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Sample records for asbestos cement

  1. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet... asbestos, Portland cement, silica, and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  2. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

  3. Application of Microwave Energy at Treatment of Asbestos Cement (Eternit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znamenáčková, Ingrid; Dolinská, Silvia; Lovás, Michal; Hredzák, Slavomír; Matik, Marek; Tomčová, Jana; Čablík, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Asbestos is the common name applied to a group of natural, fibrous silicate minerals, which were once one of the most popular raw materials to be used in building materials. Asbestos was mainly used for the production of assortment asbestos cement products. Today it is generally known that asbestos belongs to the group of hazardous materials and shows carcinogenic activity. It is therefore advisable to attempt to dispose of asbestos minerals in asbestos-containing materials and to convert them into a harmless material. One of methods may be microwave thermal decomposition of asbestos minerals. The research was used for old etemit roof ceiling. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of undesirable chrysotile. Its thermal destruction was carried out in a microwave oven in the power of 2500 W. In case the heating time was 15 min, X-ray analysis was confirmed chrysotile change into harmless minerals. Thermal analysis was used for characterization and the thermal behaviour of the asbestos cement sample.

  4. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F. [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Cioffi, R., E-mail: raffaele.cioffi@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Verdolotti, L. [Institute for Biomedical and Composite Materials - CNR, Naples (Italy); De Stefano, L. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems - CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Asbestos-cement wastes are hazardous. {yields} High energy milling treatment at room temperature allows mineralogical and morphological transformation of asbestos phases. {yields} The obtained milled powders are not-hazardous. {yields} The inert powders can be recycled as pozzolanic materials. {yields} The hydraulic mortars containing the milled inert powders are good building materials. - Abstract: The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4 h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm{sup -1}, of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive

  5. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Lavorgna, M; Verdolotti, L; De Stefano, L

    2011-11-15

    The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm(-1), of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive strength in the range of 2.17 and 2.29 MPa, are measured.

  6. Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Fiber Pulp Instead of Asbestos Fibers in Cement-Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Mahmoudi, A.; Shadkam, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum content of a four-parameters cellulose fiber pulp, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, a silica fume, and bentonite for cement-based composite sheets. Then cement composite sheets from the hybrid of PVA and the cellulose fiber pulp were manufactured, and their moduli of rapture were determined experimentally. The result obtained showed that cement composites with a hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp had a higher flexural strength than cellulose-fiber- reinforced cement ones, but this strength was rather similar to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement composites. Also, using the results of flexural tests and an analytical method, the tensile and compressive moduli of the hybrid of PVA and cement sheet were calculated. The hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp is proposed as an appropriate alternative for substituting asbestos in the Hatschek process.

  7. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödelsperger Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

  8. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Asbestos containing wastes have been employed for the first time in the formulation of magnesium phosphate cements. Two samples were mixed with magnesium carbonate and calcined at 1100 and 1300 C. Under these conditions, complete destruction of asbestos minerals is known to occur. The product, containing MgO, after reaction with water-soluble potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, led to the formation of hydrated phases at room temperature. Crystalline and amorphous reaction products were detected,...

  9. Estimation of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Ewa; Krówczyńska, Małgorzata; Pabjanek, Piotr; Mędrzycki, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The unique set of physical and chemical properties has led to many industrial applications of asbestos worldwide; one of them was roof covering. Asbestos is harmful to human health, and therefore its use was legally forbidden. Since in Poland there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing, the objective of this study was to estimate its quantity on the basis of physical inventory taking with the use of aerial imagery, and the application of selected statistical features. Data pre-processing and analysis was executed in R Statistical Environment v. 3.1.0. Best random forest models were computed; model explaining 72.9% of the variance was subsequently used to prepare the prediction map of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland. Variables defining the number of farms, number and age of buildings, and regional differences were crucial for the analysis. The total amount of asbestos roofing in Poland was estimated at 738,068,000 m(2) (8.2m t). It is crucial for the landfill development programme, financial resources distribution, and application of monitoring policies.

  10. Raw and thermally treated cement asbestos exerts different cytotoxicity effects on A549 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Smorlesi, Arianna; Tomasetti, Marco; Strafella, Elisabetta; Armeni, Tatiana; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-01-01

    Raw cement asbestos (RCA) undergoes a complete solid state transformation when heated at high temperatures. The secondary raw material produced, high temperatures-cement asbestos (HT-CA) is composed of newly-formed crystals in place of the asbestos fibers present in RCA. Our previous study showed that HT-CA exerts lower cytotoxic cell damage compared to RCA. Nevertheless further investigations are needed to deepen our understanding of pathogenic pathways involving oxidative and nitrative damage. Our aim is to deepen the understanding of the biological effects on A549 cells of these materials regarding DNA damage related proteins (p53, its isoform p73 and TRAIL) and nitric oxide (NO) production during inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated inflammation. Increments of p53/p73 expression, iNOS positive cells and NO concentrations were found with RCA, compared to HT-CA and controls mainly at 48 h. Interestingly, ferrous iron causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage was found in RCA as a contaminant. HT-CA thermal treatment induces a global recrystallization with iron in a crystal form poorly released in media. HT-CA slightly interferes with genome expression and exerts lower inflammatory potential compared to RCA on biological systems. It could represent a safe approach for storing or recycling asbestos and an environmentally friendly alternative to asbestos waste.

  11. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600...... for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  12. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  13. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  14. Controlled erosion in asbestos-cement pipe used in drinking water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos, P.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of asbestos-cement pipe used for drinking water conveyance, were submerged in distilled water, and subjected to two controlled erosive treatments, namely agitation (300 rpm for 60 min and ultrasound (47 kHz for 30 min. SEM was used to observe and compare the morphology of the new pipe with and without erosive treatment, and of samples taken from asbestos-cement pipes used in the distribution system of drinking water in Santiago city for 10 and 40-years of service. TEM was used to determine the concentration of asbestos fibers in the test water: 365 MFL and 1690 MFL (millions of fibers per litre as an agitation and result ultrasound, respectively. The erosive treatments by means of agitation or ultrasound applied to new asbestos-cement pipes used in the drinking water distribution system were evaluated as being equivalent to 4 and 10 years of service, respectively.

    Se sometió a dos tratamientos erosivos controlados uno por agitación (300 rpm, 60 min. y otro por ultrasonido (47 kHz, 30 min. a muestras de tubos de asbesto cemento, sumergidas en agua destilada, usados para el trasporte de agua potable. Con SEM se observó la morfología de muestras de tubos sin uso, con y sin tratamiento erosivo y la de muestras extraídas de tubos de asbesto cemento de la red de distribución de agua potable de ía ciudad de Santiago con 10 y 14 años de servicio. Con TEM se determinó la concentración de fibras de asbesto en el agua de ensayo: 365 MFL y 1690 MFL (millones de fibras por litro en agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente. Se estimó en 4 y 10 años de servicio equivalente los tratamientos erosivos de agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente en tubos de asbesto cemento empleados en la red de agua potable.

  15. Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  16. In vitro biodurability of the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Viani, Alberto; Sgarbi, Giulia; Lusvardi, Gigliola

    2012-02-29

    To safely recycle the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos as secondary raw material, its toxicity potential should be assessed by in vitro biodurability tests. In this work, the acellular in vitro biodurability of the products of transformation of cement-asbestos at 1200 °C (named KRY·AS) was tested using both inorganic and organic simulated lung fluids at pH 4.5. The dissolution kinetics were followed using chemical, mineralogical and microstructural analyses. The total dissolution time estimated from the experiments with inorganic HCl diluted solution is one order of magnitude higher than that determined from the experiments with buffered Gamble solution (253 days vs. 20 days). The key parameter determining the difference in dissolution rate turns out to be the solidus/liquidus ratio which prompts a fast saturation of the solution with monosilicic acid. The calculated dissolution rate constants showed that the biodurability in vitro of KRY·AS is much lower with respect to that of standard chrysotile asbestos (total estimated dissolution time of 20 days vs. 298 days, respectively). This proves a low potential toxicity of this secondary raw material.

  17. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K; Korsgaard, B

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600 times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/ml. In 1973 more than 41% of personal samples were higher than 2 f/ml. About 76% of the workforce left the factory within five years of starting employment. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between 1943 and 1984. Among employed men the overall mortality (O/E 1.18; 95% CI 1.12-1.25), cancer mortality (O/E 1.32; 95% CI 1.19-1.46), and overall incidence of cancer (O/E 1.22; 95% CI 1.12-1.32) were significantly increased compared with all Danish men. This was not so among employed women. For men, significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung (O/E 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), pleura (O/E 5.46; 95% CI 2.62-10.05), mediastinum (O/E 5.00; 95% CI 1.01-14.61), stomach (O/E 1.43; 95% CI 1.03-1.93), and other male genital organs (O/E 3.03; 95% CI 1.11-6.60). The mortality was significantly increased for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed when the original notification forms were reviewed for all patients with cancer in the cohort. PMID:2923830

  18. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Németh, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.nemeth@geology.sk [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO{sub 2} + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO{sub 2} emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO{sub 2} and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 3thermally} {sub modified} {sub chrysotile}+5CO{sub 2}+nH{sub 2}O→Mg{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}(OH){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O{sub hydromagnesite}+MgCO{sub 3magnesite}+4SiO{sub 2} · nH{sub 2}O{sub in} a{sub morphous} {sub phase};n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO{sub 2}, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of

  19. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

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    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02. The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88; 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40. The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17 in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

  20. The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, A.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alex@unimore.it; Cavenati, C.; Zanatto, I.; Meloni, M. [ZETADI S.r.l., Via dell' Artigianato 10, I-21010 Ferno (Italy); Elmi, G. [GE.PR.IN. S.r.l., Via Vaccari 48, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, M. Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via Campi 213/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

    2008-04-01

    Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 {mu}m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos

  1. The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 degrees C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, A F; Cavenati, C; Zanatto, I; Meloni, M; Elmi, G; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti

    2008-04-01

    Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 degrees C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 microm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos

  2. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  3. Incidence of lung cancer by histological type among asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Korsgaard, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--A significant twofold increased risk of lung cancer was found among 8000 men employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984. The histological pattern of 104 lung cancer cases was studied with the aim of evaluating a relation between specific morphological types, duration of employment, and time since first employment. METHODS--Age, sex, and calendar time specific incidence of morphological subtypes of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and unspecified malignant tumour) for all Danish men were computed from 1943 to 1984, from data routinely collected by the Danish Cancer Registry. Person-years of observation were counted from 15 years after the date of first employment until date of diagnosis of cancer, death, emigration, or the end of follow up on 31 December 1984. Expected numbers of cases were computed by applying person-years at risk to the appropriate incidence rates. Observed numbers were distributed accordingly and the relative risk calculated. RESULTS--The relative risk for adenocarcinoma was 3.31 (observed (O) 24, expected (E) 7.26), for squamous cell carcinoma 1.67 (O, 37, E, 22.12), for anaplastic carcinoma 1.58 (O, 23, E, 14.53), and for unspecified malignant tumour 1.57 (O, 18, E, 11.46). An increased risk by duration of employment and time since first employment was most pronounced for adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION--The link between adenocarcinoma and asbestos was confirmed in this, the first study of risk of lung cancer by histological category based on incident cancer cases for a whole population during a 50 year period. PMID:8431397

  4. Impact of an asbestos cement factory on mesothelioma incidence: global assessment of effects of occupational, familial, and environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Carolina; Riboldi, Luciano; De Matteis, Sara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) associated with distinct sources of asbestos exposure (occupational, familial, or environmental). We assessed the impact of asbestos exposure-global and by source-on the incidence of MM in Broni, an Italian town in which an asbestos cement factory once operated (1932-1993). Based on data collected by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we calculated the number of observed and expected MM cases among workers, their cohabitants, and people living in the area in 2000-2011. We identified 147 MM cases (17.45 expected), 138 pleural and nine peritoneal, attributable to exposure to asbestos from the factory. Thirty-eight cases had past occupational exposure at the factory (2.33 expected), numbering 32 men (26 pleural, six peritoneal) and six women (four pleural, two peritoneal). In the families of the workers, there were 37 MM cases (4.23 expected), numbering five men (all pleural) and 32 women (31 pleural, one peritoneal). Among residents in Broni or in the adjacent/surrounding towns, there were 72 cases of pleural MM (10.89 expected), numbering 23 men and 49 women. The largest MM excess was found in the towns of Broni (48 observed, 3.68 expected) and Stradella (16 observed, 1.85 expected). This study documents the large impact of the asbestos cement factory, with about 130 excess MM cases in a 12-year period. The largest MM burden was among women, from non-occupational exposure. Almost half of the MM cases were attributable to environmental exposure.

  5. Recycling the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos for the preparation of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2013-09-15

    According to recent resolutions of the European Parliament (2012/2065(INI)), the need for environmentally friendly alternative solutions to landfill disposal of hazardous wastes, such as asbestos-containing materials, prompts their recycling as secondary raw materials (end of waste concept). In this respect, for the first time, we report the recycling of the high temperature product of cement-asbestos, in the formulation of calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinkers (novel cementitious binders designed to reduce CO₂ emissions), as a continuation of a previous work on their systematic characterization. Up to 29 wt% of the secondary raw material was successfully introduced into the raw mix. Different clinker samples were obtained at 1250 °C and 1300 °C, reproducing the phase composition of industrial analogues. As an alternative source of Ca and Si, this secondary raw material allows for a reduction of the CO₂ emissions in cement production, mitigating the ecological impact of cement manufacturing, and reducing the need for natural resources.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chrysotile and crocidolite fibers with IR-spectroscopy: application to asbestos-cement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, D; Valerio, F

    1986-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry allows simple and quick qualitative and quantitative evaluations of different kinds of asbestos, as well as of other inorganic particles. In particular, chrysotile and crocidolite have characteristic IR spectra and optical density measures of 2,710 nm band for chrysotile, of 12,820 nm band for crocidolite permit quantitative evaluation of each fiber alone or in mixture. IR spectra also give informations about changes of fiber structure and of chemical composition due, for example, to thermal treatment or acid leaching. The analytical method we developed can detect levels as low as 0.1 mg of fiber in a 300 mg disk of KBr using a low cost IR spectrophotometer. The use of a Fourier Transform IR spectrophotometer (FTIR) improves dramatically the sensitivity and selectivity. Computer assisted analysis of spectra offers the possibility to reduce matrix interferences and to compare different spectra. Examples of IR technique applied to asbestos-cement products and insulating materials are presented.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chrysotile and crocidolite fibres with infrared spectrophotometry: application to asbestos-cement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F; Balducci, D

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry allows simple and rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluations of different types of asbestos, as well as of other inorganic particles. In particular, chrysotile and crocidolite have characteristic IR spectra, and optical density measurements in the 2710 nm band for chrysotile and the 12820 nm band for crocidolite permit the quantitative evaluation of each fibre either alone or in mixtures. IR spectra also provide information on changes in fibre structure and in chemical composition as the result, for example, of thermal treatment or acid leaching. The analytical method that we have developed can detect amounts as small as 0.1 mg of fibre in a 300-mg disk of potassium bromide using a low-cost IR spectrophotometer. The use of a Fourier transform IR spectrophotometer dramatically improves the sensitivity and selectivity. Computer-assisted analysis of spectra offers the possibility of reducing matrix interference and of comparing different spectra. The application of the IR technique to asbestos-cement products and insulating materials is described.

  8. Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Timothy C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 1968 through March 1980, vinyl-lined asbestos-cement (VL/AC water distribution pipes were installed in New England to avoid taste and odor problems associated with asbestos-cement pipes. The vinyl resin was applied to the inner pipe surface in a solution of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE. Substantial amounts of PCE remained in the liner and subsequently leached into public drinking water supplies. Methods Once aware of the leaching problem and prior to remediation (April-November 1980, Massachusetts regulators collected drinking water samples from VL/AC pipes to determine the extent and severity of the PCE contamination. This study compares newly obtained historical records of PCE concentrations in water samples (n = 88 with concentrations estimated using an exposure model employed in epidemiologic studies on the cancer risk associated with PCE-contaminated drinking water. The exposure model was developed by Webler and Brown to estimate the mass of PCE delivered to subjects' residences. Results The mean and median measured PCE concentrations in the water samples were 66 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively, and the range extended from non-detectable to 2432 μg/L. The model-generated concentration estimates and water sample concentrations were moderately correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p Conclusion PCE concentration estimates generated using the Webler-Brown model were moderately correlated with measured water concentrations. The present analysis suggests that the exposure assessment process used in prior epidemiological studies could be improved with more accurate characterization of water flow. This study illustrates one method of validating an exposure model in an epidemiological study when historical measurements are not available.

  9. Environmental Impact of Asbestos Cement Pipe Renewal Technologies (WaterRF Report 4465)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes asbestos regulations within the United States and presents current utility practices for a select number of utilities in North America and Australia. In addition, two real-world renewal demonstrations are presented as case studies examining the impact of pi...

  10. Release of asbestos fibers from asbestos cement products. Simulating in operating conditions and in landfills; Rilascio di fibre di amianto da manufatti in cemento amianto: simulazioni in condizioni operative e in condizioni di interramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plescia, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. Trattamento Materiali; Maccari, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Ist. per la Tecnolgia dei Materiali e dei Processi Energetici; De Stefano, L. [ENEL Ricerca, Brindisi (Italy). Area Ambiente; Paglietti, F.

    2000-02-01

    An investigation on samples of asbestos cement roofs chemically weathered was carried out to verify the possibility of release of fibers in atmosphere and in the ground, during the utilization and in landfill. The results point out that the asbestos cement roofs constitutes heavy potential font of pollution from fibers of asbestos on the territory and that the simple burial in landfill for domestic or inert wastes can, in the long run, increase the risk of release of fibers in groundwater and in atmosphere. [Italian] In questo lavoro sono stati testati i materiali di cemento amianto per verificare la possibilita' di rilascio di fibre in atmosfera e nel suolo, in due momenti di vita del materiale: durante l'impiego e durante l'interramento in discarica. I risultati indicano che il cemento amianto costituisce la maggiore fonte di inquinamento da fibre di amianto sul territorio e che il semplice interramento in discariche per rifiuti inerti puo', a lungo andare, aumentare il rischio di rilascio di fibre, sia in falda sia in atmosfera.

  11. [Evaluation of exposure of workers to asbestos dust in asbestos-processing plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroszejn-Mrowca, G; Wiecek, E

    1985-01-01

    Working environments have been tested in plants producing asbestos products, asbestos-cement products, textile asbestos products, asbestos-caoutchouc plates, asbestos boards and asbestos frictional materials for automotive industry, Measurements of total dust concentrations and concentrations of asbestos fibres 5 micron long supported workers' exposure investigations. Basing on literature data on the working environment at the Mining Metallurgical Plant in Szklary, the health risk for workers producing nickel from ores containing asbestos mixtures has been analysed. The asbestos-exposure in asbestos-processing plants has been found to be still considerable despite modernization of the plants. Particularly dangerous to health have been regarded the conditions at asbestos spinning-mills and the Mining-Metallurgical Plant at Szklary, where even average asbestos concentrations considerably exceed the threshold limit values.

  12. Deconstruction of the asbestos cement roof of the central market in Alicante difficulties in the practical application of RD 396/2006 (works with risk of exposure to asbestos); Deconstruccion de la cubierta de asbesto-cemento del Mercado Central de Abastos de Alicante. Dificultades en la aplicacion practica del RD 396/2006 (trabajos con riesgo de exposicion al amianto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvent Perez, C. D.

    2010-07-01

    The project and the works described below mainly deal with the deconstruction of the current asbestos-cement roof of the Central Market in Alicante in order to replace it with another roof of zinc diamond scales, similar to the original which was implementation in 1921 when the building went into service. These works were necessary to avoid the causes (and consequences) that generate the appearance of rainwater infiltration, as was described in an earlier report that was done in 2006, also drafted by the undersigned technicians. The article shows the difficulty of the practical application of RD 396/2006 (minimum health and safety requirements for works with risks of exposure to asbestos) in a case of a certain complexity such as this, especially in areas such as economic (rising costs), technical (increasing difficulty of implementation), and the total duration of the work (total time extension due to interference with other trades). (Author) 14 refs.

  13. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  14. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ASBESTOS FIBER REINFORCED FLY ASH SOIL-CEMENT FOR SOFT SOIL ENHANCEMENT%石棉纤维粉煤灰水泥加固软土试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳军; 于沉香; 凌飞; 严稳平; 刘续; 陈铂

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to improve the brittle fracture characteristics of cement soil and to study the engineering properties and mechanical mechanism of asbestos fiber reinforced soft soil.It adds the asbestos fiber into fly ash and cement soil.Thus it creates a new kind of composite soil and carries out a series of experiments on the new soil.In these experiments,asbestos fiber is added into fly ash and cement soil with different ratios(0%~9%),which results in different composite soil samples with different content of asbestos fiber.All of the composite soil samples are subjected to the direct shear test,the unconfined compression test,the diametral compression test and the scanning electron microscopy test (SEM).Thus the mechanical behavior and mechanism of fiber reinforced soft soil are illustrated.It is found that the combination of asbestos fiber and fly-ash cement can significantly enhance the strength and stability of soft soil and improve brittle fracture characteristics of cement soil.There is a range of optimal content of asbestos fiber regarding the enhancement of the strength value of the composite soil.This range is between 3%~6%.Other asbestos fiber content outside the range can reduce the enhancement effect.%为研究石棉纤维加固软土的效果和机理,改善水泥土的脆性破坏特点,提出将石棉纤维的物理加筋作用与水泥、粉煤灰的化学加固作用相结合,通过对不同纤维掺量(0%~9%)的石棉纤维粉煤水泥复合土进行直剪试验、无侧限抗压强度试验、劈裂试验、扫描电镜试验,进而对石棉纤维加筋水泥土的强度性质和影响机理进行探讨。研究表明,石棉纤维配合水泥与粉煤灰能显著提高软土的强度和稳定性,改善水泥土的破坏形式。水泥粉煤灰配比一定时,石棉纤维增强水泥复合土各强度指标值存在最优掺量,纤维添加量在3%~6%之间,石棉纤维的加筋效果在水泥土中能得到

  16. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated.

  17. Asbestos, the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  18. Alternative fiber to asbestos. Asbesto daitai sen prime i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizawa, M. (Nichias Corporation, Yokohama (Japan))

    1991-07-20

    Explanation is made of alternative fiber to asbestos. Being the finest of all the fibers, excellent in thermal resistivity, flexibility and chemical resistivity, and large in tensile force, the asbestos fiber is described to be used as fireproof spun fiber and other asbestos products as well as for the asbestos slate, for the most part, and other asbestos cement products to be heightened in strength and thermal resistivity by its utilization. Characteristics, etc. are then summarized of pulp, cotton, glass fiber, aramid fiber, potassium titanate fiber, carbon fiber and metallic fiber which are being all studied as alternative fiber to asbestos. Further in order to heighten the product in strength by a use of alternative fiber to asbestos, necessity is pointed out of not only heightening the strength (tensile force) of fiber proper but also heightening the aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) of fiber, adhesive force on the interface between the fiber and product matrix, and mutual holding/bonding force among the treads of fiber. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  20. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  1. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  2. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  3. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Tonelli, Massimo

    2008-08-15

    The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the "asbestos problem". The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures.

  4. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/1, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it; Tonelli, Massimo [Centro Interdipartimentale Grandi Strumenti, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/1, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: tonelli@mail.cigs.unimo.it

    2008-08-15

    The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the 'asbestos problem'. The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures.

  5. Asbestos in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  6. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  7. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  8. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  9. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims.

  10. Asbestos and health in the Third World: the case of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D M

    1986-01-01

    Almost all of the asbestos used in Brazil is mined by an enterprise wholly owned by two European multinational companies, which also produce and market over two-thirds (by weight of asbestos) of the products made from asbestos. About 80 percent of the asbestos used in Brazil is finally consumed in the form of asbestos cement: for roof tiles and roofing panels, wall-board, and domestic and industrial water tanks. A survey of consumer literature and advertising printed by Eternit, S.A., and Brasilit, S.A., disclosed no mention of a potential danger from exposure to asbestos dust, and no recommendations for cutting down exposure to that dust. The situation at smaller, Brazilian-owned firms is reputed to be disastrous from the standpoint of workers' exposure to asbestos dust at the point of production. At a large asbestos-cement manufacturing plant owned by Eternit, however, exposure to asbestos dust (according to company records) seemed to be kept under 2.0 fibers per cc., the present standard for the United States.

  11. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

  12. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  13. Asbestos exposure and health hazards: a global emergency, Epidemiological evidence and denial theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zazzara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On June 3rd 2013, in Turin, Italy, the Swiss industrialist Schmidheiny has been sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for intentional disaster for 3,000 asbestos-linked tumours in Italian workers at cement multinational Eternit. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide. Although many studies have shown that asbestos is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, denial theories were spread over time, showing how the logic of profit governs the production of asbestos. We examined the history of the epidemiological evidence of asbestos related risks and, second, the main sources of exposure in Italy and in the world, occupational, non-occupational, and post-disaster exposure (as occurred after L’Aquila earthquake in April 2009. The theme of inequality and social justice is ever so alarming in the fight against asbestos and its lobbies.

  14. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cement products, friable asbestos insulation, plaster, wood, plastic, wire, etc. Test feed is to include... materials are free of asbestos. Samples for analysis are to be collected as 8-hour composite samples (one... this section. (3) Collect and analyze samples, taken as 10-day composite samples (one 200-gram...

  15. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  16. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  17. All about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  18. Asbestos in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases.

