increases the risk of histological UIP (P Asbestos exposure causes asbestosis and increases the incidence of histological UIP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Asbestos Ban in Italy: A Major Milestone, Not the Final Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and history: Italy was the main asbestos producer and one of the greatest consumers in 20th century Europe until the asbestos ban was introduced in 1992. Asbestos exposure affected the population in a wide range of working environments, namely mining and marketing of asbestos, asbestos cement production, shipyards and textile industries. This also determined a widespread environmental asbestos exposure affecting the surrounding communities. Methods: To investigate the drivers and difficulties of the process leading to the asbestos ban and its subsequent implementation, we focused on stakeholder involvement, environmental health policies, capacity building and communication. Results: In the past three decades, stakeholder involvement has been instrumental in advancing the industrial asbestos replacement process, prevention and remediation interventions. Furthermore, involvement also contributed to the integration of environmental and health policies at national, regional and local levels, including capacity building and communication. In a global public health perspective, international scientific cooperation has been established with countries using and producing asbestos. Discussion and Conclusions: Key factors and lessons learnt in Italy from both successful and ineffective asbestos policies are described to support the relevant stakeholders in countries still using asbestos contributing to the termination of its use.

  20. Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Bælum, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing low-level exposure. A literature search in PubMed and Embase resulted in 5,864 citations. Information from included studies was extracted using SIGN. Twenty-one statements were...... evidence graded. The results show that histology and location are not helpful in differentiating asbestos-related lung cancer. Pleural plaques, asbestos bodies, or asbestos fibers are useful as markers of asbestos exposure. The interaction between asbestos and smoking regarding lung cancer risk is between...... additive and multiplicative. The findings indicate that the association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer risk is basically linear, but may level off at very high exposures. The relative risk for lung cancer increases between 1% and 4% per fiber-year (f-y)/mL, corresponding to a doubling of risk...

  1. Lung function not affected by asbestos exposure in workers with normal Computed Tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikowsky, Christian; Felten, Michael K; Eisenhawer, Christian; Das, Marco; Kraus, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    It has been suggested that asbestos exposure affects lung function, even in the absence of asbestos-related pulmonary interstitial or pleural changes or emphysema. We analyzed associations between well-known asbestos-related risk factors, such as individual cumulative asbestos exposure, and key lung function parameters in formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers (N = 207) with normal CT scans. For this, we excluded participants with emphysema, fibrosis, pleural changes, or any combination of these. The lung function parameters of FVC, FEV1, DLCO/VA, and airway resistance were significantly associated with the burden of smoking, BMI and years since end of exposure (only DLCO/VA). However, they were not affected by factors directly related to amount (eg, cumulative exposure) or duration of asbestos exposure. Our results confirm the well-known correlation between lung function, smoking habits, and BMI. However, we found no significant association between lung function and asbestos exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gallium scanning in differentiating malignant from benign asbestos-related pleural disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teirstein, A.S.; Chahinian, P.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Sorek, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the utility of 67gallium citrate in delineating malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural disease, 49 patients with malignant mesothelioma and 16 with benign asbestos-related pleural disease were studied. Seven patients with malignant mesothelioma had no history of asbestos exposure, while the remaining 58 patients were exposed. Forty-three of the 49 patients (88%) with malignant mesothelioma had a positive 67gallium scan including 36 of the 42 (86%) patients with asbestos exposure and all 7 patients without a history of asbestos exposure. Three of 16 patients (19%) with benign asbestos-related pleural disease had a positive scan. 67Gallium radionuclide imaging is nonspecific but may be valuable in noninvasive monitoring of asbestos-exposed populations, which have a high risk for the late development of benign and/or malignant pleural disease

  3. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jane; Saunders, Jean; Davern, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers' motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers' instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike.

  4. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    HICKEY, Jane; SAUNDERS, Jean; DAVERN, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers’ motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers’ instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike. PMID:25914070

  5. Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, C; Agudo, A; González, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

    2000-01-01

    Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5–38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose–response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883677

  6. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  7. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0·93 f/cm(3). Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1·0 f/cm(3). If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0·1 f/cm(3). Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia.

  8. Development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom ASOTAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos free brake pads using corn husks as alternative filler was studied with a view to replacing asbestos, which has been known to be carcinogenic. Corn husks was sourced and milled, before been sieved into sieve grades of 100 and 200 μm. The varying proportions of the as-screened corn husk fibres and silicon carbide were mixed with fixed proportions of graphite, steel dust and resin to produce brake pads by using compressional moulding. The hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, wear rate and porosity of the products were then determined. The result obtained showed that the brake pad produced with the corn husk passing the finer 100 μm screen gave better compressive strength, higher hardness, lower porosity and lower rate of wear, consequent on the finer distribution of the corn husks particles in the matrix. The results obtained for the brake pads were then compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad, corn husk based. The results were found to be in close agreement suggesting that corn husk can be used in the production of asbestos-free brake pads.

  9. The long and winding road to an asbestos free Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gehring, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The book documents, with a wide range of contributions written by outstanding experts, that asbestos is still with us, also after the official ban in 2005. The ban was not the end of a hazardous story, but a necessary step to protect workers and citizens.

  10. Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driece, Hermen A.L.; Siesling, Sabine; Swuste, Paul H.J.J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In a rural area widespread pollution of friable and non-friable waste products was present, used to harden dirt tracks, yards, and driveways during 1935–1974. Exposure to environmental asbestos was assessed by a site approach, based on number of polluted sites within postal code areas, and by a

  11. Australia’s Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A.; Keena, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia’s asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia’s discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government’s response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia’s complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases

  12. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  13. Airborne asbestos concentrations associated with heavy equipment brake removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, A K; Gaffney, S H; Balzer, J L; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-11-01

    Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of this study is to characterize the airborne concentration of asbestos to workers and bystanders from brake wear debris during brake removal from 12 loader/backhoes and tractors manufactured between 1960 and 1980. Asbestos content in brake lining (average 20% chrysotile by polarized light microscopy) and brake wear debris [average 0.49% chrysotile by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] was also quantified. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of mechanics (n = 44) and area samples at bystander (n = 34), remote (n = 22), and ambient (n = 12) locations were collected during 12 brake changes and analyzed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400] and TEM (NIOSH 7402). In addition, the fiber distribution by size and morphology was evaluated according to the International Organization for Standardization method for asbestos. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, the average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM equivalent) were 0.024 f/cc for the mechanic and 0.009 f/cc for persons standing 1.2-3.1 m from the activity during the period of exposure ( approximately 0.5 to 1 h). Considering the time involved in the activity, and assuming three brake jobs per shift, these results would convert to an average 8-h time-weighted average of 0.009 f/cc for a mechanic and 0.006 f/cc for a bystander. The results indicate that (i) the airborne concentrations for worker and bystander samples were significantly less than the current occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/cc; (ii

  14. Legal Rights of Asbestos Exposure Victims. A Practical Legal Guide for People With Breathing and Other Medical Problems, Possibly Resulting from Exposure to Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberfeld, Roman M.; Hecht, Richard L.

    This practical legal guide for people with breathing and other medical problems, possibly resulting from exposure to asbestos, provides 19 questions and detailed answers about Asbestosis and other diseases resulting from asbestos exposure. Included is information concerning symptoms, difficulty of diagnosis, necessity of a detailed…

  15. [Lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Lucia; Murer, B; Quintavalle, Sonia; Zeni, Elena; Miotto, Deborah; Mapp, Cristina Elisabetta; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, Piera

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, asbestos was widely used in a variety of industrial processes. Workers exposed to asbestos may develop lung and pleural diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques and mesothelioma. To describe a clinical case of lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos. The clinical and occupational history was based on the information kindly provided by the Occupational Unit of the National Health Service and on the case history of a hospital admittance in 2001, when the patient underwent surgery for lung cancer. The patient worked for 6 years in an asbestos manufacturing industry where she was exposed to high concentrations of asbestos, and then worked for 14 years in a sugar refinery only during the summer. She had benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, asbestosis and lung cancer. We concluded that a six-year exposure to high doses of asbestos may induce lung cancer and asbestosis in a female non-smoker.

  16. Asbestos Utilization Costs on the Example of Functioning Landfill of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Daria

    2017-12-01

    Asbestos is a trademark of mineral fibres, which are the natural minerals found in nature. Products containing asbestos fibres, in accordance with the national and EU legislation, are covered by the production prohibition and forced to be removed. In Poland, the asbestos removal process started with the adaptation of the EU law by the Council of Ministers Treatment Program of the National Asbestos for the years 2009-2032. The purpose of the dissertation was to analyse the costs associated with the disposal of the costs of collection, transport and disposal of waste. Methodology consisted in obtaining information on the raw materials needed to produce asbestos sheets. The analysis allowed us to determine the asbestos removal cost and include state subsidies in the calculations.

  17. Asbestos exposure and health hazards: a global emergency, Epidemiological evidence and denial theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zazzara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On June 3rd 2013, in Turin, Italy, the Swiss industrialist Schmidheiny has been sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for intentional disaster for 3,000 asbestos-linked tumours in Italian workers at cement multinational Eternit. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide. Although many studies have shown that asbestos is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, denial theories were spread over time, showing how the logic of profit governs the production of asbestos. We examined the history of the epidemiological evidence of asbestos related risks and, second, the main sources of exposure in Italy and in the world, occupational, non-occupational, and post-disaster exposure (as occurred after L’Aquila earthquake in April 2009. The theme of inequality and social justice is ever so alarming in the fight against asbestos and its lobbies.

  18. Asbestos exposure and health hazards: a global emergency, Epidemiological evidence and denial theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zazzara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On June 3rd 2013, in Turin, Italy, the Swiss industrialist Schmidheiny has been sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for intentional disaster for 3,000 asbestos-linked tumours in Italian workers at cement multinational Eternit. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide. Although many studies have shown that asbestos is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, denial theories were spread over time, showing how the logic of profit governs the production of asbestos. We examined the history of the epidemiological evidence of asbestos related risks and, second, the main sources of exposure in Italy and in the world, occupational, non-occupational, and post-disaster exposure (as occurred after L’Aquila earthquake in April 2009. The theme of inequality and social justice is ever so alarming in the fight against asbestos and its lobbies.

  19. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

  20. Neutralization of cement-asbestos waste by melting in an arc-resistance furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Jerzy; Kusiorowski, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of research on asbestos waste disposal by the melting process. The tests were carried out in a laboratory arc-resistance electric furnace. The obtained results showed that the fibrous structure of asbestos contained in cement-asbestos waste was completely destroyed. This led to the formation of new mineral phases without dangerous properties. The melting test was conducted on raw cement-asbestos samples without any additives and with a content of mineral compounds, the aim of which was to support the melting process. The additives were selected among others on the basis of the computer simulation results carried out using FactSage database computing system. The research results indicate that the melting process of asbestos wastes is a potential and interesting method of neutralizing hazardous asbestos waste, which allows for further treatment and material recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses. PMID:26039812

  2. Diagnosis of Asbestos-Related Diseases: The Mineralogist and Pathologist's Role in Medicolegal Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Belluso, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Because asbestos diseases represent a complex pattern of legal, social, and political issue, the involvement of the mineralogist and pathologist for a multidisciplinary assessment of its diagnosis helps investigate the relationship between mesothelioma or lung cancer and occupational or environmental asbestos exposure.In the present study, we consider the concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) detected by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the burden of different kinds of mineral fibers (among which is asbestos) identified by SEM combined with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), in 10 lung tissue samples of subjects with occupational and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos.In all subjects with occupational exposure to asbestos, more than 1000 ABs per gram of dry weight were detected both with OM and SEM; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.In 9 lung samples of the 10 investigated by SEM-EDS different inorganic fibers were found. Asbestos fibers have been identified too, and more than 100,000 fibers per gram of dry weight were detected in subjects with occupational exposure; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.Instead, when the ABs burden is low or moderate (such as in subjects with absent or probable asbestos exposure), the correlation between ABs concentration determined by OM and those determined by SEM is lost. Therefore, when the ABs value in OM is borderline, the SEM investigation became essential. Furthermore, the mineralogical analysis by SEM-EDS (identification and quantification of inorganic fibers in general and asbestos in particular) of the fibers detected in the lung tissues is very useful, if not necessary, to complete the pathological diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies in medicolegal field.

  3. Elemental analysis of histological specimens: a method to unmask nano asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, M; Pietroiusti, A; Milano, F; Anemona, L; Orlandi, A; Marsella, L T; Bonanno, E

    2016-02-01

    There is recent mounting evidence that nanoparticles may have enhanced toxicological potential in comparison to the same material in the bulk form. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for unmask asbestos nanofibers from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded tissue. There is an increasing amount of evidence that nanoparticles may enhance toxicological potential in comparison to the same material in the bulk form. The aim of this study was to develop a new method to unmask asbestos nanofibers from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue. For the first time, in this study we applied Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis through transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the presence of asbestos nanofibers in histological specimens of patients with possible occupational exposure to asbestos. The diagnostic protocol was applied to 10 randomly selected lung cancer patients with no history of previous asbestos exposure. We detected asbestos nanofibers in close contact with lung cancer cells in two lung cancer patients with previous possible occupational exposure to asbestos. We were also able to identify the specific asbestos iso-type, which in one of the cases was the same rare variety used in the workplace of the affected patient. By contrast, asbestos nanofibers were not detected in lung cancer patients with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. The proposed technique can represent a potential useful tool for linking the disease to previous workplace exposure in uncertain cases. Furthermore, Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues stored in the pathology departments might be re-evaluated for possible etiological attribution to asbestos in the case of plausible exposure. Since diseases acquired through occupational exposure to asbestos are generally covered by workers' insurance in most countries, the application of the protocol used in this study may have also relevant social and economic implications.

  4. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  5. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Piga, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO 3 on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO 3 prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO 3 is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions

  6. Asbestos and health in the Third World: the case of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D M

    1986-01-01

    Almost all of the asbestos used in Brazil is mined by an enterprise wholly owned by two European multinational companies, which also produce and market over two-thirds (by weight of asbestos) of the products made from asbestos. About 80 percent of the asbestos used in Brazil is finally consumed in the form of asbestos cement: for roof tiles and roofing panels, wall-board, and domestic and industrial water tanks. A survey of consumer literature and advertising printed by Eternit, S.A., and Brasilit, S.A., disclosed no mention of a potential danger from exposure to asbestos dust, and no recommendations for cutting down exposure to that dust. The situation at smaller, Brazilian-owned firms is reputed to be disastrous from the standpoint of workers' exposure to asbestos dust at the point of production. At a large asbestos-cement manufacturing plant owned by Eternit, however, exposure to asbestos dust (according to company records) seemed to be kept under 2.0 fibers per cc., the present standard for the United States.

  7. Asbestos and health in the Third World: the case of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Almost all of the asbestos used in Brazil is mined by an enterprise wholly owned by two European multinational companies, which also produce and market over two-thirds (by weight of asbestos) of the products made from asbestos. About 80 percent of the asbestos used in Brazil is finally consumed in the form of asbestos cement: for roof tiles and roofing panels, wall-board, and domestic and industrial water tanks. A survey of consumer literature and advertising printed by Eternit, S.A., and Brasilit, S.A., disclosed no mention of a potential danger from exposure to asbestos dust, and no recommendations for cutting down exposure to that dust. The situation at smaller, Brazilian-owned firms is reputed to be disastrous from the standpoint of workers exposure to asbestos dust at the point of production. At a large asbestos-cement manufacturing plant owned by Eternit, however, exposure to asbestos dust (according to company records) seemed to be kept under 2.0 fibers per cc., the present standard for the United States.

  8. Logistic Problem Connected with Removing Asbestos as Dangerous Waste from Terrains of Country Communes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Waldemar; Wojcik, Weronika; Generowicz, Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Asbestos is a common term referring to certain mineral groups having the form of fibers with a length to fibre diameter of at least 100: 1. The specific properties of asbestos - flammability, mechanical strength and thermal and flexibility - meant that asbestos has been widely used in various types of industrial technologies. It is classified as hazardous waste and therefore requires special methods for collection, export and disposal. The article proposes a model of logistics exports of asbestos from selected villages, in order to guarantee the shortest route, while maintaining the ecological safety and the rules of transportation of hazardous waste.

  9. Technology Demonstration of Wet Abrasive Blasting for Removal of Lead- and Asbestos-Containing Paint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Race, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). This technology demonstration showed that wet blasting using an engineered abrasive can safely and effectively remove lead- and asbestos-containing paint from exterior concrete masonry unit walls...

  10. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

  11. Asbestos exposure increases paracellular transport of fibrin degradation products across human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Peterson, M W

    1994-03-01

    The inflammatory response to asbestos fiber inhalation suggests that the distal respiratory epithelium is an important early target of asbestos-induced injury. We have previously found that asbestos exposure increases the fibrinolytic activity and mannitol permeability of human airway epithelial cell monolayers. Because fibrin degradation products (FDP) are potent inflammatory mediators, we asked whether asbestos fiber exposure would increase the transepithelial flux of FDP into the interstitial space. To stimulate the pericellular environment following fiber deposition, asbestos-exposed epithelial monolayers grown on permeable filters were covered with human plasma containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human fibrinogen. After 24 h, nearly twice as much FITC-FDP appeared in the abluminal chamber of asbestos-exposed monolayers compared with unexposed controls. This did not result solely from increased degradation product production because asbestos-exposed epithelium was more permeable at all apical FDP concentrations. The proteins that crossed asbestos-exposed monolayers included biologically relevant high-molecular-weight FDP, as demonstrated by streptavidin blotting of biotin-labeled FDP. We also found that FDP flux was not vectorial, was not saturable, did not involve proteolytic processing of FDP, and did not require active transport. Thus asbestos exposure increases the paracellular flux of intact FDP across human airway epithelium. This represents a novel mechanism whereby fiber-induced epithelial dysfunction may initiate and sustain inflammation in the distal airspace.

  12. Mesothelioma from asbestos exposures: Epidemiologic patterns and impact in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Mesothelioma, a rare tumor, is highly correlated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma, similar to all asbestos-related diseases, is dose/intensity dependent to some degree, and studies showed the risk of mesothelioma rises with cumulative exposures. Multiple processes occur in an individual before mesothelioma occurs. The impact of mesothelioma in the United States has been continuous over the last half century, claiming between 2,000 and 3,000 lives each year. Mesothelioma is a preventable tumor that is more frequently reported as associated with asbestos exposure among men than women. However, the rate of asbestos-associated mesothelioma is on the rise among women due to better investigation into their histories of asbestos exposure. It is of interest that investigators detected asbestos-associated cases of mesothelioma in women from nonoccupational sources-that is, bystander, incidental, or take-home exposures. It is postulated that asbestos-associated mesotheliomas, in both men and women, are likely underreported. However, with the implementation of the most recent ICD-10 coding system, the correlation of mesothelioma with asbestos exposure is expected to rise to approximately 80% in the United States. This study examined the demographic and etiological nature of asbestos-related mesothelioma.

  13. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings

  14. Arsenic, asbestos and radon: emerging players in lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubaux Roland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cause of lung cancer is generally attributed to tobacco smoking. However lung cancer in never smokers accounts for 10 to 25% of all lung cancer cases. Arsenic, asbestos and radon are three prominent non-tobacco carcinogens strongly associated with lung cancer. Exposure to these agents can lead to genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor genomes, impacting genes and pathways involved in lung cancer development. Moreover, these agents not only exhibit unique mechanisms in causing genomic alterations, but also exert deleterious effects through common mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, commonly associated with carcinogenesis. This article provides a comprehensive review of arsenic, asbestos, and radon induced molecular mechanisms responsible for the generation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer. A better understanding of the mode of action of these carcinogens will facilitate the prevention and management of lung cancer related to such environmental hazards.

  15. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  16. Mesothelioma mortality surveillance and asbestos exposure tracking in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spatial distribution of mortality from pleural mesothelioma (which in the ICD-10 Revision has a specific code: C45.0 in Italy for the period 2003-2009 is described. Previous mortality studies at national level employed the topographic code "Malignant neoplasms of pleura", because of unavailability of a specific code in ICD-9 Revision for pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: Standardized mortality ratios were computed for all municipalities, using each regional population as reference; for municipalities in Regions with rate higher than the national rate, the latter has been used as reference. SMRs were computed specifically also for each Italian Polluted Sites "of national concern for environmental remediation" (IPS with asbestos exposure sources, composed by one or more municipalities, using regional rate as reference. Spatial Scan Statistics procedure, using SatScan software, was applied in cluster analysis: the country was divided into geographic macro-areas and the relative risks (RR express the ratio of risk within the cluster to the risk of the macro-area outside the cluster. Clusters with p-value < 0.10 were selected. RESULTS: The national standardized annual mortality rate was 1.7 cases per 100 000. Several areas with evident burden of asbestos-related disease were detected. Significant clusters were found in correspondence to asbestos-cement industries (e.g. Casale Monferrato, women: RR = 28.7, shipyards (e.g. Trieste, men: RR = 4.8, petrochemical industries (e.g. Priolo, men: RR = 6.9 and a stone quarry contaminated by fluoro-edenite fibres (Biancavilla, women: RR = 25.9. Some of the increased clusters correspond to IPS. CONCLUSIONS: The results may contribute to detect asbestos exposure and to set priorites for environmental remediation.

  17. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Wroble

    Full Text Available Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab" samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM. Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

  18. Mortality study in an asbestos cement factory in Naples, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Menegozzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate mortality among 1247 male asbestos-cement workers employed in an asbestos-cement plant located in Naples. The cohort included 1247 men hired between 1950 and 1986. The follow-up began on January 1st 1965. The vital status and causes of death were ascertained up to December 31 2005. Cause-specific mortality rates of the Campania Region population were used as reference. Relative risks were estimated using Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs, and the confidence intervals were calculated at a 95% level (95% CI. A significant increase in mortality was observed for respiratory disease (81 deaths; SMR = 187; 95% CI = 149-233, particularly for pneumoconiosis (42 deaths; SMR = 13 313; 95% CI = 9595-17 996 of which 41 deaths for asbestosis (SMR = 43 385; 95% CI = 31 134-58 857, for pleural cancer (24 deaths; SMR = 2617; 95% CI = 1677-3893, for lung cancer (84 deaths; SMR=153; 95% CI = 122-189 and for peritoneal cancer (9 deaths; SMR = 1985; 95% CI = 908-3769. Non-significant increases were also observed for rectum cancer (6 deaths; SMR = 157; 95% CI = 58-342. In conclusion, consistently with other mortality studies on asbestos-cement workers performed in different countries, an increased mortality from asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma was detected in the present cohort.

  19. Confidence Intervals for Asbestos Fiber Counts: Approximate Negative Binomial Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, David; Slaven, James; Harper, Martin

    2017-03-01

    The negative binomial distribution is adopted for analyzing asbestos fiber counts so as to account for both the sampling errors in capturing only a finite number of fibers and the inevitable human variation in identifying and counting sampled fibers. A simple approximation to this distribution is developed for the derivation of quantiles and approximate confidence limits. The success of the approximation depends critically on the use of Stirling's expansion to sufficient order, on exact normalization of the approximating distribution, on reasonable perturbation of quantities from the normal distribution, and on accurately approximating sums by inverse-trapezoidal integration. Accuracy of the approximation developed is checked through simulation and also by comparison to traditional approximate confidence intervals in the specific case that the negative binomial distribution approaches the Poisson distribution. The resulting statistics are shown to relate directly to early research into the accuracy of asbestos sampling and analysis. Uncertainty in estimating mean asbestos fiber concentrations given only a single count is derived. Decision limits (limits of detection) and detection limits are considered for controlling false-positive and false-negative detection assertions and are compared to traditional limits computed assuming normal distributions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2017.

  20. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Clemente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

  1. IMATINIB MESYLATE INHIBITS FIBROGENESIS IN ASBESTOS-INDUCED INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Kirsi; Gao, Fei; Oury, Tim D.; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2009-01-01

    Profibrogeneic cytokines contribute to the accumulation of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor specific for Abl, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-Kit tyrosine kinases, has been shown to inhibit fibrosis and profibrotic signaling in mouse models of inflammation-mediated lung reactions. The authors tested imatinib mesylate in vivo in a mouse model of crocidolite asbestos-induced progressive fibrosis. The ability of imatinib mesylate to inhibit profibrogeneic cytokine-induced human pulmonary fibroblast migration was tested in vitro and the expression of its target protein tyrosine kinases was assessed with immunofluorescence. In vivo, 10 mg/kg/day imatinib mesylate inhibited histological parenchymal fibrosis and led to a decrease in collagen deposition, but had no significant effect on asbestos-induced neutrophilia. However, 50 mg/kg/day imatinib mesylate did not inhibit collagen deposition. In vitro, IPF fibroblasts expressed Abl, PDGFR-α, PDGF-β, but not c-Kit, and 1 μM imatinib mesylate inhibited profibrogeneic cytokine-induced IPF fibroblast migration. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate is a potential and specific inhibitor of fibroblast accumulation in asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:17849262

  2. Developing Asbestos Job Exposure Matrix Using Occupation and Industry Specific Exposure Data (1984–2008 in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Choi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The newly constructed GPJEM which is generated from actual domestic quantitative exposure data could be useful in evaluating historical exposure levels to asbestos and could contribute to improved prediction of asbestos-related diseases among Koreans.

  3. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; van den Brandt, Piet a

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and

  4. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  5. Influence of high-energy milling on structure and microstructure of asbestos-cement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Zawada, Anna; Lubas, Małgorzata

    2018-03-01

    Asbestos-Containing Waste (ACW) in the form of a fragment from an asbestos-cement board was subjected to high-energy milling in a planetary mill at a constant rotational speed of 650 rpm and for variable milling times: 1, 2, and 3 h. The initial and the milled materials were subjected to infrared spectroscopic examination to identify the asbestos variety and to evaluate changes in the structure caused by high-energy milling. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) examinations followed optical microscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) studies as well as X-ray analysis of the phase composition. It was found that the asbestos fibres present in the asbestos-cement board were respirable fibres with pathogenic properties. Identifying asbestos using the spectroscopic method showed that chrysotile asbestos was present in the as-received ACW while no characteristics of absorption bands from crocidolite or amosite were found. The results of the spectroscopic examinations were confirmed by the X-ray phase analysis. During SEM investigations of the milled ACW, complete loss of the fibrous structure of chrysotile was observed. The FT-IR examinations of the milled material showed that with an increased milling time, the characteristic absorption bands characteristic for chrysotile diminished and already after 2 h of milling their almost complete decay was observed. Thereby, it was confirmed that high-energy milling results in destruction of the crystalline structure of the asbestos phase. The conducted studies have shown that the treatment of asbestos-cement materials using high-energy milling is an effective method for asbestos disposal, capable of competing with other technologies and solutions. Moreover, FT-IR spectroscopy was found to be useful to identify asbestos phases and to assess changes caused by high-energy milling.