  19. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  20. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  1. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  2. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  3. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  4. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  5. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letters and guidance that detail the requirements of asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants as is applies to vermiculite asbestos-containing material during residential demolitions

  6. Asbestos: a chronology of its origins and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R

    1990-01-01

    The emotionalised subject of asbestos is treated in chronological terms: how the "magic mineral" known in ancient times in Europe and Asia became in the late nineteenth century an important industrial resource of particular interest to the navies of the world; and how its malign effects gradually became apparent during the present century. The media have made asbestos a notorious villain, but it still has properties and applications useful to society if they are properly controlled in the same way as other industrial hazards. One important application is the manufacture of asbestos cement pipes which are a convenient and cheap method of providing water supplies and sewage disposal for developing countries. An appeal is made for prudence and not hysteria in relation to the use of mineral fibres of all types. PMID:2088320

  7. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  8. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  9. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  10. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  11. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA, a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b exposure misclassification, (c latency of clinical disease, (d mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

  12. Cement Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China aims to streamline the crowded cement industry Policymakers are looking to build a concrete wall around the cement-making industry as they seek to solidify the fluid cement market and cut excessive production.

  13. Water in Asbestos

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Yu D; Tsiok, E N

    2015-01-01

    We present the molecular simulation study of the behavior of water and sodium chloride solution confined in lizardite asbestos nanotube which is a typical example of hydrophilic confinement. The local structure, orientational and dynamic properties are studied. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient drops about two orders of magnitude comparing to the bulk case, and water in lizardite asbestos tubes experiences vitrification rather then crystallization upon cooling in accordance with the results for some other hydrophilic confinements. The behavior of sodium chloride solutions also considered and the formation of double layer is observed. It is shower that both sodium and chlorine have larger diffusion coefficients then water.

  14. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  15. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  16. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  17. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary...

  18. History of asbestos related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  19. Exposure to cement dust at a Portland cement factory and the risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestbo, J; Knudsen, K M; Raffn, E; Korsgaard, B; Rasmussen, F V

    1991-01-01

    The relation between exposure to cement dust and cancer was examined in a population of 546 cement workers and a reference population of 858 randomly sampled men of similar age and area of residence. In 1974 all men gave lifelong occupational and smoking histories; information on incidence of cancer in the period 1974-85 was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. No increased risk of overall cancer was found among cement workers. Among men with more than 20 years exposure to cement dust, 14 cases of respiratory cancer were observed (observed/expected (O/E) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90-2.57) when compared with all Danish men. Men with 1-20 years exposure had O/E 1.14 (95% CI 0.59-2.19) based on nine cases of cancer. After excluding all men with documented exposure to asbestos during employment in an asbestos cement factory no increased risk of overall cancer or respiratory cancer was found among cement workers compared with white collar workers from the local reference population, using a Cox regression model controlling for age and smoking habits. Relative risks were 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-1.5) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.4-2.6) for men with 1-20 and more than 20 years of exposure to cement dust respectively compared with white collar workers. PMID:1772795

  20. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  1. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  2. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  3. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  4. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  5. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  6. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  7. Asbesto, asbestose e câncer: critérios diagnósticos Asbestos, asbestosis and cancer: diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

    2001-07-01

    about 10,000 workers in the mining activity, and an unknown number of workers in asbestos-cement industry. A study, with scientific appropriate investigation, with the purpose to evaluate the effects of asbestos exposure over the health of the mine workers in this country, was done by interinstitution researchers, and untitled "Morbidity and mortality among workers exposed to asbestos in mining activities -- 1940/1996". With the experience achieved in the course of this study, the objective of this report is to make an overview of asbestos-related diseases, mainly with respect to difficulties in establishing the histopathologic diagnosis.

  8. Asbestos and its lethal legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2002-04-01

    Asbestos has become the leading cause of occupationally related cancer death, and the second most fatal manufactured carcinogen (after tobacco). In the public's mind, asbestos has been a hazard since the 1960s and 1970s. However, the knowledge that the material was a mortal health hazard dates back at least a century, and its carcinogenic properties have been appreciated for more than 50 years.

  9. Diffusion model for acid corrosion of cemented materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, J.C.; De Moel, P.J.; Nooyen, W.F.; Nuiten, P.C.

    1986-09-25

    The acid corrosion of cemented materials is an important aspect in engineering practice. Corrosion affects the strength of materials and may cause a deterioration of water quality. This article deals with corrosion due to non-erosive acid attacks. A diffusion model is presented in which the depth of attack increases in proportion to the square root of both time, the hydronium ion concentration in the water, and the inverse of the total concentration of lime in the solid phase. Experiments verifying the model are presented. The experiments also reveal that the corrosion of asbestos cement proceeds faster as compared to concrete because of desintegration of the structure of asbestos cement. The diffusion model also worked out to be applicable for corrosion by agressive CO/sub 2/. The lower corrosion rate due to the formation of CaCO/sub 3/ can for this case be described by a lower diffusion coefficient. 4 tabs., 6 figs., 9 refs.

  10. The asbestos hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellini, M. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2000-07-01

    This lecture arises from my own opinion about the positive role of Earth Sciences in general, and Mineralogy in particular, in defining and solving environmental and health problems. These disciplines should cooperate with other sciences in defining what is the problem, and how the problem might be solved, taking into account economical, social and environmental aspects. However, it seems that quite often scientific and technical knowledge is simply not existent in everyday life. At best, it is just confined within a narrow, negative role; the social request is that science contributes only in passively monitoring, analyzing and counting phenomena that cannot be overturned (or that are, in any case, governed elsewhere). The history of the asbestos issue has been a dramatic example of the failure of science in helping people while making important decisions.

  11. Feasibility of developing source sampling methods for asbestos emissions. Final report 23 Dec 80-30 Jun 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, W.M.; Sverdrup, G.M.; Schmidt, E.W.; Miller, S.E.

    1982-04-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the feasibility of developing methods for sampling asbestos in the emissions of major asbestos sources: (1) ore production and taconite production, (2) asbestos-cement production, (3) asbestos felt and paper production, and (4) the production of asbestos-containing friction materials. Potential sampling methods must provide samples compatible with the provisional analysis methods using electron microscopy (U.S. EPA Report No. 600/2-77-178). Two general criteria for source sampling methods were identified as: (1) the sampling method must be capable of collecting a representative sample and (2) the asbestos emissions must be collected in such a manner that they can be analyzed by the provisional analytical method. Concurrent investigations of potential emissions in the industries and of current knowledge of sampling fibers were undertaken to assess the feasibility of meeting the first criterion. The industry survey revealed that asbestos emissions can be divided into two classes: stack and fugitive. With respect to the second criterion, it is not feasible to undertake a methods development program for strict compatibility with the recommended procedure of the provisional analytical method. However, methods development programs are feasible if the sampling method is to be compatible with the alternative procedures of the provisional method or general electron microscopy.

  12. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  13. Global problems from exposure to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A L

    1993-01-01

    Considerable human-derived data the health consequences of asbestos exposure are available. Usually, less information is available from laboratory models of asbestos-related health effects. Animal data mirror the experience in man, and cellular studies help in to understand the mechanistic changes related to asbestos. Although it is clearly carcinogenic, asbestos has shown much variability when examined for its mutagenic activity. Asbestos, a commercial term referring to a family of six naturally occurring mineral fibers, has been widely used around the world. Disease has been recognized into the last century, and at this time every occupational group that has been examined for possible asbestos-related disease has demonstrated it. Disease associated with asbestos makes no distinction based on race or geography, and wherever asbestos is handled it produces disease. With shifting global commercial patterns, disease patterns can be expected to shift also. PMID:8143612

  14. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  15. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  16. Mesothelioma mortality surveillance and asbestos exposure tracking in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spatial distribution of mortality from pleural mesothelioma (which in the ICD-10 Revision has a specific code: C45.0 in Italy for the period 2003-2009 is described. Previous mortality studies at national level employed the topographic code "Malignant neoplasms of pleura", because of unavailability of a specific code in ICD-9 Revision for pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: Standardized mortality ratios were computed for all municipalities, using each regional population as reference; for municipalities in Regions with rate higher than the national rate, the latter has been used as reference. SMRs were computed specifically also for each Italian Polluted Sites "of national concern for environmental remediation" (IPS with asbestos exposure sources, composed by one or more municipalities, using regional rate as reference. Spatial Scan Statistics procedure, using SatScan software, was applied in cluster analysis: the country was divided into geographic macro-areas and the relative risks (RR express the ratio of risk within the cluster to the risk of the macro-area outside the cluster. Clusters with p-value < 0.10 were selected. RESULTS: The national standardized annual mortality rate was 1.7 cases per 100 000. Several areas with evident burden of asbestos-related disease were detected. Significant clusters were found in correspondence to asbestos-cement industries (e.g. Casale Monferrato, women: RR = 28.7, shipyards (e.g. Trieste, men: RR = 4.8, petrochemical industries (e.g. Priolo, men: RR = 6.9 and a stone quarry contaminated by fluoro-edenite fibres (Biancavilla, women: RR = 25.9. Some of the increased clusters correspond to IPS. CONCLUSIONS: The results may contribute to detect asbestos exposure and to set priorites for environmental remediation.

  17. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  18. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  19. Asbestos' Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos is a mineral fiber that has been used commonly in a variety of building construction materials for insulation and as a fire-retardant. EPA and CPSC have banned several asbestos products. Manufacturers have also voluntarily limited uses of asbesto

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all occupational exposures to asbestos in...

  1. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains…

  2. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  3. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  4. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  5. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Oddone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor’s assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years, the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  6. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging materials. The available evidence suggests that although many historical measurements exceeded the current OSHA 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure

  7. Asbestos-related pleural disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The image shows asbestos plaques on the right parietal pleura of a 58-year-old former shipyard worker who died of acute suppurative bronchitis. He also had cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Histologically, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with asbestos bodies was demonstrated. The pleural plaques consist predominantly of dense collagen. This photograph was taken after removal of the lung with the camera held in the lower right thorax, at approximately the level of the diaphragm, looking up toward the apex of the chest cavity.

  8. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers.

  9. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  10. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  11. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, tar...

  12. Asbestos Burden Predicts Survival in Pleural Mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Brock C; Roelofs, Cora R.; Longacker, Jennifer L.; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Godleski, John Joseph; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rapidly fatal asbestos-associated malignancy with a median survival time of < 1 year following diagnosis. Treatment strategy is determined in part using known prognostic factors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between asbestos exposure and survival outcome in MPM in an effort to advance the understanding of the contribution of asbestos exposure to MPM prognosis. Methods: We studied incident cases of MPM...

  13. Interactions of chrysotile asbestos with erythrocyte membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, A R; Hill, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos causes lysis of red blood cells. It has been proposed that the mechanism of hemolysis is mediated through interactions between asbestos and cell membrane glycoproteins. Our studies support this concept and the following results are reported. Electron microscopy shows that asbestos fibers distort red blood cells and bind to cell membranes which may become wrapped around the fibers. This reaction is prevented by pretreatment of the cells with neuraminidase. The distribution ...

  14. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  15. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  16. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  17. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  18. Woodbridge Research Facility Asbestos Survey, Woodbridge, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Calcium carbonate, CASO Calcium sulfate, MICA, PERLITE, OTHER or NONE 3.) Report of results a.) NAD - No Asbestos Detected - No asbestos found in...end of the rest period to make sure that it has dropped to normal. " Body temperatures should be measured orally with a clinical thermometer as early

  19. Pleural mesothelioma and neighborhood asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Rohl, A.N.

    1984-07-06

    Widespread use and occupational exposure to asbestos in US shipyards, particularly during World War II, is one reason for the currently high incidence of asbestos-related diseases, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. There is typically a long latency period between asbestos exposure and resulting disease. A case report is presented which lends additional credence to the earlier suggestion that exposure to asbestos in the neighborhood of the shipyard may be related to the development of malignant mesothelioma in this particular patient. The identification of amosite asbestos fibers in the lung tissue of the patient provides plausible evidence for this etiologic connection. Amosite asbestos is not found in the lungs of persons from the general population, and its occurrence, therefore, indicates either an occupational exposure or an exposure to a specific environmental source. Although only a very small portion of the total amount of asbestos used consists of amosite, this asbestos type is commonly used in shipbuilding and repair and was used a great deal in the shipyard adjacent to which our patient worked.

  20. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  1. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  2. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  3. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  5. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from asphalt-based roofing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Sheehan, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate exposure from specific products to evaluate potential risk from roof repair activities. Five asbestos-containing fibered roof coatings and plastic cements, representing a broad range of these types of products, were tested in exposure simulations. These products were applied to representative roof substrates. Release of asbestos fibers during application and sanding of the product shortly thereafter (wet sanding) were tested initially. Other roof substrates were cured to simulate a product that had been on a rooftop for several months and then were tested to evaluate release of fibers during hand sanding and hand scraping activities. Additional tests were also conducted to evaluate asbestos release during product removal from tools and clothing. Two personal (n = 84) and background/clearance (n = 49) samples were collected during each 30-min test and analyzed for total fiber concentration [phase-contrast microscopy (PCM)] and for asbestos fiber count [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. PCM concentrations ranged from <0.005 to 0.032 fibers per cubic centimeter (f cc(-1)). Chrysotile fibers were detected in 28 of 84 personal samples collected. TEM concentrations ranged from <0.0021 to 0.056 f cc(-1). Calculated 8-h time-weighted averages (TWAs) ranged from 0.0003 to 0.002 f cc(-1) and were comparable to the background TWA concentration of 0.0002 f cc(-1) measured in this study. Based on these results, it is unlikely that roofers were exposed to airborne asbestos concentrations above the current or historical occupational guidelines during scraping and sanding of these products during roof repair.

  6. Development of an airborne asbestos monitoring system. Taiki kankyo no asbesto monitoring ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuki, H.; Sakai, S.; terazono, A. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Center)

    1991-07-10

    In order to develop an airborne asbestos monitoring system, the efficiency of FAM (fibrous aerosol monitor) was evaluated in which the scattered light due to vibration of fibrous particles is detected by applying He-Ne laser to the particles after vibration was induced in them by high voltage quadrupole electrodes. As compared with the data concurrently obtained by phase contrast microscope (PCM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), no correlation of an asbestos concentration was observed between FAM and PCM in low concentration environment, however, FAM offered comparatively reliable results in high concentration environment. As an asbestos concentration was measured with time by FAM around a duct outlet during removal of sprayed-on asbestos, FAM responded instantaneously to emergent emission of a large amount of asbestos in the event of dust collector failure for example. FAM was thus useful for monitoring asbestos leakage. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Asbestos in Colombia: A silent enemy = Asbesto en Colombia: un enemigo silencioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is a group of fibrous non-metallic minerals, composed of double chain silicates, that shows high resistance to tension and chemical degradation and low thermal conductivity. Despite being recognized as carcinogenic agents by the World Health Organization (WHO, based on experimental evidences and population studies, asbestos are still used in many countries at the expense of the health of workers. This has become a worldwide problem associated with the increase of asbestos-related diseases in exposed persons. In this article, we review asbestos and their associated diseases; the use, exposure and existing regulations on asbestos both in Colombia and in other countries. Finally, we raise the possibility of evaluating the usefulness of genetic monitoring in addition to following-up exposed individuals. This would enable a better surveillance in our country with respect to lung cancer, mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases.

  8. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  9. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  10. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

  11. Comparative epidemiology of men exposed to asbestos and man-made mineral fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J R

    1986-01-01

    Comparative analyses are presented of selected studies of long-term reactions to occupational exposures to asbestos and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF), with emphasis on studies with dose-response information and long enough period of follow-up to observe lung cancer excess, if it occurred. Uniform dose estimates based on average number of fibers per milliliter were derived and tabulated with the corresponding standard mortality (or morbidity) ratio (SMR), crude probability for each unfavorable outcome, and the likelihood that at least as many deaths would have occurred as a result of the expected numbers under Poisson assumptions. A dose-response relationship was said to have been indicated when the crude probability increased monotonically with dose and/or the Poisson probability decreased and reached a value of less than 0.05. Some arbitrary assumptions had to be made in estimation of the dose, and they may need to be corrected. Gravimetric dose estimates may have given different results. Studies selected for analysis included Quebec asbestos miners and asbestos cement workers exposed to asbestos, and pooled U.S. and European studies of MMMF workers, as well as a sample of cigarette-smoking fiberglass workers whose X-ray films were evaluated for fine nodular or irregular opacities. The lowest dose capable of showing either a statistically significant excess (single point criterion--SP) or the median dose in an apparent dose-response relationship with cause of death or radiological results is tabulated. Radiological changes show a dose-response relationship for all types, with a median dose for asbestos of 2.8 fibers/ml. For fiberglass workers, the median dose of electron-microscopically detected fibers was two orders of magnitude less. For asbestos SP, exposures of 1.4 to 22 fibers/ml were associated with increased lung cancer, while for mineral wool, the minimal level with significant SP increase in lung cancer was an order of magnitude less. Based on fiber or

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  13. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  14. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  15. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

    1983-01-01

    Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

  16. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

  17. [Asbestos exposure in the non-asbestos textile industry: the experience of the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Carolina; Macchione, Maria; Termine, Lorenzo; Canti, Zulejka; Rivolta, Giuseppe; Riboldi, Luciano; Chiappino, Gerolamo

    2007-01-01

    The Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, activated in 2000, receives more than 300 cases per year of suspected malignant mesothelioma; the standardized (age and gender) incidence rate of pleural mesothelioma is 2.4/100,000 inhabitants (CI 95% 2.0-2.7). The finding of an increasing number of cases among workers of the non-asbestos-textile industry, classified as "unknown exposure to asbestos", upheld the suspect of presence of asbestos in this compartment. Specific information about a possible asbestos exposure were collected by technicians, maintenance personnel and other experts; industrial machinery utilized in the past was thoroughly examined; direct inspections were carried out in several workplaces that had not yet undergone significant changes with respect to the past. A large amount of asbestos had been regularly used on the ceilings and also to the walls of factories in order to avoid both condensation of steam and reflection of noise. In addition, asbestos had also been widely used to insulate water and steam pipes. The braking systems of most of machines also had asbestos gaskets, and on several looms some brakes operated continuously. The population in study was composed of 119 subjects, 27 males and 92 females, median age of 72 years. Asbestos exposure was ascribed to work in 106 cases (89%). The system devised by the Lombardy Registry had brought to light an occupational hazard in a professional area previously never believed as a source of asbestos exposure. In consideration of the described experience, both environmental and clinical, it seems reasonable to consider the non-asbestos-textile as a new department at risk for asbestos exposure.

  18. Asbestos Workshop: Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    coatings Vinyl/asbestos floor tile Automatic transmission components Clutch facings Disc brake pads Drum brake linings Brake blocks Commercial and...1EMDQ March 2012 ASBESTOS WORKSHOP: SAMPLING, ANALYSIS , AND RISK ASSESSMENT Paul Black, PhD, Neptune and Company Ralph Perona, DABT, Neptune and...Sampling, Analysis , and Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  19. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  20. Asbestos: the measures taken by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the Canton's Department for Installation, Equipment, and Housing launched a survey into the presence of asbestos in buildings built in Geneva before 1991. Their initial findings have caused some concern to the public, with buildings and landmarks such as the TSR Tower, the Temple de la Madeleine, and the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre all found to contain asbestos. Several employees here also contacted the Bulletin to find out more about CERN's approach in dealing with asbestos. In the 1960s, asbestos' use was widespread. Its low cost and attractive properties made it a popular choice for insulating buildings. It was used in buildings throughout the world, including many at CERN. However, since the 1970s the use of asbestos has been gradually limited. In France, the first specific rules for the protection of workers came about in 1977. Since then, its use was limited more and more, under pressure from European directives. Finally, a European directive in 1999 widened the ban on asbestos. It covered ...

  1. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

  2. Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurred while processing XML file."); } }); $.ajax({ type: "GET", url: "http://www.lung.org/related-content.xml?related_ ... eventdate = ''; } var title = $(this).find('title').text(); var url = $(this).find('link').text(); var html = ' Event: ' + title + ...

  3. Asbestos in Schools. An AS&U Roundtable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A discussion among six professionals about the status and outlook for asbestos removal in schools. The experts call for state or federal standards for asbestos in buildings and cite lack of funding as a major problem. (MLF)

  4. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Municipal Demolition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos about the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants provide clarification on demolition concerns such as the definition of a facility, and the applicability of asbestos NESHAP to structures demolished by municipal entities.

  5. Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) Enforcement Response Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) (40 CFR 763 Subpart E Appendix C) mandates safety training for those who do asbestos removal work, and implements the additional training requirements mandated by Congress

  6. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Roofing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance Manual and letters that clarify the applicability of the asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to the removal of asbestos-containing roofing material including tiles, and piping during demolition

  7. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  8. Asbestos mines, prospects, and occurrences in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and mineralogical characteristics of former mines, prospects, and occurrences of asbestos in the continental US. No asbestos producing mines are currently...

  9. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  10. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  11. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  12. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  13. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  14. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

  15. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  16. Tabulation of asbestos-related terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Greg

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos has been defined in numerous publications including many State and Federal regulations. The definition of asbestos often varies depending on the source or publication in which it is used. Differences in definitions also exist for the asbestos-related terms acicular, asbestiform, cleavage, cleavage fragment, fiber, fibril, fibrous, and parting. An inexperienced reader of the asbestos literature would have difficulty understanding these differences and grasping many of the subtleties that exist in the literature and regulatory language. Disagreement among workers from the industrial, medical, mineralogical, and regulatory communities regarding these definitions has fueled debate as to their applicability to various morphological structures and chemical compositions that exist in the amphibole and serpentine groups of minerals. This debate has significant public health, economic and legal implications. This report summarizes asbestos-related definitions taken from a variety of academic, industrial, and regulatory sources. This summary is by no means complete but includes the majority of significant definitions currently applied in the discipline.

  17. Immunological Effects of Silica and Asbestos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto

    2007-01-01

    Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.

  18. TNF-α inhibits asbestos-induced cytotoxicity via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, a possible mechanism for asbestos-induced oncogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haining; Bocchetta, Maurizio; Kroczynska, Barbara; Elmishad, Amira G.; Chen, Yuanbin; Liu, Zemin; Bubici, Concetta; Mossman, Brooke T.; Harvey I Pass; Testa, Joseph R.; Franzoso, Guido; Carbone, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is the main cause of human malignant mesothelioma (MM). In vivo, macrophages phagocytize asbestos and, in response, release TNF-α and other cytokines that contribute to carcinogenesis through unknown mechanisms. In vitro, asbestos does not induce transformation of primary human mesothelial cells (HM); instead, asbestos is very cytotoxic to HM, causing extensive cell death. This finding raised an apparent paradox: How can asbestos cause MM if HM exposed to asbestos die? We found that ...

  19. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  20. THE USE OF SISAL FIBRE AS REINFORCEMENT IN CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romildo Dias Tolêdo Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The inclusion of fibre reinforcement in concrete, mortar and cement paste can enhance many of the engineering properties of the basic materials, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength and resistance to fatigue, impact, thermal shock and spalling. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced, cement based composites. Investigations have been carried out in many countries on various mechanical properties, physical performance and durability of cement based matrices reinforced with naturally occurring fibres including sisal, coconut, jute, bamboo and wood fibres. These fibres have always been considered promising as reinforcement of cement based matrices because of their availability, low cost and low consumption of energy. In this review, the general properties of the composites are described in relation to fibre content, length, strength and stiffness. A chronological development of sisal fibre reinforced, cement based matrices is reported and experimental data are provided to illustrate the performance of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites. A brief description on the use of these composite materials as building products has been included. The influence of sisal fibres on the development of plastic shrinkage in the pre-hardened state, on tensile, compressive and bending strength in the hardened state of mortar mixes is discussed. Creep and drying shrinkage of the composites and the durability of natural fibres in cement based matrices are of particular interest and are also highlighted. The results show that the composites reinforced with sisal fibres are reliable materials to be used in practice for the production of structural elements to be used in rural and civil construction. This material could be a substitute asbestos-cement composite, which is a serious hazard to human and animal health and is prohibited in industrialized countries. The

  1. Replacement of Asbestos Aboard Naval Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-10

    Siding shingles and clapboard, including aoccesorlas Roofing shingles Asbets Textiles Yarn, cord, and thread Cloth Other asbestos textiles . including...all types Gakets (for sealing nonmoving parts) Asbestos, asbetos-metallic, and asbetos-ubber Packing (except leather , rubber, and metal) and abestos...c~ 0 oo N + -) ;-- (5"-00 0 . . SC C o U _ ’Do- - C. x 0 z I ok C L C; C 0 0S L ’-C -4 - - an t 0 - 0 _c - gc ~ .0 -o s.. - z 4- i r US v Q 6 U.~ cc

  2. Surface improvement of asbestos by wet process. Shisshiki shori ni yoru asbesto no hyomen kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasue, T.; Kojima, Y.; Obata, H.; Ogura, T.; Arai, Y. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering)

    1991-09-01

    The eluting process of each ion in asbestos was pursued up to the decomposition by processing with hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid to verify the acid processing condition making asbestos harmless and holding the fibrous structure. The decomposition of asbestos is significantly affected by the eluting condition. When treated by 3N hydrochloric acid, Mg{sup 2+} in asbestos elutes perfectly after 7days at 20 centigrade and after 30 minutes at 100 centigrade, remaining amorphous silica of comparatively high purity. When asbestos fiber which was acid-processed to exchange almost all sites with Ca{sup 2+} ion after Mg{sup 2+} in the first to fifth layers eluted, is put in Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, hydroxyapatite is formed on the surface. When this asbestos is hydrothermally processed in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution adjusted so that the atomic ratio of Ca{sup 2+}/Si{sup 4+} to silicate radical remained on the surface becomes 0.8, calcium silicate hydrate is formed on the surface. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  4. Enfermedades pleurales benignas inducidas por asbesto Benign pleural diseases induced by asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boldú

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La exposición al asbesto es una causa importante de patología pleural y se puede producir con intensidades moderadas o ligeras dada la capacidad del asbesto de concentrarse en la pleura. Ello motiva junto a la prolongada latencia existente entre la exposición y la enfermedad, que sigamos viendo durante muchos años manifestaciones clínicas pleurales de exposición previa, a pesar del uso del asbesto cada vez más limitado en las últimas décadas. Dicha exposición puede presentarse con distintas manifestaciones tanto malignas como el mesotelioma como benignas, siendo las principales de éstas el derrame pleural benigno, las placas pleurales, la fibrosis pleural difusa y la atelectasia redonda.Exposure to asbestos is an important cause of pleural pathology and can be produced with light or moderate tendencies given the capacity of asbestos to concentrate in the pleura. Together with the prolonged latency existing between exposure and the disease, this means that for many years we will continue to see pleural clinical manifestations from past exposure, in spite of the increasingly limited use of asbestos in recent decades. This exposure can show itself in different manifestations, both malign, such as mesothelioma, and benign, principally benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis and massive atelectasis.