  6. Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kales Stefanos N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. Methods We compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers (22% non-smokers and 177 unexposed controls (50.3% non-smokers. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometric and DCLO Measurement methods were utilized. CXRs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Results Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not FEV1/FVC compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Conclusion Asbestos exposure, especially when radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis from asbestosis is present, leads to significant decreases in FVC, FEV1 and the DLCO. However, asbestos exposure alone is not significantly associated with a reduction of the FEV1/FVC. Smoking-asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO than their non-smoking counterparts. Whether asbestos interacts with smoking additively or synergistically on DLCO needs further investigation. Similarly, further studies are needed to assess the progression and clinical significance of asbestos induced airway dysfunction.

  7. CT characteristics of pleural plaques related to occupational or environmental asbestos exposure from South Korean asbestos mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myong, Jun Pyo [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Kyong [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soon Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluated the CT characteristics of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals and compared occupational versus environmental exposure groups. This study enrolled 181 subjects with occupational exposure and 98 with environmental exposure from chrysotile asbestos mines, who had pleural plaques confirmed by a chest CT. The CT scans were analyzed for morphological characteristics, the number and distribution of pleural plaques and combined pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the CT findings were compared between the occupational and environmental exposure groups. Concerning the 279 subjects, the pleural plaques were single in 2.2% and unilateral in 3.6%, and showed variable widths (range, 1-20 mm; mean, 5.4 ± 2.7 mm) and lengths (5-310 mm; 72.6 ± 54.8 mm). The chest wall was the most commonly involved (98.6%), with an upper predominance on the ventral side (upper, 77.8% vs. lower, 55.9%, p < 0.001) and a lower predominance on the dorsal side (upper, 74.9% vs. lower, 91.8%, p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic involvement (78.1%) showed a right-side predominance (right, 73.8% vs. left, 55.6%, p < 0.001), whereas mediastinal plaques (42.7%) were more frequent on the left (right, 17.6% vs. left, 39.4%, p < 0.001). The extent and maximum length of plaques, and presence and severity of combined asbestosis, were significantly higher in the occupational exposure group (p < 0.05). Pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals are variable in number and size; and show a predominant distribution in the upper ventral and lower dorsal chest walls, right diaphragm, and left mediastinum. Asbestos mine workers have a higher extent of plaques and pulmonary fibrosis versus environmentally exposed individuals.

  8. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  9. 78 FR 2362 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... the readopted and re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and Control...

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.15 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? 102-80.15 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Asbestos § 102-80.15 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? Federal agencies have the following responsibilities concerning the...

  11. 77 FR 19737 - The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard (29 CFR... specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard protect workers from the adverse health effects that may...

  12. Correlations between selected indicators of asbestos dust pollution of the work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroszejn-Mrowca, G.

    1982-01-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos dust induces many diseases, of which the most dangerous are: asbestosis, pulmonary cancer and pleural endothelioma. Exposure to asbestos dust is evaluated by: total gravimetric concentration of dust, gravimetric concentration of respirable fraction or numerical concentration of asbestos fibres of over 5 microns. The research has been aimed to establish whether or not there are correlations between the mentioned indices of asbestos dust exposure. The concentrations have been measured at various workstations in the plants producing textile asbestos products, frictional and asbestos--cement products. The gravimetric concentrations have been determined using the filtration--gravimetric method with cyclonic pre-selector and without selector. The numerical concentration of fibres has been determined by a microscopic phase--contrast method. The statistical analysis of the obtained results showed no correlation between particular indices, or--weak correlations (r . 0.004-0.76). No correlation has been found between total gravimetric concentration and numerical concentration of asbestos fibres. The ratio between those concentrations was 0.094-4.69, therefore both those concentrations should be included while evaluating the working conditions of those exposed to asbestos dusts.

  13. Asbestos exposure among construction workers during demolition of old houses in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Normohammadi, Mohhammad

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02-0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers.

  14. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of...

  15. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Low-speed spray-buffin...

  16. Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer: diagnosis, prognosis and burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.

    2012-01-01

    The negative health-related consequences of the use of asbestos have become very clear and widely recognized. This thesis focused on the most frequent asbestos induced cancers: mesothelioma and lung cancer. Mesothelioma A confirmed diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is important to ensure proper

  17. Determinants influencing the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harmfulness to human health, asbestos has been banned in 55 countries, including the EU. In Poland, the use and production of asbestos and asbestos-containing products has been forbidden since 1997. However, there is no precise data about the amount of asbestos-containing products to be eliminated from the territory of Poland. This survey aims to identify characteristics that have a significant impact on the estimation of asbestos-containing products used in Poland. Statistical correlation between the results of the physical inventory count done in 155 municipalities was examined. As a result of the survey it was found that the amount of asbestos-cement roofing depends on the following factors: the number of individual farms in the village, the distance from the asbestos manufacturing plants, the age of the buildings and the economic situation of municipality. The results obtained may contribute to the ability to predict the amount of asbestos-containing products used in other municipalities.

  18. Asbestos in Our Schools. Taming the Silent Killer. A Handbook for Association Leaders Produced by NEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    In 1984, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that friable asbestos-containing materials were present in 31,000 school buildings throughout the country. Once inhaled, asbestos fibers may remain in the lungs indefinitely and can lead to various diseases. This handbook is intended to provide administrators--in nontechnical…

  19. Innate immune activation through Nalp3 inflammasome sensing of asbestos and silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostert, Catherine; Pétrilli, Virginie; van Bruggen, Robin; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.; Tschopp, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    The inhalation of airborne pollutants, such as asbestos or silica, is linked to inflammation of the lung, fibrosis, and lung cancer. How the presence of pathogenic dust is recognized and how chronic inflammatory diseases are triggered are poorly understood. Here, we show that asbestos and silica are

  20. Asbestos in the Schools: A Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carolyn; Rollinson, Mark

    The past few years have created decision-making problems for school managers dealing with asbestos hazards in the past, for failing to do so in the present, and for doing so improperly in the future. This book summarizes the available knowledge pertinent to the decisions that school administrators and others must make regarding asbestos in the…

  1. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  2. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description...

  3. Occupational asbestos exposure: how to deal with suspected mesothelioma cases--the Dutch approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; van 't Hullenaar, N.; Wagenaar, J.; Kaajan, J. P. G.; Koolen, M.; Schrijver, M.; Schlösser, N.; Burgers, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with asbestos-related diseases, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), are not uniformly treated in Europe when they apply for compensation. In The Netherlands, the Institute of Asbestos Victims (IAV) acts on behalf of patients with a malignant mesothelioma. In the majority of cases, the

  4. Gender differences in asbestos exposure and disease location in 327 patients with mesothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panou, Vasiliki; Weinreich, Ulla Moller; Bak, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Region of North Denmark has a high incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) of 6.2/100.000 for men and 1/100.000 for women mainly due to large-scale use of chrysotile asbestos.Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate gender differences in asbestos exposure and disease location...

  5. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by

  6. Asbestos-Related Disorders in Germany: Background, Politics, Incidence, Diagnostics and Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver

    2018-01-16

    There was some limited use of asbestos at end of the 19th century in industrialized countries including Germany, but its consumption dramatically increased after World War II. The increase in use and exposure was followed by the discovery of high numbers of asbestos-related diseases with a mean latency period of about 38 years in Germany. The strong socio-political pressure from the asbestos industry, its affiliated scientists and physicians has successfully hindered regulatory measures and an asbestos ban for many years; a restrictive stance that is still being unravelled in compensation litigation. This national experience is compared with the situation in other industrialized countries and against the backdrop of the constant efforts of the WHO to eliminate asbestos-related diseases worldwide.

  7. Significant relationship between the extent of pleural plaques and pulmonary asbestos body concentration in lung cancer patients with occupational asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Toshikazu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Usami, Ikuji; Morikawa, Tetsuyuki; Wu, Di; Itoi, Kazumi; Okamoto, Kenzo; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kohyama, Norihiko; Morinaga, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a relationship between the extent of pleural plaques and pulmonary asbestos body concentration (PABC). The subjects were 207 lung cancer patients with occupational asbestos exposure. We determined the plaque extent by findings on chest images using our own criteria. PABCs were measured in resected or autopsy lung specimens. There was a significant relationship between plaque extent and PABC. Seventy-five percent of the patients determined to have extensive plaques based on our criteria had a PABC of ≥5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, which is one of the certification criteria of lung cancer caused by asbestos for workers' compensation in Japan. In lung cancer patients, the plaque extent had a significant positive relationship with the PABC. The plaque extent would be useful as a proxy for PABC for lung cancer compensation purposes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Asbesto, asbestose e câncer: critérios diagnósticos Asbestos, asbestosis and cancer: diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available As doenças asbesto-induzidas constituem um grave problema de saúde em decorrência de grande número de trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto ao longo dos últimos 50 anos. Processos judiciais contra indústrias que lidam com asbesto somam centenas, com crescente adição de novos casos. O assunto relativo à asbestose é complexo e, muito embora a história natural das doenças induzidas esteja bem estabelecida, muitas áreas importantes, como a patologia, permanecem ainda pouco compreendidas. No Brasil, desde 1940, o asbesto é explorado comercialmente e nos últimos anos sua produção foi da ordem de 200.000 toneladas por ano, estimando-se que na atividade de mineração cerca de 10.000 trabalhadores foram expostos a essa fibra, desconhecendo-se a estimativa do número de pessoas expostas na produção de fibrocimento, especialmente telhas e caixas d'água. Um estudo, com metodologia de investigação científica apropriada, para avaliar as repercussões sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores nas minas de asbesto em nosso país, foi elaborado e intitulado "Morbidade e mortalidade entre trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto na atividade de mineração 1940-1996", de cunho interinstitucional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fornecer uma visão ampla das doenças asbesto-induzidas, com ênfase nas dificuldades no diagnóstico histopatológico, através da experiência adquirida com o desenrolar desse projeto.Asbestos-induced diseases are still major health problems, as a remarkably large number of workers have been exposed to asbestos over the past 50 years. Personal injury lawsuits against asbestos manufacturers number hundreds of thousands, and new cases are still being filed. Asbestosis is a complex issue, and although the broad outlines of asbestos-related diseases are well set, many important areas, especially pathology, are poorly understood. In Brazil, since 1940, asbestos has been commercially explored, producing around 200,000 tons/year, exposing

  9. Malignant mesothelioma not related to asbestos exposure: Analytical scanning electron microscopic analysis of 83 cases and comparison with 442 asbestos-related cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynie, Alyssa; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Sporn, Thomas A; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 80-90% of mesotheliomas are asbestos related. This suggests that 10-20% are not. Lung fiber burden analysis provides objective information about past exposures to asbestos. We have performed lung fiber burden analysis on a large cohort of mesothelioma cases and compared the findings with a reference population. Herein we report our findings along with demographic and exposure data.

  10. [Asbestos risk in the textile industry: final confirmation of data from the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappino, G; Mensi, C; Riboldi, L; Rivolta, G

    2003-01-01

    Cases of mesothelioma in non-asbestos textile workers have been frequently reported but the identification of asbestos dispersion sources in the workplaces has never been adequately performed. During 3 years of activity of the Mesothelioma Register for Lombardy, 40 cases (10.8% of all cases) were collected in textile workers engaged in all types of productive activities. The hypothesis that a significant asbestos risk for textile workers appeared not negligible. The research was aimed at the identification of asbestos dispersion sources in textile factories. Specific information was collected by technicians, maintenance personnel and other experts and direct inspections were carried out in numerous workplaces that had not yet undergone significant changes with respect to the past. Also the industrial machinery utilised in the previous 40-50 years was thoroughly examined. Epidemological evaluation of the recorded cases showed a widespread distribution in the different phases of textile production. Inspections also showed that a large amount of asbestos had been regularly used applied to the ceilings and also to the walls of factories in order to avoid both condensation of steam and reflection of noise. In addition, asbestos had also been widely used to insulate water and steam pipes. The braking systems of most of the machines also had asbestos gaskets, and on several looms some brakes operated continuously in order to keep the warp in constant tension. Our observations confirmed that since production techniques in the textile industry required working in damp and warm conditions with the noise of the rapidly moving machines, asbestos was very often used because of its absorbent and soundproofing qualities and its resistance to friction. We demonstrated that asbestos was thus widely used in the industry and this certainly produced considerable fibre dispersions in the atmosphere of the workplaces. Asbestos risk must therefore be recognised for all those who have

  11. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  12. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  13. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Tonelli, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the 'asbestos problem'. The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures

  14. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1996-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  15. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  16. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated.

  17. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-01-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities

  18. New insights on the biomineralisation process developing in human lungs around inhaled asbestos fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Giulia; Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Charlet, Laurent; Cedola, Alessia; Belluso, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Once penetrated into the lungs of exposed people, asbestos induces an in vivo biomineralisation process that leads to the formation of a ferruginous coating embedding the fibres. The ensemble of the fibre and the coating is referred to as asbestos body and is believed to be responsible for the high toxicological outcome of asbestos. Lung tissue of two individuals subjected to prolonged occupational exposure to crocidolite asbestos was investigated using synchrotron radiation micro-probe tools. The distribution of K and of elements heavier than Fe (Zn, Cu, As, and Ba) in the asbestos bodies was observed for the first time. Elemental quantification, also reported for the first time, confirmed that the coating is highly enriched in Fe (~20% w/w), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Fe is in the 3+ oxidation state and that it is present in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin. Comparison of the results obtained studying the asbestos bodies upon removing the biological tissue by chemical digestion and those embedded in histological sections, allowed unambiguously distinguishing the composition of the asbestos bodies, and understanding to what extent the digestion procedure altered their chemical composition. A speculative model is proposed to explain the observed distribution of Fe.

  19. Risk factors for malignant mesothelioma in people with no known exposure to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Bill; Gordon, Len; Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison; Olsen, Nola; Mina, Robin; Franklin, Peter; Peters, Susan; Brims, Fraser; Hui, Jennie; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and generally fatal cancer, usually caused by asbestos, although about 5-10% of cases report no asbestos exposure. This study aimed to identify sources whereby people in Western Australia (WA) may be unknowingly exposed to asbestos or to other exposures which may cause MM. Cases with no known asbestos exposure were selected from the WA Mesothelioma Register (WAMR). Matched controls were selected from hospital patients admitted for conditions unrelated to asbestos. Occupational histories were coded by an industrial hygienist. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Thirty-eight MM participants and 134 controls were recruited. Risk of MM was increased (OR = 3.1, 95%CI 1.0-9.6) after no known, but likely, exposure to asbestos at work. Because of its extensive use, few people in WA have never been exposed to asbestos. Unrecognized exposure may cause most MM cases initially regarded as "no exposure." Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:432-436, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Long-term epidemiological observation of asbestos-related diseases in Poland, 1970-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, B; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos constitutes a major public health concern. Despite this in many countries, data and registration systems for occupational asbestos-related diseases are non-existent or poorly developed. To analyse the incidence of occupational asbestos-related diseases in Poland between the years 1970 and 2015, with particular emphasis on the periods after introduction of a ban on asbestos and following introduction of a surveillance programme. Analysis based on all medically recognized cases, certified as occupational diseases and reported obligatorily from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. During the period 1970-2015, 4983 cases were reported as asbestos-related diseases. The most prevalent were asbestosis, lung cancer, diseases of pleura or pericardium and mesothelioma. A considerable increase in the number of such cases from the beginning of their registration until 2004 occurred after introduction of the Amiantus programme, a nationwide programme of periodic medical examinations for former asbestos workers. Introduction of a medical surveillance programme improved case recognition and allowed a more reliable estimate of the number of reported asbestos-related diseases.

  1. Molecular engineering of a fluorescent bioprobe for sensitive and selective detection of amphibole asbestos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Ishida

    Full Text Available Fluorescence microscopy-based affinity assay could enable highly sensitive and selective detection of airborne asbestos, an inorganic environmental pollutant that can cause mesothelioma and lung cancer. We have selected an Escherichia coli histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, H-NS, as a promising candidate for an amphibole asbestos bioprobe. H-NS has high affinity to amphibole asbestos, but also binds to an increasingly common asbestos substitute, wollastonite. To develop a highly specific Bioprobe for amphibole asbestos, we first identified a specific but low-affinity amosite-binding sequence by slicing H-NS into several fragments. Second, we constructed a streptavidin tetramer complex displaying four amosite-binding fragments, resulting in the 250-fold increase in the probe affinity as compared to the single fragment. The tetramer probe had sufficient affinity and specificity for detecting all the five types of asbestos in the amphibole group, and could be used to distinguish them from wollastonite. In order to clarify the binding mechanism and identify the amino acid residues contributing to the probe's affinity to amosite fibers, we constructed a number of shorter and substituted peptides. We found that the probable binding mechanism is electrostatic interaction, with positively charged side chains of lysine residues being primarily responsible for the probe's affinity to asbestos.

  2. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  3. Italian pool of asbestos workers cohorts: mortality trends of asbestos-related neoplasms after long time since first exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniela; Chellini, Elisabetta; Merler, Enzo; Pavone, Venere; Silvestri, Stefano; Miligi, Lucia; Gorini, Giuseppe; Bressan, Vittoria; Girardi, Paolo; Ancona, Laura; Romeo, Elisa; Luberto, Ferdinando; Sala, Orietta; Scarnato, Corrado; Menegozzo, Simona; Oddone, Enrico; Tunesi, Sara; Perticaroli, Patrizia; Pettinari, Aldo; Cuccaro, Francesco; Mattioli, Stefano; Baldassarre, Antonio; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Cena, Tiziana; Legittimo, Patrizia; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Mirabelli, Dario; Musti, Marina; Pirastu, Roberta; Ranucci, Alessandra; Magnani, Corrado

    2017-12-01

    Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, with evidence for malignant mesothelioma (MM), cancers of lung, ovary, larynx and possibly other organs. MM rates are predicted to increase with a power of time since first exposure (TSFE), but the possible long-term attenuation of the trend is debated. The asbestos ban enforced in Italy in 1992 gives an opportunity to measure long-term cancer risk in formerly exposed workers. Pool of 43 previously studied Italian asbestos cohorts (asbestos cement, rolling stock, shipbuilding), with mortality follow-up updated to 2010. SMRs were computed for the 1970â€"2010 period, for the major causes, with consideration of duration and TSFE, using reference rates by age, sex, region and calendar period. The study included 51 801 subjects (5741 women): 55.9% alive, 42.6% died (cause known for 95%) and 1.5% lost to follow-up. Mortality was significantly increased for all deaths (SMR: men: 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06; women: 1.17, 95% CI to 1.12 to 1.22), all malignancies combined (SMR: men: 1.17, 95% CI to 1.14 to 1.20; women: 1.33, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.43), pleural and peritoneal malignancies (SMR: men: 13.28 and 4.77, 95% CI 12.24 to 14.37 and 4.00 to 5.64; women: 28.44 and 6.75, 95% CI 23.83 to 33.69 and 4.70 to 9.39), lung (SMR: men: 1.26, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.31; women: 1.43, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.78) and ovarian cancer (SMR=1.38, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.87) and asbestosis (SMR: men: 300.7, 95% CI 270.7 to 333.2; women: 389.6, 95% CI 290.1 to 512.3). Pleural cancer rate increased during the first 40 years of TSFE and reached a plateau after. The study confirmed the increased risk for cancer of the lung, ovary, pleura and peritoneum but not of the larynx and the digestive tract. Pleural cancer mortality reached a plateau at long TSFE, coherently with recent reports. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Roberto; Terracini, Benedetto; Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    An estimate at the national level of the occupational cancer burden brought about by the industrial use of asbestos requires detailed routine information on such uses as well as on vital statistics of good quality. A causal association with asbestos exposure has been established for mesothelioma and cancers of the lung, larynx, and ovary. The aim of this study was to provide estimates of the occupational burden of asbestos-related cancer for the Latin American countries that are or have been the highest asbestos consumers in the region: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. The burden of multifactorial cancers has been estimated through the approach suggested for the World Health Organization using the population attributable fraction. The following data were used: Proportion of workforce employed in each economic sector. Proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector. Occupational turnover. Levels of exposure. Proportion of the population in the workforce. Relative risk for each considered disease for 1 or more levels of exposure. Data on the proportion of workers exposed to asbestos in each sector are not available for Latin American countries; therefore, data from the European CAREX database (carcinogen exposure database) were used. Using mortality data of the World Health Organization Health Statistics database for the year 2009 and applying the estimated values for population attributable fractions, the number of estimated deaths in 5 years for mesothelioma and for lung, larynx, and ovary cancers attributable to occupational asbestos exposures, were respectively 735, 233, 29, and 14 for Argentina; 340, 611, 68, and 43 for Brazil; 255, 97, 14, and 9 for Colombia, and 1075, 219, 18, and 22 for Mexico. The limitations in compiling the estimates highlight the need for improvement in the quality of asbestos-related environmental and health data. Nevertheless, the figures are already usable to promote a ban on asbestos use. Copyright © 2014 Icahn

  5. Corporate corruption of science-Another asbestos example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David; Monárrez, Rubén

    2017-02-01

    Kelsh et al. [2007]: Occup Med (Lond) 57:581-589 published a paper reanalyzing one of the few data sources publicly available on mesothelioma amongst brake workers, the Australian Mesothelioma Surveillance Registry (AMSR). This reanalysis was commissioned by lawyers representing the automobile manufacturing companies and did not align with an independent analysis published by Leigh and Driscoll [2003]: Occup Environ Health 9:206-217. We sought to reevaluate the AMSR data ourselves to understand how the company-sponsored research categorized the data. In our re-analysis of the 78 brake-related folios in the AMSR, we determined that 57 were employed brake mechanics, 35 were employed brake mechanics with no other asbestos exposure besides brake work or repair, and 41 of these cases had no other asbestos exposure besides brake work or repair. Our classifications differed significantly from Kelsh et al. We discuss how Kelsh et al. methodically reduced the relevant cases by following overly stringent criteria for inclusion. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:152-162, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The social context of occupational disease: asbestos and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.

    1981-01-01

    General issues of industrial health are raised in relation to the production of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases in South Africa., A historical analysis of these diseases and their control in Britain demonstrates some general problems of occupational diseases with long incubation periods and their implications for capital and labor. In order to understand the role of the research establishment, an attempt is made to situate the state in the conflict between capital and labor. The terms and weapons of this ideological arena are investigated. The South African situation is then discussed. Its evident weaknesses--the lack of statutory limits on exposure, capital's responsibility for monitoring exposure and health, the inefficiency of the state inspection, and the meagerness and racial disparities in compensation--are related to the weakness of organized labor. These weaknesses are linked to the movement of certain industrial processes, finally acknowledged as unsafe by most academic research, away from the developed countries. In these countries, the strength of labor and environmental organizations has caused a decline in capitalist productivity.

  7. Lung cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1996-06-01

    To study the relative and absolute risks of main types of lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark. A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 was compiled from the personnel files of Danish Eternit Production. The cohort was followed up for deaths, emigrations, and incident cancer cases during the period 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases in the cohort was compared with the expected number based on incidences for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases were observed (223 men and three women). The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer among men was 1.7 (observed number 223, expected number 129.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.0). The SIRs were raised for all main types of lung cancer; adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. The higher SIR for adenocarcinomas was found particularly with a latency period of 25 years or more. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas and 32 were adenocarcinomas. Asbestos cement work is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer of all main types. During the first 25 years after the start of employment this excess risk is shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas is clearly higher after this point.

  8. Banning Asbestos in New Zealand, 1936–2016, an 80-Year Long Saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ivan Glass

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banning by the New Zealand Government of the import and export of asbestos-containing products resulted from the interplay of a number of factors. At a personal level, there were the actions of the asbestos sufferers, their families and support groups. At the political level, there were the activities of progressive trade union groups representing the hazardous trades, such as labourers, construction workers and demolition workers, and at a Government level, there was a positive response to these public health pressures. The Prohibition Order 2016 concerning Imports and Exports (asbestos-containing products was the outcome of this 80-year long saga.

  9. Banning Asbestos in New Zealand, 1936-2016, an 80-Year Long Saga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, William Ivan; Armstrong, Rob; Chen, Grace

    2017-11-25

    The banning by the New Zealand Government of the import and export of asbestos-containing products resulted from the interplay of a number of factors. At a personal level, there were the actions of the asbestos sufferers, their families and support groups. At the political level, there were the activities of progressive trade union groups representing the hazardous trades, such as labourers, construction workers and demolition workers, and at a Government level, there was a positive response to these public health pressures. The Prohibition Order 2016 concerning Imports and Exports (asbestos-containing products) was the outcome of this 80-year long saga.

  10. [Asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law - in reference to the ordinance on prevention of hazards due to specified chemical substances and the ordinance on prevention of health impairment due to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2013-10-01

    Recently in Japan, mesothelioma and lung cancer caused by asbestos are increasing in number and in proportion among occupational cancers. It is thus obvious that asbestos will remain an important theme in the field of occupational health and safety. We hereby report on the relationship between asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law, the Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards due to Specified Chemical Substances, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Health Impairment due to Asbestos, in reference to laws and regulations as well as official notifications issued by the Ministry. In particular, we will focus on the process by which our country totally prohibited the use of asbestos, countermeasures to prevent exposure of workers, historical changes regarding administrative concentration levels, and measures for the management of health of workers handling and dealing with asbestos.

  11. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Window Caulk, Glazing Compound, Wiring and Other Similar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters that provide guidance on asbestos National Emissions Standard of Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) applicability to linoleum, tar paper, electric wiring, floor tile mastic, caulking compounds, and other similar materials during demolition

  12. Oxidative status and acute phase reactants in patients with environmental asbestos exposure and mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgi, Cengizhan; Taylan, Mahsuk; Sen, Hadice Selimoglu; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Kaya, Halide; Abakay, Ozlem; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Tanrıkulu, Abdullah Cetin; Senyiğit, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum total oxidant level (TOL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), CRP, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α-1 antitrypsin, ferritin, and copper levels were measured. Mesothelioma group exhibited higher TOL, OSI, α1-antitrypsin, ferritin and copper levels as compared to the other groups (P acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI) in the mesothelioma group can be used as predictive markers for the development of asbestos-related malignancy.