  5. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

    2008-02-01

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

  6. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  7. Determinants of Toxicity of Environmental Asbestos Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent EPA-led studies have addressed the comparative toxicity and pathological mechanisms of environmental asbestos samples from Libby, Montana and other communities in the United States. Longer amosite fibers induce a 4-10 fold greater induction of pro-inflammatory mediators C...

  8. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

  9. An Australian stocks and flows model for asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sally; Pickin, Joe

    2016-10-01

    All available data on asbestos consumption in Australia were collated in order to determine the most common asbestos-containing materials remaining in the built environment. The proportion of asbestos contained within each material and the types of products these materials are most commonly found in was also determined. The lifetime of these asbestos containing products was estimated in order to develop a model that projects stocks and flows of asbestos products in Australia through to the year 2100. The model is based on a Weibull distribution and was built in an excel spreadsheet to make it user-friendly and accessible. The nature of the products under consideration means both their asbestos content and lifetime parameters are highly variable, and so for each of these a high and low estimate is presented along with the estimate used in the model. The user is able to vary the parameters in the model as better data become available.

  10. Thermal performance of sisal fiber-cement roofing tiles for rural constructions Desempenho térmico de telhas de fibrocimento reforçadas com polpa de sisal para construções rurais

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli; Sérgio Francisco dos Santos; José Antonio Rabi; Wilson Nunes dos Santos; Holmer Savastano Junior

    2011-01-01

    Roofing provides the main protection against direct solar radiation in animal housing. Appropriate thermal properties of roofing materials tend to improve the thermal comfort in the inner ambient. Nonasbestos fiber-cement roofing components reinforced with cellulose pulp from sisal (Agave sisalana) were produced by slurry and dewatering techniques, with an optional addition of polypropylene fibers. Nonasbestos tiles were evaluated and compared with commercially available asbestos-cement sheet...

  11. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  12. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-09-12

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide.

  13. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When asbestos containing materials (ACM must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS. The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO2eq to 132,141 tonCO2eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide.

  14. [Evaluation of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Shinji

    2008-09-01

    We encountered 19 patients of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos from 2000 to 2007. All patients were men whose ages arranged from 60 to 89 years with a mean of 74.2 years. Twenty rounded atelectasis were present in the right lung and 5 in the left lung. Five patients had 2 rounded atelectasis. In 21 rounded atelectasis were found in Segment 10 and while other 2 found in S1 and each in S5 and 9. Eleven patients were diagnosed with no symptoms through medical examinations. Other 8 patients complained of dyspnea, chest pain and cough. Thirteen patients complicated with benign asbestos pleurisy and only 3 patients accompanied asbestosis. Eighteen patients (95%) displayed pleural plaques and 15 patients with calcified plaques. Ten patients had been exposed to asbestos in the shipyards and 4 in construction works and other 5 patients had also exposed by occupational exposure to asbestos. The mean period of exposure to asbestos was 26.6 years and the mean latency periods from the first asbestos exposure to the diagnosis of rounded atelectasis were 51.6 years. An autopsied patient had 18,100 asbestos bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue which meant the heavy asbestos exposure. High incidence of pleural plaques and long period of latency from the first exposure to the appearance of rounded atelectasis in this study suggested that rounded atelectasis might appear less high-dose exposure to asbestos than former patients who were reported 6 years ago.

  15. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  16. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  18. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE AND SARCOMATOID MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Gorantla,; Namballa; Tupakula Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is commonly associated with documented asbestos exposure. The mean interval between exposure and death is around 40 years. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common form of MPM. It is more aggressive and associated with worst prognosis. Adequate sampling is important for accurate diagnosis. Both VATS and image guided core needle biopsy have higher diagnostic yield compared to the closed pleural biopsy. IHC markers are used as an adju...

  19. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas

    OpenAIRE

    Terra Filho,Mário; Freitas,Jefferson Benedito Pires de; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [UNIFESP

    2006-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.

  20. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.

  1. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobukazu Fujimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE. The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1 history of asbestos exposure; (2 presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3 the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%. Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5% cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3% cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT was detected in 30 (27.3% cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM during the follow-up.

  2. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange John H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  3. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

    1992-05-01

    The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

  4. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those...... of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  5. Cement and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Gene; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    To produce lunar cement, high-temperature processing will be required. It may be possible to make calcium-rich silicate and aluminate for cement by solar heating of lunar pyroxene and feldspar, or chemical treatment may be required to enrich the calcium and aluminum in lunar soil. The effects of magnesium and ferrous iron present in the starting materials and products would need to be evaluated. So would the problems of grinding to produce cement, mixing, forming in vacuo and low gravity, and minimizing water loss.

  6. POZZOLAN AND CEMENTS WITH POZZOLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan KAPLAN; Hanifi BİNİCİ

    1995-01-01

    Cement, one of the basic material of construction engineering, has an important place in view of strength and cost of structures. Cement consumption is increasing parallel to development of building construction sector. For cement producers, minimal cost is desired by using new and economical material sources. On the other hand, the controllers and contractors need cheaper, safer and higher strength materials. From this respect cement industry tends to use cement with pozzolan. In Türkiye, ce...

  7. Asbestos real-time monitor in an atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, N; Hashiguchi, K; Ito, S; Itabe, T

    1997-12-20

    The concentration of asbestos fiber aerosols can be monitored by measuring the polarization of laser light scattered by asbestos fibers. The principle of discriminating asbestos fibers is based on the theoretically expected difference in polarization at a scattering angle of 170 deg between cylindrical and spherical airborne particles; polarization at this scattering angle should be positive for cylindrical particles such as asbestos fibers but should be negative or close to zero for spherical mineral particles. We constructed an experimental asbestos real-time monitor that uses a strong electric field to align the airborne particles, that uses lasers having linear polarization with an equal amplitude in parallel and perpendicular components to the aligned long axis of particles, and that simultaneously detects the two components of the linear polarization of light scattered at 170 deg, i.e., close to the backscatter. Experiments that were performed to detect the light scattered from airborne standard asbestos fibers showed that the measured polarization fits theoretical prediction. The concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers obtained by the asbestos real-time monitor were consistent with those estimated by the standard phase contrast microscope method.

  8. The Role of Gatekeepers in the Asbestos Awareness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Vicki S.; Van Nevel, J. Paul

    The role of news media as gatekeepers controlling the flow of information that the public receives was explored during the 1978 Asbestos Awareness campaign conducted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). In an effort to inform high risk workers and the general public about the health hazards associated with asbestos exposure,…

  9. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  10. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by…

  11. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  12. Exporting asbestos: disease and policy in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huncharek, M

    1993-01-01

    The health effects of asbestos are well known, with lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis recognized as the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among exposed populations. Recognition of these hazards coupled with an explosion of litigation against asbestos manufacturers brought by injured workers has resulted in declining markets for this commodity in the U.S. and other Western democracies. With Western markets for asbestos decreasing, the developing world has become the target of asbestos exporters in an attempt to revitalize an industry in decline. This paper discusses the trends in worldwide asbestos markets over the last two decades and the serious health implications of policies directed at establishing viable markets for this commodity in developing nations.

  13. Detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials by microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, N; Kashimura, K; Hashiguchi, M; Sato, M; Horikoshi, S; Mitani, T; Shinohara, N

    2015-03-02

    The detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was investigated through simulations and experiments. The permittivities of pure CaO and Mg3Si4O12, as quasi-asbestos materials, were measured using the cavity perturbation method. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ɛr' and ɛr″) of CaO are functions of temperature, and numerical simulations revealed the thermal distributions in an electromagnetic field with respect to both asbestos shape and material configuration based on permittivity. Optical microscopic observation revealed that the thickness of chrysotile fibers decreased as a result of CaO heating. The heating mechanism of asbestos materials has been determined using CaO phase, and the detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was discussed based on the heating mechanism.

  14. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  15. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  16. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  18. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to other asbestos... for Asbestos § 61.156 Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations. In addition to this subpart, the regulations referenced in Table 1 also apply to asbestos and may be applicable to those sources specified...

  19. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  20. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  1. Assessment of asbestos exposure during a simulated agricultural activity in the proximity of the former asbestos mine of Balangero, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Gazzano, Claudia; Tomatis, Maura; Gentile-Garofalo, Laura; Bergamini, Massimo

    2016-05-05

    The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rural areas is a serious concern for human health and the dispersion route of asbestos in the proximity of natural asbestos-rich settings has been marginally evaluated so far. NOA may affect air, but also water and soil quality. In rural areas population may be exposed to asbestos with a largely unknown impact on human health. This work investigates the potential exposure of a farmer cultivating a field nearby the largest former asbestos mine of Western Europe (Balangero, Italy). The concentration of waterborne asbestos in the stream used to water the field was measured (ca. 2×10(5) fibers per liter, ff/L) and the cultivated ultramafic topsoil characterized, evidencing a remarkable occurrence of chrysotile. The worker's personal exposure and the environmental fiber dispersion during a simulated agricultural activity (tillage) were quantified in two independent trials. During the trials, the worker was exposed to average concentrations of 16 and 26 ff/L, with a peak of 40 ff/L. These data inform about the possible exposure of an agricultural worker to asbestos concentration higher than the accepted threshold of 2 ff/L. The release of asbestos fibers into the environment was negligible (0-2 ff/L).

  2. Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: iconographic essay; Alteracoes pleurais e parenquimatosas relacionadas a exposicao ao asbesto: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Bagatin, Ericson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva e Social; Terra-Filho, Mario [Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the main imaging findings of asbestos-related diseases. Pleural and pulmonary asbestos-related diseases range from benign conditions, like pleural effusion and pleural plaques, to some neoplasias, such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Pleural effusion is the earliest finding after asbestos exposure, but the imaging findings are not specific. Diffuse pleural thickening involves the visceral pleura and pleural plaques are considered to be hallmarks of exposure. Asbestosis is the pulmonary fibrosis due to asbestos. Rounded atelectasis is a peripheral lung collapse in these individuals, generally related to pleural disease. Some neoplasias, like lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma, are more prevalent in asbestos-exposed subjects. (author)

  3. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takashi, E-mail: tyama@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Kida, Akiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Noma, Yukio [Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Womens University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashiku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan); Terazono, Atsushi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Sakai, Shin-ichi [Environmental Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  4. [The registry for asbesto-related tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, C

    2003-01-01

    The author stresses the importance of DPCM 10 December 2002 no.308, which determines the format and the rules to fill the registry for the cases of asbestos-related mesothelioma, according to art 36, comma 3, DLgs 277/91. The Author admits the usefulness of such a registry, but comments that its official approval came very late, because it actually was started in 1993 by ISPESL (The Higher Institute for Prevention and Safety of Labor), after the approval of DLgs 277/91. According to ISPESL initiative, all cases of mesothelioma and related circumstances were (and are) collected through a periferal information net operated by COR's.

  5. Asbestos, lead, and the family: household risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Cohn, J.; Ackerman, G.

    1980-06-01

    Although the intrafamilial transmission of infectious diseases has long been recognized, the induction of environmental disease in household contacts is being increasingly documented and requires a higher index of suspicion. An incidental radiographic finding, such as pleural thickening or calcification, or even interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in a young person without obvious occupational exposure to asbestos, should prompt the physician to clarify the parental occupational history. Likewise, unexpected evidence of lead induced abnormalities, such as elevated blood lead and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, should focus the examiner's attention on possible intrafamilial transmission, treatment, and prevention.

  6. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  7. Airways microbiota: Hidden Trojan horses in asbestos exposed individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2014-11-01

    Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer with devastating prognosis, which develops in the pleural cavity from transformed mesothelium. MPM has been directly associated with asbestos exposure however there are aspects of the pathophysiology involved in the translocation of asbestos fibers in the pleura that remain unclear. Here, we propose and discuss that certain proteins secreted by airways symbiotic microbiota create membrane pores to the airway epithelial cells, through which asbestos fibers can penetrate the lung parenchyma and reach the sub-pleural areas. We evaluate this hypothesis using data from the published literature regarding the airways microbiota toxins such as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs).

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  9. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  10. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas Asbestos-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Terra Filho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.This chapter presents a bibliographic review of asbestos-related diseases. The latest diagnostic, radiological, computed tomography and lung function aspects of benign pleural disease, asbestosis, occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma are discussed.

  11. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  12. Justice for asbestos victims and the politics of compensation: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the history of asbestos mining and manufacture in France, the strategies of the multinational asbestos firms to become major international participants, the failures of occupational health and safety that allowed an epidemic of asbestos-related diseases to occur, and the important social movement of the victims of asbestos exposure. The asbestos industry thrived in France until the health effects of asbestos exposure were made public. At that time, the industry had already moved its mining and manufacture to developing countries, where they were able to take advantage of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational and environmental laws. The author analyzes the compensation systems that were approached with varying degrees of success by the victims of asbestos exposure. France banned all manufacture and use of asbestos in 1997, and in the years that have followed, it has enjoyed many successes in achieving compensation for asbestos victims.

  13. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  14. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  15. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  16. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  17. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  19. Cement og politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    as well as in the public sphere. Most of the extensive job creating measures he carried out as a minister for public works necessarily involved the use of great amounts of cement – the primary produce of F.L. Smidth & Co. Gunnar Larsen thus became an easy target for Communist propaganda, picturing him...... of the Soviet Union (including an F.L. Smidth & Co. cement plant in former Estonia). He spent the last 15 months of the occupation in Sweden and was arrested after having returned to Copenhagen in May, 1945. Although a Copenhagen city court prison sentence for economic collaboration was reversed, he had...

  20. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  1. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

    1993-01-01

    Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.

  2. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE AND SARCOMATOID MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorantla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is commonly associated with documented asbestos exposure. The mean interval between exposure and death is around 40 years. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common form of MPM. It is more aggressive and associated with worst prognosis. Adequate sampling is important for accurate diagnosis. Both VATS and image guided core needle biopsy have higher diagnostic yield compared to the closed pleural biopsy. IHC markers are used as an adjunct to tumour histopathology. The primary treatment options for sarcomatoid type are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival for patients with sarcomatoid tumours is typically less than six months. Patients in whom the diagnosis is made early have a survival benefit from multimodality therapeutic approach.

  3. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos.

  4. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

  5. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  6. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of chrysotile asbestos using near supercritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Axiotis, Dimosthenis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-07-15

    The present research investigates, develops and evaluates the transformation of chrysotile asbestos into a non-hazardous material, such as forsterite, using an economically viable and safe method. The aim of this study is to convert fibrous chrysotile asbestos into an anhydrous magnesium silicate with a non-hazardous lamellar morphology using supercritical steam. The treatment method is characterized as hydrothermal in a temperature and pressure range of 300-700 degrees C and 1.75-5.80 MPa, respectively. Small amounts of asbestos (2.5 g) were treated in each experiment. Deionised water was used as the treatment solution. The treatment duration varied from approximately 1-5 h. Additional experiments took place using solutions of distilled water and small amounts of acetic acid, with the aim of attaining optimal treatment conditions. Crystal phases of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phases present in the treated samples were forsterite, enstatite, and chrysotile asbestos. Lizardite and periclase were also found. The morphology of the treated chrysotile asbestos fibers was identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fibrous form of chrysotile asbestos was converted into non-fibrous form of forsterite. In fact, none of the fibrous-needle-like morphology, with length equal to or greater than 5 microm and diameter less than 3 microm, which was responsible for the toxicity of the original material, was visible in the solid phase. The dissolution of magnesium from chrysotile asbestos was measured using volumetric determination by titration with EDTA. Leaching of magnesium into the liquid phase was observed. Clearly, the highest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are observed after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos using acetic acid 1% (8.4-14.6%). Lowest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are obtained after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos without using additives. Observing the results of the

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of chrysotile asbestos using near supercritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Axiotis, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, P.C. 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, P.C. 73100 (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The present research investigates, develops and evaluates the transformation of chrysotile asbestos into a non-hazardous material, such as forsterite, using an economically viable and safe method. The aim of this study is to convert fibrous chrysotile asbestos into an anhydrous magnesium silicate with a non-hazardous lamellar morphology using supercritical steam. The treatment method is characterized as hydrothermal in a temperature and pressure range of 300-700 deg. C and 1.75-5.80 MPa, respectively. Small amounts of asbestos (2.5 g) were treated in each experiment. Deionised water was used as the treatment solution. The treatment duration varied from approximately 1-5 h. Additional experiments took place using solutions of distilled water and small amounts of acetic acid, with the aim of attaining optimal treatment conditions. Crystal phases of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phases present in the treated samples were forsterite, enstatite, and chrysotile asbestos. Lizardite and periclase were also found. The morphology of the treated chrysotile asbestos fibers was identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fibrous form of chrysotile asbestos was converted into non-fibrous form of forsterite. In fact, none of the fibrous-needle-like morphology, with length equal to or greater than 5 {mu}m and diameter less than 3 {mu}m, which was responsible for the toxicity of the original material, was visible in the solid phase. The dissolution of magnesium from chrysotile asbestos was measured using volumetric determination by titration with EDTA. Leaching of magnesium into the liquid phase was observed. Clearly, the highest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are observed after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos using acetic acid 1% (8.4-14.6%). Lowest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are obtained after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos without using additives. Observing the results of the hydrothermal

  9. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  10. Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.

    2008-02-01

    Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

  11. Asbestos: The Clock Is Ticking in Your Schools, and Inaction Could Prove to Be Devastating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    This article urges districts to meet federal regulations and protect students and staff from hazardous asbestos and reviews medical risks, compliance procedures, costs of asbestos removal, consequences of noncompliance, legal ramifications, and contacts for further information. (MJL)

  12. How to Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: The AHERA Designated Person's Self Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA document is designed to assist Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) designated persons in understanding their responsibilities to help local education agencies comply with federal asbestos in schools regulations.

  13. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties.

  14. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  15. POZZOLAN AND CEMENTS WITH POZZOLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KAPLAN

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement, one of the basic material of construction engineering, has an important place in view of strength and cost of structures. Cement consumption is increasing parallel to development of building construction sector. For cement producers, minimal cost is desired by using new and economical material sources. On the other hand, the controllers and contractors need cheaper, safer and higher strength materials. From this respect cement industry tends to use cement with pozzolan. In Türkiye, cement with pozzolan is produced by adding the pozzolan, which has a large reservoir in the country, in cement in sertain amount. However this type of cement is consumed in the construction sector, sortage of scientific investigation and speculative news on the subject.are worried the users and producers. In this paper, prior to an experimental study on the cements having pozzolan additive, historical development of pozzolan, reservoir of Turkiye, and comparison with portland cement is carried out. Advantages and disadvantages of pozzolan are also discussed in some points.

  16. New detoxification processes for asbestos fibers in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Colonna, Massimiliano; Tomatis, Maura; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Fubini, Bice

    2010-01-01

    Airborne asbestos fibers are associated with many serious detrimental effects on human health, while the hazard posed by waterborne fibers remains an object of debate. In adopting a precautionary principle, asbestos content in water needs to be kept as low as possible and polluting waters with asbestos should be avoided. Turci et al. (2008) recently reported a method for the decontamination of asbestos-polluted waters or landfill leachates from chrysotile that combines power ultrasound (US) with oxalic acid (Ox), an acidic chelating molecule. In the previous study, the occurrence of antigorite, a polymorph of serpentine, the mineral group encompassing chrysotile asbestos, acted as a confounding factor for complete removal of chrysotile from water. The effects of US + Ox on pure chrysotile asbestos from Val Malenco, Italian Central Alps, were examined in this investigation. In the absence of mineral contaminants, a more rapid removal of pure chrysotile from water was undertaken with respect to the previous specimen. After only 12 h of combined US + Ox acid treatment, imaging (SEM) of mineral debris indicated complete loss of fibrous habit. In addition, crystallography and vibrational features of chrysotile were not detectable (x-ray powder diffraction [XRPD] and micro-Raman spectroscopy) and elemental analysis showed a low Mg/Si ratio, i.e., the loss of the brucitic layer in chrysotile (x-ray fluorescence, XRF). Some nanometric rod-shaped debris, observed in the previous study and tentatively recognized as serpentine antigorite, was now found to be made of amorphous silica, which is relatively safe and noncarcinogenic to humans, providing further assurance regarding the safety of treated product. Thus, data indicated the proposed method was effective in detoxifying waterborne chrysotile asbestos fibers.

  17. Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrini Alessandra; Miles Susan E; Johnson Anthony R; Yates Deborah H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT), or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines...

  18. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  20. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. Public Law 99-519: Title II--Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's rule on local educational agency inspection for, and notification of, the presence of friable asbestos-containing material in school buildings included neither standards for the proper identification of asbestos-containing material and appropriate response actions with respect to friable asbestos-containing…

  2. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

  3. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos... teleconference of the SAB Libby Amphibole Asbestos Panel to discuss the Panel's revised draft review report of EPA's Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011 Draft). DATES: The...

  4. 75 FR 59261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule and Revised Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan Rule; EPA ICR No. 1365.09... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Asbestos-Containing Materials...

  5. Asbestos-in-Schools: A Guide to New Federal Requirements for Local Education Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    In 1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law requiring the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. The new rule, The Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule, requires all…

  6. 77 FR 38658 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Asbestos in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...; Asbestos in Shipyards Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the..., ``Asbestos in Shipyards Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for... INFORMATION: The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard requires employers to train workers about the hazards...

  7. 78 FR 78387 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Asbestos in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...; Asbestos in General Industry Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On December 31, 2013, the Department of... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Asbestos in General Industry Standard'' to the Office of Management and... regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001, the Asbestos in General Industry Standard, that require a covered employer...

  8. How To Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's Self-Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator called the "AHERA (Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act) designated person" (DP) who is responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities. This manual presents some recommendations designed to help those persons appointed…

  9. 77 FR 3798 - Asbestos in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of... requirements contained in the Asbestos in Construction Standard (29 CFR 1926.1101). The standard protects workers from adverse health effects from occupational exposure to asbestos, including lung...

  10. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  11. Advances in Glass Ionomer Cements

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Dt. Tuğba; TİRALİ, Yard. Doç. Dr. Resmiye Ebru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of innovations and developments with respect to glass ionomer cements and their applications in clinical dentistry. This article considers some of the recent outstanding studies regarding the field of glass ionomer cement applications, adhesion and setting mechanisms, types, advantage and disadvantages among themselves and also to enhance the physical and antibacterial properties under the title of 'Advances in Glass Ionomer Cements'. As their biologic...

  12. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement.

  13. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where asbestos is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Provisions Relating to Asbestos § 102-75.335 Where asbestos is... conveyance document? Where the existence of asbestos on the property has been brought to the attention of...

  15. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest...

  16. 78 FR 34406 - Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Asbestos in General... providing their workers with protection from exposure to hazardous asbestos. Asbestos exposure results...

  17. 75 FR 17164 - Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in its Standard on Asbestos in General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001). DATES: Comments must... workers with protection from hazardous asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure results in asbestosis,...

  18. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  19. Phosphate based oil well cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  20. Meeting Report: Mode(s) of Action of Asbestos and Related Mineral Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gwinn, Maureen R.; DeVoney, Danielle; Jarabek, Annie M.; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Wheeler, John; Weissman, David N.; Masten, Scott; Thompson, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although asbestos in general is well known to cause a range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic human health effects, not all asbestos fiber types have the same disease-causing potential, and the mode of action (MOA) of specific types of asbestos and related fibers for various health outcomes are not well understood. Objectives: A workshop was held to discuss the state of the science of the MOA for asbestos-related disease. The objective was to review the range of asbestos-induced he...

  1. Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and asbestos - similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig A; Murphy, Fiona A; MacFarlane, Marion; Chernova, Tatyana; Schinwald, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a valuable industrial product but there is potential for human pulmonary exposure during production and their fibrous shape raises the possibility that they may have effects like asbestos, which caused a worldwide pandemic of disease in the20th century that continues into present. CNT may exist as fibres or as more compact particles and the asbestos-type hazard only pertains to the fibrous forms of CNT. Exposure to asbestos causes asbestosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, pleural fibrosis and pleural plaques indicating that both the lungs and the pleura are targets. The fibre pathogenicity paradigm was developed in the 1970s-80s and has a robust structure/toxicity relationship that enables the prediction of the pathogenicity of fibres depending on their length, thickness and biopersistence. Fibres that are sufficiently long and biopersistent and that deposit in the lungs can cause oxidative stress and inflammation. They may also translocate to the pleura where they can be retained depending on their length, and where they cause inflammation and oxidative stress in the pleural tissues. These pathobiological processes culminate in pathologic change - fibroplasia and neoplasia in the lungs and the pleura. There may also be direct genotoxic effects of fibres on epithelial cells and mesothelium, contributing to neoplasia. CNT show some of the properties of asbestos and other types of fibre in producing these types of effects and more research is needed. In terms of the molecular pathways involved in the interaction of long biopersistent fibres with target tissue the events leading to mesothelioma have been a particular area of interest. A variety of kinase pathways important in proliferation are activated by asbestos leading to pre-malignant states and investigations are under way to determine whether fibrous CNT also affects these molecular pathways. Current research suggests that fibrous CNT can elicit effects similar to asbestos but more

  2. Worldwide asbestos supply and consumption trends from 1900 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States has produced about 3.28 million metric tons of asbestos fiber and used approximately 31.5 million tons between 1900 and 2000. About half of this amount was used since 1960. Cumulative world production during that same time period was about 173 million tons. Assuming that unusually large stocks are not maintained and that world consumption roughly equals production, about half of the world production and consumption occurred since 1976. The United States and western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of States within the former Soviet Union by the 1970s. With the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, world production and consumption began to decline during the 1980s. In 2000, world consumption, estimated to be 1.48 million tons, was only 31% that of 1980. Countries in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union remain the largest users of asbestos. More specifically, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, and Thailand are the only countries that consumed more than 60,000 tons of asbestos in 2000. These six countries accounted for more than 80% of world?s apparent consumption in 2000.