  13. Chrysotile asbestos fibers mediate transformation of Escherichia coli by exogenous plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Ikeda, T; Yoshida, T; Sengoku, T; Ogawa, K

    2001-02-20

    The ability of chrysotile asbestos fibers to introduce the exogenous plasmid pUC18 into Escherichia coli JM109 cells was tested. Cells were transformed with pUC18 DNA although the frequency of transformation was quite low: 759+/-301 transformants were obtained per microgram of pUC18. Plasmids were purified from E. coli which had been transformed by mediation with chrysotile asbestos. Following this, the plasmids were confirmed to be pUC18 by Southern hybridization. This asbestos-mediated transformation was optimal within 5 min when 10 mg ml(-1) of asbestos was used. Plasmids up to 7.69 kb were introduced by this method.

  14. EPA Guidelines for States Regarding Online Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) Annual Refresher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum dated July 9, 2007 from the Chief of the Fibers and Organics Branch, National Chemicals Program Division, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances to EPA Regional Asbestos Coordinators and State Regulatory Stakeholders.

  15. Asbestos-related disease in Bangladeshi ship breakers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtice, Midori N; Demers, Paul A; Takaro, Tim K; Vedal, Sverre; Ahmad, S K Ahktar; Davies, Hugh W; Siddique, Zakia

    2011-01-01

    A pilot study tested the feasibility of conducting occupational health research in Bangladesh while examining prevalence of asbestos-related diseases including asbestosis, work-related respiratory symptoms, and attitudes to occupational health and safety among a group of internal migrant ship breakers. Data was collected on clinical and work history, respiratory symptoms, and occupational health and safety practices in Bengali. A B-reader read all postero-anterior chest x-rays. In the 104 male ship breakers studied, prevalence of asbestos-related disease was 12%, of which asbestosis accounted for 6%. Knowledge of asbestos and occupational health and safety measures were almost nonexistent. The prevalence of asbestos-related diseases is low compared to studies in shipbuilders and repairers, but a risk underestimate could have resulted from challenges identified during study design and implementation including: industry noncooperation and a culture of corruption; technological and language barriers; and a regional lack of physician knowledge and research on occupational diseases.

  16. The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust Particles on the Ventilatory Function Parameters of Chronically-Exposed Workers in Calabar Municipality and Akamkpa Local Government Areas of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  17. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  18. Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage for the Diagnosis of Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, María Jesús; Curull, Victor; Pijuan, Lara; Álvarez-Simón, Daniel; Sánchez-Font, Albert; de Gracia, Javier; Culebras, Mario; Ferrer, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis has been proposed as an objective technique for confirming asbestos exposure. However, the reliability and diagnostic yield of this procedure has not been studied in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the analysis of asbestos bodies (AB) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases (ARD). BAL samples from 72 patients (66 male, mean age 66 years) undergoing bronchoscopy were analyzed. Lung tissue from 23 of these patients was also analyzed. Asbestos exposure was assessed by anamnesis and a review of the patient's medical records. BAL and lung samples were processed and AB count was determined by light microscopy. The accepted threshold value to diagnose asbestos-related diseases was 1 AB/ml BAL or 1000 AB/gr dry tissue. Thirty-nine patients reported exposure to asbestos. Of these, 13 (33%) presented AB values above 1 AB/ml BAL. In the 33 non-exposed patients, 5 (15%) presented AB values above 1 AB/ml BAL. There was a significant difference between the AB levels of exposed and non-exposed patients (P=.006). The ROC curve showed that a value of 0.5 AB/ml BAL achieved the most satisfactory sensitivity, 46%, and a specificity of 83%. The correlation between AB levels in BAL and lung was 0.633 (P=.002). BAL study provides objective evidence of exposure to asbestos. The good correlation between the AB counts in BAL and lung tissue indicates that both techniques are valid for the analysis of asbestos content. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Asbestos-induced lung disease in small-scale clutch manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, Dipti; Gahlot, Tanushree; Sah, Ram B; Saxena, Mayank; Ojha, U C; Verma, Anand K; Spalgais, Sonam

    2016-01-01

    The crocidolite variety of asbestos is banned. However, chrysotile, which is not prohibited, is still used in developing countries in making products such as clutch plate. Fourteen workers from a small-scale clutch plate-manufacturing factory were analyzed for asbestos-induced lung disease as one of their colleagues had expired due to asbestosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of workers, the prevalence and type of asbestos-induced lung disease, and the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion test. History, examination, chest radiograph, spirometry with diffusion, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax was performed in all the workers. The diagnosis of asbestos-induced lung disease was suspected on the basis of HRCT. This was subsequently confirmed on transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). None of the workers had detailed information about asbestos and its ill effects. Eleven out of 14 (71.42%) workers had asbestos-induced lung disease. All 11 had small airway disease (SAD). Three had SAD alone, 6 had additional interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 2 patients had additional ILD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sensitivity and specificity of residual volume (RV) or total lung capacity (TLC) for detecting SAD was 90% and 100%, respectively, and that of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for detecting ILD was 100%. The awareness about asbestos in small-scale clutch-plate manufacturing industry is poor. The usage of chrysotile should be strictly regulated as morbidity and mortality is high. DLCO and RV/TLC are sensitive and specific in detecting nonmalignant asbestos induced lung disease.

  1. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax; Asbestverursachte Veraenderungen am Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieckel, H.G. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [German] Asbestfasern koennen zu einer Lungenfibrose, zu Verdickungen der Pleura und zu Malignomen fuehren. Diese pathologischen Veraenderungen sind fakultativ und abhaengig von der Asbestart, der Dauer der Exposition und von individuellen Faktoren. Asbest fand bis 1993 in Deutschland breiten Einsatz. Weltweit besteht noch kein Verbot. Mehrheitlich sind asbestbedingte Erkrankungen Folgen beruflicher Expositionen. Bis zu ihrem Auftreten liegen lange Latenzzeiten bis ueber 40 Jahre, sodass das Maximum noch nicht erreicht ist. Asbestverursachte Berufserkrankungen am Thorax sind die Asbestose und asbestverursachte benigne Pleuraerkrankungen sowie das maligne Pleuramesotheliom. Bronchialkarzinome koennen asbestverursacht sein. Zur Beweisfuehrung wird von der

  2. Asbestos-associated genome-wide DNA methylation changes in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Eeva; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Durand, Geoffroy; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Stuopelyte, Kristina; Jarmalaite, Sonata; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Anttila, Sisko; Wolff, Henrik; Herceg, Zdenko; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2017-11-15

    Previous studies have revealed a robust association between exposure to asbestos and human lung cancer. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of epigenome deregulation in the mechanism of carcinogen-induced malignancies. We examined the impact of asbestos on DNA methylation. Our genome-wide studies (using Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip) of lung cancer tissue and paired normal lung from 28 asbestos-exposed or non-exposed patients, mostly smokers, revealed distinctive DNA methylation changes. We identified a number of differentially methylated regions (DMR) and differentially variable, differentially methylated CpGs (DVMC), with individual CpGs further validated by pyrosequencing in an independent series of 91 non-small cell lung cancer and paired normal lung. We discovered and validated BEND4, ZSCAN31 and GPR135 as significantly hypermethylated in lung cancer. DMRs in genes such as RARB (FDR 1.1 × 10 -19 , mean change in beta [Δ] -0.09), GPR135 (FDR 1.87 × 10 -8 , mean Δ -0.09) and TPO (FDR 8.58 × 10 -5 , mean Δ -0.11), and DVMCs in NPTN, NRG2, GLT25D2 and TRPC3 (all with p asbestos exposure status in exposed versus non-exposed lung tumors. Hypomethylation was characteristic to DVMCs in lung cancer tissue from asbestos-exposed subjects. When DVMCs related to asbestos or smoking were analyzed, 96% of the elements were unique to either of the exposures, consistent with the concept that the methylation changes in tumors may be specific for risk factors. In conclusion, we identified novel DNA methylation changes associated with lung tumors and asbestos exposure, suggesting that changes may be present in causal pathway from asbestos exposure to lung cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  3. A Management Guide to Asbestos: Medico-Legal, Regulatory, and Hazard Abatement Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Charity Cross Hospital, performed a post-mortem examination of a 33 year old man who had worked for fourteen years in an asbestos- textile factory. When Dr...surveys conducted In 1928 and 1929 by the British Factory Inspectorate of asbestos textile mills showed that of those workers exposed for more than 20...Puts a Tiger In Its Tank," Business Week, October 21, 1985, p. 104. fI CHAPTER VII. OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMETAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) AND OCCUPATIONAL

  4. Asbestos: a perspective. I. An overview. II. An annotated literature collection, 1960--1974. III. A literature compilation, 1974--1977. [Health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, J.E.; Hammons, A.S.; Dinger, C.Y.; Kline, B.W.; Whitfield, B.L.; Black, S.A.

    1978-03-01

    Although the general population is widely exposed to asbestos, both by inhalation and ingestion, the hazards of chronic, environmental exposure have not been determined. Reasons conflict but are attributed in part to a paucity of information on human dose response, effects of asbestos ingestion, ambient concentrations and distribution of asbestos in the environment, the environmental cycling of asbestos, and related biological interactions including transmission through foodchains. As distilled from the world's asbestos literature, conclusions representing a majority opinion on the pathological effects of asbestos on man are summarized. (38 references.)

  5. Legal aspects of workers' health protection against asbestos in Poland in the light of the EU legal framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Świątkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Legal protection of human life and health against asbestos dust-related hazards is carried out in various dimensions of the European Union law mainly focused on health protection of employees and responsibilities of employers, as well as on environmental protection. The aim of this paper is to present the Community legal issues emphasizing the protection of workers against asbestos and discuss the current state of Polish law in this regard. An analysis of recent legal solutions provides a comprehensive look at the extensive steps currently taken to reduce the risk of exposure to asbestos dust. The legislation in the European Union, including Poland indicates sound foundations for assuring health and safety of workers still exposed to asbestos and those formerly employed in asbestos processing plants. It is only postulated to unify high standards of healthcare to provide all workers employed in asbestos exposure with equal and particular legal protection. Med Pr 2013;64(5:689–697

  6. Global DNA hypomethylation has no impact on lung function or serum inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines in asbestos-exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Lou, Jianlin; Xia, Hailing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yixiao; Chen, Junqiang; Zhang, Xing; Ying, Shibo; Zhu, Lijin; Liu, Lihong; Jia, Guang

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of asbestos exposure on global DNA methylation and determine whether lung function and inflammatory and fibrosis biomarkers are correlated with the methylation state. A total of 26 healthy subjects without asbestos exposure (Group 1), 47 healthy subjects with exposure (Group 2), and 52 subjects with benign asbestos-related disorders (ARDs) (Group 3) participated in this cross-sectional study. Blood global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and serum TNF-α, collagen IV, CCL5 and CC16 concentrations were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like assays. Spirometric maneuvers were performed to assess lung function. Decreased 5mC levels were observed in Groups 2 and 3 compared to Group 1, irrespective of lung function (p asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure causes global DNA hypomethylation. DNA hypomethylation has no influence on serum biomarkers and lung function in asbestos-exposed population with or without pleural and pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities.

  7. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Acid leaching of natural chrysotile asbestos to mesoporous silica fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletaškić, Jelena; Stanković, Nadežda; Daneu, Nina; Babić, Biljana; Stoiljković, Milovan; Yoshida, Katsumi; Matović, Branko

    2017-10-01

    Nanofibrous silica with a high surface area was produced from chrysotile by the acid-leaching method. Natural mineral chrysotile asbestos from Stragari, Korlace in Serbia was used as the starting material. The fibers were modified by chemical treatment with 1 M HCl and the mineral dissolution was monitored by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption techniques to highlight the effects of the leaching process. The results showed that the applied concentration of acid solution and processing time of 4 h were sufficient to effectively remove the magnesium hydroxide layer and transform the crystal structure of the hazardous starting chrysotile to porous SiO2 nanofibers. With prolonged acid leaching, the specific surface area, S BET, calculated by BET equation, was increased from 147 up to 435 m2 g- 1, with micropores representing a significant part of the specific surface.

  9. The Asbestos Ban in Korea from a Grassroots Perspective: Why Did It Occur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ryong Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, asbestos was finally banned in Korea, about 70 years after the first opening of asbestos mines under Japanese control. After having presented the history of asbestos industry, together with its regulations and health effects over time, we constructed narrative analyses of how the asbestos issue under the prevailing risk system was managed by whom and for what purpose, to provide context for the change. We could identify five different phases: laissez-faire, politico-technical, economic–managerial, health-oriented cultural, and human rights-based post-cultural risk systems. The changes leading to the asbestos ban evolved over different phases, and each phase change was necessary to reach the final ban, in that, without resolving the previous issues by examining different categories of potential alternatives, either the final ban was not possible or, even if instituted, could not be sustained. An asbestos ban could be introduced when all the alternatives to these issues, including legitimate political windows, economic rationalizations, health risk protections, and human rights sensitivities, were available. We think the alternatives that we had were not in perfect shape, but in more or less loosely connected forms, and hence we had to know how to build solidarities between different stakeholders to compensate for the imperfections.

  10. Usual interstitial pneumonia in asbestos-exposed cohorts - concurrent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or atypical asbestosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanoos, Richard L; Alchami, Fouad S; Pooley, Frederick D; Gibbs, Allen R

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern fibrosis is seen in asbestosis. The occurrence of UIP pattern fibrosis was studied in four asbestos cohorts systematically referred following postmortem to the UK Pneumoconiosis Unit, Cardiff. The combined exposed workforce comprised >25 000 persons. Over the 17-year period, 233 subjects were identified; 210 had degrees of interstitial fibrosis with a fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern and subpleural accentuation, and three showed UIP pattern fibrosis. All three of these cases showed grade 4 fibrosis (honeycombing) with no asbestos fibre dose-response correlation. A Poisson distribution of probability analysis indicated that the observed cases of UIP in this workforce could be wholly accounted for by the prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in the population. UIP pattern fibrosis is rarely observed in asbestos-exposed subjects, and shows no dose-response correlation with asbestos fibres on mineral analysis; this points to an alternative disease, such as IPF. The results indicate that UIP pattern fibrosis should not be regarded as genuine asbestosis, irrespective of the status of asbestos biomarkers, and this impacts upon the postmortem handling of asbestos-related deaths. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Asbestos between science and myth. A 6,000-year story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2015-01-22

    Asbestos was used in making pottery in Eastern Finland from around 4000 B.C. In the ancient era and in the Middle Ages, magic properties were frequently attributed to this mineral. In the first century A.D., the Latin encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder reported in his Historia Naturalis that asbestos protects against all poisonings, particularly that of magicians. Moreover, asbestos was often found in places of worship, in Rome as well as in Athens and in Jerusalem. In the Middle Ages asbestos was identified with some animals, such as the salamander and certain white rodents. With such appearance, the mineral  had a huge success in Western as well as in Eastern literature and the fine arts. Marco Polo (1254-1324) in the Milione tried to deny that asbestos was a salamander. Despite its noxious effects, asbestos continues to be used in much of the world. In the 21st century it seems to be maintaining its quality as a magic stone.

  12. Asbestos fibers in the gallbladder of patients affected by benign biliary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Federica; Randi, Lorenza; Croce, Alessandro; Mirabelli, Dario; Libener, Roberta; Magnani, Corrado; Bellis, Donata; Allegrina, Mario; Bertolotti, Marinella; Degiovanni, Daniela; Rinaudo, Caterina

    2015-07-01

    This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the presence of asbestos fibers in the biliary tract of patients living in an asbestos-polluted area using scanning electron microscopy. Thin gallbladder sections were obtained from five patients who were operated on for gallbladder stones and the bile fluid of one of the patients was analyzed using variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. All patients were from Casale Monferrato, Italy, a well-known asbestos-polluted city, where the Eternit factory had operated since the beginning of the century until 1985. All the inorganic phases found in the gallbladder were analyzed for morphology and chemistry. Fibers and particles consistent with minerals defined by law as 'asbestos' were detected in three out of five patients. These findings suggest that asbestos fibers can be found in the gallbladder of patients exposed to asbestos, although how they reach the biliary tract remains unknown. Further studies to confirm these results are under way.

  13. [Prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in a Spanish urban population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-García, María Isabel; Recuero, Raquel; Cruz, María Jesús; Panades, Rafael; Martí, Gabriel; Ferrer, Jaume

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyse the prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in the Barcelona urban population. Lung autopsy samples were obtained from 35 individuals who had lived in Barcelona. The close family were interviewed in order to rule out asbestos exposure. Samples were obtained from three areas of the right lung during the autopsy: upper lobe apex, lower lobe apex, and lower lobe base. The samples were treated to remove organic material. The inorganic residue was analysed using a light microscope. The results were expressed as asbestos bodies (AB) per gram of dry tissue. Levels greater than 1000AB/g of dry tissue were considered as potentially causing disease. AB were detected in 29(83%) of the subjects, of which 86% had levels less than 300AB/g. Only one individual (3%) had values greater than 1000AB/g dry tissue. The asbestos residue was higher in the lower lung lobe in 17 individuals (48%) than in the rest, although no significant differences were seen as regards AB residue in the three lung areas studied. The results of this study show that the urban population of Barcelona have asbestos levels in the lung that vary between 0 and 300AB/g dry tissue. No differences in the asbestos residues were detected in the lung areas studied in this population. Copyright (c) 2009 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  15. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes predispose asbestos-exposed patients to malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Ferrante, Daniela; Aspesi, Anna; Morleo, Giulia; Biasi, Alessandra; Sculco, Marika; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Righi, Luisella; Grosso, Federica; Libener, Roberta; Pavesi, Mansueto; Mariani, Narciso; Casadio, Caterina; Boldorini, Renzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Pasini, Barbara; Magnani, Corrado; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma

    2017-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by asbestos exposure. An inherited predisposition has been suggested to explain multiple cases in the same family and the observation that not all individuals highly exposed to asbestos develop the tumor. Germline mutations in BAP1 are responsible for a rare cancer predisposition syndrome that includes predisposition to mesothelioma. We hypothesized that other genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes could be responsible for the inherited mesothelioma predisposition. We investigated the prevalence of germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes in 93 MPM patients with a quantified asbestos exposure. Ten pathogenic truncating variants (PTVs) were identified in PALB2, BRCA1, FANCI, ATM, SLX4, BRCA2, FANCC, FANCF, PMS1 and XPC. All these genes are involved in DNA repair pathways, mostly in homologous recombination repair. Patients carrying PTVs represented 9.7% of the panel and showed lower asbestos exposure than did all the other patients (p = 0.0015). This suggests that they did not efficiently repair the DNA damage induced by asbestos and leading to carcinogenesis. This study shows that germline variants in several genes may increase MPM susceptibility in the presence of asbestos exposure and may be important for specific treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödelsperger Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

  17. FIBROHOOD: 'The Lost Linoleum Highway' commythology: mythology and comics as a means of creating awareness about asbestos

    OpenAIRE

    Roszak, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Asbestos remains one of the greatest man made industrial disasters ever that will eventually claim over 10 million lives through asbestos related disease. This silent killer still lurks within millions of domestic and commercial orbits across the globe. The pro-asbestos industry has both formally used and currently still uses myth as an agent to disguise this A1 grade carcinogen as being safe. The industry and its allies were, and in some nations still are, successful in suppressing the dange...

  18. Exposure to chrysotile asbestos associated with unpacking and repacking boxes of automobile brake pads and shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, A K; Scott, L L; Murbach, D M; Fehling, K A; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    2008-08-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of asbestos-related disease; however, concerns continue to be raised regarding asbestos exposure from asbestos-containing brakes. Handling new asbestos-containing brake components has recently been suggested as a potential source of asbestos exposure. A simulation study involving the unpacking and repacking of 105 boxes of brakes (for vehicles ca. 1946-80), including 62 boxes of brake pads and 43 boxes of brake shoes, was conducted to examine how this activity might contribute to both short-term and 8-h time-weighted average exposures to asbestos. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n = 80) and area samples at bystander (e.g., 1.5 m from worker) (n = 56), remote area (n = 26) and ambient (n = 10) locations collected during the unpacking and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing brakes were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to airborne asbestos was characterized for a variety of parameters including the number of boxes handled, brake type (i.e. pads versus shoes) and the distance from the activity (i.e. worker, bystander and remote area). This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the International Organization for Standardization analytical method for asbestos. It was observed that (i) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (ii) handling boxes of brake pads resulted in higher worker asbestos exposures compared to handling boxes of brake shoes, (iii) cleanup and clothes-handling tasks produced less airborne asbestos than handling boxes of brakes and (iv) fiber size and morphology analysis showed that while the majority of fibers were free (e.g. not associated with a cluster or matrix), 20 microm length) considered to pose the greatest risk of asbestos-related disease. It

  19. Direct observation and determination of the mechanisms governing mobility of asbestos in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiphoori, A.; Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of asbestos through soil by groundwater is typically considered to be negligible. There are indications, however, that under some conditions of pore-water/soil chemistry asbestos may become mobile, implying that buried contaminants could migrate from a disposal site and surface elsewhere. Shape, size and surface charge may influence the physical and chemical interactions of colloids with the soil matrix, and asbestos consists of elongated particles with different size and unique surface charge properties. Although chemical factors such as pH and ionic strength of pore water may affect the transport properties, the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been identified to remarkably enhance the mobility of colloids including asbestos. To date, there is no explanation for how the presence of DOC may facilitate the mobilization of asbestos in soil - mainly because the soil medium has been treated as a black box without the possibility of observing particles within the matrix. Here, we investigated the mobility of chrysotile asbestos particles ( 10 um long) in porous media by developing a flow cell with an optically-transparent porous medium composed of granules of a refractive-index matched material. This enabled us to observe and track the particles within the water-saturated porous medium using in situ microscopy. The aqueous suspension of asbestos fibers was passed through this artificial soil, while the physical and chemical interaction of asbestos particles with the medium and their pore-scale distribution were analyzed. We studied the effects of changing solution chemistry (e.g., ionic strength, pH, and DOC content) on transport, attachment and aggregation of chrysotile particles. Experiments revealed a novel mechanism where the DOC-associated nanoparticles attach to chrysotile fibers by an electrostatic attraction, which facilitates their mobilization through the porous medium while modulating aggregation among fibers. Although pH and ionic

  20. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  1. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  2. Dose-time-response association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Lévêque, Emilie; Guichard, Elie; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Leffondré, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Early occupational exposure to asbestos has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma (PM), which suggests that the timing of exposure might play a role in the dose-response relationship. However, none studies has evaluated the relative impact of increasing the annual intensity of occupational exposure to asbestos at each time of the whole exposure history. Yet such evaluation would allow the comparison of the risks of PM associated with different longitudinal profiles of occupational exposure to asbestos. Our objective was to estimate the time-dependent relative impact of asbestos exposure intensity over the whole occupational history and to compare the resulting estimated risks of PM associated with different profiles of exposure, using data from a large French case-control study. This study included 1196 male cases recruited in 1987-2006 and 2369 matched controls on birth year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed using a job exposure matrix and represented in logistic regression models using a flexible weighted cumulative index of exposure. Due to much stronger weights of early doses of asbestos exposure, subjects who accumulated 20 fibres/mL over their entire job history with high doses during the first years and low doses thereafter were at higher risk of PM than those who accumulated most of the doses later (OR=2.37 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.87)). This study provides new insights on the dose-time-response relationship between occupational asbestos and PM and illustrates the importance of considering timing of exposure in its association with cancer risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Mesothelioma incidence and asbestos exposure in Italian national priority contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Corfiati, Marisa; Bruno, Caterina; Fazzo, Lucia; Pasetto, Roberto; Pirastu, Roberta; Biggeri, Annibale; Catelan, Dolores; Comba, Pietro; Zona, Amerigo

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study aimed to (i) describe mesothelioma incidence in the Italian national priority contaminated sites (NPCS) on the basis of data available from the Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) and (ii) profile NPCS using Bayesian rank analysis. Methods Incident cases of mesothelioma and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated for both genders in each of the 39 selected NPCS in the period 2000-2011. Age-standardized rates of Italian geographical macro areas were used to estimate expected cases. Rankings of areas were produced by a hierarchical Bayesian model. Asbestos exposure modalities were discussed for each site. Results In the study period, 2683 incident cases of mesothelioma (1998 men, 685 women) were recorded. An excess of mesothelioma incidence was confirmed in sites with a known past history of direct use of asbestos (among men) such as Balangero (SIR 197.1, 95% CI 82.0-473.6), Casale Monferrato (SIR 910.7, 95% CI 816.5-1012.8), and Broni (SIR 1288.5, 95% CI 981.9-1691.0), in sites with shipyards and harbors (eg, Trieste, La Spezia, Venice, and Leghorn), and in settings without documented direct use of asbestos. The analysis ranked the sites of Broni and Casale Monferrato (both genders) and Biancavilla (only for women) the highest. Conclusions The present study confirms that asbestos pollution is a risk for people living in polluted areas, due to not only occupational exposure in industrial settings with direct use of asbestos but also the presence of asbestos in the environment. Epidemiological surveillance of asbestos-related diseases is a fundamental tool for monitoring the health profile in NPCS.