  3. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

  4. Development of an automated asbestos counting software based on fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Maxym; Ichida, Etsuko; Nishimura, Tomoki; Aoki, Kousuke; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Kuroda, Akio

    2015-01-01

    An emerging alternative to the commonly used analytical methods for asbestos analysis is fluorescence microscopy (FM), which relies on highly specific asbestos-binding probes to distinguish asbestos from interfering non-asbestos fibers. However, all types of microscopic asbestos analysis require laborious examination of large number of fields of view and are prone to subjective errors and large variability between asbestos counts by different analysts and laboratories. A possible solution to these problems is automated counting of asbestos fibers by image analysis software, which would lower the cost and increase the reliability of asbestos testing. This study seeks to develop a fiber recognition and counting software for FM-based asbestos analysis. We discuss the main features of the developed software and the results of its testing. Software testing showed good correlation between automated and manual counts for the samples with medium and high fiber concentrations. At low fiber concentrations, the automated counts were less accurate, leading us to implement correction mode for automated counts. While the full automation of asbestos analysis would require further improvements in accuracy of fiber identification, the developed software could already assist professional asbestos analysts and record detailed fiber dimensions for the use in epidemiological research.

  5. [Treatment of asbestos-containing waste products to prevent harm to the lungs ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Takanami, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The amount of industrial wastes with asbestos such as dismantled construction materials has increased. We have reviewed the effect of asbestos-containing products subjected to harmless treatment on the lungs. Usually, the harmless treatment of asbestos is confirmed by the disappearance of fibrous materials and crystal structures by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. However, it is very important to perform animal studies and in vitro studies in order to examine the effect of the treated asbestos-containing products on the lungs. From previous treatments of asbestos using acids or high temperature, almost treated materials tended to show decreased toxicity in vitro and in vivo studies. There are some reports of the adverse effects of the treatment. If new harmless treatments of asbestos are developed, it is necessary to perform animal studies and in vitro studies of asbestos-containing products using new harmless treatments.

  6. Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Bælum, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing low-level exposure. A literature search in PubMed and Embase resulted in 5,864 citations. Information from included studies was extracted using SIGN. Twenty-one statements were...... evidence graded. The results show that histology and location are not helpful in differentiating asbestos-related lung cancer. Pleural plaques, asbestos bodies, or asbestos fibers are useful as markers of asbestos exposure. The interaction between asbestos and smoking regarding lung cancer risk is between...... additive and multiplicative. The findings indicate that the association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer risk is basically linear, but may level off at very high exposures. The relative risk for lung cancer increases between 1% and 4% per fiber-year (f-y)/mL, corresponding to a doubling of risk...

  7. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jane; Saunders, Jean; Davern, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers' motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers' instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike.

  8. High strength and high modulus polyvinyl alcohol fiber——the optimal substitute for asbestos%高强高模聚乙烯醇纤维是替代石棉的最理想材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高祖安

    2012-01-01

    综述分析了石棉及其石棉行业存在严重危害性等实际情况,对国外开发的各种石棉替代品的试验、试用和实际应用情况进行了对比。结果表明,聚乙烯醇(PVA)纤维具有高强高模、低伸长、耐酸碱、抗溶剂、耐老化、水泥粘着力好、性价比高等优良特点,以及国外近20年的基础研究和工程应用实践证明,被国际公认为替代石棉的最理想材料。最后提出在我国加快PVA纤维代替石棉的迫切性与必要性。%This paper summarizes and analyzes the serious harm to human health caused by asbestos and asbestos industry and other actual situations, then have a comparison through experiment, trial and practical application of various kinds of asbestos substitutes developed abroad. The results indicate that PVA fibers have good performances of high strength and high modulus, low elongation, acid and alkali resistant, anti-solvent, anti-aging, good cement adhesiveness, cost effective and etc. On basis of the nearly 20 years' basic research and engineering practice in abroad, PVA is considered to be the optimal substitute for asbestos. Finally the paper leads to a conclusion that it's urgent and necessary to accelerate the development of PVA alternative technology of asbestos.

  9. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  10. Clinical study of asbestos-related lung cancer in Japan with special reference to occupational history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Onishi, Kazuo; Usami, Ikuji; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Kimura, Kiyonobu

    2010-05-01

    A total of 152 patients with asbestos-related lung cancer recognized by the criteria of Japanese compensation law for asbestos-related diseases were examined and compared with 431 patients with non-asbestos-related lung cancer. Male comprised 96% of patients. Ages ranged from 50 to 91 years with a median of 72 years. Eighty-nine percent were smokers or ex-smokers. Almost all patients had occupational histories of asbestos exposure. The median duration of asbestos exposure was 31 years and the median latency period was 47 years. Thirty-four percent of patients exhibited asbestosis and 81% exhibited pleural plaques by radiography. Regarding asbestos particles in the lung for 73 operated or autopsied patients, 62% had more than 5,000 particles per gram. On the other hand, 100% of non-asbestos-related lung cancer patients had <5000 particles per gram with a median of 554 particles. The number of asbestos bodies in the lung, male gender, absence of symptoms, smoking index, and early stage of cancer were significantly much more than those of non-asbestos-related lung cancer. In this study, a diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer was made in 34% of patients by asbestosis, in 62% by presence of both pleural plaques and more than 10 years' occupational asbestos exposure, and in 4% by more than 5000 asbestos particles per gram of lung tissue. Occupational histories, duration of asbestos exposure, and pleural plaques are common categories for the recognition of asbestos-related lung cancer in Japan.

  11. Cemented total hip arthroplasty with Boneloc bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, D C; Hoard, D B; Porretta, C A

    2001-01-01

    Boneloc cement (WK-345, Biomet Inc, Warsaw, Ind) attempted to improve cement characteristics by reducing exotherm during polymerization, lowering residual monomer and solubility, raising molecular weight, and lowering airborne monomer and aromatic amines. To study the efficacy of this cement, a selected group of 20 patients were prospectively enrolled and followed up after hip arthroplasty. All components were cemented. During the enrollment period, approximately 70 other hip arthroplasties were performed. Clinical evaluation was based on the Harris hip score. Radiographic evaluation was based on assessment of position of the components, subsidence, and/or presence of radiolucencies. Patients had follow-up for an average of 42 months (11 to 58 months); 1 was lost to follow-up. Of these, 7 (35%) had failure at last follow-up. Despite its initial promise, Boneloc cement had an unacceptably high failure rate over a relatively short follow-up period and is not recommended for use. Despite the longevity and odor toxicity problems with conventional bone cement, new cement technologies must be approached with caution.

  12. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Misra; Renu Mathur

    2007-06-01

    The scope of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement in concrete works has been evaluated. MOC cement concrete compositions of varying strengths having good placing and finishing characteristics were prepared and investigated for their compressive and flexural strengths, -values, abrasion resistance etc. The durability of MOC concrete compositions against extreme environmental conditions viz. heating–cooling, freezing–thawing, wetting–drying and penetration and deposition of salts etc were investigated. The results reveal that MOC concrete has high compressive strength associated with high flexural strength and the ratio of compressive to flexural strength varies between 6 and 8. The elastic moduli of the compositions studied are found to be 23–85 GPa and the abrasion losses between 0.11 and 0.20%. While alternate heating–cooling cycles have no adverse effect on MOC concrete, it can be made durable against freezing–thawing and the excessive exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution of the same concentration.

  13. Grout cement. ; Grout cement to fill ground/grout cement to fill cracks. Chunyuyo cement. ; Jiban chunyuyo cement /hibiware chunyuyo cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okaue, H. (Nittetsu Cement Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Ground grout cement is grouted into the ground under high pressure in high water ratio (100 to 1000%) in the form of milk differing from concrete in terms of the water-cement ratio. The grouted milk is governed by characteristics of the cement the milk itself possesses, resulting in variable grouting modes, which are divided in fracture grouting, permeation grouting and boundary grouting. Their applications include cutting off of water in dams, ground reinforcement, prevention of water gushing in tunnel excavation, natural ground reinforcement, improvement of sandy soil and prevention of its collapse, and stabilization of ground for urban civil engineering works such as subway, water supply and sewerage constructions. Grout cement to fill cracks in concrete structures is so grouted into cracks that the slurry fills up contiguous cracks to a certain level and goes upward while pushing out air or water existing in the cracks. The slurry filled into the cracks solidifies and hardens while being absorbed into the concrete, and finally integrates with the concrete. The grout cement is used to rework such concrete structures as dams, tunnels, and bridge bases. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027)...

  15. Clinical and radiological observations on asbestos-related pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlig, H.; Hain, E.

    1980-01-01

    The papers in this session, which are summarized briefly, do not cover the wide range of radiological and clinical problems resulting from inhalation of asbestos dust. Pleural effusions are found in persons exposed occupationally to asbestos, even in the absence of asbestosis, but they are difficult to attribute to such exposure. Asbestosis of the lung shows no striking symptoms and can also be diagnosed only after all other possibilities have been excluded. There are no convincing or striking morphological peculiarities that suggest that an 'asbestos lung cancer' exists. Mesotheliomas of the pleura and of the peritoneum are usually resistant to therapy of any kind, although several possibilities are discussed. Radiological surveillance is presented as being still the most effective and reliable method for medical surveillance of asbestos workers. Circumscribed pleural thickening is benign but a good indicator of exposure to mineral dusts. Diffuse pleural thickening occurs frequently in nonexposed groups and cannot, therefore, be used as an indication of exposure; however, it cannot yet be ruled out as being significant epidemiologically.

  16. Asbestos: scientific basis for environmental control of fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D; Gardner, M J

    1980-01-01

    Any review of the scientific evidence on which public policy is based must commence with a cautionary statement about the quality of the available data both about dust and about asbestos-related disease. Attention is drawn to some of the main problems. It is concluded that, in spite of their shortcomings, the data are sufficiently consistent to be useful in relation to some aspects of the problem of environmental control of the asbestos hazard. The question whether or not there is a threshold dose of fibre below which no biological effect occurs is of considerable importance in framing public policy. The evidence concerning the existence or otherwise of a threshold in relation to the different asbestos-related diseases is summarized. A summary is also given of the evidence about the shape of the dose-response curves for asbestos-related diseases in man. The paper concludes with a note on how scientific data may be summarized in a manner which may be helpful in formulating public policy with regard to a control limit.

  17. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  18. Improved method facilitates debulking and curing of phenolic impregnated asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, P.

    1966-01-01

    Workpieces covered with phenolic impregnated asbestos tape and then wrapped with a specified thickness of nylon yarn under pressure, are debulked and cured in a standard oven. This method of debulking and curing is used in the fabrication of ablative chambers for the Gemini and Apollo attitude control engines.

  19. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the, Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  1. The long and winding road to an asbestos free Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gehring, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The book documents, with a wide range of contributions written by outstanding experts, that asbestos is still with us, also after the official ban in 2005. The ban was not the end of a hazardous story, but a necessary step to protect workers and citizens.

  2. Cements containing by-product gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensted, J. [University of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Chemical by-product gypsum can readily replace natural gypsum in Portland cements and in blended cements like Portland pfa cement and Portland blast furnace cement without technical detriment in many instances. Indeed, sometimes the technical performance of the cement can be enhanced. The hydration chemistry is often changed, in that where there is at least some retardation of setting, more AFT phase (ettringite) is formed during early hydration at the expense of calcium silicate hydrates. By-product gypsum can also replace natural gypsum in speciality products like calcium aluminate cement-Portland cement mixes for producing quick setting cements and in calcium sulphoaluminate-type expansive cements. However, by-products gypsum have proved to be less successful for utilization in API Classes of oilwell cements, because of the greater difficulty in obtaining batch-to-batch consistency in properties like thickening time and slurry rheology. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. ADAM28: a potential oncogene involved in asbestos-related lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Casey M; Larsen, Jill E; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martins, Maria U; Tan, Maxine E; Davidson, Morgan R; Savarimuthu, Santiyagu M; McLachlan, Rebecca E; Passmore, Linda H; Windsor, Morgan N; Clarke, Belinda E; Duhig, Edwina E; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2010-08-01

    Asbestos-related lung cancer accounts for 4-12% of all lung cancers worldwide. Since putative mechanisms of carcinogenesis differ between asbestos and tobacco induced lung cancers, tumors induced by the two agents may be genetically distinct. To identify gene expression biomarkers associated with asbestos-related lung tumorigenicity we performed gene expression array analysis on tumors of 36 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, comparing 12 patients with lung asbestos body counts above levels associated with urban dwelling (ARLC-AC: asbestos-related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma) with 24 patients with no asbestos bodies (NARLC-AC: non-asbestos related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma). Genes differentially expressed between ARLC-AC and NARLC-AC were identified on fold change and P value, and then prioritized using gene ontology. Candidates included ZNRF3, ADAM28, PPP1CA, IRF6, RAB3D, and PRDX1. Expression of these six genes was technically and biologically replicated by qRT-PCR in the training set and biologically validated in three independent test sets. ADAM28, encoding a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain protein that interacts with integrins, was consistently upregulated in ARLC across all four datasets. Further studies are being designed to investigate the possible role of this gene in asbestos lung tumorigenicity, its potential utility as a marker of asbestos related lung cancer for purposes of causal attribution, and its potential as a treatment target for lung cancers arising in asbestos exposed persons.

  4. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  5. Health hazards from fine asbestos dusts. An analysis of 70,656 occupational preventive medical investigations from 1973 to the end of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, H J; Weltle, D; Bohlig, H; Valentin, H

    1989-01-01

    For the period from 1973 to the end of 1986, 70,656 data sets on occupational preventive medical examinations in employees exposed occupationally to asbestos dust (G 1.2) were made available to us by the Central Registry for Employees Exposed to Asbestos Dust (ZAS). On the basis of this data, an analysis of asbestosis risk was to be made in relation to specific areas of work, taking into consideration the beginning and duration of exposure. Proceedings for declaratory appraisal in accordance with occupational disease no. 4103 were instituted in 1760 cases in the report period. In accordance with the character of the available data, the X-ray findings in the lungs were available from the persons investigated as parameters of possible asbestosis risk on the basis of coding consistent with the International Pneumoconiosis Classification (ILO U/C 1971 and/or ILO 1980 West Germany). The major result of the statistical analyses on the mainframe macrocomputer of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg was that the relatively highest risk of asbestosis was present in persons whose exposure began before 1955. On the other hand, with increasing duration of exposure, an unequivocal rise of the asbestosis risk could not be detected on the basis of the overall population. In relation to the individual fields of work, the relatively highest risk of asbestosis was shown to be in the asbestos textile and paper industry, as well as in the asbestos cement industry. No detectable risk of asbestosis was present in the fields of mining, traffic and health service and for women in the industrial sectors of building material, gas and water, catering trade, building, commerce as well as banking and insurance. Accordingly, it can be assumed that certain fields of work are or were exposed to such a small extent or not at all that a risk of asbestosis which is relevant in terms of occupational medicine is no longer to be assumed or was not to be assumed. This applies above all to certain work

  6. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  7. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  8. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  9. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  10. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

  11. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  12. Cohort Studies on Cancer Mortality Among Workers Exposed Only to Chrysotile Asbestos:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LI; TONG-DA SUN; XING ZHANG; RUI-NAN LAI; XIU-YANG LI; XUE-JIN FAN; KENJI MORINAGA

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All data meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile were incorporated into meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites were calculated using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effect model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. The dose-response effect as reflected in the percentage of all deaths due to mesothelioma served as a proxy measure of chrysotile exposure. Results A cohort of twenty six workers exposed to chrysotile alone was summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for all deaths (1.27), all cancers (1.28), cancers of respiratory organs (2.51), cancers of lung (2.35) and cancers of stomach (1.24) were observed. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for lung cancer within occupational strata were observed among textile workers (3.55), asbestos product manufacturers (3.30), miners and millers (2.24), cement product workers (1.22), and for stomach cancer among asbestos product manufacturers (1.49). Meta-SMRs for cancers at other sites were not significant. Meta-SMR for lung cancer showed an increasing trend with an elevated percentage of all deaths from mesothelioma, but no such trend for stomach cancer. Conclusion There are excessive risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone, and likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between chrysotile exposure and cancers at other sites.

  13. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there...

  14. Historical state of knowledge of the health risks of asbestos posed to seamen on merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, David G; Beck, Barbara D

    2016-12-01

    We examined the development of knowledge concerning the risks posed by asbestos to seamen working aboard merchant ships at sea (i.e. commercial, rather than naval vessels). Seamen were potentially exposed to "in-place" asbestos on merchant ships by performing intermittent repair and maintenance tasks. We reviewed studies measuring airborne asbestos onboard merchant ships and health outcomes of merchant seamen, as well as studies, communications, and actions of U.S. organizations with roles in maritime health and safety. Up to the 1970s, most knowledge of the health risks of asbestos was derived from studies of workers in asbestos product manufacturing and asbestos mining and milling industries, and certain end-users of asbestos products (particularly insulators). We found that attention to the potential health risks of asbestos to merchant seamen began in the mid- to late 1970s and early 1980s. Findings of pleural abnormalities in U.S. seamen elicited some concern from governmental and industry/labor organizations, but airborne asbestos concentrations aboard merchant ships were found to be <1 f/cc for most short-term repair and maintenance tasks. Responses to this evolving information served to warn seamen and the merchant shipping industry and led to increased precautions regarding asbestos exposure. Starting in the 1990s, findings of modest increases in lung cancer and/or mesothelioma in some epidemiology studies of seamen led some authors to propose that a causal link between shipboard exposures and asbestos-related diseases existed. Limitations in these studies, however, together with mostly unremarkable measures of airborne asbestos on merchant ships, preclude definitive conclusions in this regard.

  15. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  16. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  17. Mesotelioma maligno de pleura com associação etiológica a asbesto: a propósito de três casos clínicos Diffuse malign mesothelioma of pleura etiologically related to asbestos exposure: discussion of three clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. de Capitani

    1997-09-01

    aparecimento destes primeiros casos coincidir com o tempo de latência médio esperado para a ocorrência de MM. Destacam-se, ainda, as necessidades de definição precisa de critérios diagnósticos, para esse tipo de tumor, e criação de registro centralizado de casos.Diffuse Malign Mesotheliomas (DMM has a low background prevalence. High incidences of this tumor have been related to asbestos exposure in the past. PURPOSE. To describe and discuss three clinical cases treated in our hospital, in which precise histopathologic diagnosis was made, and detailed occupational and environmental histories were taken, trying to identify in their past some kind of asbestos exposure. METHODS. Three cases of DMM are described. Diagnosis was confirmed by histochemical analysis and electronmicroscopy. Detailed occupational and environmental histories were taken from subjects and their families, searching for past contact with asbestos. RESULTS. The cases were diagnosed in a short period of time (two years, in a region of the country where many asbestos cement plants are located since the mid sixties. Skillful histological procedures were used. From these cases we found out that one had a twelve months period of exposure, 24 years before, in one of those plants. Another patient had an exposure for three years, as a bystander, in the same plant (also 24 years before and a third patient was contaminated by asbestos brought home by his father in the 1950s (latency period of 30 years. All cases were histochemically studied and diagnosis confirmed by the presence of microvilli at electronmicroscopic examination. CONCLUSIONS. These three cases seem to confirm the existence of the epidemiologic association with asbestos exposure in our country. Definition of diagnosis criteria, centralization of cases registry and the necessity of more attention to this kind of asbestos related disease are discussed and stressed, as many new cases like those described are thought to occur in the near future, as

  18. Collaborative research, participatory solutions: research on asbestos in Kuruman, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Nancy; Kisting, Sophia; Braun, Lundy

    2004-01-01

    The 1998 South African National Asbestos Summit proposed a post-apartheid asbestos policy for the country. In the areas of environmental rehabilitation, health care, and compensation, it envisioned connecting asbestos mitigation to participatory development. In 2001, the Asbestos Collaborative, an international and interdisciplinary team, conducted follow-up research on the recommendations of the 1998 Summit, researching environmental, health, and compensation issues through consultation of documents and interviews with officials in urban areas and with people in Kuruman, a former crocidolite-mining site with high rates of asbestos-related disease. In Kuruman, local opinion supported the recommendations of the Asbestos Summit, insisting that policies to mitigate the problem of asbestos must also address poverty. In the wake of the 2001 research, a new organization, the Asbestos Interest Group (AIG), has been founded to facilitate grassroots participation in asbestos issues. One success of the AIG has been the settlement of a lawsuit by former workers against the former mining company in Kuruman.

  19. Investigation of the actual conditions of asbestos use in school building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.C.; Son, B.H.; Hong, W.H. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Asbestos has been widely used as a construction material due to its high insulation properties, abrasion resistance, and tensile strength. This paper evaluated materials containing asbestos in school buildings in Korea constructed between the 1970s and the 1990s. Interviews with building manager were used in addition to data obtained from building drawings and building registers. The study showed that asbestos was used to form slates, ceiling materials, interior wall materials, and outer-wall materials. Eighty per cent of the asbestos used in Korea was imported. Asbestos amounts were calculated by multiplying the area of construction materials used by the unit weight per m{sup 2} of the asbestos-containing materials, and again by asbestos content. The document survey was not successful in identifying asbestos in all construction materials. A field survey was then conducted in order to collect samples which were then analyzed at a laboratory. Results of the study will be used to plan asbestos control and removal procedures. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States)); Janssen, Y.M. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States) Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1993-04-15

    To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Chemistry of environmental materials. 3. Substitutive materials of asbestos; Kankyo zairyo no kagaku. Asbesto daitai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characteristics of substitutive materials of asbestos. Oxide system fibers are used as substitutes and classified into natural and synthetic fibers. As natural substitute, wollastonite fiber is used, while as synthetic substitute, silicate system, alumina system, zirconia system and potassium titanate system fibers are used. Wollastonite distributes in regional metamorphic rock and contact metamorphic zone between limestone and plutonic rock, and is used as heat insulator and adiabator. Silicate system fiber includes glass fiber, quartz fiber and silica fiber, while alumina system fiber includes alumina/silica fiber and alumina fiber. Glass fiber is composed of non-alkaline boro-silicate glass and classified into lint and staple. As fibers similar to glass staple, rock wool and slag wool are used. Only slag wool is produced in Japan because of its lower cost and higher qualitative stability than those of glass wool. Potassium titanate system fiber offers excellent heat resistance, thermal insulation and frictional resistance. 18 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. 21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device...: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement.”...

  3. Cementation of Loose Sand Particles based on Bio-cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Hui; QIAN Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Loose sand particles could be cemented to sandstone by bio-cement (microbial induced magnesium carbonate). The bio-sandstone was firstly prepared, and then the compressive strength and the porosity of the sandstone cemented by microbial induced magnesium carbonate were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness. In addition, the formed mineral composition and the microstructure of bio-sandstone were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The experimental results show that the feasibility of binding loose sand particles using microbial induced magnesium carbonate precipitation is available and the acquired compressive strength of bio-sandstone can be excellent at certain ages. Moreover, the compressive strength and the porosity could be improved with the increase of microbial induced magnesium carbonate content. XRD results indicate that the morphology of magnesium carbonate induced by microbe appears as needles and SEM results show that the cementation of loose sand particles to sandstone mainly relies on the microbial induced formation of magnesium carbonate precipitation around individual particles and at particle-particle contacts.

  4. Safe Replacement For Asbestos In Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Polyethylene fibers and potassium titanate particles perform as well as asbestos. New material for separators of nickel-hydrogen electrochemical cells offers performance similar to that of asbestos separator material without adverse health effects. In one version, separator contains pure polyethylene fibers, and may or may not contain supplementary latices as bonding agents. In standard wet-laying papermaking process, fibers pressed into mat, then dried. Mat used as is or pressed further in hot calender stack to soften and fuse fibers at crossing points. Treatment reduces porosity and increases resistance of mat to passage of air bubbles under pressure. In alternative version, matrix of 20 to 40 percent polyethylene fibers and 60 to 80 percent potassium titanate particles formed on paper machine, then dried. It, too, can be treated by hot calendering.

  5. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  6. Asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Gambettino, Salvatore; Melazzini, Mario; Scelsi, Mario; Zanon, Claudio; Candura, Stefano M

    2004-01-01

    Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure continues to represent a public health problem, despite increasingly restrictive laws adopted by most industrialized countries. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos-related malignancy. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed recurrent ascites after having been exposed to asbestos in the building industry for > 40 years. Liver function and histology were normal. Abdominal computed tomography initially excluded the presence of expansive processes, and no abnormal cells were found in the ascitic fluid. Laparoscopy showed diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the peritoneum. Histopathology of bioptic samples revealed epithelioid neoplastic proliferation with a tubulopapillary pattern, falsely suggesting metastatic adenocarcinomatosis. In consideration of the occupational history, and after further diagnostic procedures had failed to identify the hypothetical primitive tumor, immunostaining of the neoplastic tissue was performed. Results were negative for carcinoembrionary antigen and the epithelial glycoprotein Ber-EP4, whereas results were positive for the mesothelial markers cytokeratins, calretinin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HBME-1, thus leading to the correct diagnosis of peritoneal epithelial mesothelioma. The Italian Workers' Compensation Authority recognized the occupational origin of the disease. Cytoreductive surgery associated with continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (cisplatin at 42 degrees C, for 1 hr) was performed. The disease relapsed after 4 months and was later complicated by a bowel obstruction requiring palliative ileostomy. The patient died 23 months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the insidious diagnostic problems posed by peritoneal mesothelioma, a tumor which often simulates other malignancies (e.g., metastatic carcinomas) at routine histopathological examination. Occupational history and immunohistochemistry are helpful for the correct

  7. Asbestos: Socio-legal and Scientific Controversies and Unsound Science in the Context of the Worldwide Asbestos Tragedy - Lessons to be Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X

    2016-06-01

    Eight to fifteen per cent of lung cancer cases and nearly all mesothelioma cases are caused by asbestos. Problems in compensation issues ensue from strict legal requirements for eligibility and regulations of the statutory accident insurance institution pertaining to eligibility for occupational disease benefits. The latter include the unscientific requirement for set numbers of asbestos bodies or fibers to be found in lung tissue in order to "prove" disease causation if lung specimen are available. Although the validity of such evidence has been discredited by independent scientists, it is still used as evidence by an influential US pathology department. Frequently, epidemiological evidence regarding causal relationships and exposure histories is also often being ignored by insurance-affiliated medical experts.Similar misleading arguments are currently being used in newly industrialized countries where white asbestos - which is carcinogenic and fibrogenic like other asbestos types - is efficiently promoted as being less harmful. As a result, asbestos use is increasing in some of these countries. Behind the worldwide asbestos tragedy, a well-designed strategy orchestrated by certain transnational or multinational industrial interest groups can be perceived.Beyond the asbestos tragedy their covert plan is motivated by economic interests and discounts the ensuing damage to health and the impact of the diseases they create on public health systems.

  8. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

  9. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Clemente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

  10. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  11. Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Cementation of all-ceramic restorations with resin-cements has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of fracture in service. The aim was to investigate the influence of loading force and loading duration applied during cementation on the reinforcement conferred by a resin-cement on a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic.

  12. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland...

  13. Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kales Stefanos N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. Methods We compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers (22% non-smokers and 177 unexposed controls (50.3% non-smokers. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometric and DCLO Measurement methods were utilized. CXRs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Results Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not FEV1/FVC compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Conclusion Asbestos exposure, especially when radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis from asbestosis is present, leads to significant decreases in FVC, FEV1 and the DLCO. However, asbestos exposure alone is not significantly associated with a reduction of the FEV1/FVC. Smoking-asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO than their non-smoking counterparts. Whether asbestos interacts with smoking additively or synergistically on DLCO needs further investigation. Similarly, further studies are needed to assess the progression and clinical significance of asbestos induced airway dysfunction.

  14. Antibacterial potential of contemporary dental luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugela, Povilas; Oziunas, Rimantas; Zekonis, Gediminas

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the antibacterial activities of different types of dental luting cements and to compare antibacterial action during and after setting. Agar diffusion testing was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of seven types of dental luting cements (glass ionomer cements (GICs), resin modified GICs, resin composite, zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide non-eugenol, zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate cements) on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Instantly mixed zinc phosphate cements showed the strongest antibacterial activity in contrast to the non-eugenol, eugenol and resin cements that did not show any antibacterial effects. Non-hardened glass ionomer, resin modified and zinc polycarboxylate cements exhibited moderate antibacterial action. Hardened cements showed weaker antibacterial activities, than those ones applied right after mixing.

  15. Freezing resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. X.; Lu, L. C.; Wang, S. D.; Zhao, P. Q.; Gong, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of freeze-thaw cycle on the mechanical properties of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement was investigated in the present study. The visual examination was conducted to evaluate the surface damage. The deterioration considering the weight loss, modulus loss of relative dynamic elastic and strength loss of mortar were also investigated. The morphology of hydration products were analysed by SEM. Compared with ordinary Portland cement and sulphoaluminate cement, the frost resistance of high iron phosphoraluminate cement is better. Hydration products of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement contain sheet crystals, and a lot of gel form a dense three-dimensional network structure, which results in a lower porosity. Different from ordinary Portland cement, the hydration product of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement does not contain Ca(OH)2, and low alkalinity reduces its osmotic pressure. The lower porosity and osmotic pressure are the two main reasons which causes in the higher frost resistance of high iron phoasphoaluminate cement.

  16. Retention of asbestos fibres in lungs of workers with asbestosis, asbestosis and lung cancer, and mesothelioma in Asbestos township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A; Bégin, R; Massé, S; Dufresne, C M; Loosereewanich, P; Perrault, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a mineralogical study on the particles retained in the necropsied lungs of a homogenous group of asbestos miners and millers from Asbestos township (and a local reference population) and to consider the hypothesis that there is a difference in size between fibres retained in the lungs of patients with asbestosis with and without lung cancer. METHODS: Samples of lung tissue were obtained from 38 patients with asbestosis without lung cancer, 25 with asbestosis and lung cancer, and 12 with mesothelioma, from necropsied Quebec chrysotile miners and millers from Asbestos township. Fibre concentrations in the lungs of these patients were compared with those in tissue from necropsies carried out on a local reference population: men who had died of either accidental death or acute myocardial infarction between 1990 and 1992. 23 were born before 1940 and 26 after 1940. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were higher in cases than in the controls for chrysotile fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis with or without lung cancer; for tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in all patients; for crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma; for chrysotile and tremolite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis; and crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma. However, median concentrations of each type of fibre in the lungs did not show any significant differences between the three disease groups. Average length to diameter ratios of the fibres were calculated to be larger in patients with asbestosis and lung cancer than in those without lung cancer for crocidolite fibres > or = 10 microns long, for chrysotile, amosite, and tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long, and for chrysotile and crocidolite fibres Asbestos township who had an equal concentration of retained fibres but a tendency to a higher length to diameter

  17. CT characteristics of pleural plaques related to occupational or environmental asbestos exposure from South Korean asbestos mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myong, Jun Pyo [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Kyong [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soon Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluated the CT characteristics of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals and compared occupational versus environmental exposure groups. This study enrolled 181 subjects with occupational exposure and 98 with environmental exposure from chrysotile asbestos mines, who had pleural plaques confirmed by a chest CT. The CT scans were analyzed for morphological characteristics, the number and distribution of pleural plaques and combined pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the CT findings were compared between the occupational and environmental exposure groups. Concerning the 279 subjects, the pleural plaques were single in 2.2% and unilateral in 3.6%, and showed variable widths (range, 1-20 mm; mean, 5.4 ± 2.7 mm) and lengths (5-310 mm; 72.6 ± 54.8 mm). The chest wall was the most commonly involved (98.6%), with an upper predominance on the ventral side (upper, 77.8% vs. lower, 55.9%, p < 0.001) and a lower predominance on the dorsal side (upper, 74.9% vs. lower, 91.8%, p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic involvement (78.1%) showed a right-side predominance (right, 73.8% vs. left, 55.6%, p < 0.001), whereas mediastinal plaques (42.7%) were more frequent on the left (right, 17.6% vs. left, 39.4%, p < 0.001). The extent and maximum length of plaques, and presence and severity of combined asbestosis, were significantly higher in the occupational exposure group (p < 0.05). Pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals are variable in number and size; and show a predominant distribution in the upper ventral and lower dorsal chest walls, right diaphragm, and left mediastinum. Asbestos mine workers have a higher extent of plaques and pulmonary fibrosis versus environmentally exposed individuals.

  18. Evaluation of errors in quantitative determination of asbestos in rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Marini, Paola; Vitaliti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The quantitative determination of the content of asbestos in rock matrices is a complex operation which is susceptible to important errors. The principal methodologies for the analysis are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy (PCOM). Despite the PCOM resolution is inferior to that of SEM, PCOM analysis has several advantages, including more representativity of the analyzed sample, more effective recognition of chrysotile and a lower cost. The DIATI LAA internal methodology for the analysis in PCOM is based on a mild grinding of a rock sample, its subdivision in 5-6 grain size classes smaller than 2 mm and a subsequent microscopic analysis of a portion of each class. The PCOM is based on the optical properties of asbestos and of the liquids with note refractive index in which the particles in analysis are immersed. The error evaluation in the analysis of rock samples, contrary to the analysis of airborne filters, cannot be based on a statistical distribution. In fact for airborne filters a binomial distribution (Poisson), which theoretically defines the variation in the count of fibers resulting from the observation of analysis fields, chosen randomly on the filter, can be applied. The analysis in rock matrices instead cannot lean on any statistical distribution because the most important object of the analysis is the size of the of asbestiform fibers and bundles of fibers observed and the resulting relationship between the weights of the fibrous component compared to the one granular. The error evaluation generally provided by public and private institutions varies between 50 and 150 percent, but there are not, however, specific studies that discuss the origin of the error or that link it to the asbestos content. Our work aims to provide a reliable estimation of the error in relation to the applied methodologies and to the total content of asbestos, especially for the values close to the legal limits. The error assessments must

  19. Analysis of chromosomal alterations induced by asbestos and ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, E; Schiffmann, D

    1998-08-01

    Asbestos and other mineral fibers have long been known as carcinogenic agents. However, the primary mechanisms of fiber-induced carcinogenesis still remain unclear. We have investigated mitotic disturbances caused by amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts. We also analyzed micronucleus formation as a result of mitotic disturbances, and carried out a characterization of the induced micronucleus population by kinetochore staining. In addition, the spindle fiber morphology was examined. Supravital UV-microscopy was used to analyze changes in chromatin structure, impaired chromatid separation and blocked cytokinesis. All three fiber types induced micronuclei in SHE cells with a high frequency (up to 200 MN/2000 cells; dose range: 0.1-5.0 microg/cm2) in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum between 48 and 66 h. Kinetochore staining revealed that 48% of fiber-induced micronuclei reacted positively. Furthermore, spindle deformation was observed in cells with disturbed meta- and anaphases while the spindle fiber morphology appeared unchanged. Our results show that asbestos fibers may cause both loss as well as breakage of chromosomes in the absence of direct interaction with spindle fibers. In addition, we analyzed the induction of micronuclei, hyperdiploidy and chromosome breakage in human amniotic fluid cells (AFC) in vitro by amosite, chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos and ceramic fibers. The response of human (AFC) and rodent (SHE) cells to fiber treatment was compared using the micronucleus assay. AFC were much less susceptible than SHE cells to the induction of micronuclei by mineral fibers. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with tandem DNA probes yielded more detailed informations about specific structural chromosome aberrations in the 1(cen-q12) and 9(cen-q12) regions and about abnormal numbers of chromosomes in interphase AFC. Using this FISH approach we found a statistically significant

  20. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker...

  1. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  2. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on asbestos by R. A. Lemen on March 21, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-21

    The testimony discussed the work conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concerning protection for workers exposed to asbestos (1332214). All commercial forms of asbestos were considered to be carcinogenic. Exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk of contracting asbestos, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos was one of the primary causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It was estimated that since the beginning of World War II as many as eight million workers have been exposed to asbestos. Over one million currently worked where exposure may be a problem. Construction workers involved in the demolition of buildings containing asbestos insulation were at increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Maintenance personnel often repaired machines in asbestos-contaminated work spaces or worked directly with products containing asbestos. NIOSH programs have involved measuring and characterizing asbestos fibers found in the work environment, quantification of the extent of disease among workers through epidemiological studies, and supporting these study results with toxicological experiments. NIOSH has also sponsored educational programs for the public and the training of workers to alert individuals to the dangers of asbestos.

  3. 77 FR 19737 - The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard (29 CFR... specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard protect workers from the adverse health effects that...

  4. 78 FR 2362 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... the readopted and re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.15 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? 102-80.15 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Asbestos § 102-80.15 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? Federal agencies have the following responsibilities concerning...

  6. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection... draft Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). DATES: The meeting will be held on... Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). The SAB panel will comply with the provisions of FACA and all...

  7. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites Not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and Control,''...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF PULVERIZED SLAG-SUBSTITUTED CEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  10. Cementation in adhesive dentistry: the weakest link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Het succesvol bevestigen van tandrestauraties is een belangrijke en veeleisende procedure. Met behulp van cement wordt het restauratiemateriaal aan de tandstructuur verbonden. Op die manier worden twee hechtvlakken gecreëerd: het raakvlak tussen tand en cement, en het raakvlak tussen cement en resta

  11. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  12. Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer: diagnosis, prognosis and burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.

    2012-01-01

    The negative health-related consequences of the use of asbestos have become very clear and widely recognized. This thesis focused on the most frequent asbestos induced cancers: mesothelioma and lung cancer. Mesothelioma A confirmed diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is important to ensure proper me

  13. Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrini Alessandra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT, or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines and growth factors in response to asbestos is likely to play a role in the formation of a fibrinous intrapleural matrix. Benign asbestos related pleural effusions commonly antedate the development of diffuse pleural thickening. Environmental as well as occupational exposure to asbestos may also result in pleural fibrosis, particularly in geographic areas with naturally occurring asbestiform soil minerals. Pleural disorders may also occur after household exposure. High resolution computed tomography (CT is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening, and several classification systems for asbestos-related disorders have been devised. Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET scanning may be useful in distinguishing between DPT and malignant mesothelioma. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It causes a restrictive defect on lung function and may rarely result in respiratory failure and death. Treatment is primarily supportive.

  14. Occupational asbestos exposure: how to deal with suspected mesothelioma cases - the Dutch approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Baas; N. van 't Hullenaar; J. Wagenaar; J.P.G. Kaajan; M. Koolen; M. Schrijver; N. Schlosser; J.A. Burgers

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with asbestos-related diseases, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), are not uniformly treated in Europe when they apply for compensation. In The Netherlands, the Institute of Asbestos Victims (IAV) acts on behalf of patients with a malignant mesothelioma. In the majority of c

  15. Co-exposure to refractory ceramic fibres and asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Rinaldo, Mickael; Gramond, Céline; Ducamp, Stéphane; Gilg Soit Ilg, Annabelle; Goldberg, Marcel; Pairon, Jean Claude; Brochard, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis of an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma due to co-exposure to asbestos and refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) compared to asbestos exposure alone. Males were selected from a French case-control study conducted in 1987-1993 and from the French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program in 1998-2006. Two population controls were frequency matched to each case by year of birth. Complete job histories were collected and occupational asbestos and RCF exposures were assessed using job exposure matrices. The dose-response relationships for asbestos exposure were estimated from an unconditional logistic regression model in subjects exposed to asbestos only (group 1) and subjects exposed to both asbestos and RCF (group 2). A total of 988 cases and 1125 controls ever-exposed to asbestos were included. A dose-response relationship was observed in both groups but it was stronger in group 2. In comparison with subjects exposed at the minimum value of the cumulative index of exposure, the odds ratio was 2.6 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) for subjects exposed to 75 fibres · mL(-1) · year(-1) in group 1 increasing to 12.4 (95% CI 4.6-33.7) in group 2. Our results suggest that the pleural carcinogenic effect of occupational asbestos exposure may be modified by additional exposure to RCF.

  16. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking.

  17. Asbestos in the Schools: A Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carolyn; Rollinson, Mark

    The past few years have created decision-making problems for school managers dealing with asbestos hazards in the past, for failing to do so in the present, and for doing so improperly in the future. This book summarizes the available knowledge pertinent to the decisions that school administrators and others must make regarding asbestos in the…

  18. Asbestos in Our Schools. Taming the Silent Killer. A Handbook for Association Leaders Produced by NEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    In 1984, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that friable asbestos-containing materials were present in 31,000 school buildings throughout the country. Once inhaled, asbestos fibers may remain in the lungs indefinitely and can lead to various diseases. This handbook is intended to provide administrators--in nontechnical…

  19. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  20. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by tw

  1. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  2. Thoughts on the Current Cement Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhihe

    2003-01-01

    According to the analysis of cement capacity andits relations with macro economy running index, the mainreasons for the present rapid development of cement capacityare the rapid development of economy and the shot up ofwhole society fixed asset investment. According to the presentspeed of economy development, cement still enjoys a po-tential increase, So here has not been an overall excessivepopularity of cement industry. The best way to prevent lowlevel repeated construction is to promote the development ofnew dry- process cement as well as try to get rid of blindness.

  3. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  4. Understanding cement mechanical behavior in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Zahacy, T. A. [C-FER Technologies (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but it can cause cracks in the cement sheath. These cracks are the result of high steam temperatures and thermal expansion. In order to mitigate this risk, improved well designs are required. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanical behavior of the cement sheath during the heating phase. An analysis of the impact of design and operating parameters was conducted through thermal hydraulic and thermal mechanical analyses to assess cement integrity. These analyses were then performed on an example of an SAGD project in the southern part of the Athabasca oilsands region to assess the performance of the cement sheath. Results showed that potential damage to the cement can be reduced by slow heating and a lower Young's modulus cement blend. This paper makes recommendations for optimizing cement design in thermal recovery wells.

  5. [Asbestos: Social Legal and Scientific Controversies and Unsound Science in the Context with the Worldwide Asbestos Tragedy - Lessions to be Learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X

    2015-11-01

    8 to 15% of lung cancer cases and nearly all mesothelioma cases are caused by asbestos. Problems in compensation issues refer to high legal as well as insurance barriers in attesting the occupational diseases. Claiming of certain numbers of asbestos bodies or fibers in lung tissue is of special relevance in substantiating legal medical cases. Such evidence, which is disproved by a sound science, is also used by an influential US pathology department. Frequently, also epidemiological evidence with its causal relationships and exposure histories are ignored. Similar misleading arguments are currently found in industrializing countries where white asbestos which is carcinogenic and fibrogenic like other asbestos types, is efficiently promoted as less harm. As a result, the asbestos consumption is increasing in some of these countries. Beyond the worldwide asbestos tragedy a well-designed strategy of certain transnational or global acting industrial interest groups can be recognized. Their plan, hidden from the public eyes, follows rigorously sole economic interests, while leaving the resulting health harm to the public health systems.

  6. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  7. National survey of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Aoe, Keisuke; Takeshima, Yukio; Inai, Kouki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in Japan were investigated retrospectively. We extracted records for 6030 cases of death due to MM between 2003 and 2008 to clarify the clinical features of MM, including its association with asbestos exposure (AE). Of all these cases, a clinical diagnosis of MM was confirmed for 929. The origin of MM included the pleura in 794 cases (85.5%), the peritoneum in 123 cases (13.2%), the pericardium in seven cases (0.8%), and the testicular tunica vaginalis in five cases (0.5%). The histological subtypes of MM included 396 epithelioid (55.9%), 154 sarcomatoid (21.7%), 126 biphasic (17.8%), and 33 cases (4.7%) classified as "other types". Of all the MM cases, AE was indicated in 76.8% and pleural plaques were detected in 34.2%. The number of asbestos particles was determined in 103 cases of MM. More than 1000 asbestos particles per gram dried lung tissue were detected in 74.8% of cases and more than 5000 particles were detected in 43.7% of cases. We compared patient characteristics and the diagnostic procedures for MM before and after the "Kubota shock". Compared with the early phase of this study (2003-2005), the median age at diagnosis of MM was higher, the number of cases without definite diagnosis of MM was lower, the proportion of cases diagnosed by thoracoscopy was higher, and the percentage of cases in which the occupational history was described in the medical records was significantly higher in the later phase (2006-2008). Our study confirmed that more than 70% of MM cases in Japan are associated with AE. The "Kubota shock" may affect some features pertaining to MM.

  8. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  9. Some durability aspects of hybrid alkaline cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatello S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended cements that contain a high content of fly ash and a low content of Portland cement typically suffer from low early strength development and long setting times. Recently, one method of overcoming these problems has been to use an alkali activator to enhance the reactivity of fly ash particles at early ages. Such cements can be grouped under the generic term “hybrid alkaline cements”, where both cement clinker and fly ash, encouraged by the presence of alkalis, are expected to contribute to cementitious gel formation. The work presented here examines some of the durability aspects of high fly ash content hybrid alkaline cement. Specifically, the aspects investigated were: exposure at high temperatures (up to 1000°C, resistance to immersion in aggressive solutions and susceptibility to the alkali aggregate reaction. All tests were repeated with a commercially available sulfate resistant Portland cement for comparison. When exposed to high temperatures, the hybrid alkaline cement showed strikingly different behaviour compared to the control Portland cement, showing fewer micro-cracks and maintaining residual compressive strengths at least equal to original strengths. Beyond 700°C, the hybrid alkaline cement began to sinter, which resulted in shrinkage of around 5% and a 100% increase in residual compressive strengths. No such sintering event was noted in the control Portland cement, which showed a drastic loss in residual compressive strengths upon heating. In immersion tests, the hybrid alkaline cement possessed excellent resistance to sulfate and seawater attack, similar to the control sulfate resistant cement. Both cements were however severely degraded by immersion in 0.1M HCl for 90 days. Both binders complied with the accelerated alkali-aggregate test but when this test was extended, the hybrid alkaline binder showed much greater dimensional stability. Possible reasons for the differences in durability behaviour in both cements

  10. Guidance manual on the estimation of airborne asbestos concentrations as a function of distance from a contaminated surface area for area suspension evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Droppo, J.G.; Peloquin, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; VanHouten, N.C.

    1990-04-01

    This Guidance Manual provides a quantitative approach for estimating the airborne concentrations of asbestos from disturbed soils and surfaces. Asbestos-containing surfaces may include roads surfaced with asbestos-bearing serpentine rock, tailings piles, and landfills. This manual identifies the procedures necessary for estimating airborne concentrations of asbestos in disturbed soils. The manual is to be used in conjunction with the Airborne Asbestos Concentration Estimator System-Area Suspension (AACES-AS) computer code. 44 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  12. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  13. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  14. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Vanesa C; Pietruska, Jodie R; Miselis, Nathan R; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2009-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers.

  15. Risk factors associated with asbestos-related diseases: a community-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Asbestos is a first level carcinogen. However, few epidemiological studies analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and follow up these conditions in the general population. Pleural mesothelioma, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, is the most representative asbestos-related disease. The objectives of this study are to analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and to investigate the incidence of new clinical manifestations in patients already diagnosed with some form of ARD. Methods/Design We have designed a matched case–control study with follow up of both cohorts from a population of a health district of the Barcelona province that has been exposed to asbestos for a period of 90 years. Discussion A better understanding of asbestos-related diseases should improve i) the clinical and epidemiological follow up of patients with this condition; ii) the design of new treatment strategies; iii) and the development of preventive activities. At the end of the study, the two cohorts created in this study (affected cases and healthy controls) will constitute the basis for future research. PMID:23915043

  16. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated.

  17. New insights on the biomineralisation process developing in human lungs around inhaled asbestos fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Giulia; Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Charlet, Laurent; Cedola, Alessia; Belluso, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Once penetrated into the lungs of exposed people, asbestos induces an in vivo biomineralisation process that leads to the formation of a ferruginous coating embedding the fibres. The ensemble of the fibre and the coating is referred to as asbestos body and is believed to be responsible for the high toxicological outcome of asbestos. Lung tissue of two individuals subjected to prolonged occupational exposure to crocidolite asbestos was investigated using synchrotron radiation micro-probe tools. The distribution of K and of elements heavier than Fe (Zn, Cu, As, and Ba) in the asbestos bodies was observed for the first time. Elemental quantification, also reported for the first time, confirmed that the coating is highly enriched in Fe (~20% w/w), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Fe is in the 3+ oxidation state and that it is present in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin. Comparison of the results obtained studying the asbestos bodies upon removing the biological tissue by chemical digestion and those embedded in histological sections, allowed unambiguously distinguishing the composition of the asbestos bodies, and understanding to what extent the digestion procedure altered their chemical composition. A speculative model is proposed to explain the observed distribution of Fe.

  18. Molecular engineering of a fluorescent bioprobe for sensitive and selective detection of amphibole asbestos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Ishida

    Full Text Available Fluorescence microscopy-based affinity assay could enable highly sensitive and selective detection of airborne asbestos, an inorganic environmental pollutant that can cause mesothelioma and lung cancer. We have selected an Escherichia coli histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, H-NS, as a promising candidate for an amphibole asbestos bioprobe. H-NS has high affinity to amphibole asbestos, but also binds to an increasingly common asbestos substitute, wollastonite. To develop a highly specific Bioprobe for amphibole asbestos, we first identified a specific but low-affinity amosite-binding sequence by slicing H-NS into several fragments. Second, we constructed a streptavidin tetramer complex displaying four amosite-binding fragments, resulting in the 250-fold increase in the probe affinity as compared to the single fragment. The tetramer probe had sufficient affinity and specificity for detecting all the five types of asbestos in the amphibole group, and could be used to distinguish them from wollastonite. In order to clarify the binding mechanism and identify the amino acid residues contributing to the probe's affinity to amosite fibers, we constructed a number of shorter and substituted peptides. We found that the probable binding mechanism is electrostatic interaction, with positively charged side chains of lysine residues being primarily responsible for the probe's affinity to asbestos.

  19. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  20. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  1. Asbestos in road surfaces. Forgotten or hidden?; Asbest in Strassenbelaegen. Vergessen oder verheimlicht?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierdzig, Stefan [CRB Analyse Service GmbH, Hardegsen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The problem of asbestos in road surfaces is handled differently in the individual Federal States of Germany. Currently, only in Lower Saxony and partly in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the road surfaces were analysed according to the existence of asbestos with respect to the regulation TRGS 517/BIA 7487. The remaining Federal States assume fundamentally that asphalt may contain asbestos. Protective measures such as milling of road surfaces are applied. Te most Federal States do not supply information on the handling of TRGD 517 when building roads.

  2. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 Ω cm.

  3. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

  4. The Strength of Disease: Molecular Bonds Between Asbestos and Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. S.; Lower, S. K.; Wylie, A. G.; Mossman, B. T.