  4. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs

  5. [Measurement of airborne asbestos fibers on railroad rolling stock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilucci, L; Catasta, P F; Chiappino, G; Governa, M; Munafò, E; Verduchi, P; Paba, G

    2000-01-01

    In February 1995 the Italian Railways Health Department set up a special study group in order to assess the effectiveness of the measures adopted against hazards due to the presence of asbestos in rolling stock currently in use on the rail network. The group set up specific procedures for sampling and analysis, on the basis of the criteria fixed for civil buildings in Ministerial Decree of 6/9/94, which was subsequently applied to rolling stock by Ministerial Decree of 26/10/95. In accordance with these procedures the study group carried out environmental studies via test runs programmed by the Railways Technical Departments, on trains made up of different types of vehicles. Insulated, completely or partially deinsulated and originally non-insulated vehicles were studied. Samples were analysed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elementary dispersion X spectroscopy (EDXS) carried out by highly qualified public laboratories (ISPESL--National Institute for Prevention and Work Safety, ARPA--Regional Environmental Protection Agency, CRA--Veneto Region, University Departments). Altogether, from the start of the programme up to September 1998, 1464 samples in 170 test runs on 619 rolling stock vehicles were examined. These involved 83 locomotives, 83 electric rail-cars and 453 carriages. The results showed that in over 99% of the samples the fibre concentrations were below 2 fibres/litre, which is the value fixed by law for buildings and rail vehicles in order to qualify for effective decontamination status. Values exceeding 2 fibres/litre were found in only 4 vehicles, which were withdrawn or blocked for further checks. As a precaution, 18 vehicles where concentrations over 1 but less than 2 fibres/litre were found, were also blocked and their return to service has been postponed for further checks and analyses until the results show concentrations below 1 fibre/litre. Environmental analyses carried out up to the present indicate an overall situation comparable

  6. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part I: Monitoring of exposure using personal passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Garry; Bard, Delphine

    2007-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that there has been and may continue to be a significant risk to maintenance workers, who through their work may disturb asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The sampling and assessment of maintenance workers' exposure is a particular problem because they may not know that they are working with ACM. A strategy to monitor their true exposure has been developed and applied to one group of workers. The asbestos exposure of industrial plumbers was measured using personal passive samplers developed at the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). The light-weight samplers, which collect particles by electrostatic attraction, are simple to use and do not require prior knowledge that asbestos is to be disturbed as does conventional sampling. The samplers were issued by post and analysed, after return, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The strategy was found to be a reasonably efficient and cost-effective way to obtain data on maintenance worker's exposure to asbestos. The results of the TEM analysis of the passive samplers showed that the percentage of workers exposed to >5 microm long asbestos fibres was 62% in Round 1 and 58% in Round 2. For phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fibres, the values were 46 and 29%, respectively. The three samples with the highest numbers of fibres were followed up and were associated with plumbers working in areas which had supposedly been stripped of asbestos just prior to their starting work, suggesting that poor removal, clean-up and clearance practice presents a significant part of the risk to plumbers. Although flow rates will vary with conditions and time, an approximate average sampling rate from previous comparisons was used to calculate the concentration. This gave an average exposure to regulated PCME fibres of 0.009 f ml-1 for amphibole asbestos and 0.049 f ml-1 for chrysotile. The calculate risk based on the PCME fibre types collected and their estimated concentrations, showed

  7. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Morisco de Sá

    Full Text Available The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers.Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr and fractional-order (FrOr modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001 and a reduced compliance (p<0.001, with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001. Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987 using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001 and InOr (p<0.001 model parameters.The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of early respiratory abnormalities in asbestos

  8. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  9. Estimation of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Ewa; Krówczyńska, Małgorzata; Pabjanek, Piotr; Mędrzycki, Piotr

    2017-05-01

    The unique set of physical and chemical properties has led to many industrial applications of asbestos worldwide; one of them was roof covering. Asbestos is harmful to human health, and therefore its use was legally forbidden. Since in Poland there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing, the objective of this study was to estimate its quantity on the basis of physical inventory taking with the use of aerial imagery, and the application of selected statistical features. Data pre-processing and analysis was executed in R Statistical Environment v. 3.1.0. Best random forest models were computed; model explaining 72.9% of the variance was subsequently used to prepare the prediction map of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland. Variables defining the number of farms, number and age of buildings, and regional differences were crucial for the analysis. The total amount of asbestos roofing in Poland was estimated at 738,068,000 m 2 (8.2m t). It is crucial for the landfill development programme, financial resources distribution, and application of monitoring policies.

  10. [Asbestos-stimulated changes in nitric oxide and iron metabolism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandarenko, S H; Kishko, T O; Chumachenko, I M; Dmytrenko, M P

    2011-01-01

    Under intratracheal asbestos fibers installation it has been investigated NO synthesis in the lung and liver tissues of Wistar rats by EPR method. Asbestos A6-45, sifted through the sieve with size 0.1 mm, has been administrated in a dose of 5 mg/kg. To evaluate the NO synthesis EPR and NO-trap methods have been used. The amplitude of EPR signal "trap-NO" in the lung samples was 12, 16 and 14 times greater than in controls on the 3th, 6th and 10th days after asbestos installation and was corresponding to NO rate of about 2 mkmol/(g x h). In the liver samples of asbestos-stimulated animals the NO level contained in the non-heme iron nitrosyl complexes was about 2 mkmol/g. Thus, the asbestos fibers stimulate NO synthesis not only in the lung tissue, but also in other organs. The obtained data shows that under NO hyperproduction certain changes in iron metabolism take place, such as: the decrease of transferrin iron and the accumulation of ferric iron not bound with transferrin. The accumulation of ferric iron not shielded by proteins is one of the oxidative stress triggers.

  11. Oxidative Status and Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Environmental Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengizhan Sezgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. Methods. Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum total oxidant level (TOL, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI, CRP, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α-1 antitrypsin, ferritin, and copper levels were measured. Results. Mesothelioma group exhibited higher TOL, OSI, α1-antitrypsin, ferritin and copper levels as compared to the other groups (P<0.001, P=0.007, P<0.0001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, resp.. Transferrin was lower in the mesothelioma group than in the other two groups (P<0.001. The asbestos group had higher TOL, TAC, α1-antitrypsin, and transferrin levels (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, resp., as well as lower OSI and ferritin levels as compared to the control group (P<0.001 and P<0.001. Conclusions. We believe that elevated acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI in the mesothelioma group can be used as predictive markers for the development of asbestos-related malignancy.

  12. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to the Elimination of Asbestos Related Diseases—Stakeholders’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vincenten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite sound scientific knowledge and evidence that any exposure to asbestos fibers in all of its forms, are carcinogenic to humans, its presence, use and trade is still substantial, including in the World Health Organization (WHO European Region. Banning the production and use of all forms of asbestos, as recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO and WHO, has been proven as the most efficient evidence-based strategy to eliminate Asbestos Related Diseases (ARDs. To effectively move elimination of ARDs forward, attaining a greater understanding of key stakeholders perspectives was identified as an important action. The WHO Regional Office for Europe, the European Centre for Environment and Health, undertook semi-structured interviews, and follow-up discussions with diverse representatives dealing professionally with asbestos. The interview questionnaire was developed based on the current ARDs WHO Report, the Evidence Implementation Model for Public Health and categories of the theory of diffusion. Data were attained on three main questions within the interview questionnaire: (1 Identifying barriers to implementation of WHO evidence-based asbestos recommendations; (2 Describing roles of key stakeholders; and, (3 Proposing possible solutions. The results demonstrated use of sound and convincing scientific evidence along with economic evidence and facilitators can be used to achieve evidence-based policy development, and comprehensive diverse actions.

  14. CT Findings in People Who Were Environmentally Exposed to Asbestos in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yookyung; Park, Jai Soung

    2015-12-01

    Asbestos related pleuropulmonary disease has been emerging health problem for recent years. It can cause variable clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities. However, there has been no report for their characteristics in subjects who were environmentally exposed to asbestos. We reviewed the CT images of 35 people who were environmentally exposed to asbestos in Chungnam province, Korea. The study result showed high incidence of pleural plaque and pulmonary fibrosis on chest CT (94% and 77%, respectively). The common CT findings of lung parenchymal lesions were as follows: centrilobular opacities (94%), subpleural dot-like or branching opacities (80%), interlobular septal thickening (57%), intralobular interstitial thickening (46%), parenchymal bands (43%) and subpleural curvilinear line (29%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis and pleural plaques according to sex, age and duration of exposure. In conclusion, pleural plaque and pulmonary fibrosis are common asbestos-related CT finding in the exposed people. Asbestos related lung parenchymal CT findings in the participants with environmental exposure show similar to those observed in the occupational exposure.

  15. Linking rock fabric to fibrous mineralisation: a basic tool for the asbestos hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vignaroli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies have addressed the effect on human health caused by asbestos exposures. As asbestos is a group of fibrous minerals that mainly occurs in mafic and ultramafic rocks (ophiolitic sequences, a close relationship between asbestos occurrence and the geological history of host rocks should be expected. By reviewing the existing literature and presenting characteristic examples, it is proposed a direct correspondence exists between the presence of fibrous minerals in ophiolites and the rock fabric systematics due to the combined activity of deformation, metamorphism/metasomatism, and rock/fluid interaction. Understanding the geological factors that may be at the origin of the nucleation/growth of fibrous minerals constitutes a necessary requirement for developing a methodological and analytical procedure to evaluate asbestos hazard (AH in the natural prototype (ophiolitic rocks. A parameterisation of the AH in function of the main geological processes that produce the rock fabric systematics in different tectonic/geodynamic settings is discussed. A geological multidisciplinary approach (based on geological-structural field evidence combined with textural, mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical investigations is proposed as the prerequisite for the evaluation of AH in natural environments. This approach, in particular, can provide a robust basis to formulate a procedural protocol finalised to the mitigation of asbestos effects in environments where these effects are still a real threat.

  16. Trades of dangers: a study of asbestos industry transfer cases in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeyong; Lim, Sinye; Paek, Domyung

    2013-03-01

    In a study of asbestos industry transfers in Asia, we examined the transfer of health and safety measures at the time of industry transfer and resulting health outcomes thereafter. Field surveys were conducted in Japan, Germany, Indonesia, and South Korea over a 5 year period beginning in 2007. The surveys involved interviews and field assessments of health and safety conditions. Even when there were transfers of entire engineering plant processes, we observed that the health and safety measures that should have accompanied the transfer, including technical capacities of risk assessment and management, regulatory protection, and cultural practices, were not actually transferred. According to work environment assessment records, there were differences in airborne asbestos levels of approximately 5-6 fibers/cc between the exporting and importing sides of the transfer. This amounted to a 10 years of time delay in comparable health and safety conditions. These differences resulted in repeated adverse health consequences at each factory operation site. Dangerous transfers of asbestos industry technology have occurred repeatedly over the years with the result that Asia has become the largest consumer of asbestos in the world. No effective internationally accepted safety measures have been introduced in the region. The study results support the need for both improved public awareness and international cooperation, such as sharing of substitute material technologies by the exporting countries, and provide the rationale for the creation of an Asian fund for asbestos victims. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...] Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos Management... protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Incorporation...-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites Not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local laws relating to asbestos. Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where asbestos is... conveyance document? 102-75.335 Section 102-75.335 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Järvholm; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the

  20. Asbestos-Induced Cellular and Molecular Alteration of Immunocompetent Cells and Their Relationship with Chronic Inflammation and Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Maeda, Megumi; Lee, Suni; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Kojima, Yoko; Tabata, Rika; Kishimoto, Takumi; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos causes lung fibrosis known as asbestosis as well as cancers such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Asbestos is a mineral silicate containing iron, magnesium, and calcium with a core of SiO2. The immunological effect of silica, SiO2, involves the dysregulation of autoimmunity because of the complications of autoimmune diseases found in silicosis. Asbestos can therefore cause alteration of immunocompetent cells to result in a decline of tumor immunity. Additionally, due to its physical characteristics, asbestos fibers remain in the lung, regional lymph nodes, and the pleural cavity, particularly at the opening sites of lymphatic vessels. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation in these areas due to the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. As a consequence, immunocompetent cells can have their cellular and molecular features altered by chronic and recurrent encounters with asbestos fibers, and there may be modification by the surrounding inflammation, all of which eventually lead to decreased tumor immunity. In this paper, the brief results of our investigation regarding reduction of tumor immunity of immunocompetent cells exposed to asbestos in vitro are discussed, as are our findings concerned with an investigation of chronic inflammation and analyses of peripheral blood samples derived from patients with pleural plaque and mesothelioma that have been exposed to asbestos. PMID:22500091

  1. Mesothelioma incidence and community asbestos exposure; Incidence du mesotheliome et exposition environnementale a l'amiante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the importance of environmental exposure, non professional, to asbestos in the supervening of mesothelioma among the inhabitants of Manville( Somerset county, New Jersey, United States) where is the most important factory making products with asbestos of the North America. (N.C.)

  2. Malignant mesothelioma: attributable risk of asbestos exposure; Mesotheliome malin: risque attribuable a une exposition a l'amiante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirtas, R.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk due to asbestos in the supervening of mesothelioma from interviews by phone of members of family with cases and witnesses, on the professional activities or others causes that could expose these persons to asbestos during their whole life. (N.C.)

  3. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  4. [Lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1998-02-09

    A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 at a Danish asbestos cement factory Dansk Eternit Fabrik A/S was followed up for deaths, immigrations, and incident cancer cases during 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases was compared with the expected number based on incidence rates for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases was observed; 223 cases among men and three among women. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer cases for men was 1.7; for adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas, 32 adenocarcinomas and 17 anaplastic carcinomas. During the first 25 years after the start of employment the excess risk was shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas was clearly higher after this point.

  5. [Mesothelioma--asbestos in Lebanon: a problem to be considered].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, J; Faraj, H; Ghosn, M; Chahine, G; Assaf, E; Abadjian, G; Khoury, F

    2001-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of pleural mesothelioma and its relationship with the occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos in Chekka region. Between 1991 and 2000, 22 cases of malignant mesothelioma were diagnosed at Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Eighteen cases were epidemiologically investigated. Fifteen among these 18 patients (83%) had a positive exposure history: exposure was occupational in 11 cases and environmental in 4 cases. The tumor was attributable to Eternit Company in 12 cases among the exposed 15 (80%). These 12 cases were secondary to occupational exposures in 8 and to environmental exposure in 4 cases. Mean latency period between exposition and diagnosis was 29 years. Fifteen patients died from the progression of their disease after a median survival of 8 months. The relationship between pleural mesothelioma and Eternit Company with the related occupational and environmental risk in Chekka region is obvious. The assessment of the incidence needs a national cancer registry. Despite the protective measures taken by the government since 1996, an increase in the incidence is suspected in the coming ten years because of the long latency period of the disease.

  6. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos. World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), created in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with great human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the process of dispute resolution and even after a case is concluded, very little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process, and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one of the parties in a WTO case, analyzing what happened from a public health point of view. This analysis concludes that the public health justification of banning asbestos was accepted in the end by the economists at the WTO, despite the WTO's bias in favoring the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation, in this case) in numerous stages of the process, despite the WTO's utter lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. Despite its result, this case illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day, that the people of the world would reject this dangerous free trade fundamentalism if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  7. [Malignant mesothelioma in Emilia-Romagna: incidence and asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Romanelli, Antonio; Campari, Cinzia; Candela, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the activity, the sources of informations, methods and results of the "Emilia-Romagna Mesothelioma Registry" (ReM). The Registry started in 1996 and collects all cases of Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) occurring in Emilia-Romagna. 323 new cases (225 males and 98 females) have been detected during the period 1996-2001. Most cases (n = 286) concerned pleura. Other observed localizations were: peritoneum (n = 30), tunica vaginalis testis (n = 4) and pericardium (n = 3). Most of the cases were reported by the Institutes of Pathology and Occupational Health and by the Safety Services (respectively the 62% and the 18%). 87% of all the cases were histologically, 8% TC, 4% radiologically and only 1% clinically confirmed. The regional incidence rate (for 10(5) person-years, age standardized on the 1991 Italian population), has been estimated to be 1.98 in males and 0.88 in females. The highest rates were registered in Piacenza and Reggio Emilia province among men and Reggio Emilia and Ravenna province among women. 72% of cases have been classified as exposed to asbestos (64% occupationally and 8% as domestic/environmentally exposed).

  8. REKAYASA MESIN PENCETAK KAMPAS REM SERAT PULP NON ASBESTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Kartiwa Haroen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesin  pembuat  kampas rem non asbestos berbahan serat pulp merupakan kampas hasil inovasi komponen otomotif  yang memiliki  keunggulan diantaranya, sifat gesek tinggi, tahan panas dan bebas asbes.     Telah dilakukan penelitian perekayasaan mesin  pembuat kampas rem berbahan serat pulp skala kecil, dapat digunakan langsung sebagai alat produksi skala kecil atau untuk mensosialisasikan  proses penelitian berbagai variasi bahan baku kampas rem.      Mesin ini terdiri dari dua bagian   yaitu mesin pengurai serat , pengaduk dan  pembuat  kampas rem serat pulp jenis rem cakram (disk brake. Mesin pengurai   berfungsi untuk memisahkan serat pulp menjadi serat yang terurai secara individu, mesin pengaduk berfungsi untuk mengaduk atau mencampur anatar serat  pulp dengan bahan aditif pengikat. Alat pengurai dan pengaduk dioperasikan dengan motor listrik 1.000 watt, dilengkapi pengatur kecepatan (reducer speed dan screw  feeder. Alat pembuat kampas rem dioperasikan oleh motor listrik  2.000 watt, pompa press 10 ton dan  pemanas 40-200 oC.  Mesin ini dioperasikan semi otomatis dengan konsumsi listrik 3.000 watt,  dilengkapi pengontrol  temperatur, pengatur kecepatan putaran  (rpm dan  pengatur daya tekan. Mesin pencetak kampas rem hasil rekayasa dapat memproduksi 10-15 specimen kampas rem cakram /jam.

  9. The interaction of asbestos and iron in lung tissue revealed by synchrotron-based scanning X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Schneider, Giulia; Salomé, Murielle; Schneider, Manuela; Calligaro, Carla; Kiskinova, Maya; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a potent carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Asbestos toxicity is ascribed to its particular physico-chemical characteristics, and one of them is the presence of and ability to adsorb iron, which may cause an alteration of iron homeostasis in the tissue. This observational study reports a combination of advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and micro-spectroscopic methods that provide correlative morphological and chemical information for shedding light on iron mobilization features during asbestos permanence in lung tissue. The results show that the processes responsible for the unusual distribution of iron at different stages of interaction with the fibres also involve calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It has been confirmed that the dominant iron form present in asbestos bodies is ferritin, while the concurrent presence of haematite suggests alteration of iron chemistry during asbestos body permanence. PMID:23350030

  10. Towards elimination of asbestos-related diseases: a theoretical basis for international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for international cooperation that can be used for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The framework is based on the similarities in the temporal patterns of asbestos use and occurrence of ARDs in diverse countries. The status of each nation can be characterized by observing asbestos use and ARD frequency therein using a time window. Countries that supply technology for prevention of ARDs can be classified as donors and countries that receive these technologies as recipients. We suggest identification of three levels of core preventative technologies. Development of a common platform to gather and manage core preventative technologies will combine the strengths of donor countries and the needs of recipient countries.

  11. Lymphoproliferative disorder in pleural effusion in a subject with past asbestos exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Hara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that presents as serous effusions without detectable masses or organomegaly. Here we report a case of PEL-like lymphoma in a patient with past asbestos exposure. A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion. He had been exposed to asbestos for three years in the construction industry. Chest X-ray and CT images demonstrated left pleural effusion. Cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed large atypical lymphocytes with distinct nuclear bodies and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the cells were CD20+, CD3−, CD5−, and CD10−. These findings led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PEL or PEL-like lymphoma should be considered a potential cause of pleural effusion in subjects with past asbestos exposure.

  12. Xenopus laevis Oocytes as a Model System for Studying the Interaction Between Asbestos Fibres and Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernareggi, Annalisa; Ren, Elisa; Borelli, Violetta; Vita, Francesca; Constanti, Andrew; Zabucchi, Giuliano

    2015-06-01

    The mode of interaction of asbestos fibres with cell membranes is still debatable. One reason is the lack of a suitable and convenient cellular model to investigate the causes of asbestos toxicity. We studied the interaction of asbestos fibres with Xenopus laevis oocytes, using electrophysiological and morphological methods. Oocytes are large single cells, with a limited ability to endocytose molecular ligands; we therefore considered these cells to be a good model for investigating the nature of asbestos/membrane interactions. Electrophysiological recordings were performed to compare the passive electrical membrane properties, and those induced by applying positive or negative voltage steps, in untreated oocytes and those exposed to asbestos fibre suspensions. Ultrastructural analysis visualized in detail, any morphological changes of the surface membrane caused by the fibre treatment. Our results demonstrate that Amosite and Crocidolite-type asbestos fibres significantly modify the properties of the membrane, starting soon after exposure. Cells were routinely depolarized, their input resistance decreased, and the slow outward currents evoked by step depolarizations were dramatically enhanced. Reducing the availability of surface iron contained in the structure of the fibres with cation chelators, abolished these effects. Ultrastructural analysis of the fibre-exposed oocytes showed no evidence of phagocytic events. Our results demonstrate that asbestos fibres modify the oocyte membrane, and we propose that these cells represent a viable model for studying the asbestos/cell membrane interaction. Our findings also open the possibly for finding specific competitors capable of hindering the asbestos-cell membrane interaction as a means of tackling the long-standing asbestos toxicity problem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Microarray data and gene expression statistics for Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated asbestos mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Driscoll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe microarray expression data (raw and normalized, experimental metadata, and gene-level data with expression statistics from Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated asbestos mine drainage from the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in northern Vermont, USA. For nearly 100 years (between the late 1890s and 1993, chrysotile asbestos fibers were extracted from serpentinized ultramafic rock at the VAG Mine for use in construction and manufacturing industries. Studies have shown that water courses and streambeds nearby have become contaminated with asbestos mine tailings runoff, including elevated levels of magnesium, nickel, chromium, and arsenic, elevated pH, and chrysotile asbestos-laden mine tailings, due to leaching and gradual erosion of massive piles of mine waste covering approximately 9 km2. We exposed yeast to simulated VAG Mine tailings leachate to help gain insight on how eukaryotic cells exposed to VAG Mine drainage may respond in the mine environment. Affymetrix GeneChip® Yeast Genome 2.0 Arrays were utilized to assess gene expression after 24-h exposure to simulated VAG Mine tailings runoff. The chemistry of mine-tailings leachate, mine-tailings leachate plus yeast extract peptone dextrose media, and control yeast extract peptone dextrose media is also reported. To our knowledge this is the first dataset to assess global gene expression patterns in a eukaryotic model system simulating asbestos mine tailings runoff exposure. Raw and normalized gene expression data are accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI GEO Database Series GSE89875 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE89875.

  14. Gene expression profiles in asbestos-exposed epithelial and mesothelial lung cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos has been shown to cause chromosomal damage and DNA aberrations. Exposure to asbestos causes many lung diseases e.g. asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, and lung cancer, but the disease-related processes are still largely unknown. We exposed the human cell lines A549, Beas-2B and Met5A to crocidolite asbestos and determined time-dependent gene expression profiles by using Affymetrix arrays. The hybridization data was analyzed by using an algorithm specifically designed for clustering of short time series expression data. A canonical correlation analysis was applied to identify correlations between the cell lines, and a Gene Ontology analysis method for the identification of enriched, differentially expressed biological processes. Results We recognized a large number of previously known as well as new potential asbestos-associated genes and biological processes, and identified chromosomal regions enriched with genes potentially contributing to common responses to asbestos in these cell lines. These include genes such as the thioredoxin domain containing gene (TXNDC and the potential tumor suppressor, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD-interacting protein gene (BNIP3L, GO-terms such as "positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade" and "positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent", and chromosomal regions such as 2p22, 9p13, and 14q21. We present the complete data sets as Additional files. Conclusion This study identifies several interesting targets for further investigation in relation to asbestos-associated diseases.

  15. [Asbestos and harmful health effects: from denial theories to epidemiological evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Orio, Ferdinando; Zazzara, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The recent episode involving Eternit, a factory in Casale Monferrato (Turin, Italy), culminated in February 2012 with a guilty verdict for the owners of the factory. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide, despite evidence of increased risk for conditions such as asbestosis and malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this study we investigate the relationship between epidemiological evidence and denial theories, over the decades and until the present time. Many countries in the world still promote the use of asbestos, with a view to profit and globalization but at the expense of public health.

  16. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking water by vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S.G.; Davis, A.C.; Witt, R.T.; Tripp, B.W.; Frew, N.M.

    1980-10-01

    Drinking water transported in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes often contains elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, which is used as solvent during application of the vinyl coating. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking waters flowing in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes in Falmouth, Mass., is assessed. Problems encountered in trying to reduce this potential health hazard are reviewed. Flushing of the pipe sometimes leads to a reduced tetrachloroethylene level in that pipe, but after flushing is terminated, the level of contamination will gradually increase. (1 diagram, 17 references, 2 tables)

  17. Controlled erosion in asbestos-cement pipe used in drinking water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos, P.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of asbestos-cement pipe used for drinking water conveyance, were submerged in distilled water, and subjected to two controlled erosive treatments, namely agitation (300 rpm for 60 min and ultrasound (47 kHz for 30 min. SEM was used to observe and compare the morphology of the new pipe with and without erosive treatment, and of samples taken from asbestos-cement pipes used in the distribution system of drinking water in Santiago city for 10 and 40-years of service. TEM was used to determine the concentration of asbestos fibers in the test water: 365 MFL and 1690 MFL (millions of fibers per litre as an agitation and result ultrasound, respectively. The erosive treatments by means of agitation or ultrasound applied to new asbestos-cement pipes used in the drinking water distribution system were evaluated as being equivalent to 4 and 10 years of service, respectively.

    Se sometió a dos tratamientos erosivos controlados uno por agitación (300 rpm, 60 min. y otro por ultrasonido (47 kHz, 30 min. a muestras de tubos de asbesto cemento, sumergidas en agua destilada, usados para el trasporte de agua potable. Con SEM se observó la morfología de muestras de tubos sin uso, con y sin tratamiento erosivo y la de muestras extraídas de tubos de asbesto cemento de la red de distribución de agua potable de ía ciudad de Santiago con 10 y 14 años de servicio. Con TEM se determinó la concentración de fibras de asbesto en el agua de ensayo: 365 MFL y 1690 MFL (millones de fibras por litro en agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente. Se estimó en 4 y 10 años de servicio equivalente los tratamientos erosivos de agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente en tubos de asbesto cemento empleados en la red de agua potable.

  18. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  19. Potential health hazards associated with exposures to asbestos-containing drywall accessory products: A state-of-the-science assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelka, Amanda D; Finley, Brent L

    2012-01-01

    Until the late 1970s, chrysotile asbestos was an ingredient in most industrial and consumer drywall accessory products manufactured in the US. In 1977, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a ban of consumer patching compounds containing "respirable, free-form asbestos" based on their prediction of exceptionally high rates of asbestos-related diseases among individuals using patching compounds for as little as a few days. Although hundreds of thousands of workers and homeowners handling these products may have experienced exposure to asbestos prior to the ban, there has been no systematic effort to summarize and interpret the information relevant to the potential health effects of such exposures. In this analysis, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the scientific studies assessing fiber type and dimension, toxicological and epidemiological endpoints, and airborne fiber concentrations associated with joint compound use. We conclude that: 1) asbestos in drywall accessory products was primarily short fiber (compound particulate is probably not biopersistent in the lung, 3) estimated cumulative chrysotile exposures experienced by workers and homeowners are below levels known to be associated with respiratory disease, and 4) mortality studies of drywall installers have not demonstrated a significantly increased incidence of death attributable to any asbestos-related disease. Consequently, contrary to the predictions of the CPSC, the current weight of evidence does not indicate any clear health risks associated with the use of asbestos-containing drywall accessory products. We also describe information gaps and suggest possible areas of future research.

  20. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orriols Ramon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease.

  1. [A study for non-asbestos casting liners. An experimental study of the adaptability of MOD casting to die].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, H; Ibaraki, Y; Yamamura, H; Yokouchi, A; Ohnuma, S; Odachi, T; Nittono, M; Iioka, A; Miyata, T; Haraguchi, K

    1990-12-01

    Asbestos liners for investment metal casting has frequently been used in dental laboratory work. In recent years, the dangerous properties of asbestos to the human body were reported in Europe and the United States, and casting liners without asbestos were developed and marketed by many manufacturers. These are so-called non-asbestos liners. This study evaluated the adaptability of MOD inlay castings to dies using 8 kinds of commercial non-asbestos liners of ADA standard No. 2 specifications. The results were as follows; Single and double layers of Casting ribbon, New Asbestos Ribon, Shofu experimental, and KAOLIN showed good adaptation. Shofu experimental with a single layer showed the best marginal adaptation (10 microns). OVAL LINERS and CASTING LINERS with single layer showed good adaptation, but with double layers the adaptation was poor. In FLASK LINER, the double layer showed better adaptation than that with a single layer. Most non-asbestos liners used in this study are adequate in useful to MOD inlay castings.

  2. Treatment technologies of wastes asbestos contents; Tecnologie di trattamento di rifiuti contenenti amianto. Documento di indirizzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G.; Ferri, F. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Paglietti, F.; Plescia, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Trattamento Minerali, Rome (Italy); Reynaud, S. [Electric Power Production Company-Struttura e Ricerca, Rome (Italy); Todarello, G. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, C. [ARPAV, Dipt. provinciale di Verona, Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    This report illustrates the actual situation on waste treatment and disposal of asbestos containing wastes. Particularly Italian experiences in the industrial sector. [Italian] Il presente documento fa il punto della situazione per quanto attiene alle problematiche relative al trattamento ed allo smaltimento dei rifiuti contenenti amianto. Un cenno particolare e' stato posto sulle esperienze industriali italiane.

  3. Evaluation of asbestos exposures during firewood-harvesting simulations in Libby, MT, USA--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Crispen, Kelly; Zolnikov, Tara R

    2007-11-01

    Research was conducted in order to assess potential exposure to asbestos while harvesting firewood from amphibole-contaminated trees near Libby, MT, USA. Three firewood-harvesting simulations took place in the summer and fall of 2006 in the Kootenai Forest inside the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricted zone surrounding the former W.R. Grace vermiculite mine. Another simulation was conducted near Missoula, MT, USA, which served as the control. The work practices following each simulation were consistent throughout each trial. Personal breathing zone (PBZ) asbestos concentrations were measured by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface wipe samples of personal protective clothing were measured by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ PCM sample time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 0.29 fibers per milliliter, standard deviation (SD = 0.54). A substantial portion (more than five fibers per sample) of non-asbestos fibers (cellulose) was reported on all PBZ samples (excluding field blanks) when analyzed by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ TEM sample TWA concentration for amphibole fibers 5-microm long was 0.07 fibers per milliliter (SD = 0.08). Substantial amphibole fiber concentrations were revealed on Tyvek clothing wipe samples. The mean concentration (n = 12) was 29 826 fibers per square centimeter (SD = 37 555), with 91% (27 192 fibers per square centimeter) comprised fibers firewood-harvesting activities in asbestos-contaminated areas and that the potential for exposure exists during such activities.

  4. Asbestos exposure and differences in occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma between men and women across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); B. Järvholm; S. Siesling (Sabine)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In several countries the incidence of peritoneal mesotheliomas among women closely mirrors the pattern among men. The aim was to investigate the role of asbestos exposure in the aetiology of peritoneal mesotheliomas in women and men. Methods: All cases of peritoneal

  5. Method for the analysis of asbestos fibers in water using MCE filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackett, K.A.; Clark, P.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    A method using mixed cellulose ester filters for the preparation of water samples to be tested under the Federal guidelines for asbestos in drinking water is described. Updating of the previous counting rules has been done to bring them closer to those specified in the AHERA protocol.

  6. The biological effect of asbestos exposure is dependent on changes in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that 1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and 2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and...

  7. Mg-phosphate ceramics produced from the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Mácová, Petra; Šašek, Petr; Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192 ISSN 1640-4920. [Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /18./. Ostrava, 29.05.2014-31.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : cement-asbestos * magnesium phosphate ceramics * amorphous Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.potopk.com.pl/archiwum.html

  8. Mesothelioma mortality in Europe: impact of asbestos consumption and simian virus 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehak Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that asbestos is the most important cause of mesothelioma. The role of simian virus 40 (SV40 in mesothelioma development, on the other hand, remains controversial. This potential human oncogene has been introduced into various populations through contaminated polio vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the possible presence of SV40 in various European countries, as indicated either by molecular genetic evidence or previous exposure to SV40-contaminated vaccines, had any effect on pleural cancer rates in the respective countries. Methods We conducted a Medline search that covered the period from January 1969 to August 2005 for reports on the detection of SV40 DNA in human tissue samples. In addition, we collected all available information about the types of polio vaccines that had been used in these European countries and their SV40 contamination status. Results Our ecological analysis confirms that pleural cancer mortality in males, but not in females, correlates with the extent of asbestos exposure 25 – 30 years earlier. In contrast, neither the presence of SV40 DNA in tumor samples nor a previous vaccination exposure had any detectable influence on the cancer mortality rate in neither in males (asbestos-corrected rates nor in females. Conclusion Using the currently existing data on SV40 prevalence, no association between SV40 prevalence and asbestos-corrected male pleural cancer can be demonstrated.

  9. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Georgiadis, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Barančoková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Oesterle, D.; Wolff, T.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 553, 1-2 (2004), s. 67-78 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : asbestos * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2004

  10. Exposure to asbestos during brake maintenance of automotive vehicles by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, T; Korhonen, K

    1987-05-01

    Asbestos concentrations were measured during the different operations of brake maintenance of passenger cars, trucks and buses in 24 Finnish workplaces. The estimated average asbestos exposure during the workday (8-hr time-weighted average) was 0.1-0.2 fibers/cm3 during brake repair of trucks or buses, and under 0.05 f/cm3 during repair of passenger car brakes when the background concentration was not included in the calculations. The background concentration was estimated to be less than 0.1 f/cm3. During brake maintenance of buses and trucks, heavy exposure, 0.3-125 (mean 56) f/cm3, was observed during machine grinding of new brake linings if local exhaust was not in use. Other short-term operations during which the concentration exceeded 1 f/cm3 were the cleaning of brakes with a brush, wet cloth or compressed air jet. During brake servicing of passenger cars, the concentration of asbestos exceeded 1 f/cm3 only during compressed air blowing without local exhaust. The different methods of decreasing the exposure and the risk of asbestos-related diseases among car mechanics are discussed.

  11. Assessment of Airborne Asbestos Fibers Concentration in Yazd City in Summer 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that the average of asbestos fibers concentration in total sampling stations (0.00848 fiber/ml was higher than WHO guidelines (2.2 × 10-3 fiber/ml. The main reason for the presence of these fibers in the air of Yazd city can be attributed to brake pad, clutch and automobile gasket adhesive.

  12. Morphology and properties of periwinkle shell asbestos-free brake pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Yawas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos-free automotive brake pad using periwinkle shell particles as frictional filler material is presented. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of the periwinkle shell, which is largely deposited as a waste, in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Five sets of brake pads with different sieve size (710–125 μm of periwinkle shell particles with 35% resin were produced using compressive moulding. The physical, mechanical and tribological properties of the periwinkle shell particle-based brake pads were evaluated and compared with the values for the asbestos-based brake pads. The results obtained showed that compressive strength, hardness and density of the developed brake pad samples increased with decreasing the particle size of periwinkle shell from 710 to 125 μm, while the oil soak, water soak and wear rate decreased with decreasing the particle size of periwinkle shell. The results obtained at 125 μm of periwinkle shell particles compared favourably with that of commercial brake pad. The results of this research indicate that periwinkle shell particles can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad manufacture.

  13. Asbestos, dental x-rays, tobacco, and alcohol in the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, M.W.; Thomas, D.B.; O'Reilly, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    A case-control study of 47 laryngeal cancers in males of three counties of Washington State was conducted. Personal interview was used to obtain information on smoking, alcohol use, exposure to asbestos, and other substances, and x-rays of the head and neck area. Smoking and alcohol consumption were found to increase risk of laryngeal cancer independently, with a clear dose-response relationship. Neither asbestos exposure nor exposure to other substances was found to significantly increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, although the relative risk with asbestos exposure was 1.75. Lifetime history of exposure to dental x-rays on five or more occasions was associated with significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer among heavy smokers but not among light smokers. The importance of tobacco and alcohol in the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer was re-affirmed, the importance of asbestos exposure was brought into question, and a possible relationship of laryngeal cancer with exposure to dental x-rays among heavy smokers was demonstrated

  14. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  15. Pulmonary Endpoints (Lung Carcinomas and Asbestosis) Following Inhalation Exposure to Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Brooke T.; Lippmann, Morton; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Bonner, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Lung carcinomas and pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) occur in asbestos workers. Understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases is complicated because of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, which is not a risk factor in mesothelioma. The modes of action (MOA) of various types of asbestos in the development of lung cancers, asbestosis, and mesotheliomas appear to be different. Moreover, asbestos fibers may act differentially at various stages of these diseases, and have different potencies as compared to other naturally occurring and synthetic fibers. This literature review describes patterns of deposition and retention of various types of asbestos and other fibers after inhalation, methods of translocation within the lung, and dissolution of various fiber types in lung compartments and cells in vitro. Comprehensive dose-response studies at fiber concentrations inhaled by humans as well as bivariate size distributions (lengths and widths), types, and sources of fibers are rarely defined in published studies and are needed. Species-specific responses may occur. Mechanistic studies have some of these limitations, but have suggested that changes in gene expression (either fiber-catalyzed directly or by cell elaboration of oxidants), epigenetic changes, and receptor-mediated or other intracellular signaling cascades may play roles in various stages of the development of lung cancers or asbestosis. PMID:21534086

  16. Asbestos in the non-mining industry on the Witwatersrand, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and introduction. For many decades, and until fairly recently, asbestos was commonly found in most sectors of South African industry. Consequently there is a large but indeterminate pool of formerly exposed workers, some of whom will present to medical practitioners for evaluation of possible asbestosis, the ...

  17. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  18. Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979. 96th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This report by the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives endorses H.R. 3282, the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979, and also presents minority views of ten members of the committee. The purpose of this legislation is to authorize a systematic federal program for identifying and controlling…

  19. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  20. A 26-Year-Old Male with Mesothelioma Due to Asbestos Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zarogoulidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesothelioma is a malignancy with poor prognosis, with an average 5-year survival rate being less than 9%. This type of cancer is almost exclusively caused by exposure to asbestos. A long exposure can cause mesothelioma and so can short ones, as each exposure is cumulative. We report a case of a 26-year-old male who was exposed to asbestos during his primary school years from the age of 6 to 12. Although the tumor mainly affects older men who in their youth were occupationally exposed to asbestos, malignant mesothelioma can also occur in young adults. A medical history was carefully taken and asbestos exposure was immediately mentioned by the patient. We conducted biopsy on the right supraclavicular lymph node. The patient was not a candidate for surgery, and chemotherapy treatment was initiated. While patient's chemotherapy is still ongoing, no other similar cases of students or teachers have been traced up to date from his school. The school building was demolished in January 2009.

  1. Exposure to Sumas Mountain chrysotile induces similar gene expression changes as Libby Amphibole but has greater effect on long-term pathology and lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Rat-respirable fractions (aer...

  2. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  3. Resistance to asbestos-induced apoptosis with continuous exposure to crocidolite on a human T cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Megumi [Department of Biofunctional Chemistry, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shoko [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Chen, Ying [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, 92 North 2nd, Heping District, Shenyang 110001 (China); Kumagai-Takei, Naoko [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroaki [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Hatayama, Tamayo; Miyahara, Naomi; Katoh, Minako [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Juni-ichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumitsu [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Otsuki, Takemi, E-mail: takemi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have been investigating the immunological effects of asbestos. The establishment of a low-dose and continuously exposed human T cell line, HTLV-1 immortalized MT-2, to chrysotile (CB) revealed reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor and production of IFN-{gamma} that caused a decline of tumor immunity. These effects were coupled with upregulation of IL-10, TGF-{beta}, and BCL-2 in asbestos-exposed patients. To observe the immunological effects of crocidolite (CR) on human T cells, a trial to establish a low-dose and continuously exposed model was conducted and compared with a previously reported CB-exposed model (MT-2CB). Transient exposure of MT-2 original cells to CB or CR induced a similar level of apoptosis and growth inhibition. The establishment of a continuously exposed subline to CR (MT-2CR) revealed resistance against CR-induced apoptosis and upregulation of the BCL-2/BAX ratio similar to that recorded for MT-2CB. Both sublines showed reduced production of IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha}, and IL-6 with increased IL-10. cDNA microarray with network/pathway analyses focusing on transcription factors revealed that many similar factors related to cell proliferation were involved following continuous exposure to asbestos in both MT-2CB and MT-2CR. These results indicate that both CB and CR fibers affect human T cells with similar degrees even though the carcinogenic activity of these substances differs due to their chemical and physical forms. Trials to identify early detection markers for asbestos exposure or the occurrence of asbestos-inducing malignancies using these findings may lead to the development of clinical tools for asbestos-related diseases and chemoprevention that modifies the reduced tumor immunity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of effects of chrysotile and crocidolite on human T cell was done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both fibers caused apoptosis of T cells by transient exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells

  4. Resistance to asbestos-induced apoptosis with continuous exposure to crocidolite on a human T cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Megumi; Yamamoto, Shoko; Chen, Ying; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Hatayama, Tamayo; Miyahara, Naomi; Katoh, Minako; Hiratsuka, Juni-ichi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Otsuki, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    We have been investigating the immunological effects of asbestos. The establishment of a low-dose and continuously exposed human T cell line, HTLV-1 immortalized MT-2, to chrysotile (CB) revealed reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor and production of IFN-γ that caused a decline of tumor immunity. These effects were coupled with upregulation of IL-10, TGF-β, and BCL-2 in asbestos-exposed patients. To observe the immunological effects of crocidolite (CR) on human T cells, a trial to establish a low-dose and continuously exposed model was conducted and compared with a previously reported CB-exposed model (MT-2CB). Transient exposure of MT-2 original cells to CB or CR induced a similar level of apoptosis and growth inhibition. The establishment of a continuously exposed subline to CR (MT-2CR) revealed resistance against CR-induced apoptosis and upregulation of the BCL-2/BAX ratio similar to that recorded for MT-2CB. Both sublines showed reduced production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 with increased IL-10. cDNA microarray with network/pathway analyses focusing on transcription factors revealed that many similar factors related to cell proliferation were involved following continuous exposure to asbestos in both MT-2CB and MT-2CR. These results indicate that both CB and CR fibers affect human T cells with similar degrees even though the carcinogenic activity of these substances differs due to their chemical and physical forms. Trials to identify early detection markers for asbestos exposure or the occurrence of asbestos-inducing malignancies using these findings may lead to the development of clinical tools for asbestos-related diseases and chemoprevention that modifies the reduced tumor immunity. - Highlights: ► Comparison of effects of chrysotile and crocidolite on human T cell was done. ► Both fibers caused apoptosis of T cells by transient exposure. ► T cells acquired resistance to asbestos-induced apoptosis when both fibers had been exposed continuously.

  5. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from period), with higher concentrations observed during the use of powered tools, the mixing or sanding of drywall cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging materials. The available evidence suggests that

  6. The Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Prevents Asbestos-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Murine Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interaction of asbestos with macrophages drives two key processes that are linked to malignancy: (1 the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS/reactive nitrogen species (RNS and (2 the activation of an inflammation cascade that drives acute and chronic inflammation, with the NLRP3 inflammasome playing a key role. Synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, LGM2605, is a nontoxic lignan with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and was evaluated for protection from asbestos in murine peritoneal macrophages (MF. Methods. MFs were exposed to crocidolite asbestos ± LGM2605 given 4 hours prior to exposure and evaluated at various times for NLRP3 expression, secretion of inflammasome-activated cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1, NF-κB activation, and levels of total nitrates/nitrites. Results. Asbestos induces a significant (p<0.0001 increase in the NLRP3 subunit, release of proinflammatory cytokines, NLRP3-activated cytokines, NF-κB, and levels of nitrates/nitrites. LGM2605 significantly reduced NLRP3 ranging from 40 to 81%, IL-1β by 89–96%, and TNFα by 67–78%, as well as activated NF-κB by 48-49% while decreasing levels of nitrates/nitrites by 85–93%. Conclusions. LGM2605 reduced asbestos-induced NLRP3 expression, proinflammatory cytokine release, NF-κB activation, and nitrosative stress in MFs supporting its possible use in preventing the asbestos-induced inflammatory cascade leading to malignancy.

  7. Mesothelioma among employees with likely contact with in-place asbestos-containing building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Schirmer, J; Higgins, D; Sarow, P

    1991-12-31

    The occurrence of mesothelioma is a sentinel event in occupational and environmental disease. A mesothelioma surveillance system was established utilizing existing computerized Wisconsin vital statistics data maintained since 1959 and a Cancer Reporting System (CRS) established in 1978. Review of the death certificate listing of usual occupation and industry from 487 mesothelioma deaths in Wisconsin from 1959 to 1989 led to the investigation of 41 persons with likely exposure to inplace asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM): 12 school teachers, 10 school maintenance employees, 7 public building maintenance workers, 5 private building maintenance workers, and 7 commercial and factory workers performing maintenance activities. For 10 (34%) of the 29 maintenance workers the only source of asbestos exposure identified was their maintenance work. For five (17%) histories indicated some prior employment in occupations and industries with probable asbestos exposures. Opportunities for indirect occupational exposure were identified for ten who had been employed in the residential construction industry. One maintenance worker was exposed to asbestos in the household and another had neighborhood exposure. For 9 (75%) of the school teachers, the only identifiable potential source of asbestos exposure was derived from in-place ACBM in schools. One teacher had spent a season in the merchant marine aboard an iron ore-hauling ship and 2 had worked in the residential construction industry. Two of the teachers were sisters, and in two instances, two teachers had taught in the same school facility. We conclude that individuals occupationally exposed to in-place ACBM are at risk for the subsequent development of mesothelioma.

  8. Size effects in electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional tin wires in asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaev, A. V.; Shamshur, D. V.; Fokin, A. V.; Kalmykov, A. E.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Sorokin, L. M.; Parfen'ev, R. V.; Lashkul, A.

    2016-03-01

    Bulk composites have been prepared based on one-dimensional fibers of natural chrisothil-asbestos with various internal diameters ( d = 6-2.5 nm) filled with tin. The electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional Sn wires have been studied at low temperatures. The electrical properties have been measured at T = 300 K at a pressure P = 10 kbar. It has been found that the superconducting (SC) characteristics of the nanocomposites (critical temperature T c and critical magnetic field H c) increase as the Sn filament diameter decreases. The temperature spreading of the resistive SC transition also increases as the Sn filament diameter decreases, which is explained by the SC order parameter fluctuations. The size effects (the increase in critical temperature T c and transition width Δ T c) in Sn nanofilaments are well described by the independent Aslamazov-Larkin and Langer-Ambegaokara fluctuation theories, which makes it possible to find the dependence of T c of the diffuse SC transition on the nanowire diameter. Using the temperature and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetic moment M( T, H), it has been found that the superconductor-normal metal phase diagram of the Sn-asbestos nanocomposite has a wider region of the SC state in T and H as compared to the data for bulk Sn. The magnetic properties of chrisotil-asbestos fibers unfilled with Sn have been studied. It has been found that the Curie law is fulfilled and that the superparamagnetism is absent in such samples. The obtained results indicate the absence of magnetically ordered impurities (magnetite) in the chrisotil-asbestos matrix, which allowed one to not consider the problem of the interaction of the magnetic subsystem of the asbestos matrix and the superconducting subsystem of Sn nanowires.

  9. The asbestos in the construction sector: wastes management; Amianto en la construccion. Precauciones y gestion del residuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graus Rovira, R.

    1998-07-01

    Asbestos has been used from the beginning of this century in many applications in the building sector. This report suggests the most common uses in Spain and the present rules concerning its management are shown. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. The utility of electron microscopy in detecting asbestos fibers and particles in BALF in diffuse lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Takashi; Morimoto, Yasuo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Oda, Keishi; Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Shimajiri, Shohei; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-04-21

    In patients with diffuse lung diseases, differentiating occupational lung diseases from other diseases is clinically important. However, the value of assessing asbestos and particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in diffuse lung diseases by electron microscopy (EM) remains unclear. We evaluated the utility of EM in detecting asbestos fibers and particles in patients with diffuse lung diseases. The BALF specimens of 107 patients with diffuse lung diseases were evaluated. First, detection of asbestos by EM and light microscopy (LM) were compared. Second, the detection of asbestos using surgically obtained lung tissues of 8 of 107 patients were compared with the results of EM and LM in BALF. Third, we compared the results of mineralogical components of particles in patients with (n = 48) and without (n = 59) a history of occupational exposure to inorganic dust. BALF asbestos were detected in 11 of 48 patients with a history of occupational exposure by EM; whereas asbestos as asbestos bodies (ABs) were detected in BALF in 4 of these 11 patients by LM. Eight of 107 patients in whom lung tissue samples were surgically obtained, EM detected BALF asbestos at a level of >1,000 fibers/ml in all three patients who had ABs in lung tissue samples by LM at a level of >1,000 fibers/g. The BALF asbestos concentration by EM and in lung tissue by LM were positively correlated. The particle fractions of iron and phosphorus were increased in patients with a history of occupational exposure and both correlated with a history of occupational exposure by a multiple regression analysis. EM using BALF seemed to be superior to LM using BALF and displayed a similar sensitivity to LM using surgically-obtained lung tissue samples in the detection of asbestos. Our results also suggest that detection of elements, such as iron and phosphorus in particles, is useful for evaluating occupational exposure. We conclude that the detection of asbestos and iron and phosphorus in

  11. Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605) Reduces Asbestos-Induced Cytotoxicity in an Nrf2-Dependent and -Independent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Chatterjee, Shampa; Park, Kyewon; Arguiri, Evguenia; Albelda, Steven M.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2018-01-01

    Asbestos exposure triggers inflammatory processes associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage linked to malignancy. LGM2605 is the synthetic lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in diverse inflammatory cell and mouse models, including exposure to asbestos fibers. Nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and boosting of endogenous tissue defenses were associated with the protective action of LGM2605 from asbestos-induced cellular damage. To elucidate the role of Nrf2 induction by LGM2605 in protection from asbestos-induced cellular damage, we evaluated LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed macrophages from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 disrupted (Nrf2−/−) mice. Cells were pretreated with LGM2605 (50 µM and 100 µM) and exposed to asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2) and evaluated 8 h and 24 h later for inflammasome activation, secreted cytokine levels (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), cytotoxicity and cell death, nitrosative stress, and Nrf2-regulated enzyme levels. Asbestos exposure induced robust oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell death and cytotoxicity, which were equally mitigated by LGM2605. Inflammasome activation was significantly attenuated in Nrf2−/− macrophages compared to WT, and the protective action of LGM2605 was seen only in WT cells. In conclusion, in a cell model of asbestos-induced toxicity, LGM2605 acts via protective mechanisms that may not involve Nrf2 activation. PMID:29498660

  12. Cancer risk from asbestos in drinking water: summary of a case-control study in western Washington.

    OpenAIRE

    Polissar, L; Severson, R K; Boatman, E S

    1983-01-01

    We conducted a case-control, interview-based study of the risk of developing cancer from asbestos in drinking water. An area that included Everett, Washington, was selected for the study because of the unusually high concentration of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water from the Sultan River. Through a population-based tumor registry, 382 individuals with cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, digestive system, bladder, or kidneys, diagnosed between 1977 and 1980, were ide...

  13. History of knowledge and evolution of occupational health and regulatory aspects of asbestos exposure science: 1900-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christy A; Sahmel, Jennifer; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Henshaw, John L

    2017-04-01

    The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed. With the introduction of the membrane filter sampling method in the late 1960s and early 1970s, asbestos sampling and exposure assessment capabilities advanced to a degree which allowed industrial hygienists to more precisely characterize the exposure-response relationship. The ability of industrial hygienists, analytical chemists, toxicologists, and physicians to more accurately define this relationship was instrumental to the scientific community's ability to establish Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for asbestos. These early developments set the stage for decades of additional study on asbestos exposure potential and risk of disease. This was followed by the application of engineering controls and improved respiratory protection which, over the years, saved thousands of lives. This paper represents a state-of-the-art review of the knowledge of asbestos within the industrial hygiene community from about 1900 to 1975.

  14. Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605 Reduces Asbestos-Induced Cytotoxicity in an Nrf2-Dependent and -Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos exposure triggers inflammatory processes associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage linked to malignancy. LGM2605 is the synthetic lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in diverse inflammatory cell and mouse models, including exposure to asbestos fibers. Nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 activation and boosting of endogenous tissue defenses were associated with the protective action of LGM2605 from asbestos-induced cellular damage. To elucidate the role of Nrf2 induction by LGM2605 in protection from asbestos-induced cellular damage, we evaluated LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed macrophages from wild-type (WT and Nrf2 disrupted (Nrf2−/− mice. Cells were pretreated with LGM2605 (50 µM and 100 µM and exposed to asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2 and evaluated 8 h and 24 h later for inflammasome activation, secreted cytokine levels (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cytotoxicity and cell death, nitrosative stress, and Nrf2-regulated enzyme levels. Asbestos exposure induced robust oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell death and cytotoxicity, which were equally mitigated by LGM2605. Inflammasome activation was significantly attenuated in Nrf2−/− macrophages compared to WT, and the protective action of LGM2605 was seen only in WT cells. In conclusion, in a cell model of asbestos-induced toxicity, LGM2605 acts via protective mechanisms that may not involve Nrf2 activation.

  15. Comparison of evaluation modes and management of carcinogen risks relative to the ionizing radiations, asbestos and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Lepicard, S.; Schneider, T.; Oudiz, A.

    1999-01-01

    This article intends to present the principle results of a study concerning the comparative evaluations of the exposure to ionizing radiations, asbestos, nickel compounds, each one presenting a carcinogen character for man. The objective is to understand the similarities and the differences by distinguishing three levels of analysis: concept, regulations and practice. The ionizing radiations are compared with asbestos in the context of professional exposure, to nickel and its compounds in the frame of populations exposure in environment. (N.C.)