    2008-12-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos has been linked to the development of life-threatening cancers (i.e., mesothelioma) and diseases (i.e., asbestosis), which can sometimes take decades to appear after initial exposure. There is increasing evidence that environmental exposure to asbestos is a significant public health concern in some regions of the United States, and this type of asbestos contamination could lead to an epidemic of mesothelioma for at least the next two decades. Although mines and regions nearby should be safer with stricter protocols for processing asbestos, the long latent period for asbestos-related diseases makes understanding them an ever-present concern. In addition to the many epidemiological studies, laboratory in vitro and in vivo studies on the biochemical effect of asbestos show that the most trusted predictor for disease is the dosage of longer, thinner chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers. However, many scientists agree that incorporating the many physical and chemical properties of the mineral fibers is needed to properly assess their influence. The study of asbestos-related disease is essentially a multidisciplinary task, requiring knowledge from medicine, biochemistry and mineralogy. To bridge the gap between these disciplines, attention needs to be placed on the molecular communication between the asbestos fibers and the biological environments in which they can be deposited. Our work focused on determining the surface chemical response of riebeckite and crocidolite-its asbestiform counterpart-to changes in salinity and pH. As expected, studies on the mineral surface charge using atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded a slight dependence on pH, as measured by the adhesion force acting on the probe, but not on ionic strength, except at near zero salt concentration. A transition was found for the surface charge of crocidolite above pH 7, where forces at the mineral surface increased. In contrast, the surface charge on riebeckite was

  5. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Substitutionen af fossilt med alternativt brændsel i cement produktionen er steget betydeligt i den sidste dekade. Af disse nye alternative brændsler, udgør de faste brændsler p.t. den største andel, hvor kød- og benmel, plastic og dæk i særdeleshed har været de alternative brændsler der har bidraget med mest alternativ brændsels energi til den tyske cement industri. De nye alternative brændsler er typisk karakteriseret ved et højt indhold af flygtige bestanddele og adskiller sig typisk fra t...

  6. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. RESULTS: GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. CONCLUSION: It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation. PMID:28028417

  7. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (pcement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature.

  8. Center for Cement Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    pastes have shown that the matrix is microporous; mesopores are absent unless the material is allowed to dry out. This results in water adsorption at low...only to water. When subsequently dried a portion of3 the porosity is converted to larger mesopores . • Only about one third of the cement reacts in a...Frictional sliding, in this case was characterized by a decreasing slope in the loading curve followed by hysteresis in the unload/reloading curves

  9. ROTARY SCREW SYSTEMS IN CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of research of rotary-screw systems in relation to the creation of rotary kilns for the annealing of-cuttings in the preparation of cement clinker. Using the proposed design, in comparison with known designs of similar purpose, it significantly improves performance, reduces size and power consumption through the use of rotary screw systems in the form of screw rotors and drums made hollow with sidewalls assembled from separate strips or plates of different geometr...

  10. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green house gases (i.e., CO and CO2 and also saves lot of money in the long run process. A small amount of these gases in environment can cause major problems over time. Use of white cement in composite pavement design where there is heavy traffic loads are acting as well as number of vehicles are more such as junctions, bus stops, check posts etc., can perform better and acts asenvironment friendly. Its light colour reflects more than bituminous pavement so that it can be easily identified and avoid accidents to some extent. White cement helps to lower the average bus stop, junction temperature providing comfort to the people because it has high solar reflectance there by reducing “urban heat island” effect. In addition to this it has some more advantages which increase the sustainability, durability and workability of the pavements.

  11. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecologi...

  12. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

    1988-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  14. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  15. The influence of ultrasound on removal of prefabricated metal post cemented with different resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Feiz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic energy did not decrease the retention of posts cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Furthermore, it seems that there is no significant difference between removal force of self-etch (Panavia and the self-etch self-adhesive (Maxcem Elite resin cements.

  16. Effects of cement flue dusts from a Nigerian cement plant on air, water and planktonic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Victor F; Oluyemi, Emmanuel A

    2010-03-01

    Effects of cement flue dust from Ewekoro cement Kilns were monitored at some aquatic receptor locations. High levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and atmospheric deposition rates (ADRs) were recorded within the factory compared to ancillary locations outside the factory. The TSP and ADR levels which were location dependent were significantly higher (P cement factory catchment areas.

  17. The mechanical effects of different levels of cement penetration at the cement-bone interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, D.; Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical effects of varying the depth of cement penetration in the cement-bone interface were investigated using finite element analysis (FEA) and validated using companion experimental data. Two FEA models of the cement-bone interface were created from micro-computed tomography data and the p

  18. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  19. Frozen delivery of brushite calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Liam M; Hofmann, Michael P; Gbureck, Uwe; Kumarasami, Balamurgan; Barralet, Jake E

    2008-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements typically harden following the combination of a calcium phosphate powder component with an aqueous solution to form a matrix consisting of hydroxyapatite or brushite. The mixing process can be very important to the mechanical properties exhibited by cement materials and consequently when used clinically, since they are usually hand-mixed their mechanical properties are prone to operator-induced variability. It is possible to reduce this variability by pre-mixing the cement, e.g. by replacing the aqueous liquid component with non-reactive glycerol. Here, for the first time, we report the formation of three different pre-mixed brushite cement formulations formed by freezing the cement pastes following combination of the powder and liquid components. When frozen and stored at -80 degrees C or less, significant degradation in compression strength did not occur for the duration of the study (28 days). Interestingly, in the case of the brushite cement formed from the combination of beta-tricalcium phosphate with 2 M orthophosphoric acid solution, freezing the cement paste had the effect of increasing mean compressive strength fivefold (from 4 to 20 MPa). The increase in compression strength was accompanied by a reduction in the setting rate of the cement. As no differences in porosity or degree of reaction were observed, strength improvement was attributed to a modification of crystal morphology and a reduction in damage caused to the cement matrix during manipulation.

  20. Hidration kinetics study of tlie mixed cements

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Fernández, Gabriel . L; Díaz Quintanilla, David; Zapata Sierra, Manuel; Rubio Frías, Ester

    1993-01-01

    A study of the hydration process of cements with 10% and 20% addition of a tuff from "Las Carolinas" quarry (Cienfuegos, Cuba) by different methods was done. The results obtained by different methods showed a good agreement. It was proved an increment of the hydration products, an acceleration of alite hydration and a swelling of the fixed water in mixed cements. The resistance of the cement with 10% addition is similar to that of the pure cement for ages of 28 days, whereas with 20% addition...

  1. Chemical elimination of the harmful properties of asbestos from military facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František; Grabas, Kazimierz; Chęcmanowski, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    This work presents research on the neutralization of asbestos banned from military use and its conversion to usable products. The studies showed that asbestos can be decomposed by the use of phosphoric acid. The process proved very effective when the phosphoric acid concentration was 30%, the temperature was 90°C and the reaction time 60min. Contrary to the common asbestos treatment method that consists of landfilling, the proposed process ensures elimination of the harmful properties of this waste material and its transformation into inert substances. The obtained products include calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate and silica. Chemical, microscopic and X-ray analyses proved that the products are free of harmful fibers and can be, in particular, utilized for fertilizers production. The obtained results may contribute to development of an asbestos utilization technique that fits well into the European waste policy, regulated by the EU waste management law.

  2. [WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F

    2008-01-01

    The article covers analysis of contemporary international documents on asbestosis problem. Suggestions are presented to Russia participation in realization of joint WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  3. Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Asbestos-Related Pleural and Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Roza, Carmen; Cruz Carmona, M Jesús; Fernández Álvarez, Ramón; Ferrer Sancho, Jaume; Marín Martínez, Belén; Martínez González, Cristina; Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio; Romero Valero, Fernando; Villena Garrido, Victoria

    2017-03-06

    Asbestos is the term used for a set of mineral silicates that tend to break up into fibers. Its use has been associated with numerous diseases affecting the lung and pleura in particular, all of which are characterized by their long period of latency. Asbestos, moreover, has been recognized by the WHO as a Group IA carcinogen since 1987 and its use was banned in Spain in 2002. The publication in 2013 of the 3rd edition of the specific asbestos health monitoring protocol, together with the development of new diagnostic techniques, prompted the SEPAR EROM group to sponsor publication of guidelines, which review the clinical, radiological and functional aspects of the different asbestos-related diseases. Recommendations have also been made for the diagnosis and follow-up of exposed patients. These recommendations were drawn up in accordance with the GRADE classification system.

  4. Analysis of asbestos concentration in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Ronald F; Hammar, Samuel P

    2015-02-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm caused by asbestos exposure. The majority of mesotheliomas arise from the pleural lining of the thoracic cavity, but also involve the peritoneal and pericardial cavities. Another type of neoplasm referred to as pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma is rare. Most "pseudomesotheliomas" arise in the pleural tissue of the chest cavity and resemble pleural mesotheliomas, macroscopically and histologically. While most arise in the pleura, there are some that metastasize to the pleura from another site. We evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer and found a significant number to contain an elevated concentration of asbestos in their lung tissue, which is similar with our study of 55 mesothelioma cases published in 1997. This would provide evidence that some pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancers are caused by asbestos.

  5. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

  6. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  7. Cytokine Production Modified by System Xc- After PM10 and Asbestos Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Overocker, Jason; Pfau, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that inhaled particulate matter such as air pollution and asbestos are linked to a number of immune diseases such as asthma, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), respectively. This research may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of how asbestos and air pollution particulate (PM10) produce oxidative stress on macrophages, as well as how the macrophages will respond to the oxidative stressors. Using Flow Cytometry, DCFDA Fluorescence, Glutamate Transport, and Cytoki...

  8. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax; Asbestverursachte Veraenderungen am Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieckel, H.G. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [German] Asbestfasern koennen zu einer Lungenfibrose, zu Verdickungen der Pleura und zu Malignomen fuehren. Diese pathologischen Veraenderungen sind fakultativ und abhaengig von der Asbestart, der Dauer der Exposition und von individuellen Faktoren. Asbest fand bis 1993 in Deutschland breiten Einsatz. Weltweit besteht noch kein Verbot. Mehrheitlich sind asbestbedingte Erkrankungen Folgen beruflicher Expositionen. Bis zu ihrem Auftreten liegen lange Latenzzeiten bis ueber 40 Jahre, sodass das Maximum noch nicht erreicht ist. Asbestverursachte Berufserkrankungen am Thorax sind die Asbestose und asbestverursachte benigne Pleuraerkrankungen sowie das maligne Pleuramesotheliom. Bronchialkarzinome koennen asbestverursacht sein. Zur Beweisfuehrung wird von der

  9. [Epidemiologic research on asbestos related disease in ENEL SpA electricity production plant maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachetta, R; Pira, E; Maroni, M; Bosio, D; Di Prisco, M L

    2003-01-01

    Since many years research programs have been set up to study the relationship between asbestos occupational exposure and development of asbestos-related lung diseases in electricity production plants workers. In the year 2000 a new study of asbestos-related lung abnormalities prevalence in italian geothermal and idrothermal power plant maintenance workers was planned. The cohort comprised 3891 subjects. To meet the criteria, only workers in service for at least six months before 1990 and still in service at power plants in May 2000 were included in the study; chest X-rays were taken and made anonymous. Independent reading of X-rays was made by two groups of specialists, and a third reading of selected discordant readings X-rays was made by another group of specialists. A further diagnostic protocol (including HRCT) was planned when two out of three readings showed the presence of asbestos related lung abnormalities. The analysis was made on 3063 subjects (78.7% of the cohort). The number of asbestos-related abnormalities in two out of three X-ray readings was 122 (4%). The further diagnostic protocol, that included occupational and pathological anamnesis and HRCT, confirmed an asbestos-related occupational lung abnormalities in 41 cases (1.3% out of 3063 subjects). The prevalence of asbestos-related lung abnormalities among 3063 power plant maintenance workers was 1.3%. If all the cases of lung abnormalities so far detected (data are still provisional) had developed only in the power plant environment, and not in previous working activities, the prevalence of lung abnormalities would be extremely low. These data support the evidence of limited exposure levels to asbestos in this working environment And bears witness to the success of preventive measures to control this specific risk.

  10. Morphology and properties of periwinkle shell asbestos-free brake pad

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Yawas; S.Y.Aku; S.G. Amaren

    2016-01-01

    The development of asbestos-free automotive brake pad using periwinkle shell particles as frictional filler material is presented. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of the periwinkle shell, which is largely deposited as a waste, in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Five sets of brake pads with different sieve size (710–125 μm) of periwinkle shell particles with 35% resin were produced using compressive moulding. The physical, mechanical and tribo...

  11. Asbestos-induced lung disease in small-scale clutch manufacturing workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, Dipti; Gahlot, Tanushree; Sah, Ram B.; Saxena, Mayank; Ojha, U. C.; Verma, Anand K.; Spalgais, Sonam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The crocidolite variety of asbestos is banned. However, chrysotile, which is not prohibited, is still used in developing countries in making products such as clutch plate. Fourteen workers from a small-scale clutch plate-manufacturing factory were analyzed for asbestos-induced lung disease as one of their colleagues had expired due to asbestosis. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of workers, the prevalence and type of asbestos-induced lung disease, and the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion test. Materials and Methods: History, examination, chest radiograph, spirometry with diffusion, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax was performed in all the workers. The diagnosis of asbestos-induced lung disease was suspected on the basis of HRCT. This was subsequently confirmed on transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Results: None of the workers had detailed information about asbestos and its ill effects. Eleven out of 14 (71.42%) workers had asbestos-induced lung disease. All 11 had small airway disease (SAD). Three had SAD alone, 6 had additional interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 2 patients had additional ILD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sensitivity and specificity of residual volume (RV) or total lung capacity (TLC) for detecting SAD was 90% and 100%, respectively, and that of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for detecting ILD was 100%. Conclusion: The awareness about asbestos in small-scale clutch-plate manufacturing industry is poor. The usage of chrysotile should be strictly regulated as morbidity and mortality is high. DLCO and RV/TLC are sensitive and specific in detecting nonmalignant asbestos induced lung disease.

  12. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  13. Cancer Attributable to Asbestos Exposure in Shipbreaking Workers: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    Full Text Available Long-term follow-up studies of asbestos-related cancer in shipbreaking workers are lacking. This study examines the relationship between cancer incidence and asbestos exposure among former Taiwan shipbreaking workers.A total of 4,427 shipbreaking workers and 22,135 population-based matched controls were successfully followed in this study. The study cohort was linked to the Taiwan Cancer Registry for new cancer cases. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR for cancer was calculated for the shipbreaking workers with Total Exposure Potential Scores (TEP for asbestos.Follow-up generated 109,932 person-years, with 940 deaths and 436 cancer cases, among 4,427 shipbreaking workers from 1985 to 2008. The high asbestos exposure group also had a statistically significant increase in the risk of overall cancer (aHR= 1.71; 95% CI: 1.42-2.05, esophagus cancer (aHR= 2.31; 95% CI: 1.00-5.41, liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (aHR= 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer (aHR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.80-5.25. Mesothelioma cases were found in the high asbestos exposure group. Moreover, overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer were seen in a dose-dependent relationship with asbestos exposure.This study presented the elevated trend of asbestos exposure with cancer incidence for overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer among shipbreaking workers. Those workers previously exposed to asbestos should receive persistent monitoring in order to early detect adverse health outcomes.

  14. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries Asbesto: seu emprego nos países em desenvolvimento e questões relacionadas ao câncer

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there...

  15. Pleural vasculitides of microscopic polyangiitis with asbestos-related plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Ayako; Kinoshita, Yoshinori; Hosoi, Keita; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Song, Misa; Min, Kyongyob

    2015-12-01

    A 69-year-old man who had been exposed to asbestos for approximately 40 years presented with the complaint of fever and pleuritic chest pain on the right side on deep inspiration. Chest X-ray films showed pleural effusion in the right side. Initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective. The hyaluronic acid level was high in the pleural effusion but no malignant mesotheliomal cells were seen with blind pleural biopsy. Blood chemistry showed a remarkable high titer of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) and open renal biopsy suggested crescentic glomerulonephritis. The precise pathological examination on the pleura obtained by the open pleural biopsy showed vasculitides and plaque leading to diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This is a rare case of MPA seen in the pleural arteries.

  16. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress.

  17. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, V A; Potapovich, A I; Speransky, S D; Maslova, G T

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of macrophages to asbestos fibers resulted in enhancement of the production of oxygen radicals, determined by a lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence (LEC) assay, a formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a LDH release into the incubation mixture, and a rapid lysis of the cells. Rutin (Rut) and quercetin (Qr) were effective in inhibiting LEC, TBARS formation, and reducing peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos. The concentrations pre-treatment of antioxidants that were required to prevent the injury of peritoneal macrophages caused by asbestos by 50% (IC50) were 90 microM and 290 microM for Qr and Rut, respectively. Both flavonoids were found to be oxidized during exposure of peritoneal macrophages to asbestos and the oxidation was SOD sensitive. The efficacy of flavonoids as antioxidant agents as well as superoxide ion scavengers was also evaluated using appropriate model systems, and both quercetin and rutin were found to be effective in scavenging O2.-. These findings indicate that flavonoids are able to prevent the respiratory burst in rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to asbestos at the stage of activated oxygen species generation, mainly as superoxide scavengers. On the basis of this study it was concluded that natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin would be promising drug candidates for a prophylactic asbestos-induced disease.

  18. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  19. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. Objective: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Methods: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Results: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 105 employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 105 employees in Spain to 7·32 per 105 employees in Norway. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain. PMID:25335827

  20. Railways and asbestos in Japan (1928-1987)--epidemiology of pleural plaques, malignancies and pneumoconioses-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Yutaka; Hiraga, Youmei; Sasagawa, Sumiko

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos has been an indispensable insulating material for railway industries, especially steam locomotives (SLs). This review (1928-1987) consists of three parts. 1) Pleural plaques: Since the 1970s, pleural plaques have been regarded as evidence of past asbestos inhalation, and more recently recognized as a risk factor of asbestos-related malignancies. For diagnostic criteria on plain radiographs, the modified ILO 1980 International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses was used. Most cases had pleural plaques with normal lungs. Large plant workers showed a significantly higher rate of plaques than workers in smaller plants. Bilateral plaques were dominant followed by the left, then the right lung, and chest wall plaques were dominant over the diaphragm. The manifestation of pleural plaques was more correlated to years since the onset of the asbestos exposure than the sum of asbestos work years, although the result was not significant. The boilermen of railway ferry steamers had a significantly higher plaque rate than other seamen. CT studies on plaques started in 1978. 2) Asbestos-related malignancies: Five retrospective cohort studies 1960-1970 were made on primary lung cancer incidence and mortality among 350,000 active railway men with smoking information. The follow-up period was 20 yr at the longest. Almost all plant workers showed a tendency of higher incidence or mortality than the controls. Two cases of mesothelioma were reported in 1980. 3) Pneumoconioses: Most studies (1928-1975) had relatively low prevalence rates among SL-related workers.

  1. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

  2. Occult exposure to asbestos in steel workers revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corhay, J.-L.; Delavignette, J.-P.; Bury, T.; Saint-Remy, P.; Radermecker, M.-F. (CHU, Liege (Belgium))

    To investigate the asbestos burden in a steelplant environment, we counted asbestos bodies (ABs) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 65 steel workers who had retired during the previous 5 y. They had worked for at least 15 y in the same area of the plant (coke oven or blast furnace) as maintenance or production workers. On the basis of occupational anamnesis, 28 had occasional past professional exposure to asbestos; the remaining 37 workers denied any contact with asbestos. A total of 54 white-collar workers who had no occupational exposure to asbestos were included in the study as controls. An increased prevalence and concentration of ABs was found in the BALF of steel workers. Electron microscopy and EDAX analysis of AB from steel workers revealed that the core fibers were mainly amphiboles. More ABs were found in the BALF of maintenance workers than in production workers. However, the BALF from steel workers who denied any contact with asbestos revealed an increased AB burden v. controls. This demonstrates that steel workers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the steelplant environment.

  3. Personal exposure to asbestos and respiratory health of heavy vehicle brake mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Durán, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Sarmiento, Olga Lucía; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos brake linings and blocks are currently used in heavy vehicle brake repair shops (BRSs) in Bogotá, Colombia. Some brake products are sold detached from their supports and without holes, requiring manipulation before installation. The aim of this study was to assess asbestos exposures and conduct a preliminary evaluation of respiratory health in workers of heavy vehicles in BRSs. To estimate asbestos exposures, personal and area samples were collected in two heavy vehicle BRSs. Each shop was sampled during six consecutive days for the entire work shift. Personal samples were collected on 10 workers including riveters, brake mechanics, and administrative staff. Among workers sampled, riveters had the highest phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos concentrations, with 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposures ranging between 0.003 and 0.157 f/cm(3). Respiratory health evaluations were performed on the 10 workers sampled. Three workers (30%) had circumscribed pleural thickening (pleural plaques), with calcifications in two of them. This finding is strongly suggestive of asbestos exposure. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that workers in heavy vehicle BRSs could be at excessive risk of developing asbestos-related diseases.

  4. Dual preventive benefits of iron elimination by desferal in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Ohara, Yuuki; Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis is currently a profound social issue due to its extremely long incubation period and high mortality rate. Therefore, procedures to prevent malignant mesothelioma in people already exposed to asbestos are important. In previous experiments, we established an asbestos-induced rat peritoneal mesothelioma model, which revealed that local iron overload is a major cause of pathogenesis and that the induced genetic alterations are similar to human counterparts. Furthermore, we showed that oral administration of deferasirox modified the histology from sarcomatoid to the more favorable epithelioid subtype. Here, we used i.p. administration of desferal to evaluate its effects on asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation and iron deposition, as well as oxidative stress. Nitrilotriacetate was used to promote an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction as a positive control. Desferal significantly decreased peritoneal fibrosis, iron deposition, and nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in mesothelial cells, whereas nitrilotriacetate significantly increased all of them. Desferal was more effective in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells to counteract asbestos-induced cytotoxicity than in murine macrophages (RAW264.7). Furthermore, rat sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were more dependent on iron for proliferation than rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Because inflammogenicity of a fiber is proportionally associated with subsequent mesothelial carcinogenesis, iron elimination from the mesothelial environment can confer dual merits for preventing asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis by suppressing inflammation and mesothelial proliferation simultaneously.

  5. Pilot Analysis of Asbestos-induced Diffuse Pleural Thickening with Respiratory Compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the clinical features of asbestos-induced diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) with severe respiratory compromise. We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive subjects with asbestos-induced DPT. Medical data such as initial symptoms, radiological findings, respiratory function test results, and clinical course were collected and analyzed. There were 24 patients between 2003 and 2012. All were men, and the median age at the development of DPT was 74 years. The top occupational category associated with asbestos exposure was dockyard workers. The median duration of asbestos exposure was 35.0 years, and the median latency from first exposure to the onset of DPT was 49.0 years. There were no significant differences in respiratory function test results between the higher and lower Brinkman index groups or between unilateral and bilateral DPT. Thirteen patients had a history of benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE), and the median duration from pleural fluid accumulation to DPT with severe respiratory compromise was 28.4 months. DPT with severe respiratory compromise can develop after a long latency following occupational asbestos exposure and a history of BAPE.

  6. Asbestos between science and myth. A 6,000-year story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2015-01-22

    Asbestos was used in making pottery in Eastern Finland from around 4000 B.C. In the ancient era and in the Middle Ages, magic properties were frequently attributed to this mineral. In the first century A.D., the Latin encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder reported in his Historia Naturalis that asbestos protects against all poisonings, particularly that of magicians. Moreover, asbestos was often found in places of worship, in Rome as well as in Athens and in Jerusalem. In the Middle Ages asbestos was identified with some animals, such as the salamander and certain white rodents. With such appearance, the mineral  had a huge success in Western as well as in Eastern literature and the fine arts. Marco Polo (1254-1324) in the Milione tried to deny that asbestos was a salamander. Despite its noxious effects, asbestos continues to be used in much of the world. In the 21st century it seems to be maintaining its quality as a magic stone.

  7. Microbial analysis of biofilms on cement surfaces: An investigation in cement-associated peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Walther, Winfried; Marten, Silke-Mareike; Obst, Ursula

    2014-09-05

    The cementation of implant-supported restorations always poses the risk of excess cement retained in the peri-implant sulcus despite careful clinical control. Excess cement can become the basis of colonization by oral microorganisms. As a result of the biofilm formation peri-mucositis or peri-implantitis may develop. Complications were observed in the routine prosthetic restoration of implants when a methacrylate-based cement was used. These developed a few weeks after cementation of the suprastructure and caused bleeding on probing as well as suppuration from the peri-implant tissue. In the revision therapy, excess cement in the peri-implant sulcus was found in many cases. This excess cement was sampled from ten patients and investigated for biofilm formation. For this purpose, the cement samples were collected and analyzed for bacterial in situ colonization by 16S rDNA-based methods. In laboratory experiments, the methacrylate-based cement and two other dental cements were then investigated for their proneness to form biofilm. The results of the in situ and in vitro investigations revealed a strong tendency towards bacterial invasion of the methacrylate-based cement by opportunistic species and pathogens.

  8. Copper Slag Blended Cement: An Environmental Sustainable Approach for Cement Industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmeet Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indian cement industry is facing environmental issue of emission of carbon dioxide (CO2, a greenhouse gas. Blended cements including supplementary cementitious materials are substitute of Portland cement to reduce CO2 emission. The present paper investigates theappropriateness of copper slag (CS as supplementary cementitious material. Strength properties and hydration of mixes were determined at different replacement levels of CS with cement. Compressive, flexural and tensile strength of each mix was found out at different curing periods. The hydration of cement was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD. The strength test results showed that substitution of up to 20% of CS can significantly replace Portland cement.XRD test results were corresponding to strength test results. The present study encourages the utilization of CS as supplementary cementitious material to make economical and environmentally sustainable blended cement

  9. The influence of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Korzen, Migge Sofie Hoffmann; Skibsted, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes effects of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste, which is an important subject in relation to life-time modelling of reinforced concrete structures. The influence of cement type on chloride binding is investigated by substituting cement with pure...... cement clinker. Both theoretical considerations and experimental data for chloride binding in cement pastes are presented. A physico-chemically based model to describe the influence of temperature on physical binding of chloride is presented. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear...... magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used for quantification of the anhydrous and hydrated aluminate and silicate phases in the chloride exposed cement pastes. The 27Al isotropic chemical shift and nuclear quadrupole coupling is reported for a synthetic sample of Friedel's salt, Ca2Al(OH)6Cl×2H2O....