  16. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Kalcevich, Christina; McLeod, Chris; Lebeau, Martin; Song, Chaojie; McLeod, Kim; Kim, Joanne; Demers, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure in Canada. We estimate the lifetime cost of newly diagnosed lung cancer and mesothelioma cases associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure for calendar year 2011 based on the societal perspective. The key cost components considered are healthcare costs, productivity and output costs, and quality of life costs. There were 427 cases of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases and 1904 lung cancer cases attributable to asbestos exposure in 2011 for a total of 2331 cases. Our estimate of the economic burden is $C831 million in direct and indirect costs for newly identified cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer and $C1.5 billion in quality of life costs based on a value of $C100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. This amounts to $C356 429 and $C652 369 per case, respectively. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure is substantial. The estimate identified is for 2331 newly diagnosed, occupational and para-occupational exposure cases in 2011, so it is only a portion of the burden of existing cases in that year. Our findings provide important information for policy decision makers for priority setting, in particular the merits of banning the mining of asbestos and use of products containing asbestos in countries where they are still allowed and also the merits of asbestos removal in older buildings with asbestos insulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Reanalysis of mortality from lung cancer among diatomaceous earth industry workers, with consideration of potential confounding by asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Heyer, N J; Demers, P A; Gibbs, G W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential for confounding from asbestos exposure, primarily chrysotile, on the relation between crystalline silica and mortality from lung cancer among diatomaceous earth (diatomite) workers. METHODS: A reanalysis of a cohort mortality study of diatomite workers was performed to take into account quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure. The reanalysis was limited to a subset of the original cohort, comprising 2266 white men for whom asbestos exposure could be reconstructed with greatest confidence. Comparisons between mortality from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratios (SMR)) were made between rates for 1942-87 for United States white men, and workers cross classified according to cumulative exposures to crystalline silica and asbestos. Comparisons of internal rates, involving Poisson regression modeling, were conducted for exposure to crystalline silica, with and without adjustment for asbestos exposure. Exposures were lagged by 15 years to take into account disease latency. RESULTS: There was an overall excess of lung cancer (SMR 1.41; 52 observed). The SMRs for four categories of increasing crystalline silica among the workers not exposed to asbestos were 1.13, 0.87, 2.14, 2.00. An SMR of 8.31 (three observed) was found for workers with the highest cumulative exposure to both dusts. Internal analysis, after adjustment for asbestos exposure, yielded rate ratios for categories of exposure to crystalline silica: 1.00 (reference), 1.37, 1.80, and 1.79. CONCLUSIONS: Asbestos exposure was not an important confounder of the association between crystalline silica and mortality from lung cancer in this cohort. Although based on a small number of deaths from lung cancer, the data suggest possible synergy between these exposures. An extended follow up of this cohort is in progress and should enable better assessments of independent and combined effects on risk of lung cancer. PMID:8882123

  18. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Matrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME, taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Cénée, Sylvie; Févotte, Joelle; Carton, Matthieu; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Bara, Simona; Velten, Michel; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle; The Icare Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. PMID:26425123

  1. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: petrological and technological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, L'ubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína; Németh, Zoltán

    2013-05-15

    Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650°C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO2 and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates - hydromagnesite and magnesite: [Formula: see text] Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO2, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of industrial CO2 emissions, contributing to multiple benefit of this methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the effects of the ban and other measures to decrease the use of asbestos in Sweden. Methods: The effect was measured through comparing the incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in birth cohorts who started to work before and after the decrease in the use of asbestos, i.e. in mid-1970s. Cases were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry and the analysis was restricted to persons born in Sweden. Results: Men and women born 1955–79 had a decreased risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to men and women born 1940–49 (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.11–0.25; and RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23–0.97 respectively). The decreased use of asbestos prevented each year about 10 cases in men and two cases in women below the age of 57 years in 2012. Conclusions: The ban and decreased use of asbestos in Sweden can be measured today in birth cohorts that started their working career after the decrease. PMID:26194352

  3. Actin polymerization plays a significant role in asbestos-induced inflammasome activation in mesothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Maximilian; Westbom, Catherine; Kogan, Helen; Shukla, Arti

    2017-05-01

    Asbestos exposure leads to malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly neoplasm of mesothelial cells of various locations. Although there is no doubt about the role of asbestos in MM tumorigenesis, mechanisms are still not well explored. Recently, our group demonstrated that asbestos causes inflammasome priming and activation in mesothelial cells, which in part is dependent on oxidative stress. Our current study sheds light on yet another mechanism of inflammasome activation by asbestos. Here we show the role of actin polymerization in asbestos-induced activation of the nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Using human mesothelial cells, we first demonstrate that asbestos and carbon nanotubes induced caspase-1 activation and high-mobility group box 1, interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 18 secretion was blocked by Cytochalasin D (Cyto D) an actin polymerization inhibitor. Next, to understand the mechanism, we assessed whether phagocytosis of fibers by mesothelial cells is affected by actin polymerization inhibition. Transmission electron microscopy showed the inhibition of fiber uptake by mesothelial cells in the presence of Cyto D. Furthermore, localization of components of the inflammasome, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) and NLRP3, to the perinuclear space in mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum in response to fiber exposure was also interrupted in the presence of Cyto D. Taken together, our studies suggest that actin polymerization plays important roles in inflammasome activation by fibers via regulation of phagocytosis and/or spatial localization of inflammasome components.

  4. Statins do not alter the incidence of mesothelioma in asbestos exposed mice or humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Robinson

    Full Text Available Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44-2.29, p = 0.99. Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61-1.67, p = 0.97. We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos.

  5. Asbestos in drinking water. January 1977-March 1988 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence, and problems associated with asbestos-fiber contaminated drinking water. The role of asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Distribution data, epidemiology studies, and health effects are considered. Detection and measurement methods are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 137 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Asbestos in drinking water. January 1977-March 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence, and problems associated with asbestos-fiber-contaminated drinking water. The role of asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Distribution data, epidemiology studies, and health effects are considered. Detection and measurement methods are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 94 citations, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Asbestos in drinking water. January 1977-April 1990 (A Bibliography from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and problems associated with asbestos-fiber-contaminated drinking water. The role of asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Distribution data, epidemiology studies, and health effects are considered. Detection and measurement methods are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 90 citations, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2 and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA, and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP. We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001, time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%–88% and 41%–73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

  9. Diagnostic Performance of Ultra-Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Detecting Asbestos-Related Pleuropulmonary Diseases: Prospective Study in a Screening Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, Marysa; Severac, Fran?ois; Labani, Aissam; Jeung, Mi-Young; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Micka?l

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Ultra-Low-Dose Chest CT (ULD CT) for the detection of any asbestos-related lesions (primary endpoint) and specific asbestos-related abnormalities, i.e. non-calcified and calcified pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis and significant lung nodules (secondary endpoints). Material and Methods 55 male patients (55.7?8.1 years old) with occupational asbestos exposure for at least 15 years and where CT screening was indicated wer...

  10. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Albelda, Steven M; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605) in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs) were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm²) and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP). We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM) 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%-88% and 41%-73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

  11. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potential of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.

  12. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  13. [Peritoneal mesothelioma: an inusual clinical presentation in a patient without exposure to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Lorenzo, J; Giménez Ortiz, A; Aparisi Aparisi, F; Fleitas Kanonnikoff, T; Montalar Salcedo, J

    2007-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an insidious neoplasm arising from the mesotelial surfaces, of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, the tunica vaginalis, or the pericardium. The predominant cause is inhalation exposure to asbestos. We present a rare case of primary malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum in a 64 year old man without history of inhalation exposure to asbestos. The initial symptoms were constitutional syndrome and right pleural effusion. Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/TC) was useful for a supporting diagnosis and to determine the extension. The patient received treatment with systemic palliative chemotherapy, cisplatin-pemetrexed. After three cycles, partial response was observed, but the evolution was fatal due to secondary toxicity of chemotherapy.

  14. Analytical characterization of cell-asbestos fiber interactions in lung pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Seydou; Petibois, Cyril [Universite de Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France); DellaVentura, Giancarlo [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos is a fiber causing lung diseases such as asbestosis and mesothelioma. Although the process involving these diseases remains to be elucidated for developing drugs and treatments, direct consequences of fiber exposure in humans have been clearly demonstrated. These diseases are first characterized by histological heterogeneity and combine chronic inflammation with fibrosis and cellular alterations. As a consequence, asbestosis is usually diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease and treatments are usually inefficient to cure the patients. Here, we review the links established between asbestos fiber chemistry and morphology with the occurrence of associated lung diseases. Cytological and histological aspects of diseases are described with respect to current analytical capabilities, notably for microscopy techniques. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, April (2014), s. 56-66 ISSN 0008-8846 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : cement-asbestos * chemically bonded ceramics * waste management * X-ray diffraction * amorphous material Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000888461400012X

  17. Asbestos-associated mesothelial cell autoantibodies promote collagen deposition in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serve, Kinta M.; Black, Brad; Szeinuk, Jaime; Pfau, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by excessive collagen protein deposition, is a progressive disease that can fatally inhibit organ function. Prolonged exposure to pathogens or environmental toxicants such as asbestos can lead to chronic inflammatory responses associated with fibrosis. Significant exposure to amphibole asbestos has been reported in and around Libby, Montana due to local mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. These exposures have been implicated in a unique disease etiology characterized predominantly by pleural disorders, including fibrosis. We recently reported the discovery of mesothelial cell autoantibodies (MCAAs) in the sera of Libby residents and demonstrated a positive and significant correlation with pleural disease; however, a mechanistic link was not determined. Here we demonstrate that MCAAs induce pleural mesothelial cells to produce a collagen matrix but do not affect production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor-β. While autoantibodies commonly induce a pro-fibrotic state by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of target cells, we found no evidence supporting EMT in cells exposed to MCAA positive human sera. Although implicated in other models of pulmonary fibrosis, activity of the protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) did not affect MCAA-induced collagen deposition. However, matrix formation was dependent on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and we noted increased expression of MMP-8 and -9 in supernatants of mesothelial cells incubated with MCAA positive sera compared to control. These data suggest a mechanism by which MCAA binding leads to increased collagen deposition through altering MMP expression and provides an important mechanistic link between MCAAs and asbestos-related, autoimmune-induced pleural fibrosis. PMID:24304304

  18. [Opinions and expectations of patients with health problems associated to asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M A; Suess, A; March, J C; Danet, A; Corral, O Pérez; Martín, A

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diseases related to asbestos exposure requires the development of monitoring programs and specific health care protocols. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions and expectations of former workers of an asbestos factory, in order to adapt the care process to the needs of the affected population, and to learn about the activity of the association that represents them. Qualitative study. Focus groups with former employees of a corrugated asbestos factory, members of the association AVIDA (Seville). Recording and transcription of interviews. Discourse analysis with Nudist Vivo 1.0. All respondents have health problems, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Through the association, they are involved in an ongoing process of negotiation with the public administration, to improve healthcare, achieve recognition as having an occupational disease and the payment of compensation. The lack of monitoring and continuity in care is designated as the major problem in the current care process. They welcome the creation of special care units, the good treatment received and the quality of technical instruments in the public health system. On the contrary, they criticize the difficulties in finding an accurate diagnosis, the lack of continuity of care, and the bureaucratic difficulties and lack of specific care directed to affected relatives. The participants' expectations highlight their intention to participate in the development of future programs and protocols. This study confirms the multifactor nature of diseases related to asbestos exposure and the importance of determining the needs and demands of the affected population in order to improve health care.

  19. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  20. Pleural mesothelioma in household members of asbestos-exposed workers in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Agostin, Flavia; de Michieli, Paola; Negro, Corrado

    2017-05-08

    Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member. The data sources were 1063 mesothelioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Mesothelioma Register. In all cases the diagnosis of mesothelioma was based on the pathology report. Exposure information and demographic data were acquired by an occupational medical standardized questionnaire/interview. Household-exposure mesothelioma cases included 33 women and 2 men. Relationships were: wives (N = 22), daughters (N = 9), sons (N = 2), and mothers (N = 2). Asbestos exposure in the workers predominantly occurred in shipyards. Out of the 35 pleural cases, 19 were epithelial, 9 biphasic, 3 sarcomatoid, and 4 not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 77 years old. The mean latency was 59 years, with wives having a significant shorter latency than offspring. Latency was not significantly related to morphology and asbestosis. The overall mean survival was 16 months (median 11 months) but treatment was beneficial (mean 16 months vs. 7 months). Biphasic/sarcomatoid histology and presence of asbestosis were associated with a decreased survival, although not with statistical significance. Our data confirms that household exposure increases the risk for pleural mesothelioma amongst women with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. This is an ongoing problem in many countries, as well as in Italy, where the evaluation of a framework for the compensation of these cases is under debate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):419-431.

  1. Evaluation of asbestos fiber concentration in worker's breathing zone and atmosphere of an industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradpir, S.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Ghiaseddin, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure to hazardous asbestos fibers on the basis of American Society for Testing and Materials criterion (length > 5mm, diameter 0.975,9 ). In addition, 8-h daily shift duration exposures on average are less than half of that observed in the 12-h shift. Test statistic with 95% confidence showed significant difference between mean exposure of daily shift durations (∝=0.05, t 0.95,17 )

  2. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  3. The epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in women: gender differences and modalities of asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Corfiati, Marisa; Binazzi, Alessandra; Di Marzio, Davide; Scarselli, Alberto; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Bonafede, Michela; Verardo, Marina; Mirabelli, Dario; Gennaro, Valerio; Mensi, Carolina; Schallemberg, Gert; Mazzoleni, Guido; Merler, Enzo; Girardi, Paolo; Negro, Corrado; D'Agostin, Flavia; Romanelli, Antonio; Chellini, Elisabetta; Silvestri, Stefano; Pascucci, Cristiana; Calisti, Roberto; Stracci, Fabrizio; Romeo, Elisa; Ascoli, Valeria; Trafficante, Luana; Carrozza, Francesco; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Cavone, Domenica; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Tallarigo, Federico; Tumino, Rosario; Melis, Massimo; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    The epidemiology of gender differences for mesothelioma incidence has been rarely discussed in national case lists. In Italy an epidemiological surveillance system (ReNaM) is working by the means of a national register. Incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in the period 1993 to 2012 were retrieved from ReNaM. Gender ratio by age class, period of diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, morphology and modalities of asbestos exposure has been analysed using exact tests for proportion. Economic activity sectors, jobs and territorial distribution of mesothelioma cases in women have been described and discussed. To perform international comparative analyses, the gender ratio of mesothelioma deaths was calculated by country from the WHO database and the correlation with the mortality rates estimated. In the period of study a case list of 21 463 MMs has been registered and the modalities of asbestos exposure have been investigated for 16 458 (76.7%) of them. The gender ratio (F/M) was 0.38 and 0.70 (0.14 and 0.30 for occupationally exposed subjects only) for pleural and peritoneal cases respectively. Occupational exposures for female MM cases occurred in the chemical and plastic industry, and mainly in the non-asbestos textile sector. Gender ratio proved to be inversely correlated with mortality rate among countries. The consistent proportion of mesothelioma cases in women in Italy is mainly due to the relevant role of non-occupational asbestos exposures and the historical presence of the female workforce in several industrial settings. Enhancing the awareness of mesothelioma aetiology in women could support the effectiveness of welfare system and prevention policies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeii, G.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos.

  5. The use of diagnostic conventional radiology in discovering asbestos induced diseases in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Rehab Elrayah Ibrahim

    2001-12-01

    To assess whether there was an association between asbestos exposure and abnormalities on chest x-ray or viltogram spiro meter, chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests of 30 asbestos-exposed workers were reviewed for pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. Postero-anterior (PA) chest x-ray has been taken using film size about 12x15 inch, with a 3-phase x-ray unit. Pulmonary function test was done using special chart and viltograph spiro meter machine. It has been found that about 23 workers were laborers and the rest were other clerks. About 53% of the workers were educated, and about 37% were smokers. The mean age of the workers was 39 years, and the standard deviation was 14 years, with an error of ± 1.5. It has been found that the mean duration of working was 9 years, and the standard deviation was 7 years, with an error of ± 1.2%. The mean value of viltogram spiro meter was 37%, and the standard deviation was 8%, with an error of ± 1.5%. It has been found that 17 of the workers had changes on chest radiography. In conclusion, chest radiography proved to be a simple, reliable for diagnosing asbestos-related diseases, and it is more accurate than viltogram spiro meter examination. (Author)

  6. Study on plasma melting treatment of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Akiko; Nakasio, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program for low-level radioactive wastes. In this program, inorganic wastes are converted to stable glassy products suitable for disposal by a plasma melting system in the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF). High melting point wastes such as refractories are excluded from the plasma melting treatment in the WVRF, and wastes difficult to handle such as asbestos are also excluded. However, it is describable to apply the plasma melting treatment to these wastes for stabilization and volume reduction from the viewpoint of disposal. In this paper, plasma melting test of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and simulated fly ashes were carried out as a part of technical support for WVRF. The plasma melting treatment was applicable for crucibles and asbestos because homogeneous and glassy products were obtained by controlling of waste and loading condition. It was found that SiC in ceramic filter elements was volatile with a plasma torch with inert gas, and adding reducer was ineffective against stabilizing volatile metals such as Zn, Pb in a solidified product in the melting test of simulated fly ash. (author)

  7. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeii, G.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos

  8. Asbestos-related chest X-ray changes among Greek merchant marine seamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velonakis, E.G.; Tsorva, A.; Tzonou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred forty-one retired Greek mariners were examined radiologically for asbestos-related lung disease. Thirty-eight (27%) had small opacities classified as ILO category 1/0 or more; 37 (26%) had radiologic evidence of pleural lesions; 17 (12%) had both parenchymal and pleural lesions; and a total of 58 (41%) had one or more radiologic findings of asbestos-related lung disease. In discriminant analysis, duration of maritime employment was predictive of pleural lesions, but the association was not statistically significant (one-tail, p = .16). The prevalence of pleural lesions was also higher among sailors than among officers, and this association was statistically significant (one-tail, p = .05). In this group, none of the occupational variables studied (age, duration of maritime employment, and rank) was related to lung fibrosis. After controlling by multiple regression for mutual confounding effects, suggestive negative associations for the presence of pleural lesions were found with FVC (one-tail, p = .13) as well as with FEF25% (one-tail, p = .09) and FEF50% (one-tail, p = .07). By contrast, no association was found between pulmonary fibrosis and any of the respiratory volumes. The results of this study suggest that mariners may present evidence of asbestos-related disease after many years from onset of exposure on ships

  9. Eco-friendly asbestos free brake-pad: Using banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Idris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of asbestos fibre is being avoided due to its carcinogenic nature that might cause health risks. A new brake pad produced using banana peel waste to replace asbestos and Phenolic resin (phenol formaldehyde, as a binder was investigated. The resin was varying from 5 to 30 wt% with an interval of 5 wt%. Morphology, physical, mechanical and wear properties of the brake pad were studied. The results show that compressive strength, hardness and specific gravity of the produced samples were seen to be increasing with an increase in wt% of resin addition, while oil soak, water soak, wear rate and percentage charred decreased as the wt% of resin increased. Overall samples, containing 25 wt% in uncarbonized banana peels (BUNCp and 30 wt% in carbonized (BCp gave better properties. The result of this research indicates that banana peel particles can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad manufacture.

  10. Stomach cancer mortality among workers exposed to asbestos: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jia; Jia, Xian-jie; Wei, Bing-gan; Yang, Lin-sheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between asbestos and stomach cancer is not well understood because of small number of cases. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer among workers exposed to asbestos based on a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Relevant English electronic databases were systematically searched for published studies characterizing the risk of developing stomach cancer as a result of asbestos exposure. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) for stomach cancer with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled using a fixed-/random-effect model in STATA. A total of 32 independent studies were included for the analysis. The overall SMR for stomach cancer was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity across the studies (I(2) = 37.6%, P = 0.011). Being male, exposure to crocidolite, miners, studies conducted in Europe and Oceania, and long study follow-up (≥ 25 years) all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Significant publication bias was observed. Elevated risk of stomach cancer mortality was evidenced among workers exposed to crocidolite, especially male miners.

  11. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, Kurt [Decommissioning and Demolition, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  12. Non-occupational exposure to asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma: review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Gary M; Riordan, Alexander S; Keeton, Kara A; Benson, Stacey M

    2017-11-01

    To conduct an updated literature review and meta-analysis of studies of pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) risk among persons exposed to asbestos non-occupationally (household and neighbourhood). We performed a literature search for articles available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's PubMed database published between 1967 and 2016. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate pooled PMM risk estimates, stratifying for household or neighbourhood exposure to asbestos and/or predominant asbestos fibre type (chrysotile, amphibole or mixed). Eighteen studies in 12 countries comprising 665 cases met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. We identified 13 estimates of PMM risk from neighbourhood exposures, 10 from household and one from mixed exposure, and combined the estimates using random-effects models. The overall meta-relative risk (meta-RR) was 5.9 (95% CI 4.4 to 8.7). The meta-RRs for household and neighbourhood exposures were 5.4 (95% CI 2.6 to 11.2) and 6.9 (95% CI 4.2 to 11.4), respectively. We observed trends in risk in relation to fibre type for both household and neighbourhood studies. For chrysotile, mixed and amphibole fibres, respectively, meta-RRs for neighbourhood studies were 3.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 38.4), 8.4 (95% CI 4.7 to 14.9) and 21.1 (95% CI 5.3 to 84.5) and meta-RRs for household studies were 4.0 (95% CI 0.8 to 18.8), 5.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 15.0) and 21.1 (95% CI 2.8 to 156.0). PMM risks from non-occupational asbestos exposure are consistent with the fibre-type potency response observed in occupational settings. By relating our findings to knowledge of exposure-response relationships in occupational settings, we can better evaluate PMM risks in communities with ambient asbestos exposures from industrial or other sources. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Cancer risk from asbestos in drinking water. Summary of a case-control study in western Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polissar, L.; Severson, R.K.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-11-01

    A case-controlled, interview-based study of the risk of developing cancer from asbestos in drinking water was conducted. Cases and controls were selected from the Everett, Washington, area which has used the Sultan River as source of drinking water since 1918. Sultan River tapwater has concentrations of chrysotile asbestos around 200 million fibers/liter. Through a population based tumor registry, 382 individuals with cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, digestive system, bladder, or kidneys, diagnosed between 1977 and 1980, were identified. Data on asbestos exposure were collected based on residence and workplace history, and on individual water consumption. Logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk. Summarizing the findings for imbibed asbestos, very few elevated risks of statistical significance were found. Considering the relative risk for each of the sites and for each of the four asbestos exposure variables, no instance was found in which the risk was elevated for both males and females. The only statistically significant elevated risks occurred for male pharynx and male stomach. 20 references.

  14. The psychological distress and care needs of mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed subjects: A systematic review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Michela; Ghelli, Monica; Corfiati, Marisa; Rosa, Valentina; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Granieri, Antonella; Branchi, Claudia; Iavicoli, Sergio; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the results of a systematic review of published research that focuses on psychological aspects of malignant mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed people. Our research includes primary studies published between 1980 and 2016, using information from the Cochrane Library, the Psychology Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsychINFO, PubMed, PubGet, PubPsych, and Scopus, in compliance with PRISMA guidelines. We identified 12 papers that investigated the psychological distress and care needs of mesothelioma patients, and nine papers for asbestos-exposed subjects. This paper highlights the paucity of studies on the psychological distress and care needs of mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed subjects. It confirms that malignant mesothelioma is associated with the physical, emotional, and social functioning of patients, while also suggesting that the risk of developing asbestos-related diseases among asbestos-exposed subjects is associated with high levels of psychological distress, despair, and mental health difficulties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Contribution of Health Professionals to the Creation of Occupational Health Standards: The Impact of Professional Ethics in the Case of Asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, H.N.

    2013-01-01

    ln the Netherlands, as in other Western countries, there is a great time lag between the evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos (1949) and the launching of first legislation that reduces the occupational exposure (1971) and finally, the complete ban of the production and application of asbestos

  16. Pleural malignant mesothelioma and non occupational exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato, Italy; Mesotheliome pleural malin et exposition environnementale l'amiante a Casale Monferrato, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, C.; Terracini, B.; Ivaldi, C.; Botta, M.; Mancini, A.; Andrion, A.

    1998-03-01

    The objective is to study the possibility of the risk of a pleural malignant mesothelioma associated to an environmental exposure to asbestos coming from industry, by estimating the incidence of mesotheliomas in a population without professional exposure but living near a asbestos-cement factory.

  17. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polentarutti Maurizio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. Results The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the

  18. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Kaulich, Burkhard; Rizzardi, Clara; Schneider, Manuela; Bottin, Cristina; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Kiskinova, Maya; Longoni, Antonio; Melato, Mauro

    2011-02-07

    Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins) around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the presence of asbestos fibres. The new results obtained by

  19. Optimal management program for asbestos containing building materials to be available in the event of a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2017-06-01

    The safe management and disposal of asbestos is a matter of considerable importance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to quantify the issue of waste management following a disaster. Nevertheless, there have been few (if any) studies concerning asbestos waste, covering the amount generated, the cost of disposal, and the degree of hazard incurred. Thus, the current study focuses on developing a program for the management of Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBMs), which form the source of asbestos waste in the event of a disaster. The study will also discuss a case study undertaken in a specific region in Korea in terms of: (1) the location of ACBM-containing buildings; (2) types and quantities of ACBMs; (3) the cost of ACBM disposal; (4) the amount of asbestos fiber present during normal times and during post-disaster periods; (5) the required order in which ACBM-containing buildings should be dismantled; and (6) additional greenhouse gases generated during ACBM removal. The case study will focus on a specific building, with an area of 35.34m 2 , and will analyze information concerning the abovementioned points. In addition, the case study will focus on a selected area (108 buildings) and the administrative district (21,063 buildings). The significance of the program can be established by the fact that it visibly transmits information concerning ACBM management. It is a highly promising program, with a widespread application for the safe management and optimal disposal of asbestos in terms of technology, policy, and methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02. The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88; 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40. The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17 in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

  1. Evaluation on the Collection Efficiency and Performance of the Sound Pressure Machine Equipped with a HEPA Filter Eliminating Asbestos Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Park Wha Me; Myung Rew Jae; Kim Key Young

    2016-01-01

    When the one-pass collection efficiency of each size of particles of the sound pressure machine equipped with a glass fiber HEPA filter to get rid of friable asbestos at the asbestos elimination field was evaluated, the collection efficiency of those with the size of 0.3um was examined to be 98.91%. That of the particles of 0.5um size was proved to be 99.21% on average, which is a little bit higher than that of 0.3um size. The 1.0um particles showed 100% of efficiency, and the collection effi...

  2. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Ogle, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  3. Use of quantitative analysis of urine to assess exposure to asbestos fibers in drinking water in the Puget Sound region.