  10. Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Intermediate Species Mediate Asbestos-Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress–Responsive Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sarah X.L.; Partridge, Michael A.; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Davidson, Mercy M.; Sally A Amundson; Hei, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of asbestos-induced human cancers is increasing worldwide, and considerable evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of these diseases. Our previous studies suggested that mitochondria might be involved in the initiation of oxidative stress in asbestos-exposed mammalian cells. Objective: We investigated whether mitochondria are a potential cytoplasmic target of asbestos using a mitochondrial DNA–depleted (ρ0) human small airway epi...

  11. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  12. A note on cement in asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalbegović, G.

    2016-09-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 μm were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 μm.

  13. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  14. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  15. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  17. A note on cement in asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilalbegovic, G

    2016-01-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 microns were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 microns.

  18. Effect of hydrogen sulfide emissions on cement mortar specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idriss, A. F. [Alberta Environment, Science and Technology Branch, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Negi, S. C.; Jofriet, J. C.; Haywoard, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Six different cement mortar specimens used in animal buildings, where they were exposed to hydrogen sulfide generated from anaerobic fermentation of manure during a period of one year, were investigated. Primary interest was on comparing the corrosion resistance of different cement mortar specimens under long term exposure to hydrogen sulfide. The impressed voltage technique was used to test the specimens in the laboratory. Results revealed that test specimens made with eight per cent silica fume cement replacement performed best and similar Portland cement mortar specimens with a water-cement ratio of 0.55 (PC55) the poorest. All other treatments, (Portland cement with a water to cement ratio of 045, Portland cement Type 50, Portland cement with fibre mesh and Portland cement Type 10 coated with linseed oil) all with water-cement ratios of 0.45, were less effective in preventing corrosion than silica fume replacement.

  19. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...... the carbonate looping process to the cement industry. In order to study the application of thecarbonate looping process to cement industry, the project work is divided into three scales: 1) atparticle scale (TGA), 2) at reactor scale (Fluid-bed) and 3) at process scale (process modeling Pro/II).The results from...

  20. Shrinkage Properties of Cement Stabilized Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Cement stabilized gravel is an attractive material in road construction because its strength prop-erties are accommodating the increasingly higher requirements to the bearing capacity of a base course. However, reflection cracking of cement stabilized gravel is a major concern. In this pa......-per the shrinkage properties of cement stabilized gravel have been documented under various temperature and relative humidity conditions. Two cement contents corresponding to a 28-days compressive strength of 6.2 MPa and 12.3 MPa have been tested and compared. It is found that the coefficient of linear expansion...... for the two cement contents is 9.9 × 10-6 ⁰C-1 and 11.3 × 10-6 ⁰C-1, respectively. Furthermore, it is found that reflecting cracking can mainly be explained by temperature dependent shrinkage rather than moisture dependent shrinkage....

  1. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  2. Asbestos: Here's What You Have to Do to Avoid Fines of up to $5,000 a Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephen L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides advice for school systems on developing asbestos abatement plans to comply with EPA regulations. Topics discussed include inspection, management plans, appropriate responses, training, and surveillance. (TE)

  3. "Unleashed on an Unsuspecting World": The Asbestos Information Association and Its Role in Perpetuating a National Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Gerald; Rosner, David

    2016-05-01

    Examining previously underused corporate documents, we revisit the story of the Asbestos Information Association/North America, an industry trade group that sought in the early 1970s to counteract the growing public attention to, and government regulation of, asbestos as a serious threat to workers and consumers. From the mid-1960s through the early 1970s, according to its own spokesperson, asbestos was exposed as "probably the most hazardous industrial material ever unleashed on an unsuspecting world." In retrospect, thousands of lives may have been saved if the Asbestos Information Association had publicly acknowledged this earlier.

  4. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  5. Cements with low Clinker Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lodeiro, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high percentage of mineral additions (fly ash, blast furnace slag), low proportions (clinker and scarce amounts of alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders in comparison to ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. Their enormous versatility in terms of the raw materials used has made them the object of considerable interest. The present study explored the mechanical strength of binary blends mixes; B1= 20% clinker (CK) + 80% fly ash (FA) and B2=20% clinker + 80% blast furnace slag (BFS), both hydrated in the presence and absence of an alkaline activator specifically designed for this purpose. The use of the activator enhanced the development of early age strength considerably. All the hydrated matrices were characterised with XRD, SEM/EDX and (29Si and 27Al) NMR. The use of the alkaline activator generated reaction products consisting primarily of a mix of gels ((N,C)-A-S-H and C-A-S-H) whose respective proportions were found to depend upon system composition and initial reactivity.

  6. Cement compositions for cementing wells, allowing pressure gas-channeling in the cemented annulus to be controlled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parcevaux, P.A.; Piot, B.M.; Vercaemer, C.J.

    1987-01-27

    The invention relates to cement compositions for cementing oil and geothermal wells. These compositions allow pressure gas-channeling to be effectively controlled up to more than about 485/sup 0/F. The compositions according to the invention comprise four essential constituents: a cement, a styrene-butadiene latex, a latex stabilizer, and water. The cement is a hydraulic cement belonging to any class among those currently used for cementing oil wells. The useful stabilizers according to the invention are anionic polyelectrolytes such as lignosulfanates and their desulfonated and/or resulfonated derivatives; sulfonated lignin-Kraft products; melamine-formaldehyde resins modified by a sulfonic acid or sulfite; formaldehyde/sulfonated naphthalene resins; or the condensation products of bi-nuclear sulfonated phenols and of formaldehyde. Preferred are the sodium salts of the condensation product of mononaphthalenesulfonic acid and of formaldehyde. The patent also includes a description of tests of various cement compositions of the invention, plus scanning electron microscope observations. 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Cohort studies on cancer mortality of digestive system among workers exposed to asbestos:a meta-analysis%石棉接触人员消化系统癌症死亡队列研究的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙统达; 陈健尔; 张秀娟; 李秀央

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if there are excessive risks of malignant tumors or not among workers exposed to asbestos by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All clata meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality of digestive system among workers exposed to asbestos would be incorporated into the meta-analysis. The pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites of digestive system were calculated by using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effects model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. Results 69 asbestos-exposed cohorts were summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMR for all deaths (1.16),all cancers (1.42),cancer of digestive system (1.15) and cancer of stomach (1.20) among workers exposed to chrysotile alone or mixed asbestos were observed (P<0.01). The stomach cancer SMR was significantly increased in the asbestos cement workers,the screening mine workes and the insulators, (1.27,1.21 and 2.13 respectively) (P<0.05). meta-SMR for cancers at other sites of digestive system induding esophagus, colon, rectum and liver were not significant. Conclusion There are likely excessive risks of cancer of stomach among workers exposed to asbestos. However, there is likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between asbestos exposure and cancers at other sites of digestive system.%目的 以Meta分析探讨石棉接触者消化系统癌症是否高发.方法 凡满足明确是石棉接触人员且为消化系统癌症死亡率队列研究的资料均被纳入研究对象,以直接法与随机效应模型法计算消化系统主要部位癌症标准化死亡比(SMR)及其95%可信区间(CI),计算Q统计量与Z值检验研究结果异质性及其来源.结果 共有69个队列符合入选标准,单纯接触温石棉、温石棉与闪石类石棉混合作业的人员,全死因、全癌

  8. Sustainable development of the cement industry and blended cements to meet ecological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-05-05

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and--at the same time--uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  9. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and - at the same time - uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  10. Dehydration kinetics of Portland cement paste at high temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    Portland cement paste is a multiphase compound mainly consisting of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) gel, calcium hydroxide (CH) crystal, and unhydrated cement core. When cement paste is exposed to high temperature, the dehydration of cement paste leads to not only the decline in strength, but also th

  11. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  12. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  13. International development trends in low-energy cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, J.; Mueller, A.

    1988-04-01

    Besides the currently dominant tendency to increase the proportion of interground additive in cement, the following development trends are internationally emerging in the material composition of so-called low-energy cements with a view to minimizing energy input for cement manufacture: (1) active belite cement with the principal clinker minerals a'C/sub 2/S and C/sub 3/S; (2) belite sulphoaluminate cement (..beta.. C/sub 2/S, C/sub 4/A/sub 3/S); (3) belite sulphoferrite cement (..beta.. C/sub 2/S, C/sub 4/AF, C/sub 4/A/sub 3/S); (4) NTS cement (alinite).

  14. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  15. Effect of cementing technique and cement type on thermal necrosis in hip resurfacing arthroplasty - a numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.; Srinivasan, P.; Scheerlinck, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Femoral fractures within resurfacing implants have been associated with bone necrosis, possibly resulting from heat generated by cement polymerization. The amount of heat generated depends on cement mantle volume and type of cement. Using finite element analysis, the effect of cement type and volume

  16. The behavior of the micro-mechanical cement-bone interface affects the cement failure in total hip replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, D.; Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the effects of different ways to implement the complex micro-mechanical behavior of the cement-bone interface on the fatigue failure of the cement mantle were investigated. In an FEA-model of a cemented hip reconstruction the cement-bone interface was modeled and numerically im

  17. Comparison of Temperature Field Distribution between Cement Preclinkering Technology and Cement Precalcining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xun; WANG Lan

    2016-01-01

    Through the comparison of calcination conditions between cement preclinkering technology and cement precalcining technology, we studied the characteristics of temperature ifeld distribution of cement preclinkering technology systems including cyclone preheater, preclinkering furnace, and rotary kiln. We used numerical simulation method to obtain data of temperature ifeld distribution.Some results are found by system study. The ratio of tail coal of cement preclinkering technology is about 70%, and raw meal temperature can reach 1070℃. ShorterL/D kiln type of preclinkering technology can obtain more stable calcining zone temperature. The highest solid temperature of cement preclinkering technology is higher than 80℃, and high temperature region (>1450℃) length is 2 times, which is beneifcial for calcining clinker and higher clinker quality. So cement preclinkering technology can obtain more performance temperature ifled, which improves both the solid-phase reaction and liquid-phase reaction.

  18. INFLUENCE OF GLASS CULLET IN CEMENT PASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Karamberi; E.Chaniotakis; D.Papageorgiou; A.Moutsatsou

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates glass and cement compatibility with a view to use glass as a cement replacement. Amber, flint and green glasses were chosen due to their prevalence in the Greek market as packaging materials. The factors under investigation were the pozzolanicity of the glass cullet, the hydration rate and the mechanical strength development of the cement pastes, as well as the expansion of the specimens due to alkali-silica reaction.Moreover, the potential enhancement of glass pozzolanic activity was examined. The results of the study were encouraging to show the potentiality of utilising glass cullet in cementitious products.

  19. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  20. The mineralogy and chemistry of cement and cement raw materials In the united arab emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El Etr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The raw materials, clinkers and cements from different cement factories in the United Arab Emirates have been investigated using polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analyses. The chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that the local raw materials are suitable for cement industry. Geological review shows that there is a good potential for industrial-grade local occurrences of limestone, marl, gypsum and iron oxide, that may be ...

  1. Cement Manufacturing Plant Guidelines: An Approach to Reconciling the Financing of Cement with Climate Change Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cement manufacturing is an energy-intensive process, requiring high fuel consumption to operate cement kilns, which in turn generates carbon dioxide (CO2). These Guidelines aim to provide clear and quantitative Minimum Climate Change Performance Criteria necessary for IDB to support projects, as well as guidance on assessing and reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of projects. The purpose of the Cement Manufacturing Plant guidelines is to set forth an approach for the financing of new...

  2. Linking rock fabric to fibrous mineralisation: a basic tool for the asbestos hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vignaroli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies have addressed the effect on human health caused by asbestos exposures. As asbestos is a group of fibrous minerals that mainly occurs in mafic and ultramafic rocks (ophiolitic sequences, a close relationship between asbestos occurrence and the geological history of host rocks should be expected. By reviewing the existing literature and presenting characteristic examples, it is proposed a direct correspondence exists between the presence of fibrous minerals in ophiolites and the rock fabric systematics due to the combined activity of deformation, metamorphism/metasomatism, and rock/fluid interaction. Understanding the geological factors that may be at the origin of the nucleation/growth of fibrous minerals constitutes a necessary requirement for developing a methodological and analytical procedure to evaluate asbestos hazard (AH in the natural prototype (ophiolitic rocks. A parameterisation of the AH in function of the main geological processes that produce the rock fabric systematics in different tectonic/geodynamic settings is discussed. A geological multidisciplinary approach (based on geological-structural field evidence combined with textural, mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical investigations is proposed as the prerequisite for the evaluation of AH in natural environments. This approach, in particular, can provide a robust basis to formulate a procedural protocol finalised to the mitigation of asbestos effects in environments where these effects are still a real threat.

  3. Asbestos removal and disposal information system: a user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, P.S.; Eisenhower, B.M.

    1982-10-01

    Program ASBS01, written for the staff of the Department of Environmental Management (DEM) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is an on-line management information system that provides file maintenance and information retrievability for demolition and/or renovation operations involving friable (capable of becoming an airborne health hazard) asbestos material at the Laboratory. System 1022 is the data base management system used. The screen processor SCOPE provides the DEM staff with system prompts for ease of use and data integrity. Data for the system comes from two UCN forms: (1) Notice of Intention to Demolish or Renovate Friable Asbestos Material (UCN-13385) and (2) Request for the Disposal of Asbestos or Material Containing Asbestos (UCN-13386). Examples of the forms are in Appendix A. Data is entered into the system as requests are submitted to DEM. Total amounts of friable asbestos removed in demolition and/or renovation operations can be generated by the program upon user request. These totals are submitted in a quarterly report to the Environmental Protection Branch of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on a continuing basis (see Appendix B). This report describes the operation of the computer program ASBS01 from data entry to generation of totals. Each data attribute of the master file ASBSTO.DMS is described in detail, and a sample session is given for user reference.

  4. Fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes: The health impact of ‘asbestos-like’ fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIOZZI, EDOARDO; RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; MARCONI, ANDREA; COSTA, CHIARA; POLITO, IRENE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO; FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Several decades have passed since Wagner et al demonstrated a causal link between asbestos fibre inhalation and the development of pleural mesothelioma in 1960. It was later suggested that pleural plaques are a benign consequence of exposure to these fibres. Most recently, a significant association between exposure to asbestos and cancer diagnosed at various sites, such as the peritoneum, stomach, pharynx, colon and ovaries has been demonstrated. The great concerns about public health that arose from the scientific evidence presented above have led to the banning of asbestos in several countries. Over the years, the suspicion that particles with a high aspect ratio may have asbestos-like pathogenicity has been supported by increasing evidence. Natural occurring minerals, as well as man-made fibres, have proven capable of inducing either chronic inflammation of serous membranes, or, in some cases, the development of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. The pathogenic role of both fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes, two ‘asbestos-like’ fibres is summarized and discussed in this review. The data presented herein support the notion that occupational exposure to these two types of fibre contributes to the development of different types of cancer. PMID:26889212

  5. Fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes: The health impact of 'asbestos-like' fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzi, Edoardo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Marconi, Andrea; Costa, Chiara; Polito, Irene; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Several decades have passed since Wagner et al demonstrated a causal link between asbestos fibre inhalation and the development of pleural mesothelioma in 1960. It was later suggested that pleural plaques are a benign consequence of exposure to these fibres. Most recently, a significant association between exposure to asbestos and cancer diagnosed at various sites, such as the peritoneum, stomach, pharynx, colon and ovaries has been demonstrated. The great concerns about public health that arose from the scientific evidence presented above have led to the banning of asbestos in several countries. Over the years, the suspicion that particles with a high aspect ratio may have asbestos-like pathogenicity has been supported by increasing evidence. Natural occurring minerals, as well as man-made fibres, have proven capable of inducing either chronic inflammation of serous membranes, or, in some cases, the development of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. The pathogenic role of both fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes, two 'asbestos-like' fibres is summarized and discussed in this review. The data presented herein support the notion that occupational exposure to these two types of fibre contributes to the development of different types of cancer.

  6. [Asbestos in pre-industrial times: from natural wonder to subject of scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, F

    2012-01-01

    The author proposes a reading of "Concerning incombustible flax or asbestos stone" which was published in 1696 by Giovanni Giustino Ciampini, who was a historian, a man of the church and scientist in Rome. The text, which was originally written in Latin, is an excellent and early description of the need felt by the majority of scientists in Europe at that time for a change in method: that is, to use scientific experiments to explain and control the natural phenomena observed and even perhaps mythologized right from antiquity. In the case of asbestos this was necessary to check the veracity and consistency of a series of recommendations handed down by the earliest authors but also to revive and reinvent the techniques that had largely been lost so as to be able to utilize and develop a substance that it was thought could be of great benefit to society. In the presentation of Ciampini's text an attempt is made to recall and contextualize the earliest knowledge on asbestos and follow its evolution over a long historical period, up to the first half of the nineteenth century. It can thus be seen how asbestos, once considered "a wonder of nature", became a raw material widely used in industrial applications. The most significant steps in this phase of transformation were taken thanks to Italian entrepreneurs and technicians and to the presence of asbestos in the Alpine valleys of Italy.

  7. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pette, Gregory A; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Norkin, Frederic J

    2013-01-01

    Cement-retained restorations allow for a conventional fixed partial denture approach to restoring dental implants. However, inadequate removal of excess cement at the time of cementation may introduce a severe complication: cement-induced peri-implantitis. Radiopaque cements are more easily detected on radiographs and should improve the recognition of extravasated cement at the time of insertion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of commercially available cements in vitro. Eighteen different cements commonly used for luting restorations to implants were tested at both 0.5- and 1.0-mm thicknesses. The cements examined were zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide, zinc polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, urethane resin, resin, and composite resin. Two samples of each cement thickness underwent standardized radiography next to an aluminum step wedge as a reference. The mean grayscale value of each of the nine 1-mm steps in the step wedge were used as reference values and compared to each of the cement samples. Temp Bond Clear (resin), IMProv (urethane resin), Premier Implant Cement (resin), and Temrex NE (resin) were not radiographically detectable at either sample thickness. Cements containing zinc were the most detectable upon radiographic analysis. There are significant differences in the radiopacity of many commonly used cements. Since cementinduced peri-implantitis can lead to late implant failure, cements that can be visualized radiographically may reduce the incidence of this problem.

  8. Laboratory development and field application of novel cement system for cementing high-temperature oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.; Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Yang, Y. [SINOPEC, Beijing (China); Shan, H.; Xiao, Z. [OPT, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    The challenges that oil and gas well engineers face when cementing mid-to-high temperature exploration oil and gas wells were discussed. A newly developed cement system with an effective laminar-flow spacer was presented along with case histories that document the system's effectiveness for cementing high temperature exploration wells. The problems associated with cementing high temperature exploration wells include high bottom hole static temperature; very low pump rates; and very long job times. These challenges contribute to the operational risks during cement slurry placement in the wellbore as well as during cement sheath setting during the life of the well. The new cement formulation presented in this paper addresses these challenges. Eight jobs have been completed in the field with much success. The combination of a new retarder and fluid loss control additive improves the system performance considerably in terms of low fluid loss rate, minimal free water, proper rheology, predictable thickening time, high resistance to salt contaminations and no adverse effect on set cement strength. The drilling muds are effectively displaced by the laminar flow spacer, thus improving the cementing bond. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

  10. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identification and quantitation of asbestos in bulk material samples that have undergone prior analysis by PLM or... must be analyzed initially for asbestos content by PLM. XRD should be used as an auxiliary method when... (sample size, homogeneity, particle size distribution, and overall composition as determined by PLM);...

  12. The biological effects of magnesium-leached chrysotile asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A.; Davies, P.; Wagner, J. C.; Berry, G.; Holmes, A.

    1977-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos was leached in N hydrochloric acid for varying times to produce a range of magnesium-depleted samples. The protein adsorptive capacity, the haemolytic activity, and the capacity to cause selective release of acid hydrolases from macrophages were measured for the various samples in vitro. The carcinogenicity of the same materials was determined following intrapleural inoculation in rats. The adsorptive capacity for albumin decreased linearly with magnesium removal. The haemolytic activity also declined until about half the magnesium had been removed, after which there was little further change. The selective release of acid hydrolases from macrophages in culture increased up to the point at which half the magnesium had been removed but by 90% depletion had declined rapidly. The carcinogenicity of 50% -depleted chrysotile was similar to that of intact, but at 90% depletion the incidence of mesothelial tumours had fallen considerably. There was no evidence that the leached samples fragmented more than the unleached in vivo. Images Fig. 1 PMID:588440

  13. Malignant mesothelioma after environmental exposure to blue asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; de Klerk, N H; Eccles, J L; Musk, A W; Hobbs, M S

    1993-06-19

    To determine the magnitude of the population at risk from non-occupational exposure to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia (WA), a cohort of 4,890 residents who never worked for the mining company Australian Blue Asbestos (ABA) has been assembled from all 18,553 available records: the local school register, hospital attendances, the WA electoral roll, birth certificates, workers who answered a mailed questionnaire in 1979, participants in a cancer-prevention programme using vitamin-A dietary supplements, and other sources. The majority of subjects were relatives and friends of ABA employees, and nearly half the cohort were either born at Wittenoom or first went there as children under 10 years of age. As most residents were at Wittenoom when the mine and mill were in operation during the period 1943 to 1966, 82% were first exposed to crocidolite 20 or more years ago. The proportion of other workers (i.e., not employed by ABA) and their families increased once the mining operations ceased. To date, 24 cases of mesothelioma have been reported in this cohort: 9 males and 15 females. Time from first exposure to diagnosis ranged from 23 to 44 years and residence in Wittenoom ranged from 6 weeks to 11 years.

  14. Inhibition of cytokinesis by asbestos and synthetic fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C G; Watson, M

    1999-01-01

    Using high-resolution timelapse microscopy, we have followed individual phagocytized fibres through the later stages of division in MeT-5A human mesothelial cells and LLC-MK(2)monkey epithelial cells. The fibres used were crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, fibrous glass (MMVF), and refractory ceramic fibres (RCF). Long fibres (15-80 microm) trapped within the cleavage furrow can partially or completely block cytokinesis. Cells proceed in one of three ways: (1) eventual completion of cytokinesis; (2) incomplete cytokinesis, resulting in two cells joined by a fibre-containing intercellular channel; or (3) failure of cytokinesis, resulting in a binucleate or trinucleate cell. Two factors associated with fibre-induced bi/trinucleation are: (1) an initial association between the fibre and the forming daughter nuclei, which is sometimes lost over time, and (2) disintegration of the midbody. The studies suggest that delay of cytokinesis by interzonal fibres can result in bi/trinucleation through the loss of midbody/intercellular bridge proteins that are required for completion of cytokinesis.

  15. Mapping potentialy asbestos-bearing rocks using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Kokaly, R.F.; Higgins, C.T.; Clinkenbeard, J.P.; Clark, R.N.; Lowers, H.A.; Sutley, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Rock and soil that may contain naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), a known human carcinogen, were mapped in the Sierra Nevada, California, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to determine if these materials could be uniquely identified with spectroscopy. Such information can be used to prepare or refine maps of areas that may contain minerals that can be asbestiform, such as serpentine and tremolite-actinolite, which were the focus of this study. Although thick vegetation can conceal underlying rock and soil, use of linear-mixture spectra calculated from spectra of dry grass and serpentine allowed detection of serpentine in some parts of the study area with up to ???80% dry-grass cover. Chaparral vegetation, which was dominantly, but not exclusively, found in areas underlain by serpentinized ultramafic rocks, was also mapped. Overall, field checking at 201 sites indicated highly accurate identification by AVIRIS of mineral (94%) and vegetation (89%) categories. Practical applications of AVIRIS to mapping areas that may contain NOA include locating roads that are surfaced with serpentine aggregate, identifying sites that may require enhanced dust control or other safety measures, and filling gaps in geologic mapping where field access is limited. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  16. The Setting Chemistry of Glass Ionomer Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hanting; LIU Hanxing; ZHANG Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    The setting chemistry of glass ionomer cement was investigated by using mechanical determination of compressive strength at predetermined intervals, and measurement of structure changes of corresponding fracture sample by means of IR spectra and differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC). Zinc polycarboxylate cement was used as a comparison sample. The compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) increases with aging. IR spectra and DSC of corresponding fracture sample show the structure changes of the matrix and interface layer comprising of silica gel during the predetermined intervals studied, however, no significant changes occur in the zinc polycarxyolate cement. Hence the structure changes of the matrix and/or interface layer are responsible for compressive strength increasing with aging. The structure changes include the crosslink density, the ratio of complex form to ionic form, the content ratio of Al-PAA to Ca-PAA, the forming and mauring process of the interface layer comprising of silica gel.

  17. Dicalcium phosphate cements: brushite and monetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Barralet, Jake

    2012-02-01

    Dicalcium phosphate cements were developed two decades ago and ever since there has been a substantial growth in research into improving their properties in order to satisfy the requirements needed for several clinical applications. The present paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding research field of the two main dicalcium phosphate bioceramics: brushite and monetite. This review begins with a summary of all the different formulae developed to prepare dicalcium phosphate cements, and their setting reaction, in order to set the scene for the key cement physical and chemical properties, such as compressive and tensile strength, cohesion, injectability and shelf-life. We address the issue of brushite conversion into either monetite or apatite. Moreover, we discuss the in vivo behavior of the cements, including their ability to promote bone formation, biodegradation and potential clinical applications in drug delivery, orthopedics, craniofacial surgery, cancer therapy and biosensors.

  18. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  19. Dynamic properties of composite cemented clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡袁强; 梁旭

    2004-01-01

    In this work,the dynamic properties of composite cemented clay under a wide range of strains were studied considering the effect of different mixing ratio and the change of confining pressures through dynamic triaxial test. A simple and practical method to estimate the dynamic elastic modulus and damping ratio is proposed in this paper and a related empirical normalized formula is also presented. The results provide useful guidelines for preliminary estimation of cement requirements to improve the dynamic properties of clays.

  20. Physical Properties of Acidic Calcium Phosphate Cements

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The gold standard for bone replacement today, autologous bone, suffers from several disadvantages, such as the increased risk of infection due to the need for two surgeries. Degradable synthetic materials with properties similar to bone, such as calcium phosphate cements, are a promising alternative. Calcium phosphate cements are suited for a limited amount of applications and improving their physical properties could extend their use into areas previously not considered possible. For example...

  1. Cement stratigraphy: Image probes of cathodoluminescent facies.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillemin, Aurèle; Ndiaye, Mapathe; Martini, Rossana; Davaud, Eric Jean

    2011-01-01

    Cement stratigraphy of carbonates aims to establish the chronology of processes involved in the rock diagenesis. Regional cement stratigraphy allows correlations and understanding of the petrological heterogeneities in reservoirs and aquifers, but is a long and rigorous approach. This article exposes a methodology of image analysis that facilitates the spatial correlation of diagenetic events in carbonate rocks. Based on the statistical comparison of signals extracted from the red spectrum em...

  2. Low-cycle fatigue of surgical cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In case when surgical cement is used to fix endoprostheses of joints the fatigue character of mechanicalinterraction in the cement seems to be a significant importance. The paper suggests to adapt the research methodof low cycle fatigue for modelling the loads on surgical cements in an artificial hip joint. Surgical cements havealso been modified in order to improve their functional properties.Design/methodology/approach: Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted on samples made from Palamedcement without an addition and on samples modified with glassy carbon and titanium. The tests were conductedon a servohydraulic fatigue testing machine, MTS-810, with displacement control.Findings: Fatigue tests proved viscoelastic character of all the tested materials. During the fatigue tests, thephenomenon of stress cyclic relaxation was observed.Research limitations/implications: Modelling the loadings of cement in endoprostheses of joints with the lowcycle fatigue method takes into account all high value stresses, while cement is being used for endoprosthesesfor many years in the conditions of random stress and deformation courses. Therefore the obtained stress anddeformation values are bigger than those which would have been obtained in real conditions in the same time.Practical implications: The low cycle fatigue tests carried out showed how important is the factor of timefor the behavior of surgical cement in the conditions of changeable loadings. This fact is essential to assessits usability for endoprosthesoplasty of joints, specially of a hip joint. Post deformation return which is acharacteristic feature for material viscoelasticity enables its regeneration conditioning expected durability ofendoprosthesis of joints.Originality/value: Low cycle fatigue testing method for modelling of loads on surgical cement in artificial hipjoint enables to carry out the tests in a shorter period of time.

  3. Continued stabilization of Triathlon cemented TKA

    OpenAIRE

    Molt, Mats; Ryd, Leif; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up. Patients and methods 60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D t...

  4. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  5. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction analyses of asbestos in the World Trade Center dust:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Livo, Keith E.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    On September 17 and 18, 2001, samples of settled dust and airfall debris were collected from 34 sites within a 1-km radius of the WTC collapse site, including a sample from an indoor location unaffected by rainfall, and samples of insulation from two steel beams at Ground Zero. Laboratory spectral and x-ray diffraction analyses of the field samples detected trace levels of serpentine minerals, including chrysotile asbestos, in about two-thirds of the dust samples at concentrations at or below ~1 wt%. One sample of a beam coating material contained up to 20 wt% chrysotile asbestos. Analyses indicate that trace levels of chrysotile were distributed with the dust radially to distances greater than 0.75 km from Ground Zero. The chrysotile content of the dust is variable and may indicate that chrysotile asbestos was not distributed uniformly during the three collapse events.

  6. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for the Determination of Asbestos Species in Bulk Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Accardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT spectroscopy is a well-known technique for thin film characterization. Since all asbestos species exhibit intense adsorptions peaks in the 4000–400 cm−1 region of the infrared spectrum, a quantitative analysis of asbestos in bulk samples by DRIFT is possible. In this work, different quantitative analytical procedures have been used to quantify chrysotile content in bulk materials produced by building requalification: partial least squares (PLS chemometrics, the Linear Calibration Curve Method (LCM and the Method of Additions (MoA. Each method has its own pros and cons, but all give affordable results for material characterization: the amount of asbestos (around 10%, weight by weight can be determined with precision and accuracy (errors less than 0.1.

  7. Lymphoproliferative disorder in pleural effusion in a subject with past asbestos exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Hara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that presents as serous effusions without detectable masses or organomegaly. Here we report a case of PEL-like lymphoma in a patient with past asbestos exposure. A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion. He had been exposed to asbestos for three years in the construction industry. Chest X-ray and CT images demonstrated left pleural effusion. Cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed large atypical lymphocytes with distinct nuclear bodies and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the cells were CD20+, CD3−, CD5−, and CD10−. These findings led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PEL or PEL-like lymphoma should be considered a potential cause of pleural effusion in subjects with past asbestos exposure.

  8. Cancer mortality in a surveillance cohort of German males formerly exposed to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Taeger, Dirk; Johnen, Georg; Gross, Isabelle M; Weber, Daniel G; Gube, Monika; Müller-Lux, Alice; Heinze, Evelyn; Wiethege, Thorsten; Neumann, Volker; Tannapfel, Andrea; Raithel, Hans-Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Kraus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was the estimation of the cancer risks of asbestos and asbestosis in a surveillance cohort of high-exposed German workers. A group of 576 asbestos workers was selected for high-resolution computer tomography of the chest in 1993-1997. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and Poisson regression was performed to assess mesothelioma risks. A high risk was observed for pleural mesothelioma (SMR 28.10, 95% CI 15.73-46.36) that decreased after cessation of exposure (RR 0.1; 95% CI 0.0-0.6 for > or =30 vs. <30 years after last exposure). Asbestosis was a significant risk factor for mesothelioma (RR 6.0, 95% CI 2.4-14.7). Mesothelioma mortality was still in excess in former asbestos workers although decreasing after cessation of exposure. Fibrosis was associated with subsequent malignancy.

  9. Role of iron-mediated free-radical generation in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Poole, A; Turver, C J; Vann, C

    1987-01-01

    While the in vitro toxicity of mineral fibres is largely determined by the number of long thin fibres present, there are a number of contradictory reports in the literature as to whether the production of oxygen free radicals is also involved and whether the addition of antioxidants or radical scavengers can ameliorate or prevent asbestos-induced cytotoxicity. We report here that crocidolite and other types of amphibole asbestos are less toxic to two cell lines in low oxygen concentrations. The treatment of these fibres with the iron chelator Desferral also reduced the toxicity of the amphiboles. The activity of chrysotile asbestos was not affected by oxygen tension and the cytotoxic effects of Desferral and chrysotile were additive.

  10. Influence of Cellulose Ethers on Hydration Products of Portland Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Baoguo; OU Zhihua; JIAN Shouwei; XU Rulin

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are widely used to mortar formulations, and it is significant to understand the interaction between cellulose ethers and cement pastes. FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis and SEM are used to investigate hydration products in the cement pastes modified by HEMC and HPMC in this article. The results show that the hydration products in modified cement pastes were finally identical with those in the unmodified cement paste, but the major hydration products, such as CH (calcium hydroxide), ettringite and C-S-H, appeared later in the modified cement pastes than in the unmodified cement paste. The cellulose ethers decrease the outer products and increase inner products of C-S-H gels. Compared to unmodified cement pastes, no new products are found in the modified cement pastes in the present experiment. The HEMC and HPMC investigation shows almost the same influence on the hydration products of Portland cement.

  11. Guidance manual on the estimation of airborne asbestos concentrations as a function of distance from a contaminated roadway for roadway screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Droppo, J.G.; Peloquin, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; VanHouten, N.C.

    1990-04-01

    This Guidance Manual provides a quantitative approach for estimating, for the purpose of screening/ranking, the airborne concentrations of asbestos from roads surfaced with asbestos-bearing serpentine rock. This manual identifies the procedures necessary for estimating screening-level airborne concentrations of asbestos in disturbed soils associated with roadways whose surfacing material contains asbestos fibers. The manual is to be used in conjunction with the Airborne Asbestos Concentration Estimator System-Roadway Screening (AACES-RS) computer code. 12 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  13. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: 130 Italian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Carnuccio, R; Valenti, D; Lodi, P; Amaducci, E

    1995-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and particularly on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. One hundred and thirty cases of mesothelioma (122 pleural, 1 pericardial, 6 peritoneal and 1 pleuro-peritoneal), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were reported. Fifty-three of these cases (among which 49 reported in the Emilia Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Seventy-seven cases of mesothelioma occurred among occupationally exposed FS workers, in particular machinists; 45 cases occurred among rolling-stock machinists and workers engaged in the repair and demolition of the rails of workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock, not belonging to the FS; and 5 cases were found in family members (1 daughter, 3 wives and 1 sister) of railroad workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, and the automatic compensation for tumours following the exposure to the asbestos used in railroads.

  14. [Dynamic studies of the leukocyte phagocytic activity after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbánková, M

    1993-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the dynamic one-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of Wistar-rats peripheral blood leukocytes following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres (Man-Made Mineral Fibres--MMMF). We investigated the phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres to rats 2, 24, 48 h as well as 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months after dosing. We investigated the time dependent of the changes of relative granulocytes count, percentage of phagocytizing cells from leukocytes, percentage of phagocytizing granulocytes and percentage of phagocytizing monocytes. The results of our experiment showed that asbestos and basalt fibres differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Granulocyte count as well as the phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the one-year dynamic follow-up in both dust--exposed groups of animals were found to change in two phases, characterised by the initial stimulation of the acute phase (I), followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase (II). Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibres led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibres at the same time significantly decreased also the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibres did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. It follows from the results of the experiment, that the monocytic component of leukocytes probably plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts and basalt fibres have smaller biological effects compared with asbestos fibres.

  15. Asbestos Survey for Fort Point U.S. Coast Guard Station, Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    MATERIAL 1 95-100 % ITOTAL PERCENT ASBESTOS: N.D- %1 SCOMMENTS: IN.D. = NONE DETECTED TRACE = LESS THAN I -A I DESCRIPTION OF ANALYSIS: Bulk Asbest ,-,s...Virginia 22151 * Telephone: (703) 750-3000 * 1-800-283-7727 1 Ifervar I JIIDrelIIories’ NC SI ---- I fl L]LAORATOiRY RLP(JRT - BUL( ASBEST -OS ANALYSIS Site...ir Bulk In sulatio r Samples, EPA-60/M4-82-020. Marcie L. Wilsor, R.A. CLARKE Asbest -z-s Lab Manager Asbestos Analyst 6850 Versar Center • P. O. [3ox

  16. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  17. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE CONTAMINACIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA POR ASBESTO EN EL CENTRO DE LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Acero Rosales, Tomás; Departamento Académico de Procesos. Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se determina la posible presencia de asbesto como contaminante atmosférico en una de las avenidas del Centro de Lima, con intenso trafico de vehiculos motorizados, que podría generar la presenda de partículas da asbesto provenientes del desgaste de las zapatas de frenos y que tendra efecto grave en las personas que permanecen gran parte del día por razones de trabajo y tos que transitan por la avenida Abancay. We had studied the pollution in downtown of Lima by asbes...

  18. Relative leucopenia in the peripheral blood of asbestos miners: a epidemiologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munan, L.; Thouez, J.P.; Kelly, A.; Gagne, M.; Labonte, D.

    1981-02-01

    The study examines differential leucocyte counts in blood of asbestos miners and quarriers identified during the course of a community health survey comprising 693 men over 25 years of age of all occupations. Subjects in the asbestos mining and quarrying occupational groups were present in the lowest total leucocyte quintile in significantly greater numbers than expected on the basis of a age-specific uniform leucocyte distribution based upon the total population of male workers. This relative leucopenia was not seen in their wives nor in any of the 22 other major occupational groups examined after their leucocyte counts were adjusted for age and sex variations.

  19. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly...

  20. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  1. [Wonder matter and assassin. The perception of the asbestos danger as a mirror of the time 1930-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J H M

    2005-01-01

    In the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century the ideas of the dangers concerning the use of asbestos changed dramatically. The mineral, which had, more than half a century before been introduced in the Netherlands as a miraculous mineral, was completely banned from use. Asbestos became known as a 'silent killer' and 'the blue sand of death', and as a symbol of the hidden hazards of a deteriorating environment caused by unscrupulous companies and indolent authorities. Asbestos seems to fit perfectly into the ubiquitous hazards which Ulrich Beck defines in his concept of the 'risk society' as the dangerous side effects of industrial production. Yet the perception of the risk associated with asbestos depended more on socio-cultural characteristics than on scientifically risk assessments. In the first half of the twentieth century the use of asbestos was limited and therefore did not cause any concern. Economic crisis and war silenced the first alarming signals of asbestos related disease from foreign experts and a handful of Dutch physicians. The asbestos workers themselves were held responsible for their own health and safety. In the 1951 asbestosis became recognised as an industrial disease. Preventive measures with regard to the industrial use of asbestos were prescribed by law. Workers shared the responsibilities for a safe use with employers and authorities. However, during this period, all the attention was directed towards economic growth. Supervision by the labour inspection was scarce and workers and employers were not very interested in upholding the safety measures. Among asbestos workers the use of protective clothes and dust masks was generally seen as unmanly. In the sixties the foreign literature on the connection between the exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma became known among Dutch specialists. The results of these studies were confirmed by research among Dutch insulation workers. At the same time the

  2. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  3. Carbonation Resistance of Sulphoaluminate Cement-based High Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Decheng; XU Dongyu; CHENG Xin; CHEN Wen

    2009-01-01

    The influences of water/cement ratio and admixtures on carbonation resistance of sulphoaluminate cement-based high performance concrete(HPC)were investigated.The experimental results show that with the decreasing water/cement ratio,the carbonation depth of sulphoaluminate cement-based HPC is decreased remarkably,and the carbonation resistance capability is also improved with the adding admixtures.The morphologies and structure characteristics of sulphoaluminate cement hydration products before and after carbonation were analyzed using SEM and XRD.The analysis results reveal that the main hydration product of sulphoaluminate cement,that is ettringite(AFt),de-composes after carbonation.

  4. [Burns caused by cement mortar (based on expert opinion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, D

    1984-01-01

    A 35-year-old farmer with scars on his right arm, following erosion obviously due to wet cement (case of an expert opinion), was examined. Cement water had continuously soaked his shirt while he was planing a freshly applied wet cement ceiling with his right arm upwards. The cement did not contain special additives, so the normal alkalinity of wet cement and occlusion effects caused the erosion. The farmer sued the manufacturer of the cement for damages because of missing warning notices. The court decided in his favor.

  5. Effect of Cement Type on Autogenous Deformation of Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag...... (BFS) cement pastes. Self-desiccation shrinkage of the BFS cement paste was modeled based on the RH measurements, following the capillary-tension approach. The main findings of this study are: 1) self-desiccation shrinkage can be related to self-desiccation both for Portland and for BFS cement pastes......, taking into account the influence of the dissolved salts in the pore solution, 2) the BFS cement paste studied shows pronounced self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage, mainly caused by its very fine pore structure....

  6. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  7. Thermal reactions of brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, M; Gbureck, U

    2008-02-01

    The thermal reactions of a brushite cement made of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), and an aqueous solution were followed in situ with an isothermal calorimeter at 37 degrees C. The investigated parameters were the beta-TCP/MCPM weight ratio, the liquid-to-powder ratio, the synthesis route and milling duration of the beta-TCP powder, as well as the presence of sulfate, citrate, and pyrophosphate ions in the mixing liquid. The thermograms were complex, particularly for mixtures containing an excess of MCPM or additives in the mixing solution. Results suggested that the endothermic MCPM dissolution and the highly exothermic beta-TCP dissolution occurred simultaneously, thereby leading to the formation of a large exothermic peak at early reaction time. Both reactions were followed by the exothermic crystallization of brushite and in the presence of an excess of MCPM by the endothermic crystallization of monetite. Additives generally widened the main exothermic reaction peak, or in some cases with pyrophosphate ions postponed the main exothermic peak at late reaction time. Generally, the results could be well explained and understood based on thermodynamic and solubility data.

  8. Quality control of cemented waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    To insure that cemented radwaste remains immobilized after disposal, certain standards have been set in Europe by the Commission of the European Communities. One such standard is compressive strength. If the compressive strength can be predicted during the early curing stages, time and money can be saved and the quality of the final waste form guaranteed. It was determined that the 7- and 28-day compressive strength from radwaste cementation can be predicted during the mixing and early curing stages by at least three methods. The three that were studied were maturity, rheology, and impedance. Maturity is a temperature-to-time measurement, rheology is a shear stress-to-shear rate measurement, and impedance is the opposition offered to the flow of alternating current. These three methods were employed on five different cemented radwaste concentrations with three different water-to-cement ratios; thus, a total of 15 different mix designs were considered. The results showed that the impedance was the easiest to employ for an on-line process. The results of the impedance method showed a very good relationship between impedance and water-to-cement ratio; therefore, an accurate prediction of compressive strength of cemented radwaste can be drawn from this method. The results of the theology method were very good. The method showed that concrete conforms to the Bingham plastic rheologic model, and the theology method can be used to predict the compressive strength of cemented radwaste, but may be too cumbersome. The results of the maturity method were shown to be limited in accuracy for determining compressive strength.

  9. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Eštoková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites.

  10. Chrysotile asbestos detoxification with a combined treatment of oxalic acid and silicates producing amorphous silica and biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valouma, Aikaterini; Verganelaki, Anastasia; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, Pagona; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-03-15

    This study was primarily imposed by the ever increasing need for detoxification of asbestos and asbestos containing materials (ACM), with potential application onsite. The present work investigates potential detoxification of pure chrysotile (Chr) asbestos via a combined treatment of oxalic acid dihydrate (Oxac) (Η2C2Ο4·2Η2Ο) with silicates, such as tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) (SiH20C8O4) and pure water glass (WG) (potassium silicate) (K2SiO3). These reagents used in the experimental procedure, do not cause adverse effects on the environment and are cost effective. The results of FTIR, XRD, optical and scanning microscopy coupled with EDS analyses indicated that all of the applied treatments destructed the Chr structure and yielded silica of amorphous phase and the biomaterial glushinskite from the Oxac reacted with brucite [Mg(OH)2] layer. Each of the proposed formulations can be applied for the detoxification of asbestos, according to priorities related to the specific products of the recovery treatment. Therefore, Oxac acid leaching followed by the TEOS addition is preferred in cases of glushinskite recovery; TEOS treatment of asbestos with subsequent Oxac addition produced amorphous silica production; finally Oxac acid leaching followed by WG encapsulated the asbestos fibers and can be used in cases of onsite asbestos and ACM detoxification.

  11. Role of iron in inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor after asbestos treatment of human lung and pleural target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Aleksander; Aust, Ann E

    2005-05-01

    Although the mechanism by which asbestos causes cancer remains unknown, iron associated with asbestos is thought to play a role in the pathogenic effects of fibers. Here, we examined the effects of asbestos on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells, human pleural mesothelial (MET5A) cells, and normal human small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Treatment of A549, MET5A, and SAEC cells with asbestos caused a significant reduction of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. This was both time- (15 min to 24 h) and concentration-dependent (1.5, 3, and 6 mug/cm(2)) in A549 cells. Also, treatment with 6 mug/cm(2) crocidolite for 24 h diminished the phosphorylation levels of human EGFR 2 (HER2). Exposure of A549 cells to 6 mug/cm(2) crocidolite for 3-24 h resulted in no detectable Y1045 phosphorylation and no apparent degradation of the EGFR. Inhibition of fiber endocytosis resulted in a considerable inhibition of EGFR dephosphorylation. Removal of iron from asbestos by desferrioxamine B or phytic acid inhibited asbestos-induced decreases in EGFR phosphorylation. The effects of crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile on the EGFR phosphorylation state appeared to be directly related to the amount of iron mobilized from these fibers. These results strongly suggest that iron plays an important role in asbestos-induced inactivation of EGFR.

  12. Asbestos inhalation induces reactive nitrogen species and nitrotyrosine formation in the lungs and pleura of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Choe, N; Hemenway, D R; Zhu, S; Matalon, S; Kagan, E

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether asbestos inhalation induces the formation of reactive nitrogen species, three groups of rats were exposed intermittently over 2 wk to either filtered room air (sham-exposed) or to chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos fibers. The rats were killed at 1 or 6 wk after exposure. At 1 wk, significantly greater numbers of alveolar and pleural macrophages from asbestos-exposed rats than from sham-exposed rats demonstrated inducible nitric oxide synthase protein immunoreactivity. Alveolar macrophages from asbestos-exposed rats also generated significantly greater nitrite formation than did macrophages from sham-exposed rats. Strong immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite formation, was evident in lungs from chrysotile- and crocidolite-exposed rats at 1 and 6 wk. Staining was most evident at alveolar duct bifurcations and within bronchiolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and the visceral and parietal pleural mesothelium. Lungs from sham-exposed rats demonstrated minimal immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine. Significantly greater quantities of nitrotyrosine were detected by ELISA in lung extracts from asbestos-exposed rats than from sham-exposed rats. These findings suggest that asbestos inhalation can induce inducible nitric oxide synthase activation and peroxynitrite formation in vivo, and provide evidence of a possible alternative mechanism of asbestos-induced injury to that thought to be induced by Fenton reactions. PMID:9664087

  13. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  14. Ascorbic acid inhibits the squamous metaplasia that results from treatment of tracheal explants with asbestos or benzo[a]pyrene-coated asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, G; Bresnick, E

    1988-01-01

    Hamster tracheal explants were maintained in culture in the presence or absence of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), crocidolite asbestos, or BP-coated crocidolite. Dose-dependent squamous metaplasia was observed in the treated samples. L-Ascorbic acid and DL-alpha-tocopherol were able to partially protect the tracheal explants from the metaplastic response induced by crocidolite. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced the extent of metaplasia observed in hamster tracheal explants that were exposed to BP-crocidolite.

  15. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  16. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  17. Clinical applications of glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, J W

    1992-01-01

    The use of glass-ionomer cements in clinical dentistry is now well established. They have a number of unique properties, including adhesion to moist tooth structure, biological compatibility, and anticariogenic properties due to their fluoride release. Their use in treating early carious or erosion lesions has been widely investigated. Established techniques include fissure filling and sealing, restoration of class 5 erosion lesions without cavity preparation, and the internal occlusal fossa or tunnel restoration. The "sandwich" technique using glass-ionomer cements as "dentin substitutes" has enabled composite restorations to be used with greater safety where pulpal damage may occur. The future probably lies in using a laminate technique where materials that attach to dentin and form a biological seal can be covered by tougher and harder enamel veneers, thus mimicking the structure of the tooth. The deficiencies of glass-ionomer cements are well known, including lack of toughness, early water sensitivity, low abrasion resistance, and porosity leading to poor surface polish. Solving these problems is formidable, since inherently the strength of these cements is related to their water content. The clinician should be aware of these deficiencies and stay within the parameters of the techniques outlined in this paper. In particular, clinical success depends upon early protection of the cement from hydration or dehydration, and the current use of light-cured bonding agents has largely solved this problem.

  18. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  19. EFFECT OF NANOMATERIALS IN CEMENT MORTAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAIL N. AL-RIFAIE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is considered as brittle materials and widely used due to high compressive strength but unfortunately having and has low tensile strength that has a numerous negative impacts on the lifespan of concrete made structures. Therefore, mechanical properties of cement mortar have been investigated experimentally using different types and ratios of nano material to improve the properties. Since the strength of the concrete is of high importance, different materials have been used to enhance the compressive and the tensile characteristics of the cement mortar compressive and tensile strength. Mainly, this objective has been implemented through using micro cement, micro sand, nano silica, and nano clay in developing a nano-cement mortar which can to improve the concrete for the constructional applications. The samples were prepared and tested under tensile and compressive mode according to ASTM-2011 regulations for concrete. The parameters that are taken consideration during the investigation were micro sand, micro cement, nano silica, developed nano clay, and naphthalene sulphonate as super- plasticizers. In general, it has been observed that the results showed a significant increase in both compressive and tensile strength of the mortar at early stages of hardening, where a maximum increase of 22% in the compressive strength was achieved , whereas 3.7 time increase in the compressive strength was recorded over the tradition levels of the concrete strength.

  20. Thermal performance of sisal fiber-cement roofing tiles for rural constructions Desempenho térmico de telhas de fibrocimento reforçadas com polpa de sisal para construções rurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Roofing provides the main protection against direct solar radiation in animal housing. Appropriate thermal properties of roofing materials tend to improve the thermal comfort in the inner ambient. Nonasbestos fiber-cement roofing components reinforced with cellulose pulp from sisal (Agave sisalana were produced by slurry and dewatering techniques, with an optional addition of polypropylene fibers. Nonasbestos tiles were evaluated and compared with commercially available asbestos-cement sheets and ceramic tiles (frequently chosen as roofing materials for animal housing. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of tiles were determined by the parallel hot-wire method, along with the evaluation of the downside surface temperature. Cement-based components reinforced with sisal pulp presented better thermal performance at room temperature (25ºC, while those reinforced with sisal pulp added by polypropylene fibers presented better thermal performance at 60ºC. Non-asbestos cement tiles provided more efficient protection against radiation than asbestos corrugated sheets.O telhado fornece a principal proteção contra a radiação solar direta em galpões para animais. Propriedades térmicas apropriadas dos materiais contribuem para o melhor conforto térmico no interior das construções. Telhas sem amianto reforçadas com polpa de celulose de sisal (Agave sisalana e com adição opcional de fibras de polipropileno foram produzidas pela técnica de mistura e sucção do excesso de água. Telhas corrugadas de cimento amianto, telhas cerâmicas e telhas à base de cimento reforçadas com polpa de celulose (com ou sem adição de fibras sintéticas foram comparadas quanto às suas propriedades térmicas. A condutividade térmica e a difusividade térmica foram determinadas pelo método do fio quente paralelo, assim como a temperatura da superfície inferior das telhas foi avaliada em diferentes períodos. Telhas de cimento reforçados com polpa de