    OpenAIRE

    Boatman, E S; Merrill, T; O'Neill, A; Polissar, L; Millette, J R

    1983-01-01

    An earlier epidemiologic and electron microscopy study of drinking water in the Everett area of Washington State indicated large numbers of naturally occurring chrysotile asbestos fibers in the water. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether significant numbers of asbestos fiber could be demonstrated in the urine of donors residing in that area for less than 3 yr and over 20 yr where the tapwater contained about 200 X 10(6) fibers/L. A control group was obtained from Seattle ...

  4. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH 4 H 2 PO 4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca 7 Mg 2 P 6 O 24 ) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

  5. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2010-11-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid—phosphorus.

  6. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

  7. Study on Ablation Behavior of Phenolic Composites Prepared with Different Amounts of Zirconia and Asbestos Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Asad Mirzapour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ablative materials play a strategic role in aerospace industry. These materialsproduce a thermal protection system which protects the structure, theaerodynamic surfaces and the payload of vehicles and probes duringhypersonic flight through a planetary atmosphere. In this work, we investigated the effect of refractory zirconium oxide on mechanical, heat stability and ablation properties of asbestos/phenolic/zirconia composites. The asbestos/phenolic/zirconia composites were produced with different percentages of zirconia filler from 7 to 21% with average size of 7 μm and different number of layers of asbestos, say 3 to 6 layers. These ablative composites were made by an autoclave curing cycle process.The densities of the composites were in the range of 1.68 to 1.88 g/cm3. Ablation properties of composites were determined by oxy-acetylene torch environment and burn-through time, erosion rates and back surface temperature in the first required 20 seconds. Thermal stability of the produced materials was estimated by means of thermal gravimetric analysis, in both air and nitrogen which consisted of dynamic scans at a heating rate of 10°C/min from 30 to 1000°C with bulk samples of about 20±1 mg. The results showed that when the amount of zirconia was raised from 7% to 21%, the erosion rate and the back surface temperature of composites increased byabout 24% and 26% respectively, and the heat capacity of the composites increased by about 85%. Also, the result showed that when the thickness of composites of 4.2 mm was increased to 10.1mm the burn-through time raised by about 226% and erosion rate dropped by about 41%. These composites displayed the maximum flexural strength when the amount of zirconia was about 14%.

  8. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report

  9. [Pitfalls in diagnostic imaging and assessment of benign asbestos-related thoracic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbock, B; Hofmann-Preiß, K; Kraus, T

    2012-05-01

    The recognition of asbestos-related diseases of the lung and/or pleura as an occupational disease is of psychosocial, medical and legal importance to the insured person. Radiological imaging is an essential part of the assessment and requires an increasingly high level of competence in the field of radiological diagnosis of pneumoconiosis in interdisciplinary collaboration with occupational medicine and pneumonology. The chest radiogram remains an integral part of basic diagnostic procedures in asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and/or pleura. Its importance lies in the detection of extended pleural changes as well as substantial fibrosis. The inherent low sensitivity and specificity of projection radiography is taken into account by the increasing use of multi-slice high resolution (HR) CT (in low dose technique). Radiological pitfalls in pleural plaque assessment with respect to plain chest X-ray concern all structures that superimpose on the pleural circumference, particularly the anatomical layers of the chest wall (extra-pleural fatty tissue, muscles, thoracic skeleton) as well as other pulmonary findings that can only be reliably assigned using CT. Even if state-of the-art CT is applied, asymmetries and abnormal expression of anatomical structures and variants (e. g. muscles and blood vessels) can lead to false-positive findings. The interstitial fibrosis of asbestosis, manifested as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is non-pathognomonic for asbestosis. Therefore, parietal pleural thickening as a coincident finding to UIP is considered as being the main feature and a highly suggestive indicator of asbestosis in patients with a history of asbestos exposure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Biological durability and oxidative potential of a stonewool mineral fibre compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippeli, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Dornisch, K. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kaiser, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Draeger, U. [Deutsche Rockwool Mineralwoll GmbH, Karl-Schneider-Strasse 14-18, D-45966 Gladbeck (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Experiments are described concerning the differences in redox properties and biodurability of natural asbestos fibres and an experimental stonewool fibre incubated in Gamble solution and reconstructed surfactant fluid. Crocidolite exhibits a significantly higher oxidative potential compared to the tested stonewool fibres. The oxidative acitivity of both types of fibres is not constant during incubation over several weeks, but rather shows a sinoidal curve including reactivities much higher than those at the beginning of the incubation. A continuous loss of mass is concluded not to be definitively connected with a continuous loss of toxicity. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  11. Risk of cancer associated with residential exposure to asbestos insulation: a whole-population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Clements, Mark S; Armstrong, Bruce K; Law, Hsei Di; Guiver, Tenniel; Anderson, Philip R; Trevenar, Susan M; Kirk, Martyn D

    2017-11-01

    The health risks associated with living in houses insulated with asbestos are unknown. Loose-fill asbestos was used to insulate some houses in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). We compared the incidence of mesothelioma and other cancers in residents of the ACT who did and did not live in these houses. Our cohort study included all ACT residents identified using Medicare enrolment data. These data were linked to addresses of affected residential properties in the ACT to ascertain exposure. We followed up residents by linking data to the Australian Cancer Database and National Death Index. Outcomes were diagnosis of mesothelioma and selected other cancers. Effects were estimated for males and females separately using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), adjusting for age and calendar time of diagnosis. Between Nov 1, 1983, and Dec 31, 2013, 1 035 578 ACT residents were identified from the Medicare database. Of these, 17 248 (2%) had lived in an affected property, including seven (2%) of 285 people diagnosed with mesothelioma. The adjusted incidence of mesothelioma in males who had lived at an affected property was 2·5 times that of unexposed males (SIR 2·54, 95% CI 1·02-5·24). No mesotheliomas were reported among females who had lived at an affected property. Among individuals who had lived at an affected property, there was an elevated incidence of colorectal cancer in women (SIR 1·73, 95% CI 1·29-2·26) and prostate cancer in men (1·29, 1·07-1·54); colorectal cancer was increased, although not significantly, in males (SIR 1·32, 95% CI 0·99-1·72), with no significant increase in the other cancers studied. Residential asbestos insulation is likely to be unsafe. Our findings have important health, social, financial, and legal implications for governments and communities in which asbestos has been used to insulate houses. ACT Government. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY

  12. The possibilities of the microwave utilization of wastes on the example of materials containing the asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper introduce some of the results of the investigations in the utilization of the materials containing asbestos in the existingin Wroclaw University of Technology Institute’s of Technology of Machines and the Automation Foundry and Automation Group themicrowave reactor. In the reactor’s heating chamber there is possible to recycle from 3 up to 5 kg of the batch at once. The temperaturewith which is possible to receive in it is approx. 1400 oC. The time of it’s achievement (in dependence from utilized material can take outfrom 25 up to 40 minutes.

  13. Risk of cancer associated with residential exposure to asbestos insulation: a whole-population cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J Korda, Dr, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The health risks associated with living in houses insulated with asbestos are unknown. Loose-fill asbestos was used to insulate some houses in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT. We compared the incidence of mesothelioma and other cancers in residents of the ACT who did and did not live in these houses. Methods: Our cohort study included all ACT residents identified using Medicare enrolment data. These data were linked to addresses of affected residential properties in the ACT to ascertain exposure. We followed up residents by linking data to the Australian Cancer Database and National Death Index. Outcomes were diagnosis of mesothelioma and selected other cancers. Effects were estimated for males and females separately using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs, adjusting for age and calendar time of diagnosis. Findings: Between Nov 1, 1983, and Dec 31, 2013, 1 035 578 ACT residents were identified from the Medicare database. Of these, 17 248 (2% had lived in an affected property, including seven (2% of 285 people diagnosed with mesothelioma. The adjusted incidence of mesothelioma in males who had lived at an affected property was 2·5 times that of unexposed males (SIR 2·54, 95% CI 1·02–5·24. No mesotheliomas were reported among females who had lived at an affected property. Among individuals who had lived at an affected property, there was an elevated incidence of colorectal cancer in women (SIR 1·73, 95% CI 1·29–2·26 and prostate cancer in men (1·29, 1·07–1·54; colorectal cancer was increased, although not significantly, in males (SIR 1·32, 95% CI 0·99–1·72, with no significant increase in the other cancers studied. Interpretation: Residential asbestos insulation is likely to be unsafe. Our findings have important health, social, financial, and legal implications for governments and communities in which asbestos has been used to insulate houses

  14. The Attorney General's Asbestos Liability Report to the Congress. Pursuant to Section 8(b) of the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1980. Committee Print, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The Attorney General was directed by Congress to prepare a report on whether the United States could recover, from any persons determined liable, the amounts expended to detect, contain, or remove hazardous asbestos products from schools. The general background portion of this report contains the results of the factual research and investigation.…

  15. Exposure of sheet-metal workers to asbestos during the construction and renovation of commercial buildings in New York City. A case study in social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, E; Nagin, D; Michaels, D; Lacher, M; Zoloth, S

    1987-01-01

    New York City sheet-metal workers have a history of significant exposure to asbestos. Prior to 1972 when the use of sprayed asbestos insulation was banned in New York City, sheet-metal workers involved in building construction were exposed as they worked adjacent to spraying operations. Subsequent to that date, exposure continued as they renovated these same buildings. In 1982 the Occupational Health Program of Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine initiated a multidimensional asbestos evaluation and intervention program for the sheet-metal industry and union in New York. The long-term goal of the program was to eliminate asbestos exposure through the safe, systematic removal of asbestos in New York City buildings, most likely a legislated solution. In the short term, we attempted to assess and reduce asbestos exposure in the sheet-metal trade by a series of steps consisting of: mortality and morbidity studies; a medical audit of clinical screening services provided to sheet-metal workers; a comprehensive health education program; development of safe work practices; evaluation of personal protective equipment; and investigation into and support of legislative and regulatory solutions to the problem of asbestos contamination of commercial buildings. This intervention can be seen as a case study in the practice of social medicine.

  16. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings, individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily. Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.

  17. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro; De Castro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL) may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings), individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto) in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily). Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.

  18. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    , significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung (O/E 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), pleura (O/E 5.46; 95% CI 2.62-10.05), mediastinum (O/E 5.00; 95% CI 1.01-14.61), stomach (O/E 1.43; 95% CI 1.03-1.93), and other male genital organs (O/E 3.03; 95% CI 1.11-6.60). The mortality was significantly increased......In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/ml. In 1973 more than 41% of personal samples were higher than 2 f/ml. About 76% of the workforce left the factory within five years of starting employment. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between...

  19. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Gaoxiang; Zheng Shuilin

    2009-01-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg 2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50 deg. C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  20. Dark fermentation process as pretreatment for a sustainable denaturation of asbestos containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasiano, Danilo

    2018-05-05

    A cement asbestos compound (CAC) sample was detoxified by a treatment train based on a dark fermentation (DF) process followed by a hydrothermal phase, which led to the complete degradation of the chrysotile fibers. During the biological pretreatment, the glucose was converted in biogas rich in H 2 and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The latter caused the dissolution of all the Ca-based compounds and the solubilisation of 50% brucite-like layers of chrysotile fibers contained in the CAC suspended in the bioreactor (5 g/L). XRD analysis of the solids contained in the effluents of the DF process highlighted the disappearance of the chrysotile fiber peaks. However, a complete destruction of all the asbestos fibers is hard to prove and a hydrothermal treatment was carried out to dissolve the "brucite" layers still present in solution. Due to the presence of the VFA produced during the DF, a complete destruction of chrysotile fibers was achieved by a 24 h hydrothermal process performed with a [H 2 SO 4 ]/[CAC] ratio 50% lower than that adopted in a previous finding. Consequently, the DF pre-treatment can contribute to lower the H 2 SO 4 and the energy consumption of a CAC hydrothermal treatment, due to the production of VFA and H 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coalescent pleural malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, involving only minor asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ninomiya, Hironori; Natori, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2008-07-01

    Coexistence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pleural malignant mesothelioma is extremely rare, although both are asbestos-related. Herein is presented a rare case of coalescent lung tumor made up of a malignant mesothelioma and a pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a 62-year-old Japanese man, a high-school teacher with only minor asbestos exposure. Preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made on transbronchial biopsy. At surgery, multiple small white nodules were observed on the parietal pleural surface, opposite to the lung tumor. They were confirmed to be malignant mesothelioma on histopathology of paraffin section. The pulmonary tumor mass itself consisted of two distinct portions. The major part contained papillary proliferation of hobnail and columnar cells. Peripherally, neoplastic cells grew in a lepidic fashion and micropapillary growth was also detected. The other component featured tubular structures. The former was positive for adenocarcinoma markers such as CEA, Ber-EP4, PE-10, thyroid transcription factor-1 and Napsin A, and negative for mesothelial markers including calretinin, D2-40, WT-1 and HBME, while the latter was the opposite, resulting in a diagnosis of coalescing malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. The panel of antibodies used for immunohistochemistry was useful to distinguish the two different components in the one tumor.

  2. Evaluation of palm kernel fibers (PKFs for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Ikpambese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asbestos-free automotive brake pads produced from palm kernel fibers with epoxy-resin binder was evaluated. Resins varied in formulations and properties such as friction coefficient, wear rate, hardness test, porosity, noise level, temperature, specific gravity, stopping time, moisture effects, surface roughness, oil and water absorptions rates, and microstructure examination were investigated. Other basic engineering properties of mechanical overload, thermal deformation fading behaviour shear strength, cracking resistance, over-heat recovery, and effect on rotor disc, caliper pressure, pad grip effect and pad dusting effect were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the wear rate, coefficient of friction, noise level, temperature, and stopping time of the produced brake pads increased as the speed increases. The results also show that porosity, hardness, moisture content, specific gravity, surface roughness, and oil and water absorption rates remained constant with increase in speed. The result of microstructure examination revealed that worm surfaces were characterized by abrasion wear where the asperities were ploughed thereby exposing the white region of palm kernel fibers, thus increasing the smoothness of the friction materials. Sample S6 with composition of 40% epoxy-resin, 10% palm wastes, 6% Al2O3, 29% graphite, and 15% calcium carbonate gave better properties. The result indicated that palm kernel fibers can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad production.

  3. Hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids precedes cellular proliferation in asbestos-stimulated tracheobronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesko, A.; Mossman, B.; Cabot, M.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine was investigated in tracheobronchial epithelial cells exposed to mitogenic concentrations of crocidolite asbestos. Alterations in levels of diacylglycerol, the endogenous activator of protein kinase C, and inositol polyphosphates, presumed mobilizers of intracellular calcium, were examined. Cultures labeled with [ 3 H]diacylglycerol. In contrast, crocidolite-exposed cells labeled with [ 3 H]myristic acid or [ 3 H]choline did not display elevated production of [ 3 H]diacylglycerol or release of [ 3 H]choline metabolites (i.e., evidence of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis). The soluble tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate catalyzed both of these changes. myo-[ 3 H]Inositol-labeled cells exposed as briefly as 10 min to mitogenic concentrations of crocidolite demonstrated elevations in [ 3 H]inositol mono-, tris-, and terakisphosphates, phenomena indicating turnover of inositol phospholipids. The detection of diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates in crocidolite asbestos-exposed cells suggests that this fibrous tumor promoter activates phospholipase C as it stimulates cellular proliferation

  4. Carcinogenic risk assessment and management of ionising radiation, asbestos and nickel: a comparative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Oudiz, A.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the similarities as well as the differences of risk assessment and management of ionizing radiation, asbestos and nickel in France. The comparison has been performed at three levels of analysis: concepts, regulation and practices. Ionizing radiation (IR) is compared with asbestos as far as occupational exposure is concerned and to nickel and nickel compounds as far as general population exposure is concerned. The three main stages of risk assessment were considered: hazard identification, exposure-risk relationship, exposure assessment. Alternative risk management policies were reviewed. The main results are the following: At the conceptual level, the risk assessment and management frameworks present many similarities: exposure-risk relationships exist, and low dose extrapolation is considered as legitimate. Comparison of protection strategies can be carried out with reference to the 'optimization' principle developed for IR. At the regulatory level, the status of the IR dose limits differs from the status of the exposure limit values set for asbestos and nickel. For IR, compliance with the dose limit cannot be seen as the final objective of protection: the burden is put on the requirement to maintain the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economical factors being taken into account (ALARA). In most of the situations, actual exposure to IR in industry appear to be significantly lower than the dose limit. In the case of asbestos and nickel, the exposure limit values are very low and compliance with the limits is indeed a quite ambitious objective. At the practical level, some noticeable differences exist as far as the decision aiding procedures are concerned. A process which may be considered as an ALARA approach is applied, in the case of nickel: seeking for the 'best available technologies', defining and implementing with stakeholdes regional plans for air quality. In the case of asbestos, the predictive

  5. The Importance of Sample Processing in Analysis of Asbestos Content in Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. D.; Wright, J.

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of asbestos content in rocks and soils using Air Resources Board (ARB) Test Method 435 (M435) involves the processing of samples for subsequent analysis by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The use of different equipment and procedures by commercial laboratories to pulverize rock and soil samples could result in different particle size distributions. It has long been theorized that asbestos-containing samples can be over-pulverized to the point where the particle dimensions of the asbestos no longer meet the required 3:1 length-to-width aspect ratio or the particles become so small that they no longer can be tested for optical characteristics using PLM where maximum PLM magnification is typically 400X. Recent work has shed some light on this issue. ARB staff conducted an interlaboratory study to investigate variability in preparation and analytical procedures used by laboratories performing M435 analysis. With regard to sample processing, ARB staff found that different pulverization equipment and processing procedures produced powders that have varying particle size distributions. PLM analysis of the finest powders produced by one laboratory showed all but one of the 12 samples were non-detect or below the PLM reporting limit; in contrast to the other 36 coarser samples from the same field sample and processed by three other laboratories where 21 samples were above the reporting limit. The set of 12, exceptionally fine powder samples produced by the same laboratory was re-analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and results showed that these samples contained asbestos above the TEM reporting limit. However, the use of TEM as a stand-alone analytical procedure, usually performed at magnifications between 3,000 to 20,000X, also has its drawbacks because of the miniscule mass of sample that this method examines. The small amount of powder analyzed by TEM may not be representative of the field sample. The actual mass of the sample powder analyzed by

  6. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sans Serif, Gothic or Block Do Not Create Dust 1.9 cm (3/4 inch) Sans Serif, Gothic or Block Breathing Asbestos is Hazardous to Your Health 14 Point Gothic. Spacing between any two lines must be at least equal...

  7. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the information requirements of § 61.07(b)(3), a (i) Description of waste feed handling and...) Disposed of as asbestos-containing waste material according to § 61.150, or (ii) Recycled as waste feed... waste feed to the process. (2) Collect and analyze monthly composite samples (one 200-gram (7-ounce...

  8. Increased 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate in subjects with asbestos exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Navrátil, Tomáš; Lebedová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2008), s. 484-489 ISSN 0019-8366 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : asbestos * asbestosis * pleural hyalinosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2008

  9. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Kishimoto, Takumi [Okayama Rosai Hospital, Asbestos Research Center, Okayama (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kato, Katsuya [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 2, Okayama (Japan); Okamoto, Kenzo [Hokkaido Chuo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Iwamizawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Honma, Koichi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pathology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Akira, Masanori [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loli, P.; Topinka, Jan; Georgiadis, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Kovačiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 553, 1-2 (2004), s. 79-90 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : asbestos * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2004

  11. After Helsinki: a multidisciplinary review of the relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer, with emphasis on studies published during 1997-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas W; Rödelsperger, Klaus; Woitowitz, Hans-Joachim; Leigh, James

    2004-12-01

    Despite an extensive literature, the relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer remains the subject of controversy, related to the fact that most asbestos-associated lung cancers occur in those who are also cigarette smokers: because smoking represents the strongest identifiable lung cancer risk factor among many others, and lung cancer is not uncommon across industrialised societies, analysis of the combined (synergistic) effects of smoking and asbestos on lung cancer risk is a more complex exercise than the relationship between asbestos inhalation and mesothelioma. As a follow-on from previous reviews of prevailing evidence, this review critically evaluates more recent studies on this relationship--concentrating on those published between 1997 and 2004--including lung cancer to mesothelioma ratios, the interactive effects of cigarette smoke and asbestos in combination, and the cumulative exposure model for lung cancer induction as set forth in The Helsinki Criteria and The AWARD Criteria (as opposed to the asbestosis-->cancer model), together with discussion of differential genetic susceptibility/resistance factors for lung carcinogenesis by both cigarette smoke and asbestos. The authors conclude that: (i) the prevailing evidence strongly supports the cumulative exposure model; (ii) the criteria for probabilistic attribution of lung cancer to mixed asbestos exposures as a consequence of the production and end-use of asbestos-containing products such as insulation and asbestos-cement building materials--as embodied in The Helsinki and AWARD Criteria--conform to, and are further consolidated by, the new evidence discussed in this review; (iii) different attribution criteria (e.g., greater cumulative exposures) are appropriate for chrysotile mining/milling and perhaps for other chrysotile-only exposures, such as friction products manufacture, than for amphibole-only exposures or mixed asbestos exposures; and (iv) emerging evidence on genetic

  12. Pleural mesothelioma and occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure: a case-control study with quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniela; Mirabelli, Dario; Tunesi, Sara; Terracini, Benedetto; Magnani, Corrado

    2016-03-01

    Casale Monferrato (north west Italy) is an area with an exceptionally high incidence of mesothelioma caused by asbestos contamination at work and in the general environment from the asbestos-cement Eternit plant that was operational until 1986. The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) and asbestos cumulative exposure using individual assessment of environmental and domestic exposure, as well as of occupational exposure. This population-based case-control study included cases of PMM diagnosed between January 2001 and June 2006 among residents in the Casale Monferrato Local Health Authority. Population controls were randomly sampled, matched by age and sex to cases. Cumulative exposure was estimated to account for the lifelong exposure history. Analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for gender, age at diagnosis and type of interview (direct or proxy respondents). 200 PMM cases of 223 eligible cases (89.7%) and 348 (63%) of 552 eligible controls accepted to be interviewed. ORs increased with cumulative exposure index (p<0.0001) from 4.4 (CI 95% 1.7 to 11.3) (<1 f/mL-years) to 62.1 (CI 95% 22.2 to 173.2) (≥10 f/mL-years). Among subjects never occupationally exposed, corresponding ORs were 3.8 (CI 95% 1.3 to 11.1) and 23.3 (CI 95% 2.9 to 186.9) (reference: background level of asbestos exposure). ORs of about 2, statistically significant, were observed for domestic exposure and for living in houses near buildings with large asbestos cement parts. Risk of PMM increased with cumulative asbestos exposure and also in analyses limited to subjects non-occupationally exposed. Our results also provide indication of risk associated with common sources of environmental exposure and are highly relevant for the evaluation of residual risk after the cessation of asbestos industrial use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  13. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Németh, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.nemeth@geology.sk [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO{sub 2} + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO{sub 2} emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO{sub 2} and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 3thermally} {sub modified} {sub chrysotile}+5CO{sub 2}+nH{sub 2}O→Mg{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}(OH){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O{sub hydromagnesite}+MgCO{sub 3magnesite}+4SiO{sub 2} · nH{sub 2}O{sub in} a{sub morphous} {sub phase};n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO{sub 2}, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of

  14. Efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations after initial asbestos-related disease screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Kazuya; Uesaka, Ayuko; Kuribayashi, Kozo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations as a result of initial asbestos-related disease screening. The subjects consisted of 132 participants who underwent asbestos-related disease screening in our hospital between July 2005 and March 2006. According to their history of screening, the participants were classified into the initial screening group and the second screening group. The former consisted of 76 participants without prior screening, while the latter consisted of 56 participants who were referred to our hospital for the detailed examinations as a result of initial screening undergone elsewhere. The participants were examined concerning their history of asbestos exposure, and then underwent chest X-ray followed by chest computed tomography (CT). Respiratory endoscopic examinations were mainly performed in participants with suspected chest malignancies. There were no significant differences in the distribution of age or gender between the two screening groups. In both screening groups, more than 70% of the participants had a history of occupational exposure to asbestos. Radiological abnormalities were observed in 110 (83%) of all participants. Asbestos-related diseases were detected in a total of 90 (68%) cases. The breakdown of the 90 cases by disease was as follows: 60 cases had pleural plaque, 13 pulmonary fibrosis, 5 lung cancer (LC), 4 benign asbestos pleurisy, 4 round atelectasis, 2 diffuse pleural thickening, and 2 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The disease detection rate of LC and MPM was 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Respiratory endoscopic examinations were performed in a total of 15 cases. The breakdown of the 15 cases by examination was as follows: bronchoscopy was performed in 6 cases, thoracoscopy including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in 8, and mediastinoscopy in 4. Two cases with early LC were diagnosed by videothoracoscopic lung biopsy. A diagnosis of MPM was

  15. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in the 21st century: a time-trend analysis in a clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyts, Valerie; Vanhooren, Hadewijch; Begyn, Sarah; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Nemery, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Asbestos bodies (AB) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be detected by light microscopy and their concentration is indicative of past cumulative asbestos exposure. We assessed clinical and exposure characteristics, as well as possible time trends, among patients in whom AB had been quantified in BAL. BAL samples obtained from 578 participants between January 1997 and December 2014 were available for analysis. The processing of samples and the microscopic analysis were performed by a single expert and 76% of samples came from a single tertiary care hospital, allowing clinical and exposure data to be extracted from patient files. The study population (95% males) had a mean age of 62.5 (±12.4) years. AB were detected in 55.2% of the samples, giving a median concentration of 0.5 AB/mL (95th centile: 23.6 AB/mL; highest value: 164.5 AB/mL). The AB concentration exceeded 1 AB/mL in 39.4% and 5 AB/mL in 17.8%. A significant decrease from a geometric mean of 0.93 AB/mL in 1997 to 0.2 AB/mL in 2014 was apparent. High AB concentrations generally corresponded with occupations with (presumed) high asbestos exposure. AB concentrations were higher among patients with asbestosis and pleural plaques, when compared with other disease groups. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of participants with likely exposure to asbestos did not exhibit high AB counts. This retrospective study of a large clinical population supports the value of counting AB in BAL as a complementary approach to assess past exposure to asbestos. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Glycoprotein YKL-40 Levels in Plasma Are Associated with Fibrotic Changes on HRCT in Asbestos-Exposed Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Väänänen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available YKL-40 is a chitinase-like glycoprotein produced by alternatively activated macrophages that are associated with wound healing and fibrosis. Asbestosis is a chronic asbestos-induced lung disease, in which injury of epithelial cells and activation of alveolar macrophages lead to enhanced collagen production and fibrosis. We studied if YKL-40 is related to inflammation, fibrosis, and/or lung function in subjects exposed to asbestosis. Venous blood samples were collected from 85 men with moderate or heavy occupational asbestos exposure and from 28 healthy, age-matched controls. Levels of plasma YKL-40, CRP, IL-6, adipsin, and MMP-9 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in subjects with asbestosis (n=19 than in those with no fibrotic findings in HRCT following asbestos exposure (n=66 or in unexposed healthy controls. In asbestos-exposed subjects, plasma YKL-40 correlated negatively with lung function capacity parameters FVC (Pearson’s r −0.259, p=0.018 and FEV1 (Pearson’s r −0.240, p=0.028 and positively with CRP (Spearman’s rho 0.371, p<0.001, IL-6 (Spearman’s rho 0.314, p=0.003, adipsin (Spearman’s rho 0.459, p<0.001, and MMP-9 (Spearman’s rho 0.243, p=0.025. The present finding suggests YKL-40 as a biomarker associated with fibrosis and inflammation in asbestos-exposed subjects.

  17. Asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura: uses, trends and management over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklake, M R; Bagatin, E; Neder, J A

    2007-04-01

    Asbestos is a descriptive term for a group of naturally occurring minerals known to mankind since ancient times. The main types of asbestos (chrysotile, and the amphiboles crocidolite and amosite) differ in chemical structure, biopersistence in human tissue and toxicity. Commercial exploitation, with little thought for environmental controls, increased over the twentieth century, particularly after World War II, to accommodate globalisation and the demands of the world's burgeoning cities. As its ill-health effects, both non-malignant (fibrosis of the lungs or asbestosis; pleural effusion, plaques and thickening) and malignant (mesothelioma, lung and other cancers), became evident, public pressure rose to control its use. The last decades of the last century saw decreases in exposure and rates of asbestosis in industrialised and in some less-industrialised countries, where pleural plaques and malignant mesothelioma are currently the most frequent manifestations of asbestos exposure. Longer follow-up of asbestos-exposed cohorts in mining and manufacturing has also strengthened the evidence of a fibre gradient in toxicity, with chrysotile exhibiting lower toxicity than the amphiboles, and amosite lower toxicity than crocidolite. The last decades of the twentieth century saw stabilisation and/or declines in mesothelioma rates in several industrialised countries. In less-industrialised countries, data on disease are sparse, exposure generally high and rates may peak in the future. Management of asbestos-related disease in the workplace requires collaboration between workers and unions (responsible for monitoring workplace dust levels, to which they must have access) and companies (responsible for engineering controls), reinforced by appropriate government regulations and by community support.

  18. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, G. de; Longobardi, F.; Stallone, G.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Chemistry, Bari (Italy); Dragonieri, S. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Pulmonology, Bari (Italy); Musti, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bari (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time. (orig.)

  19. [Tumor mortality and from other causes in asbestos cement workers at the Casale Montferrato plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Ivaldi, C; Mancini, A; Botta, M

    1996-01-01

    The present report updates a mortality cohort study of workers in the largest Italian asbestos cement plant. The plant had been active in Casale Monferrato in 1907-1986 and produced boards, corrugated sheets, tubes and high-pressure pipes. Raw material included both chrysotile and crocidolite but not amosite. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured for the first time in 1971 (over 20 ff/cc in most areas). Regular monitoring started in 1978, when the concentration measured in most samples was below 1 ff/cc. The cohort included 3367 blue-collar workers (2605 men and 762 women) employed at the plant at any time between 1950 and 1980. At the end of the follow-up in 1993, 57% were alive, 41% were dead and 2% were either lost or had moved abroad. Mortality in the cohort was compared to mortality rates in Piedmont; local rates have been available only since 1969 and mortality analyses were limited to the period since 1965. Both sexes showed a statistically significant increase in mortality for all causes: lung cancer (males: 162 obs. vs. 65.4 exp.; females 9 vs. 3.2), malignant neoplasm (MN) of the pleura (males 53 vs. 1.7; females 21 vs. 0.4), MN of the peritoneum (males 23 vs. 1.2; females 8 vs. 0.5) and asbestosis (males 118 vs. 0.2; females 14 vs. 0.1). No excesses were observed for MN of the larynx or of the digestive tract. Women show a statistically significant increase in MN of the ovary (7 vs. 2.7) and of the uterus (14 vs. 4.3). Mortality from MN of the lung increased with latency but, in men, showed a curvilinear trend with the highest SMR for those with between 10 and 19 years of employment. The curve could be related to workers with the highest seniority employed in better jobs. The study includes a review of epidemiological studies on mortality among asbestos cement workers.

  20. Alterações pleurais e parenquimatosas relacionadas com a exposição ao asbesto: Ensaio pictórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.P. Meirelles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As alterações pleurais e pulmonares decorrentes da exposição ao asbesto podem ser benignas, como o derrame e as placas pleurais, ou malignas, como o carcinoma de pulmão e o mesotelioma pleural. O derrame pleural é a manifestação mais comum nos primeiros anos após a exposição e os aspectos de imagem são incaracterísticos. O espessamento pleural difuso compromete a pleura visceral, não sendo específico da exposição ao asbesto. As placas pleurais, espessamentos focais da pleura, são consideradas marcadores de exposição. A asbestose corresponde à fibrose do parênquima pulmonar pelo asbesto, predominando nos lobos inferiores, e a atelectasia redonda a um colapso pulmonar periférico, geralmente associado a alterações pleurais. O carcinoma pulmonar e o mesotelioma pleural são mais prevalentes em indivíduos expostos. O objectivo deste estudo é ilustrar as principais alterações de imagem das alterações relacionadas com o asbesto.Rev Port Pneumol 2005; XI (5: 477-485 Abstract: Pleural and pulmonary asbestos-related diseases range from benign conditions, like pleural effusion and pleural plaques, to some neoplasias, such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Pleural effusion is the earliest finding after asbestos exposure, but the imaging findings are not specific. Diffuse pleural thickening involves the visceral pleura and pleural plaques are considered to be hallmarks of exposure. Asbestosis is the pulmonary fibrosis due to asbestos. Rounded atelectasis is a peripheral lung collapse in these individuals, generally related to pleural disease. Some neoplasias, like lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma, are more prevalent in asbestos-exposed subjects. The aim of this essay is to illustrate the main imaging findings of asbestos-related diseases.Rev Port Pneumol 2005; XI (5: 477-485 Palavras-chave: Asbesto, pneumoconioses, doenças ocupacionais

  1. Retrospective exposure assessment of airborne asbestos related to skilled craftsmen at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas (1940-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela; Paustenbach, Dennis; Balzer, J LeRoy; Mangold, Carl

    2007-07-01

    Despite efforts over the past 50 or more years to estimate airborne dust or fiber concentrations for specific job tasks within different industries, there have been no known attempts to reconstruct historical asbestos exposures for the many types of trades employed in various nonmanufacturing settings. In this paper, 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures were estimated for 12 different crafts from the 1940s to the present day at a large petroleum refinery in Beaumont, TX. The crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, and maintenance workers. This analysis quantitatively accounts for (1) the historical use of asbestos-containing materials at the refinery, (2) the typical workday of the different crafts and specific opportunities for exposure to asbestos, (3) industrial hygiene asbestos air monitoring data collected at this refinery and similar facilities since the early 1970s, (4) published and unpublished data sets on task-specific dust or fiber concentrations encountered in various industrial settings since the late 1930s, and (5) the evolution of respirator use and other workplace practices that occurred as the hazards of asbestos became better understood over time. Due to limited air monitoring data for most crafts, 8-h TWA fiber concentrations were calculated only for insulators, while all other crafts were estimated to have experienced 8-h TWA fiber concentrations at some fraction of that experienced by insulators. A probabilistic (Monte Carlo) model was used to account for potential variability in the various data sets and the uncertainty in our knowledge of selected input parameters used to estimate exposure. Significant reliance was also placed on our collective professional experiences working in the fields of industrial hygiene, exposure assessment, and process engineering over the last 40 yr. Insulators at this refinery were

  2. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  3. A Bayesian Model and Stochastic Exposure (Dose) Estimation for Relative Exposure Risk Comparison Involving Asbestos-Containing Dropped Ceiling Panel Installation and Maintenance Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelter, Fred W; Xia, Yulin; Persky, Jacob D

    2017-09-01

    Assessing exposures to hazards in order to characterize risk is at the core of occupational hygiene. Our study examined dropped ceiling systems commonly used in schools and commercial buildings and lay-in ceiling panels that may have contained asbestos prior to the mid to late 1970s. However, most ceiling panels and tiles do not contain asbestos. Since asbestos risk relates to dose, we estimated the distribution of eight-hour TWA concentrations and one-year exposures (a one-year dose equivalent) to asbestos fibers (asbestos f/cc-years) for five groups of workers who may encounter dropped ceilings: specialists, generalists, maintenance workers, nonprofessional do-it-yourself (DIY) persons, and other tradespersons who are bystanders to ceiling work. Concentration data (asbestos f/cc) were obtained through two exposure assessment studies in the field and one chamber study. Bayesian and stochastic models were applied to estimate distributions of eight-hour TWAs and annual exposures (dose). The eight-hour TWAs for all work categories were below current and historic occupational exposure limits (OELs). Exposures to asbestos fibers from dropped ceiling work would be categorized as "highly controlled" for maintenance workers and "well controlled" for remaining work categories, according to the American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure control rating system. Annual exposures (dose) were found to be greatest for specialists, followed by maintenance workers, generalists, bystanders, and DIY. On a comparative basis, modeled dose and thus risk from dropped ceilings for all work categories were orders of magnitude lower than published exposures for other sources of banned friable asbestos-containing building material commonly encountered in construction trades. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. ENOX2-based early detection (ONCOblot) of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma 4?10?years in advance of clinical symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Morr?, D. James; Hostetler, Brandon; Taggart, David J.; Morr?, Dorothy M.; Musk, A. W.; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Creaney, Jenette

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive, almost uniformly fatal tumor, caused primarily by exposure to asbestos. In this study, serum presence of mesothelioma-specific protein transcript variants of ecto-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase disulfide-thiol exchanger 2 (ENOX2), a recently identified marker of malignancy, were investigated using the ONCOblot tissue of origin cancer detection test. Methods Sequential serum samples collected from asbestos-exposed individuals prior...

  5. Lung Function Impairment in Relation to Asbestos-Induced Pleural Lesions with Reference to the Extent of the Lesions and the Initial Parenchymal Fibrosis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebedová, J.; Dlouhá, B.; Rychlá, L.; Neuwirth, J.; Brabec, Marek; Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2003), s. 388-395 ISSN 0355-3140 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : asbestos exposure * asbestos-induced pleural lesion * asbestosis * lung function impairmentp * arenchymal fibrosis * pleural change * pleural thickening * ventilation impairment Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.816, year: 2003 http://www.jstor.org/stable/40967314

  6. Evidence of a role for mesothelial cell-derived interleukin 8 in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pleurisy in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, A M; Rüegg, C; Kim, K J; Hébert, C A; Hoeffel, J M; Pytela, R; Sheppard, D; Goldstein, I M; Broaddus, V C

    1992-01-01

    Although acute asbestos-induced pleurisy is characterized by an influx of neutrophils, the identity of the factors that attract these cells to the pleural space and the source of the factors are unknown. We found that instillation of crocidolite asbestos into the pleural space of rabbits led to the appearance in pleural liquid of chemotactic activity for neutrophils, and that this chemotactic activity was inhibited significantly by a neutralizing antibody to human interleukin 8 (IL-8). Cultur...

  7. Genome-wide gene-asbestos exposure interaction association study identifies a common susceptibility variant on 22q13.31 associated with lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-yu; Stücker, Isabelle; Chen, Chu; Goodman, Gary; McHugh, Michelle K.; D’Amelio, Anthony M.; Etzel, Carol J.; Li, Su; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational asbestos exposure has been found to increase lung cancer risk in epidemiological studies. Methods We conducted an asbestos exposure-gene interaction analyses among several Caucasian populations who were current or ex-smokers. The discovery phase included 833 Caucasian cases and 739 Caucasian controls, and used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with gene-asbestos interaction effects. The top ranked SNPs from the discovery phase were replicated within the International Lung and Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). First, in silico replication was conducted in those groups that had GWAS and asbestos exposure data, including 1,548 cases and 1,527 controls. This step was followed by de novo genotyping to replicate the results from the in silico replication, and included 1,539 cases and 1,761 controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the SNP-asbestos exposure interaction effects on lung cancer risk. Results We observed significantly increased lung cancer risk among MIRLET7BHG (MIRLET7B host gene located at 22q13.31) polymorphisms rs13053856, rs11090910, rs11703832, and rs12170325 heterozygous and homozygous variant allele(s) carriers [pasbestos exposure score was associated with age-, sex-, smoking status- and center-adjusted ORs of 1.34 (95%CI=1.18–1.51), 1.24 (95%CI=1.14–1.35), 1.28 (95%CI=1.17–1.40), and 1.26 (95%CI=1.15–1.38), respectively for lung cancer risk. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MIRLET7BHG polymorphisms may be important predictive markers for asbestos exposure-related lung cancer. Impact To our knowledge, our study is the first report using a systematic genome-wide analysis in combination with detailed asbestos exposure data and replication to evaluate asbestos-associated lung cancer risk. PMID:26199339

  8. Study on the concentration of airbone respirable asbestos fibres in rural areas of the Lublin region in south-east Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Buczaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was measurement of the concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres in the rural environment of the Lublin Region in south-east Poland. Methods. Measurements of concentrations of respirable asbestos fibres were carried out in the rural areas of the Lublin Region (Lublin and Włodawa counties for a period of 24 months. The studies were conducted on 3 farms with various technical conditions of asbestos-containing materials: Farm A – good technical condition of asbestos products, Farm B – poor technical condition, and Farm C – with no asbestos containing products and no such products in its direct vicinity (up to 500 m. On the selected farms, 3 samples on each were simultaneously collected at 3 measuring sites. During the period 2009–2011, a total number of 216 samples were collected on all farms. Sampling was performed using JSH 16,000 stationary aspirators, with air flow velocity of 16 l/min. and sampling time 60–80 minutes. The number of fibres on filters was determined using an optical phase contrast microscope. Results. The study showed that the mean concentration of respirable asbestos fibres on the farms examined was 296 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup]. The highest concentrations were noted on Farm B was 529 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup], on average; on farm A the mean concentration of respirable fibres was 328 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] , whereas the lowest mean concentration of airborne respirable asbestos fibres was noted on farm C, where there were no asbestos products (30 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] .

  9. Mitigation of the collapse of asbestos cement light covers by hurricane winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Estrada Cingualbres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean region, the Gulf of Mexico and the Strait of Florida, is an area of high vulnerability to high-level hurricanes. Light covers are the most vulnerable during the occurrence of these phenomena, their collapse generates a great danger to the life of the residents of these homes, as well as a high economic and social impact. The objective of this research has been the characterization of the lightweight fiber cement roofs (asbestos-cement most commonly used in Cuba and through the modeling of the Finite Element Method to determine the causes of the collapse of these when extreme winds occur due to high intensity hurricanes, perform the comparative analysis of the resistive behavior of the covers studied and to mitigate the collapse of the covered ones.

  10. Spirometry, rapid FEV1 decline, and lung cancer among asbestos exposed heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jason W; Au, David H; Barnett, Matt J; Goodman, Gary E

    2007-12-01

    We assessed whether spirometric measurements are associated with the development of accelerated FEV(1) decline and lung cancer among active and previous smokers with a wide range of lung function. Bivariate and multivariate analyses that adjusted for age, intervention arm, smoking status at enrollment and smoking history, years exposed to asbestos, and evidence of asbestosis were used to assess whether baseline FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio were associated with accelerated FEV(1) decline and incident lung cancer. The 3,041 participants enrolled from 1985 to 1994 were followed through April 30, 2005. Baseline FEV(1)/FVC ratio80%. Lung cancer risk among participants with baseline airflow obstruction and FEV(1)80% (psmokers. These data indicate an FEV(1)/FVCsmokers is significantly associated with faster airflow loss, and an increased risk for developing lung cancer, even among those individuals with a normal FEV(1).

  11. Space-and-time current spectroscopy of nanostructured selenium in the chrysotile asbestos matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryushinin, M. A.; Kulikov, V. V.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Mokrushina, E. V.; Petrov, A. A.; Sokolov, I. A.

    2014-08-01

    The non-steady-state photoelectromotive force effect was experimentally studied in a semiconductor nanowire array, i.e., in a composite representing selenium in a chrysotile asbestos matrix. The sample was exposed to an oscillating interference pattern, and the material response was measured as an alternating electric current. The experiments were performed for two geometries in which the excited photocurrent was parallel or perpendicular to nanowires. The dependences of the signal amplitude on the phase modulation frequency, spatial frequency, light polarization, and temperature were obtained. The photoelectric parameters of the material were determined for the light wavelength λ = 633 nm. The effect was theoretically analyzed for the semiconductor model with shallow traps, which allowed the explanation of the observed increase in the signal amplitude in the presence of additional phase modulation.

  12. [The electric properties of fiber surface and the toxicity of asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylev, L N; Vasil'eva, L A; Krinari, G A; Bakhtin, A I; Vezentsev, A I; Zubakova, L E

    2002-01-01

    Thermal treatment, autoclaving and their combination yielded 3 samples of chrysotile-asbestos. With these, as compared with parent Type PRZh-1-50 Bazhenov chrysotile, the structure of fibers deteriorated and the number of negative discharges increased in the first two samples; the superficial structure substantially increased and the number of positive centers greatly decreased in the third sample. The ratio of positive to negative centers was less in all treated samples than that in the parent one, it decreased particularly during combined treatment. In this sample, hemolytic and mutagenic activity and cytotoxicity were substantially decreased; carcinogenic activity was greatly decreased (by 4 times) (as shown by the pleural mesothelioma indication test during intrapleural administration to rats). Thermal treatment and autoclaving insignificantly lowered the hemolytic activity and mutagenicity; carcinogenicity of these samples was much less (by 2.3 and 2 times) than that of parent chrysotile.

  13. Non-Coding Transcript Heterogeneity in Mesothelioma: Insights from Asbestos-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Rehrauer, Hubert

    2018-04-11

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal cancer and a better understanding of its molecular heterogeneity may help with making more efficient therapeutic strategies. Non-coding RNAs represent a larger part of the transcriptome but their contribution to diseases is not fully understood yet. We used recently obtained RNA-seq data from asbestos-exposed mice and performed data mining of publicly available datasets in order to evaluate how non-coding RNA contribute to mesothelioma heterogeneity. Nine non-coding RNAs are specifically elevated in mesothelioma tumors and contribute to human mesothelioma heterogeneity. Because some of them have known oncogenic properties, this study supports the concept of non-coding RNAs as cancer progenitor genes.

  14. DEMOLISHING A COLD-WAR-ERA FUEL-STORAGE BASIN SUPERSTRUCTURE LADEN WITH ASBESTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Orgill, T.K.; Dagan, E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The K East (KE) Basin facilities are located near the north end of the Hanford Site's 100 K area. The facilities were built in 1950 as part of the KE Reactor complex and constructed within 400 meters of the Columbia River, which is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest and by volume the fourth largest river in the United States. The basin, located adjacent to the reactor, was used for the underwater storage of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged from the reactor. The basin was covered by a superstructure comprising steel columns and beams, concrete, and cement asbestos board (CAB) siding. The project's mission was to complete demolition of the structure over the K East basin within six months of tumover from facility deactivation activities. The demolition project team implemented open-air demolition techniques to demolish the facility to slab-on-grade. Several innovative techniques were used to control contamination and maintain contamination control within the confines of the demolition exclusion zone. The techniques, which focused on a defense-in-depth approach, included spraying fixatives on interior and exterior surfaces before demolition began; applying fixatives; misting using a fine spray of water during demolition; and demolishing the facility systematically. Another innovation that aided demolition was to demolish the building with the non-friable CAB remaining in place. The CAB siding covered the exterior of the building, portions of the interior walls, and was an integral part of the multiple layered roof. The project evaluated the risks involved in removing the CAB material in a radiologically contaminated environment and determined that radiological dose rates and exposure to radiological contamination and industrial hazards would be significantly reduced by removing the CAB during demolition using heavy equipment. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without spreading contamination (radiological or asbestos) demonstrates that similar

  15. Cancer mortality in Chinese chrysotile asbestos miners: exposure-response relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the relationship of mortality from lung cancer and other selected causes to asbestos exposure levels. METHODS: A cohort of 1539 male workers from a chrysotile mine in China was followed for 26 years. Data on vital status, occupation and smoking were collected from the mine records and individual contacts. Causes and dates of death were further verified from the local death registry. Individual cumulative fibre exposures (f-yr/ml were estimated based on converted dust measurements and working years at specific workshops. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer, gastrointestinal (GI cancer, all cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (NMRD stratified by employment years, estimated cumulative fibre exposures, and smoking, were calculated. Poisson models were fitted to determine exposure-response relationships between estimated fibre exposures and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age and smoking. RESULTS: SMRs for lung cancer increased with employment years at entry to the study, by 3.5-fold in ≥ 10 years and 5.3-fold in ≥ 20 years compared with <10 years. A similar trend was seen for NMRD. Smokers had greater mortality from all causes than nonsmokers, but the latter also had slightly increased SMR for lung cancer. No excess lung cancer mortality was observed in cumulative exposures of <20 f-yrs/ml. However, significantly increased mortality was observed in smokers at the levels of ≥ 20 f-yrs/ml and above, and in nonsmokers at ≥ 100 f-yrs/ml and above. A similarly clear gradient was also displayed for NMRD. The exposure-response relationships with lung cancer and NMRD persisted in multivariate analysis. Moreover, a clear gradient was shown in GI cancer mortality when age and smoking were adjusted for. CONCLUSION: There were clear exposure-response relationships in this cohort, which imply a causal link between chrysotile asbestos exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant

  16. Chest HRCT signs predict deaths in long-term follow-up among asbestos exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, Tapio, E-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Oksa, Panu, E-mail: panu.oksa@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Uimalankatu 1, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Much lung and pleural pathology is found in chest CT studies. • HRCT signs were screened and subsequent mortality followed up. • Several signs were related to all-cause and disease specific deaths. • The HRCT classification system used was able to predict mortality. • Secondary preventive strategies should be developed for patients with such signs. - Abstract: Objectives: To study associations between chest HRCT signs and subsequent deaths in long-term follow-up. Methods: Lung and pleural signs of 633 asbestos exposed workers (age 45–86, mean 65) screened with HRCT were recorded by using the International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) system, which contains detailed instructions for use and reference images. Subsequent mortality was checked from the national register. Cox regression adjusted for covariates (age, sex, BMI, asbestos exposure, pack-years) was used to explore the relations between HRCT signs and all-cause deaths, cardiovascular and benign respiratory deaths, and deaths from neoplasms – all according to the ICD-10 diagnostic system. Results: The follow-up totalled 5271.9 person-years (mean 8.3 y/person, range .04–10.3). 119 deaths were reported. Irregular/linear opacities, honeycombing, emphysema, large opacities, visceral pleural abnormalities and bronchial wall thickening were all significantly related to all-cause deaths. Most of these signs were associated also with deaths from neoplasms and benign respiratory disease. Deaths from cardiovascular disease were predicted by emphysema and visceral pleural abnormalities. Conclusions: Several HRCT signs predicted deaths. Careful attention should be paid on subjects with radiological signs predictive of deaths and new secondary preventive strategies developed. This calls for further focused studies among different populations.

  17. [Occupational health administrative coordination a propos of a case: brake linings with asbestos in a company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Alonso Urreta, Iciar; Antón Tomey, Carlos; Bosque Peralta, Isabel; García-Gutierrez, María Jesús; Luna Lacarta, Francisco José; Martínez Arguisuelas, Nieves; Mena Marín, María Luisa; Vázquez Cortizo, Margarita

    2018-04-10

    The current structure of the Spanish State of Autonomies is characterized by institutional pluralism and the autonomy of the different public administrations. In this context, the principle of coordination is fundamental for the cohesion of the system, but experience shows that its implementation is difficult. This paper examines the set of actions carried out by the administrations in relation to an occupational and public health problem raised in March 2016. The Public Health General Direction of Aragon's Government was informed of a possible use of brake linings with asbestos to manufacture axles for agricultural machinery by a Company from Zaragoza; the collaboration from Aragon's Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Industry Department and the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate were asked; the joint action of these administrations detected the use of several models of brake linings with a content of 2-5% of Chrysotile. The brake linings came from a Chinese company. The axles nated are sold in several Spanish Autonomous Communities. A national alert was activated by the SIRIPQ (System of Rapid Exchange of Information on Chemical Products) which is coordinated by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Several measures were taken including: ceasing the work with the brake linings, the replacement of brake linings with asbestos, the immobilization of brake linings in the company by application of the REACH Reglament, etc. This case shows that the cooperation and co-responsibility of public administrations from different territorial, sectoral and competence areas allows improving the occupational risks prevention and the public health.

  18. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 o C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 ] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO 5 ]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  19. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of secondhand smoke exposure on HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierikko, Tuula; Järvenpää, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka; Virtema, Pauliina; Oksa, Panu; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Autti, Taina; Vehmas, Tapio

    2008-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is causally linked to adverse respiratory effects. We examined the relations between the exposure to SHS and radiological signs in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Asbestos-exposed workers (n=633) were imaged with HRCT, primarily to investigate potential occupational lung disease. After excluding current smokers, the study population included 361 ex- and 141 never-smokers. They answered a questionnaire on occupational exposures, smoking habits and SHS exposure. HRCT images were assessed for emphysema, ground-glass, irregular/linear and rounded opacities, honeycombing and several other signs. Regression analyses were adjusted for asbestos exposure, ex-smoking, age, body mass index and potential reader effect. Due to missing data the multivariate analyses were restricted to 310 participants aged 47.5-87.0 years. Their lifetime SHS exposure ranged between 0 and 193.5 pack-years (mean 23.5), and exposure in the past 12 months 0-30 packs (0.43). Total (B=0.005, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.002-0.008, p=0.000) and workplace (B=0.006, 95% CI 0.003-0.009, p=0.001) cumulative SHS exposures were significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Total SHS exposure in the last 12 months (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) and workplace exposure (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) were also significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Positive effects of SHS were also detected on irregular/linear opacities. SHS exposure in the last 12 months and over lifetime significantly increases ground-glass opacity in HRCT, suggesting an early or subclinical desquamative interstitial pneumonia/respiratory bronchiolitis. This study further supports that SHS has adverse effects on the lungs that can be detected by X-ray methods.